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Voice of America, 98-10-07

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BLAIR/KOSOVO (S ONLY) BY ROGER WILKISON (BEIJING)
  • [02] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [03] BRITAIN/KOSOVO-UPDATE (L) - CQ BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [04] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [05] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [07] KOSOVO / ALBANIAN (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] KOSOVO / WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [09] KOSOVO FIGHTING (L-ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (MALISEVO, KOSOVO)
  • [10] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [11] BOSNIA/RETURNING REFUGEES (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [12] YUGOSLAVIA - HOLBROOKE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [13] YUGO - HOLBROOKE UPDATE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [14] TURKEY/SYRIA (S&L) BY SCOTT BOBB (CAIRO)
  • [15] EDITORIAL: SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR TERRORISTS
  • [16] NO. IRELAND INVESTMENT (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)
  • [17] NY ECON (S AND L)) BY JOE CHAPMAN (NEW YORK)
  • [18] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [19] ROMANI CRISS: ROMANI RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN ROMANIA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BLAIR/KOSOVO (S ONLY) BY ROGER WILKISON (BEIJING)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239850
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR IS WARNING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC THAT HE MUST WORK TOWARD ENDING THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO OR FACE THE CONSEQUENCES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ROGER WILKISON REPORTS FROM BEIJING -- WHERE MR. BLAIR IS ON AN OFFICIAL VISIT -- THAT THE BRITISH LEADER SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC MUST COMPLY WITH A UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION DEMANDING THAT YUGOSLAVIA WITHDRAW ITS FORCES FROM KOSOVO AND END ITS ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO THE BRITISH BUSINESS COMMUNITY IN BEIJING, MR. BLAIR SAYS THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS SPELLED OUT WHAT MR. MILOSEVIC MUST DO TO END THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO. MR. BLAIR SAYS HE SHOULD WITHDRAW SERB SECURITY FORCES, ALLOW HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS TO WORK FREELY IN THE PROVINCE, AND BEGIN REAL NEGOTIATIONS WITH ITS ETHNIC ALBANIAN COMMUNITY.

    //// BLAIR ACTUALITY ////

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MAY THINK THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WILL NOT ACT, BUT -- IN THE END -- IT WILL ACT, AND WE'RE AT THE END NOW. AND HE MUST LISTEN TO OUR WARNING OR FACE THE CONSEQUENCES.

    //// END ACTUALITY ////

    MR. BLAIR SAYS HE HAS DISCUSSED THE CRISIS WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN DURING THE PAST 24 HOURS AND THAT THE TIME FOR ACTION IS DRAWING NEARER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RW/KL
    07-Oct-98 12:20 PM EDT (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BRITAIN/KOSOVO (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239832
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE HAS FAILED TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAV LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO COMPLY WITH U-N RESOLUTIONS AND AVOID A NATO AIR STRIKE. BRITAIN IS ALREADY PREPARING FOR MILITARY ACTION. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THAT BRITISH CITIZENS IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN TOLD TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY.

    TEXT: THE FOREIGN OFFICE IS ADVISING BRITISH CITIZENS TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA IMMEDIATELY BECAUSE OF WHAT IT DESCRIBES AS AN INCREASINGLY VOLATILE SITUATION THERE. THE STATEMENT, ISSUED ON BRITISH RADIO AND THE INTERNET, ALSO WARNS AGAINST TRAVEL TO THE AREA.

    THE ADVISORY IS CALLED A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE AS THE THREAT OF A NATO AIR STRIKE INCREASES. A FOREIGN OFFICE SPOKESWOMAN SAYS NON-ESSENTIAL EMBASSY STAFF AND DEPENDENTS ARE ALSO PREPARING TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA. FRANCE HAS ISSUED A SIMILAR WARNING.

    IN BELGRADE, U-S ENVOY HOLBROOKE IS TALKING OF AN EXTREMELY SERIOUS SITUATION AFTER FAILING TO CONVINCE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS TO PULL HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR, CURRENTLY ON AN OFFICIAL VISIT TO BEIJING, TOLD BRITISH RADIO WEDNESDAY THAT ACTION IS NEEDED TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER IN KOSOVO. MR. BLAIR SAYS WITHOUT ACTION OR THE THREAT OF ACTION, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NEVER PAY ATTENTION.

    /// OPT // BLAIR ACT ///

    WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT HE IS COMPLYING WITH THE U-N RESOLUTIONS. WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT HE IS WITHDRAWING FROM A POSITION THAT HE IS ABLE TO COMMIT THESE ATROCITIES AND THESE ACTS OF BARBARISM IN KOSOVO. AND HE SHOULD KNOW VERY CLEARLY THAT IF HE DOESN'T THEN SERIOUS ACTION WILL FOLLOW.

    /// END ACT /////END OPT//

    THE BRITISH LEADER ALSO HAS DISCUSSED THE CRISIS WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN BY TELEPHONE. RUSSIA OPPOSES THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST THE SERB MILITARY AND SAYS IT WOULD VETO A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL VOTE ON IT. BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE THREATENED TO GO AHEAD WITH THE STRIKES, EVEN WITHOUT U-N SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/WFR
    07-Oct-98 8:26 AM EDT (1226 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BRITAIN/KOSOVO-UPDATE (L) - CQ BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239869
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: UPDATES INTRO AND DROPS THRID GRAF OF PREVIOUSLY-ISSUED CR #2-239851 ///

    INTRO: BRITAIN IS ALREADY PREPARING FOR POSSIBLE NATO AIRSTRIKES DESIGNED TO HALT VIOLENCE IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THAT BRITISH CITIZENS IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN TOLD TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY.

    TEXT: THE FOREIGN OFFICE IS ADVISING BRITISH CITIZENS TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA IMMEDIATELY BECAUSE OF WHAT IT DESCRIBES AS AN INCREASINGLY VOLATILE SITUATION THERE. THE STATEMENT, ISSUED ON BRITISH RADIO AND THE INTERNET, ALSO WARNS AGAINST TRAVEL TO THE AREA.

    THE ADVISORY IS CALLED A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE AS THE THREAT OF A NATO AIR STRIKE INCREASES. A FOREIGN OFFICE SPOKESWOMAN SAYS NON-ESSENTIAL EMBASSY STAFF AND DEPENDENTS ARE ALSO PREPARING TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA. OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS, INCLUDING FRANCE, GERMANY AND NORWAY, HAVE ISSUED SIMILAR WARNINGS.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR, CURRENTLY ON AN OFFICIAL VISIT TO BEIJING, TOLD BRITISH RADIO WEDNESDAY THAT ACTION IS NEEDED TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER IN KOSOVO. MR. BLAIR SAYS WITHOUT ACTION OR THE THREAT OF ACTION, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL NEVER PAY ATTENTION.

    /// OPT // BLAIR ACT ///

    WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT HE IS COMPLYING WITH THE U-N RESOLUTIONS. WE HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT HE IS WITHDRAWING FROM A POSITION THAT HE IS ABLE TO COMMIT THESE ATROCITIES AND THESE ACTS OF BARBARISM IN KOSOVO. AND HE SHOULD KNOW VERY CLEARLY THAT IF HE DOESN'T, THEN SERIOUS ACTION WILL FOLLOW.

    /// END ACT /////END OPT//

    THE BRITISH LEADER ALSO HAS DISCUSSED THE CRISIS WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN BY TELEPHONE. RUSSIA OPPOSES THE USE OF FORCE AGAINST THE SERB MILITARY AND SAYS IT WOULD VETO A U-N SECURITY COUNCIL VOTE ON IT. BRITAIN AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE THREATENED TO GO AHEAD WITH THE STRIKES, EVEN WITHOUT U-N SECURITY COUNCIL APPROVAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/GE
    07-Oct-98 2:26 PM EDT (1826 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] RUSSIA/KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239847
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS EXPRESSED ALARM ABOUT THE COMMITMENT OF SOME NATO COUNTRIES TO USE MILITARY FORCE OVER KOSOVO. VOA'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS DESPITE THE TOUGH TALK, THE KREMLIN MAY BE SOFTENING ITS OPPOSITION TO NATO PRESSURE ON BELGRADE.

    TEXT: A KREMLIN STATEMENT SAYS PRESIDENT YELTSIN TOLD BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR HE IS CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT WAS DESCRIBED AS "THE OUTRIGHT CALLS BY CERTAIN FORCES IN NATO TO LAUNCH A MILITARY OPERATION IN THE BALKANS."

    THE STATEMENT SAID MR. YELTSIN STRESSED THAT ANY MILITARY ACTION WOULD BRING ABOUT A NEW SITUATION THAT WOULD BE HARMFUL FOR WORLD PEACE.

    THE BRITISH NEWS AGENCY REUTERS LATER QUOTED A SPOKESMAN IN MR. BLAIR'S OFFICE AS CONFIRMING THAT THE PRIME MINISTER HAD CALLED MR. YELTSIN DURING THE DAY. BUT THE SPOKESMAN STRESSED THE CONVERSATION WAS PART OF MR. BLAIR'S REGULAR CONSULTATIONS ON KOSOVO, AND DID NOT IMPLY ANY NEW INITIATIVE.

    IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, PRESIDENT YELTSIN DISPATCHED FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV FOR A MEETING OF THE SIX-NATION "CONTACT GROUP" ON YUGOSLAVIA. THE INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY QUOTED MR. IVANOV AS SAYING RUSSIA'S EFFORTS TO DISCOURAGE AIR STRIKES HAVE RESULTED IN A GROWING UNDERSTANDING OF THE FEASIBILITY OF A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATIC OBSERVERS IN MOSCOW, HOWEVER, SAY EVENTS OF THE PAST FEW DAYS HAVE PERSUADED RUSSIA NATO IS SERIOUS ABOUT ITS DETERMINATION TO PUSH AHEAD WITH MILITARY ACTION TO PUT PRESSURE ON SERBIA OVER KOSOVO.

    ONE ANALYST SAYS RUSSIA HAS COME AROUND TO THE VIEW THAT THE THREAT OF FORCE MIGHT BE USEFUL, ALTHOUGH AIR STRIKES THEMSELVES WOULD BE COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.

    THE OBSERVERS POINTED OUT THAT AFTER HIS CONVERSATION WITH PRESIDENT YELTSIN WEDNESDAY, THE BRITISH PRIME MINISTER ISSUED A FRESH WARNING TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OF MILITARY ACTION, UNLESS HE YIELDS TO UNITED NATIONS DEMANDS ON KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF/WFR
    07-Oct-98 11:35 AM EDT (1535 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] U-N / KOSOVO (L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239815
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUED A NEW CALL TUESDAY FOR AN END TO FIGHTING IN KOSOVO AND DEMANDED AN INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATION INTO ATROCITIES COMMITTED THERE. BUT THE COUNCIL STOPPED SHORT OF WARNING OF POSSIBLE MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES, WHICH HAVE BEEN BLAMED FOR MUCH OF THE VIOLENCE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS FROM THE UNITED NATIONS.

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL HELD SEVEN HOURS OF TALKS BEFORE RELEASING A STATEMENT DEMANDING AN END TO THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. IN THE STATEMENT, THE COUNCIL CONDEMNS WHAT IT CALLS THE TACTICS OF INDISCRIMINATE AND DISPROPORTIONATE USE OF FORCE AGAINST CIVILIANS, AS WELL AS TERRORIST ACTIVITIES.

    COUNCIL PRESIDENT JEREMY GREENSTOCK OF BRITAIN READ THE STATEMENT ALOUD AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING.

    /// GREENSTOCK ACTUALITY ///

    COUNCIL MEMBERS SUPPORTED THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S CALL FOR A THOROUGH INVESTIGATION, UNDER INTERNATIONAL SUPERVISION OR WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION, OF ATROCITIES COMMITTED BY ALL SIDES TO THE CONFLICT. THEY URGED THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA TO EXTEND ITS INVESTIGATIONS TO COVER THESE ATROCITIES.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE STATEMENT SAYS THE COUNCIL IS DETERMINED TO SEE FULL AND SUSTAINED COMPLIANCE WITH SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS DEMANDING AN IMMEDIATE CEASEFIRE AND PEACE TALKS.

    DIPLOMATS SAY THE STATEMENT IS NOTABLY WEAKER THAN U-S AND BRITISH DIPLOMATS HAD HOPED. THOSE COUNTRIES HAVE BEEN AMONG THE STRONGEST SUPPORTERS OF POSSIBLE NATO MILITARY STRIKES ON YUGOSLAV SECURITY FORCES. RUSSIA AND CHINA HAVE SPOKEN AGAINST SUPPORTING SUCH MEASURES IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL. THE FINAL STATEMENT NEITHER SUPPORTS NOR ARGUES AGAINST MILITARY ACTION.

    THE CRACKDOWN BY YUGOSLAVIA'S SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO HAS LEFT MORE THAN 250 THOUSAND PEOPLE HOMELESS OVER THE LAST FEW MONTHS. U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN HAS WARNED OF AN IMPENDING HUMANITARIAN DISASTER THERE AS THE COLD WINTER MONTHS APPROACH.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL ECHOED THAT CONCERN IN ITS STATEMENT -- SAYING FULL AND UNIMPEDED HUMANITARIAN ACCESS THROUGH THE AFFECTED AREA MUST BE ALLOWED SO THAT CONDITIONS CAN BE CREATED FOR THE SAFE RETURN OF REFUGEES. (SIGNED)
    NEB / UN / MPR / WD
    07-Oct-98 12:31 AM EDT (0431 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239849
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS WARNED YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC THAT THE ONLY WAY FOR HIM TO AVOID NATO AIR STRIKES IS TO FULLY COMPLY WITH U-N RESOLUTIONS ON KOSOVO. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON IS MAKING IT CLEAR THAT THE YUGOSLAV LEADER HOLDS THE KEY TO WHETHER NATO WILL HAVE TO USE FORCE TO BACK UP THE U-N RESOLUTIONS ON KOSOVO.

    AT A PHOTO SESSION WITH HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER VIKTOR ORBAN, THE PRESIDENT SAID MR. MILOSEVIC SHOULD LIVE UP TO PROMISES HE MADE TO A RUSSIAN DELEGATION LAST WEEKEND -- AND COMPLY WITH U-N CALLS FOR A PULLBACK OF FORCES IN KOSOVO AND TALKS WITH LEADERS OF ITS ETHNIC-ALBANIAN MAJORITY:

    /// CLINTON ACT ///

    NOW, IF HE DOES THAT, IF HE COMPLETELY COMPLIES, HE DOESN'T HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT MILITARY FORCE. BUT I DO NOT BELIEVE THAT THE UNITED STATES CAN BE IN A POSITION, AND I DON'T THINK NATO CAN BE IN THE POSITION, OF LETTING TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE STARVE OR FREEZE TO DEATH THIS WINTER BECAUSE MR. MILOSEVIC DIDN'T KEEP HIS WORD TO THE RUSSIANS AND THE WORLD COMMUNITY ONE MORE TIME. SO THE WAY TO AVOID NATO MILITARY ACTION IS FOR MR. MILOSEVIC TO HONOR THE U-N RESOLUTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    PRIME MINISTER ORBAN, FOR HIS PART, SAYS HE HOPES THE USE OF FORCE WILL NOT BE REQUIRED IN KOSOVO. BUT IF IT IS, HE SAYS HUNGARY -- WHICH FORMALLY JOINS NATO NEXT YEAR -- IS READY TO PROVIDE SUPPORT.

    /// ORBAN ACT ///

    WE SHOULD LOOK FOR A PEACEFUL SOLUTION. BUT IF A DECISION IS TAKEN BY NATO, WE ARE READY TO CONTRIBUTE AS AN ALLY. HOST-NATION SUPPORT COULD BE PROVIDED. UP TO NOW, THE HUNGARIAN FOREIGN POLICY WAS NOT INVITED INTO THIS ACTION, BUT WE ARE READY TO TAKE PART.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLINTON SAYS HE DOUBTS HUNGARY WOULD HAVE A DIRECT ROLE IN A NATO MILITARY MOVE, SINCE WHAT IS CONTEMPLATED IN THE EVENT OF YUGOSLAV NON-COMPLIANCE ARE ALLIED AIR STRIKES. HE SUGGESTS HUNGARY MIGHT HAVE A ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL VERIFICATION OF A KOSOVO SETTLEMENT, OR TAKE PART IN A PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION THERE.

    MR. CLINTON SAYS HE "HOPES AND PRAYS" THAT MR. MILOSEVIC DOES COMPLY WITH INTERNATIONAL DEMANDS FOR AN END TO THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/WTW
    07-Oct-98 11:59 AM EDT (1559 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] KOSOVO / ALBANIAN (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239873
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ONE OF KOSOVO'S TOP ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERS IS IN WASHINGTON, URGING THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLIES TO GO AHEAD WITH THE THREATENED AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES. BUT THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE SELF-DECLARED ETHNIC ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT IN KOSOVO -- BUJAR BUKOSHI -- PAINTS A GRIM PICTURE OF THE PROSPECTS FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS, AS WE HEAR FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS.

    TEXT: MR. BUKOSHI ACKNOWLEDGES HE IS NOT CERTAIN WHETHER NATO WILL ACT, BUT ADDS THAT HE CANNOT ENVISAGE ANY POSITIVE STEP TOWARD RESOLVING THE KOSOVO CRISIS WITHOUT PUTTING A STOP TO WHAT HE CALLS THE GENOCIDE AND PUNISHING THE PERPETRATORS.

    ///BUKOSHI ACT///

    IT IS THEREFORE MY HOPE THAT THE UNITED STATES CHOOSES TO USE AIR POWER NOW IN A SIGNIFICANT WAY, NOT ONLY TO FORCE (YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC TO HALT HIS ATTACKS BUT ALSO TO CONVINCE HIM THROUGH A CLEAR DEMONSTRATION OF AMERICAN POLITICAL AND MILITARY WILL THAT HE CANNOT RESUME THEM (THE ATTACKS) LATER.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BUKOSHI SAYS THAT IF BELGRADE HALTS ITS OFFENSIVE, WITHDRAWS ITS TROOPS FROM KOSOVO AND ALLOWS THE NEARLY 300-THOUSAND REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES, THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP WILL BE READY TO RESUME NEGOTIATIONS. BUT THERE IS NO SENSE IN EVEN TALKING ABOUT A SOLUTION, HE ADDS, WITHOUT A MAJOR WESTERN COMMITMENT THAT GUARANTEES ITS IMPLEMENTATION.

    ///BUKOSHI ACT///

    REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE UNITED STATES USES AIR POWER THIS WEEK OR NEXT WEEK OR ANY TIME IN THE NEAR FUTURE, THIS CRISIS IS FAR FROM OVER. I HOPE WE CAN COUNT ON THE UNITED STATES TO TAKE ALL NECESSARY STEPS NOT ONLY TO REACH A FAIR AND EQUITABLE PEACE AGREEMENT IN KOSOVO, BUT ALSO TO ENSURE THAT IS IS FULLY IMPLEMENTED.

    ///END ACT///

    A FEW WEEKS AGO, U-S ENVOY CHRISTOPHER HILL PRESENTED A DRAFT INTERIM AGREEMENT ON KOSOVO TO BOTH YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERS

    THE PROPOSAL WOULD GRANT KOSOVO LIMITED AUTONOMY BUT DELAY A DECISION ON ITS FINAL STATUS FOR A PERIOD OF THREE YEARS.

    MR. BUKOSHI SAYS THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP ACCEPTS THE PRINCIPLE OF AN INTERIM ACCORD BUT REJECTS THE AUTONOMY ARRANGEMENTS OUTLINED IN THE AMERICAN DRAFT.

    ///BUKOSHI ACT///

    THERE IS AN ENORMOUS DIVIDE BETWEEN OUR POSITION AND THAT OF THE U-S OFFICIALS.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BUKOSHI SAYS THE U-S PLAN WOULD GRANT KOSOVO EVEN LESS AUTONOMY THAN IT HAD PRIOR TO THE BREAK-UP OF THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION. IT CONTAINS NO REAL LEGAL STATUS FOR KOSOVO, HE ADDS, AND NO INTERNATIONAL GUARANTEES.

    MR. BUKOSHI SAYS HE RECOGNIZES THAT THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN DEMAND FOR KOSOVO'S INDEPENDENCE HAS NO INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT. BUT THE ALBANIANS, HE ADDS, WILL NEVER ACCEPT A CONTINUATION OF SERBIAN RULE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/KL
    07-Oct-98 2:45 PM EDT (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KOSOVO / WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239852
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES ARE REFUSING TO ALLOW PROSECUTORS FROM THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL TO INVESTIGATE POSSIBLE ATROCITIES IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. BUT AS LAUREN COMITEAU REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, PROSECUTORS SAY THEY WILL CONTINUE THEIR WORK ANYWAY.

    TEXT: SINCE THE START OF THE KOSOVO CONFLICT EARLIER THIS YEAR, TRIBUNAL PROSECUTORS HAVE BEEN FREELY INVESTIGATING BOTH SIDES IN THE KOSOVO FIGHTING, WITH NO OBSTRUCTION FROM YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES.

    THAT CHANGED A FEW-WEEKS AGO, WHEN YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS REFUSED TO GRANT VISAS TO A TEAM OF INVESTIGATORS, LEAVING THEM UNABLE TO ENTER THE COUNTRY. INVESTIGATORS SAID YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS TOLD THEM THE TRIBUNAL HAS NO JURISDICTION OVER KOSOVO.

    THE TRIBUNAL'S DEPUTY PROSECUTOR, GRAHAM BLEWITT, SAYS HE IS OUTRAGED.

    /// BLEWITT ACTUALITY ///

    WE FIND THAT POSITION ABSOLUTELY UNACCEPTABLE. IT FLIES IN FACE OF THE TRIBUNAL STATUTE, WHICH IS VERY CLEAR, AND SEVERAL U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS. THAT CLEARLY SAYS THE TRIBUNAL HAS JURISDICTION OVER KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS SAY THE TRIBUNAL'S INVESTIGATIONS IN KOSOVO ARE A VIOLATION OF YUGOSLAVIA'S SOVEREIGNTY, AND THEY THREATENED TO RECONSIDER THEIR COOPERATION WITH THE TRIBUNAL IF INVESTIGATIONS CONTINUE.

    MR. BLEWITT SAYS HE DOES NOT WANT A SHOWDOWN WITH YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES, WHICH COULD PUT OTHER TRIBUNAL INVESTIGATIONS, LIKE THOSE IN BOSNIA, AT RISK. HE SAYS THE TRIBUNAL WILL KEEP INVESTIGATING AND URGE YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS TO RECONSIDER.

    MR. BLEWITT SAYS THE TRIBUNAL BELIEVES ITS INVESTIGATION IS IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO AND SERBIA.

    /// BLEWITT ACT ///

    WE THOUGHT WE HAD SOME MODERATING IMPACT ON WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN KOSOVO, AND IT HAS BEEN DISAPPOINTING TO SEE IN RECENT WEEKS THERE HAS BEEN AN UPGRADING IN THE SCALE. BUT TO WHAT EXTENT THESE THINGS WOULD HAVE BEEN WORSE IF THE TIRBUNAL DID NOT EXIST, IT IS HARD TO SAY. I CERTAINLY DO NOT REGARD IT AS BEING A FAILURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BLEWITT SAYS THAT QUESTION WILL HAVE TO BE ASKED WHEN THE TRIBUNAL'S WORK IS FINISHED. HE SAYS PROSECUTORS ARE NOT EVEN CLOSE TO ISSUING ANY INDICTMENTS REGARDING KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LC/JWH/RAE
    07-Oct-98 12:16 PM EDT (1616 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] KOSOVO FIGHTING (L-ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (MALISEVO, KOSOVO)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239858
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN KOSOVO, SERB FORCES AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS CONTINUED FIGHTING AS BOTH NATO AND RUSSIA PUT MORE PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAV LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO WITHDRAW HIS SPECIAL FORCES FROM KOSOVO. REPORTER PHILIP SMUCKER REPORTS FROM THE KOSOVO TOWN OF MALISEVO WHERE GUERRILLAS AND SERB FORCES HAVE BEEN EXCHANGING GUNFIRE.

    TEXT: ETHNIC ALBANIANS SAY THAT SERB FORCES FIRED CANNONS AT POSITIONS HELD BY ALBANIAN SEPARATIST FORCES IN THE HILLS ABOVE ONE OF THEIR FORMER STRONGHOLDS.

    FRESH SERB RECRUITS WERE ARRIVING IN THE TOWN OF MALISEVO EVEN AS THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE VOWED IT WAS WITHDRAWING ITS FORCES FROM KOSOVO. //OPT// THE SERB FORCES APPEARED POISED FOR MORE ACTION BY LATE DAY WEDNESDAY. //END OPT//

    ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES SAID THAT SERB CANNONS FIRED INTO VILLAGES OFF A ROAD LEADING SOUTH FROM MALISEVO.

    SMALL BANDS OF ALBANIAN GUERRILLA FIGHTERS SAY THEY ARE HAPPY TO HAVE SURVIVED RECENT SERBIAN MILITARY AND POLICE ATTACKS. THE GUERRILLAS ARE MEMBERS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, THE K-L-A, OR "UCK," AS THEY'RE CALLED LOCALLY. THEY ADMIT THAT THEY HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO STOP THE SERBIAN FORCES FROM ATTACKING REFUGEES WHO THEY CLAIM TO BE PROTECTING.

    ///ACT OF ALBANIAN GUERRILLA IN ALBANIA, WITH TRANSLATION///

    AFTER THE LAST (GOVERNMENT) OFFENSIVE THE UCK (K-L-A) IS STANDING VERY STRONG. WE MANAGED TO GET THROUGH IT, BUT AS YOU CAN SEE THERE IS A HUMANITARIAN CRISIS, A LOT OF DISPLACED PEOPLE ... WHEN THE SERB FORCES ARE DEFEATED BY THE UCK, THEY TAKE THEIR REVENGE ON THE PEOPLE.

    ///END ACT///

    //OPT//

    THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES ARE IN THE HILLS ABOVE MALISEVO, LIVING IN MISERABLE CONDITIONS -- MANY SHELTERED BY JUST PLASTIC SHEETING. THEIR PLIGHT HAS GROWN WORSE AS CHILDREN BECOME ILL FROM POOR NUTRITION AND LIMITED HEALTH CARE. WORKERS IN A MOBILE HEALTH CLINIC SAID THE REFUGEES HAVE ALMOST NO ANTIBIOTICS. //END OPT//

    REFUGEES SAY THEY WANT NATO INTERVENTION TO EASE THEIR PLIGHT.

    NATO IS THREATENING AIR STRIKES TO PUSH BACK SERB SPECIAL POLICE UNITS, BUT IT IS UNCLEAR IF THOSE ATTACKS CAN EITHER EASE THE PLIGHT OF REFUGEES OR BRING A HALT TO THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO.

    IN THE MEANTIME, NEITHER SIDE IN THE CONFLICT APPEARS READY TO PUT DOWN THEIR ARMS AND TALK PEACE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/PCF/WFR
    07-Oct-98 1:21 PM EDT (1721 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239839
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT MEETS THURSDAY IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND U-S BALKAN NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO DISCUSS OPTIONS IN KOSOVO. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS THAT NATO IS READY FOR MILITARY ACTION, BUT NOT FOR POLITICAL DECISIONS.

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE ALLIANCE MUST HAVE A COLLECTIVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE LEGAL BASIS FOR A MILITARY STRIKE IN YUGOSLAVIA. AN OFFICIAL BRIEFING REPORTERS HERE IN BRUSSELS SAYS THERE IS NO LACK OF RESOLVE BY THE ALLIES TO USE MILITARY FORCE IF THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE. HOWEVER, THE OFFICIAL SAYS AN ACTIVATION ORDER FOR NATO TO PUT AIRCRAFT UNDER ALLIANCE COMMAND MUST HAVE APPROVAL BY ALLIED CAPITALS.

    IT IS THIS NEED FOR A POLITICAL DECISION THAT EXPLAINS A COMMENT BY A U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN THAT NATO IS IN NO RUSH TO USE FORCE. SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS NATO IS NOT THERE YET.

    SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT WILL GET A BRIEFING HERE FROM RICHARD HOLBROOKE -- HER BALKAN ENVOY -- ON HIS TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. SHE ALSO WILL MEET NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA.

    MR. SOLANA TELLS THE FRENCH NEWSPAPER LE MONDE THAT THE COUNTDOWN HAS STARTED TOWARD MILITARY ACTION AND A DECISION IS LIKELY IN THE NEXT WEEK. NATO AMBASSADORS ARE MEETING CONTINUOUSLY AND WILL MEET DURING THE WEEKEND TO CONSIDER THE CHANGING POLITICAL SITUATION.

    A NUMBER OF ALLIES -- INCLUDING ITALY AND GREECE -- ARE CONCERNED BY RUSSIA'S THREAT TO BREAK OFF THE NATO-RUSSIA DIALOGUE IF THE ALLIANCE ACTS WITHOUT A SPECIFIC AUTHORIZATION BY THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL. RUSSIA HAS ALREADY SAID IT WOULD VETO ANY SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION ORDERING MILITARY FORCE IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN CONTEND EXISTING SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS ALREADY CHARACTERIZE THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO AS A THREAT TO PEACE. THEY POINT OUT THAT RUSSIA HAS NO VETO IN THE NATO-RUSSIA COUNCIL OVER DECISIONS THE ALLIANCE WILL TAKE. A NATO OFFICIAL SAYS NATO AND RUSSIA WILL HOLD A SPECIAL COUNCIL MEETING ON FRIDAY TO DISCUSS THEIR DIFFERING OPINIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH/GE
    07-Oct-98 10:20 AM EDT (1420 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] BOSNIA/RETURNING REFUGEES (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239875
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FOREIGN MINISTER OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS REAFFIRMING HIS GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO CREATING CONDITIONS THAT WILL ALLOW REFUGEES TO RETURN SAFELY TO THEIR HOMES BUT EXPECTS FEWER REFUGEES THAN HOPED FOR WILL DO SO BY YEAR'S END. CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE SPOKE WITH THE FOREIGN MINISTER, JADRANKO PRLIC, WHO IS VISITING WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: BOSNIA'S FRAGILE PEACE AGREEMENT IS NOW NEARLY THREE YEARS OLD. YET SOME OF ITS MOST BASIC PROVISIONS ARE BEING PUT TO THE TEST (ARE NOT BEING CARRIED OUT FULLY), IN PARTICULAR THE RIGHT OF DISPLACED PEOPLE TO FREELY RETURN TO THEIR PRE-WAR HOMES, A RIGHT PRIME MINISTER PRLIC IS VOWING HIS GOVERNMENT WILL UPHOLD.

    // PRLIC ACT //

    IT'S UP TO ME AS A MEMBER OF GOVERNMENT, TO ENSURE THAT EVERYBODY CAN GO BACK TO THEIR HOME OF ORIGIN.

    // END ACT //

    BUT IN RECENT DAYS, ATTACKS ON MINORITY POPULATIONS HAVE BEEN INCREASING, IN PARTICULAR ATTACKS BY CROATS ON RETURNING MUSLIMS. SIMON HASELOCK IS THE SPOKESMAN FOR CARLOS WESTENDORP, THE WEST'S TOP ENVOY TO BOSNIA. HE SPOKE FROM SARAJEVO.

    // HASELOCK ACT //

    THE WHOLE PROBLEM WITH REFUGEE RETURNS IS A QUESTION WHICH NONE OF THE ETHNIC GROUPS OR COMMUNITIES ARE REALLY DOING WHAT IS REQUIRED UNDER DAYTON IN A MEANINGFUL FASHION. THEY ALL ARE HAPPY TO SIGN IN PRESENTATIONAL TERMS TO THE NOTION OF A MULTIETHNIC STATE AND TO COOPERATING WITH REFUGEE RETURNS, BUT IN TOO MANY CASES WHEN IT COMES TIME TO DELIVERING ON THIS, THEIR WORDS ARE EMPTY.

    // END ACT //

    BOSNIAN FOREIGN MINISTER PRLIC -- HIMSELF AN ETHNIC CROAT -- SAYS THE ISSUE OF RETURNING REFUGEES IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM HIS SPLINTERED NATION FACES.

    // SECOND PRLIC ACT //

    MINORITY RETURNS ARE A GREAT PROBLEM IN BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA BUT WE SHALL CONTINUE AND WE SHALL BE VERY TOUGH, TOGETHER WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, TO ENSURE THE POSSIBILITY OF MINORITY RETURNS ESPECIALLY IN THE SERB REPUBLIC, SARAJEVO AND SOME OTHER SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE FEDERATION. IT IS THE GREATEST CHALLENGE IN FRONT OF US.

    // END ACT //

    THE LARGER QUESTION HANGING OVER BOSNIA IS WHETHER THE COUNTRY'S THREE MAIN ETHNIC GROUPS, THE MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS -- CAN LIVE TOGETHER PEACEFULLY UNDER THE DAYTON ACCORDS, A QUESTION THAT HAS YET TO BE ANSWERED DURING THE SHORT LIFE OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT. AGAIN, CARLOS WESTENDORP'S SPOKESMAN SIMON HASELOCK.

    // HASELOCK ACT //

    IT'S A NAIVE ASSUMPTION TO BELIEVE THAT THE WOUNDS CREATED BY FIVE YEARS OF INTENSE CONFLICT WHERE THEY KILLED EACH OTHER IN LARGE QUANTITIES IN CIRCUMSTANCES OF HIGH BRUTALITY THAT SOMEHOW IN TWO OR THREE YEARS AFTER THAT, THEY CAN ALL LIVE HAPPILY TOGETHER. THERE IS MUCH RECONCILIATION TO BE DONE.

    // END ACT //

    AND MUCH MORE WORK TO BE DONE ON THE GROUND TO ENSURE PEOPLE CAN RETURN SAFELY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/KL
    07-Oct-98 3:24 PM EDT (1924 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] YUGOSLAVIA - HOLBROOKE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/6/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239812
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOK HEADS INTO AN UNSCHEDULED THIRD DAY OF TALKS IN YUGOSLAVIA TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AFTER MEETINGS WITH PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM BELGRADE ON FINAL EFFORTS TO REACH A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    TEXT: A SENIOR AMERICAN DIPLOMAT SAID THE FOUR-HOUR MEETING BETWEEN MR. HOLBROOKE AND PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TUESDAY DID NOT GO WELL. HE SAID THERE WAS LITTLE CHANGE SINCE THEIR PREVIOUS TALKS MONDAY.

    NATO IS PREPARING FOR AIR STRIKES UNLESS YUGOSLAVIA COMPLIES WITH UNITED NATIONS DEMANDS FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF SERB FORCES FROM KOSOVO, WHERE SERBIA HAS BEEN BATTLING PRO-INDEPENDENCE GUERRILLAS.

    EARLIER TUESDAY MR. HOLBROOKE TRAVELED TO THE KOSOVO CAPITAL, PRISTINA, WHERE DIPLOMATIC OBSERVERS GAVE HIM WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS A "GRIM" ASSESSMENT OF THE SITUATION. THEY TOLD HIM SERB MILITARY POLICE ARE GETTING READY FOR WINTER, WHICH COULD PREVENT TENS OF THOUSANDS OF FRIGHTENED REFUGEES FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG VERSION ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE ALSO MET WITH ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADER IBRAHAM RUGOVA, WHO HAS ADVOCATED A NON-VIOLENT SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO ISSUE. KOSOVO'S 90-PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY MOSTLY WANT INDEPENDENCE, WHICH SERBIA OPPOSES. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AGREES KOSOVO SHOULD REMAIN IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    MR. HOLBROOKE LEFT OPEN THE POSSIBILITY OF ANOTHER TRIP TO KOSOVO WEDNESDAY BEFORE MEETING AGAIN WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    IF A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION CAN NOT BE FOUND, NATO IS PREPARED TO ATTACK SERB MILITARY TARGETS USING PLANES AND CRUISE MISSILES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/WDC/PT
    06-Oct-98 9:05 PM EDT (0105 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] YUGO - HOLBROOKE UPDATE (S/L) BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239860
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    //EDS: UPDATES WITH HOLBROOKE TALKS CONCLUDING; REWRITES THROUGHOUT///

    INTRO: U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS HEADING FOR BRUSSELS AFTER TALKS WEDNESDAY WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. HIS DEPARTURE CAME AS NATO NEARS A DECISION ON ORDERING AIR STRIKES, IF YUGOSLAVIA FAILS TO HONOR U-N DEMANDS ON THE KOSOVO CRISIS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES HAS MORE FROM BELGRADE ON THE HOLBROOKE-MILOSEVIC TALKS.

    TEXT: IN THREE DAYS OF TALKS, MR. HOLBROOKE HAS BEEN EMPHASIZING THAT UNLESS YUGOSLAVIA COMPLIES WITH A U-N DEMAND FOR A WITHDRAWAL OF FORCES FROM KOSOVO, NATO WILL ATTACK SERB MILITARY TARGETS.

    MR. HOLBROOKE ENDED HIS FINAL SESSION WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WEDNESDAY WITHOUT INDICATING HOW IT WENT. THE TALKS WENT ON ONE DAY LONGER THAN PLANNED, RAISING SOME HOPES. BUT A SENIOR DIPLOMAT INDICATED THE PREVIOUS MEETING TUESDAY DID NOT GO WELL.

    MR. HOLBROOKE WILL BRIEF U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IN BRUSSELS. NATO MILITARY ACTION COULD COME WITHIN DAYS.

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT SAYS (EDS: ON C-N-N) THE THREAT OF FORCE IS NOT THE GOAL, BUT RATHER A MEANS OF REACHING A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION AND HELPING TENS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVO ALBANIANS WHO ARE AFRAID TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    // REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG VERSION //

    NINETY PERCENT OF KOSOVO'S POPULATION IS ETHNIC ALBANIAN, AND ALMOST ALL OF THEM SAY THEY WANT INDEPENDENCE. EARLIER THIS YEAR, SEPARATIST GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY BEGAN MAKING SERIOUS GAINS, WHICH TRIGGERED A CRACKDOWN BY SERB FORCES. MONTHS OF FIGHTING DROVE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE FROM THEIR HOMES, AND MANY OF THEIR HOUSES AND FARMS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. HUMANITARIAN GROUPS SAY TENS OF THOUSANDS REMAIN AFRAID TO RETURN HOME, EVEN THOUGH MOST SERB FORCES HAVE RETURNED TO THEIR BARRACKS OR LEFT KOSOVO ENTIRELY.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON IS WARNING THAT IF THE CRISIS IS NOT SOLVED IT COULD SPILL OVER INTO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, WHICH HE SAID WOULD BE A CATASTROPHE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    07-Oct-98 1:17 PM EDT (1717 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] TURKEY/SYRIA (S&L) BY SCOTT BOBB (CAIRO)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239868
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GOVERNMENT OF TURKEY SAYS IT IS WILLING TO CONSIDER A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO ITS DISPUTE WITH NEIGHBORING SYRIA. BUT TURKEY CONTINUES TO THREATEN TO USE FORCE TO END WHAT IT CALLS AN INDIRECT WAR AGAINST IT, AS WE HEAR FROM CORRESPONDENT SCOTT BOBB IN OUR MIDDLE EAST BUREAU.

    TEXT: TURKEY'S PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ TOLD A SPECIAL SESSION OF PARLIAMENT WEDNESDAY THE COUNTRY IS NOT TRYING TO START A WAR WITH SYRIA. BUT HE SAID THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT WILL TAKE ALL NECESSARY MEASURES TO END WHAT HE CALLED SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM.

    TURKEY IS DEMANDING SYRIA END LOGISTICAL AND MATERIAL SUPPORT FOR GUERRILLAS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, KNOWN AS THE P-K-K, WHICH IS FIGHTING FOR AUTONOMY IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT IS ALSO SEEKING THE EXTRADITION FROM SYRIA OF P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN.

    SYRIA DENIES BACKING THE P-K-K OR SHELTERING MR. OCALAN.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE TURKISH PRIME MINISTER'S REMARKS CAME ONE DAY AFTER EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT HOSNI MUBARAK VISITED ANKARA SEEKING TO CALM THE ESCALATING TENSIONS IN THE REGION. PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ SAID PRESIDENT MUBARAK ASKED FOR A LAST CHANCE FOR DIPLOMACY. HE SAID TURKEY WILL STUDY THE IDEA.

    THE TURKISH PRIME MINISTER SAID HIS GOVERNMENT WOULD CONSIDER DIPLOMATIC MEDIATION, BUT SUCH TALKS SHOULD FOCUS ONLY ON THE ISSUE OF TERRORISM.

    THE SYRIAN GOVERNMENT IS ANGRY OVER TURKEY'S INCREASING MILITARY TIES WITH ISRAEL, WITH WHOM SYRIA IS STILL OFFICIALLY AT WAR. SYRIA IS ALSO UPSET OVER A TURKISH PLAN TO DAM THE WATERS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER WHICH FLOW THROUGH SYRIA. IT FEARS THE DAMS WILL AGGRAVATE SYRIA'S ALREADY SERIOUS WATER SHORTAGE.

    GOVERNMENTS FROM AROUND THE WORLD WEDNESDAY URGED DIPLOMATIC MEDIATION OF THE DISPUTE BETWEEN SYRIA AND TURKEY. LEADERS IN THE MIDDLE EAST ALSO CALLED FOR DIPLOMACY BEFORE VIOLENCE. IRAN, WHICH CURRENTLY CHAIRS THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE OF NATIONS, SAID THE TWO SIDES SHOULD FAVOR POLITICAL DIALOGUE BEFORE THEY RESORT TO THREATS AND MILITARY GESTURES. THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY EXPRESSED CONCERN OVER TURKEY'S THREATENING STATEMENTS AND CALLED FOR RESOLUTION OF THE DISPUTE THROUGH PEACEFUL MEANS. LIBYA SAID IT WOULD EXPEL TURKISH COMPANIES IF TURKEY ATTACKS SYRIA.

    THE NEWSPAPER OF IRAQ'S RULING PARTY ("AL-THAWRA") URGED ARAB COUNTRIES TO TAKE A FIRM STAND IN SUPPORT OF SYRIA. PART OF NORTHERN IRAQ IS OCCUPIED BY TURKISH FORCES AS PART OF AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST KURDISH GUERRILLAS.
    NEB/SB/PCF/RAE
    07-Oct-98 2:25 PM EDT (1825 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] EDITORIAL: SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR TERRORISTS

    DATE= OCTOBER 8, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-07997
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    OCTOBER 8, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    IN RECENT DAYS, TURKISH OFFICIALS HAVE SPOKEN OUT AGAINST THE HARBORING OF TERRORISTS IN SYRIA. TURKEY IS PARTICULARLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, OR P-K-K. SYRIA GRANTS A WIDE VARIETY OF TERRORIST GROUPS BASING PRIVILEGES OR REFUGE IN AREAS OF LEBANON'S BEKAA VALLEY UNDER SYRIAN CONTROL. THE P-K-K TRAINS THERE. IN ADDITION, THE LEADER OF THE P-K-K, ABDULLAH OCALAN, RESIDES AT LEAST PART-TIME IN DAMASCUS, THE CAPITAL OF SYRIA.

    THE P-K-K WAS ESTABLISHED IN THE MID-1970S AS A MARXIST-LENINIST INSURGENT GROUP. IT SEEKS TO SET UP AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. IN RECENT YEARS, THE P-K-K HAS MOVED BEYOND RURAL-BASED INSURGENT ACTIVITIES TO URBAN TERRORISM. IT HAS CARRIED OUT TERRORIST ATTACKS IN TURKEY AND THROUGHOUT WESTERN EUROPE. THE P-K-K HAS RECEIVED SUPPORT FROM IRAQ AND IRAN, AS WELL AS SYRIA.

    UNDER UNITED STATES LAW, THE P-K-K HAS BEEN DESIGNATED AS AN INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUP. THE U.S. HAS LONG URGED THAT SYRIA CEASE ITS SUPPORT OF THE P-K-K. BECAUSE OF SUCH SUPPORT, SYRIA REMAINS ON THE U.S. LIST OF STATE SPONSORS OF TERRORISM. COUNTRIES ON THE TERRORISM LIST ARE SUBJECT TO U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS.

    THE U.S. HAS ENCOURAGED TURKEY AND SYRIA TO RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES THROUGH DIPLOMATIC MEANS. CLEARLY, THE MOST IMPORTANT STEP FOR SYRIA IS TO CEASE ALL SUPPORT OF THE P-K-K AND OTHER TERRORIST GROUPS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    07-Oct-98 4:30 PM EDT (2030 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] NO. IRELAND INVESTMENT (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239881
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NORTHERN IRELAND OFFICIALS LAUNCHED A FOREIGN INVESTMENT DRIVE IN NEW YORK CITY TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AT THE BEGINNING OF A JOURNEY TO NEARLY A DOZEN MAJOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: NORTHERN IRELAND MIGHT NOT BE THE FIRST PLACE THAT COMES TO MIND FOR U-S BUSINESSES SEEKING AN OVERSEAS LOCATION. BUT NORTHERN IRELAND OFFICIALS SAY PERHAPS IT SHOULD BE. THEY ADVERTISE A YOUNG, HIGHLY TRAINED WORKFORCE, MODERN TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS, A TAX ENVIRONMENT FAVORABLE TO BUSINESS, AND A PROMISE OF PEACE AT LAST.

    PROTESTANTS AND CATHOLICS HAVE OVERWHELMINGLY ENDORSED A NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR NORTHERN IRELAND THAT WAS SIGNED LAST APRIL. IT IS WIDELY CONSIDERED THE BEST CHANCE EVER TO END DECADES OF SECTARIAN VIOLENCE.

    AMONG THE ENTOURAGE TRAVELING IN THE UNITED STATES IS DAVID TRIMBLE - HEAD OF NORTHERN IRELAND'S LARGEST POLITICAL PARTY WHO WAS ELECTED FIRST MINISTER IN A NEW POWER-SHARING ASSEMBLY. MR. TRIMBLE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE:

    //TRIMBLE ACT//

    BE IN NO DOUBT OF OUR DETERMINATION TO COMPLETE THAT JOURNEY. WE'RE STARTING OUT AND ALREADY WE'VE REALIZED PROGRESS. OUR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC LINKS WILL CONTINUE TO DEVELOP.

    //END ACT//

    NORTHERN IRELAND SECRETARY OF STATE MARJORIE MOWLAM, ALSO ADDRESSING NEW YORK BUSINESS LEADERS, ADDED HER VOTE OF CONFIDENCE THAT AMERICAN COMPANIES CAN DO BUSINESS IN NORTHERN IRELAND PROFITABLY, SAFELY AND EASILY:

    //MOWLAM ACT//

    OUR MESSAGE TODAY TO CORPORATE AMERICA, AND WILL BE FOR THE NEXT THREE WEEKS IS VERY SIMPLE: A NEW AND STABLE NORTHERN IRELAND OFFERS INVESTORS THE BEST DEAL IN EUROPE.

    //END ACT//

    BRITAIN'S CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER, GORDON BROWN, JOINED THE GROUP FOR THE FIRST EVENT IN NEW YORK. HE NOTED THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT IS PUTTING ONE-HALF BILLION DOLLARS INTO A NEW INVESTMENT PROGRAM FOR NORTHERN IRELAND DESIGNED TO IMPROVE ITS INFRASTRUCTURE. ABOUT 100 COMPANIES, EITHER ENTIRELY OR PARTLY-OWNED BY AMERICANS AND CANADIANS, ALREADY OPERATE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. THEY PROVIDE 10 PERCENT OF THE PROVINCE'S MANUFACTURING JOBS.

    NORTHERN IRELAND OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO LURE A LOT MORE INVESTMENT FROM NORTH AMERICA. THE IDEA IS THAT PROSPERITY WILL ENHANCE THEIR PROSPECTS FOR POLITICAL STABILITY.

    //REST OPT//

    THE NORTHERN IRELAND GROUP IS TAKING ITS ROAD SHOW FROM NEW YORK TO PHILADELPHIA AND BOSTON NEXT WEEK -- TWO CITIES, LIKE NEW YORK, WITH A LARGE IRISH-AMERICAN POPULATION. IT WILL WIND UP ITS THREE WEEK TOUR IN SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/EJ/LSF/GE
    07-Oct-98 4:14 PM EDT (2014 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] NY ECON (S AND L)) BY JOE CHAPMAN (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239888
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON WALL STREET TODAY (WEDNESDAY) STOCKS IN LARGE COMPANIES CLOSED ALMOST UNCHANGED BUT SMALLER COMPANY AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY STOCKS WERE DRIVEN DOWN IN VERY HEAVY TRADING. VOA'S JOE CHAPMAN REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE WIDELY FOLLOWED DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE SWUNG WILDLY IN A MORE THAN 200 POINT RANGE BEFORE FINALLY CLOSING DOWN JUST ONE POINT, ALMOST UNCHANGED, AT 77-HUNDRED-41. THE MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 FELL 14 POINTS, ABOUT ONE AND ONE HALF PERCENT, TO CLOSE AT 970.

    BUT THE NASDAQ COMPOSITE INDEX, WHICH INCLUDES MOSTLY HIGH TECHNOLOGY AND SMALL COMPANY STOCKS, HAD ONE OF ITS WORST DAYS OF THE YEAR, CLOSING DOWN 48 POINTS, OR THREE PERCENT, AT 14-HUNDRED-62. THE NASDAQ IS AT A 52 WEEK LOW AND HAS LOST 25 PERCENT OF ITS VALUE IN LESS THAN TWO MONTHS. WITH 971 MILLION SHARES CHANGING HANDS, THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE RECORDED ITS THIRD HEAVIEST TRADING DAY IN ITS HISTORY.

    ///REST OPT///

    ANALYSTS SAY THE MARKET'S ERRATIC MOVEMENTS WERE THE RESULT IN PART OF CONCERNS ABOUT A SLOWING U-S ECONOMY BUT ALSO CONCERN OVER ISSUES RAISED BY U-S CENTRAL BANK CHIEF ALAN GREENSPAN IN WASHINGTON SPEECH. MR. GREENSPAN SAID INVESTOR ATTITUDES HAVE CHANGED DRAMATICALLY IN RECENT WEEKS AMID AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE.

    ///GREENSPAN ACT///

    A MARKED SHIFT IN INVESTOR PSYCHOLOGY AWAY FROM RISK AND TOWARD LIQUIDITY AND SAFETY HAS EXACERBATED THE PROBLEM IN FOREIGN MARKETS WHERE DEFLATIONARY FORCES REMAIN VIRULENT AND HAS SPREAD TO FINANCIAL MARKETS IN THE UNITED STATES. WE DO NOT KNOW HOW FAR IT WILL GO.

    ///END ACT///

    THE DOLLAR TRADED LOWER AGAINST MOST MAJOR CURRENCIES, BUT PLUMMETED AGAINST THE YEN, LOSING NEARLY NINE PERCENT AND HITTING A 52 WEEK LOW. ANALYSTS WERE UNCERTAIN ABOUT WHY THE DOLLAR DROPPED SO SHARPLY, BUT SUGGESTED POSSIBLE ACTION BY JAPANESE INVESTORS OR HEDGE FUNDS TRYING TO QUICKLY UNWIND POSITIONS.

    THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT FILED SUIT AGAINST MASTER CARD INTERNATIONAL AND VISA U-S-A, ACCUSING THE FIRMS OF ENGAGING IN ANTI-COMPETITIVE ACTIVITY. THE TWO CREDIT CARD FIRMS ARE OWNED BY HUNDREDS OF MEMBER BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    J-P MORGAN, THE PRESTIGIOUS INVESTMENT BANK, IS PREDICTING A RECESSION IN THE UNITED STATES FOR 1999. THE COMMERCIAL BANK FORECAST PREDICTS A SHRINKAGE IN THE U-S ECONOMY FOR THE FIRST NINE MONTHS, THEN A RESUMPTION OF GROWTH IN THE LAST THREE MONTHS OF THE YEAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/N Y/JMC/LSF
    07-Oct-98 5:25 PM EDT (2125 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/06/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10946
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    /// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ///

    INTRO: THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS AGAINST PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE CONTINUING WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS ARE STILL TOP TOPICS IN THIS NATION'S NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL COLUMNS AT MIDWEEK. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE; DEALING WITH NORTH KOREA; RUSSIA'S FAILING COOPERATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION AND AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S STUDY OF U-S PRISONS. NOW, _______________________HAS A CLOSER LOOK, TOGETHER WITH SOME EXCERPTS, IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS CONTINUES TO DOMINATETHE DOMESTIC NEWS AGENDA BUT TODAY'S MINNEAPOLIS "STAR-TRIBUNE" IS CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT ACTUALLY CONSTITUTES IMPEACHMENT, AND WHETHER THE HOUSE MEMBERS ARE CLEAR ON IT.

    VOICE: DRAMATICALLY DEPARTING FROM TWO CENTURIES OF CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION, THE ... COMMITTEE HAS VOTED TO RECOMMEND AN OPEN-ENDED, OPEN-SUBJECT IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY STEMMING FROM THE PRESIDENT'S ATTEMPT TO KEEP SECRET A PRIVATE, CONSENSUAL AND -- YES -- LEGAL RELATIONSHIP. ... THIS COMMITTEE'S LACK OF CONCERN FOR PRECEDENT GIVES ITS PROCEEDINGS A HIGHLY PARTISAN CAST, DESPITE THE AVUNCULAR HENRY HYDE'S PROTESTATIONS TO THE CONTRARY.

    TEXT: TAKING THE OTHER VIEW, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS THAT IF THE COMMITTEE HAD AGREED TO A DEMOCRATIC PROPOSAL FOR A TIME LIMIT ON THE PROCEEDINGS, IT "WOULD HAVE INVITED RUN-OUT-THE-CLOCK TACTICS."

    VOICE: REPUBLICANS WERE RIGHT TO DEMAND A WATERGATE STYLE, OPEN-ENDED PROBE THAT COULD CONSIDER ANY FURTHER EVIDENCE OF IMPEACHABLE OFFENSES THE COMMITTEE MIGHT RECEIVE. ... BOTH SIDES NOW MUST SET PARTISANSHIP ASIDE. AS THEIR INQUIRY UNFOLDS, EACH REPUBLICAN MUST ASK: IF THE PRESIDENT WERE A REPUBLICAN, WOULD I CONCLUDE THAT LYING UNDER OATH TO COVER UP ADULTERY IS IMPEACHABLE? EACH DEMOCRAT MUST ASK: IF THE PRESIDENT WERE A REPUBLICAN, WOULD I BE SO READY TO DISMISS HIS CONDUCT AS SIMPLY AN EXTRAMARITAL AFFAIR?

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE MIAMI HERALD" TRIES TO QUANTIFY THE PRESIDENT'S KNOWN OFFENSES, AS THEY RELATE TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL STANDARDS FOR IMPEACHMENT.

    VOICE: THE REPUBLICANS SEE "HIGH CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS" IN MR. CLINTON'S PATHETIC INABILITY TO RESIST THE SIREN SONG OF A WHITE HOUSE INTERN'S THONG UNDERWEAR. THE CLEARER-EYED DEMOCRATS SEE HIS DALLIANCE (AS DO WE) AS A PRESIDENT DEBASING HIS OFFICE'S MAJOR CURRENCY -- THE MORAL AUTHORITY OF THE WORLD'S MOST POWERFUL POST -- TO A LEVEL SO LOW THAT NOT EVEN MONEY-CHANGERS WOULD TOUCH IT. BUT, WE THINK, THERE IS A HUGE GAP BETWEEN THE UN-WISE AND THE IMPEACHABLE. MR. CLINTON'S CONDUCT CLEARLY WAS UN-WISE. BUT IMPEACHABLE? NO.

    TEXT: IN NEBRASKA, "THE OMAHA WORLD-HERALD" IS UPSET ABOUT WHAT IT FEELS IS THE PRESIDENT'S INATTENTION TO THE NATION'S BUSINESS NOT ONLY BECAUSE HE IS ABSORBED IN THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS, BUT ALSO DUE TO VERY ACTIVE DEMOCRATIC PARTY FUND-RAISING.

    VOICE: SO FAR THIS YEAR, HE HAS MADE MORE THAN 90 FUND-RAISING APPEARANCES. THAT'S AN AVERAGE OF ONE ABOUT EVERY THREE DAYS. MANY OF THE APPEARANCES WERE IN WASHINGTON. BUT SOME WERE IN NEW YORK, FLORIDA, TEXAS AND CALIFORNIA, MAKING ADDITIONAL DEMANDS ON THE PRESIDENT'S TIME. SO IF THERE ISN'T ENOUGH TIME FOR THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE TO ATTEND TO THE NATION'S BUSINESS, IT WOULD BE WRONG TO BLAME THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY. ... IF INDEED THE PRESIDENT NEEDS MORE HOURS TO SPEND DOING THE PEOPLE'S BUSINESS, A CUTBACK ON HIS FUND-RAISING ACTIVITIES WOULD BE A LOGICAL PLACE TO START.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE WORLD'S ECONOMIC WOES, "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" WONDERS EDITORIALLY WHETHER THIS COUNTRY'S LEADERS HAVE LEARNED ANYTHING FROM THE 1929 DEPRESSION.

    VOICE: AFTER DECADES OF STUDYING THE GREAT DEPRESSION OF THE 1930S, MOST ECONOMIC HISTORIANS HAVE CONCLUDED THAT BAD DECISIONS BY SHORT-SIGHTED LEADERS HELPED TRIGGER THE CALAMITY. ECONOMISTS ALSO HAVE SUGGESTED THAT A DEPRESSION COULDN'T HAPPEN AGAIN BECAUSE NO ONE WOULD EVER BE DUMB ENOUGH TO REPEAT THOSE MISTAKES. OR WOULD THEY? IN RECENT MONTHS, CONGRESS AND THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD HAVE MADE A NUMBER OF BAD DECISIONS -- DESIGNED, IT SEEMS, TO PROVE THAT DIM-WITTEDNESS [STUPIDITY] FLOURISHES. MEANWHILE, PRESIDENT CLINTON IS TRYING TO FIND SENSIBLE SOLUTIONS, BUT A SEX-AND-LIES SCANDAL HAS LEFT HIM POLITICALLY HOG-TIED [UNABLE TO MOVE]. WITH A FEEBLE PRESIDENT, A THICK-HEADED [DUMB] CONGRESS AND A SLOW-MOVING FED, EVEN THE STABLE UNITED STATES MAY GET PULLED INTO THE WIDENING GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS. ... CONGRESS AND THE FED HAVE THE POWER TO HELP PULL THE WORLD OUT OF ITS ECONOMIC TAILSPIN. BUT THEY MUST ACT SENSIBLY, AND SOON -- OR ECONOMIC HISTORIANS MAY HAVE TO RETRACT THEIR PREDICTIONS THAT THE DISASTER OF 1929 COULD NOT BE REPEATED.

    TEXT: "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, AGREES, WITH LESS FLAMBOYANT LANGUAGE, AGAIN FAULTING CONGRESS FOR FAILING TO CONTRIBUTE EMERGENCY FUNDS TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND.

    VOICE: PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON TOLD A MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL LENDING INSTITUTIONS YESTERDAY [TUESDAY] THAT CONCERTED GLOBAL ACTION CAN STEM THE WORLDWIDE FINANCIAL CRUNCH NOW UNDERWAY. ACTION, YES. BUT WHAT ACTION? HE WAS SHORT ON SPECIFICS, AND DOMESTIC PRESSURES IN MANY CAPITALS -- INCLUDING WASHINGTON -- HAVE FRUSTRATED EFFORTS TO COME UP WITH A COORDINATED RESPONSE TO THE ILLS CONFRONTING THEM. ... HIS OWN SITUATION IS EMBLEMATIC: THE DEMOCRATIC PRESIDENT'S ABILITY TO PERSUADE A RELUCTANT REPUBLICAN CONGRESS TO BACK AN 18-BILLION-DOLLAR RE-FUNDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND HAS BEEN COMPLICATED BY THE LEWINSKY SCANDAL, WITH THE HOUSE SET TO VOTE TOMORROW [THURSDAY] ON IMPEACHMENT HEARINGS. ... WITHOUT IT [THE ADDITIONAL MONEY FROM THE UNITED STATES], THE I-M-F IS TOO CLOSE TO DIPPING INTO ITS EMERGENCY RESERVES FOR SAFETY. BUT CONGRESS TEMPORIZES.

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" POINTS OUT THE SITUATION IN BRAZIL WORSENS. SHOULD THAT COUNTRY'S ECONOMY FAIL, IT WILL PULL THE REST OF LATIN AMERICA WITH IT.

    VOICE: BRAZIL'S PRESIDENT, FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO, HAS LITTLE TIME TO SAVOR HIS APPARENT FIRST-ROUND RE-ELECTION VICTORY ... SUNDAY. HE MUST TAKE RAPID AND UNPOPULAR STEPS TO SAVE THE ECONOMY. ... MR. CARDOSO AND THE [BRAZILIAN] CONGRESS MUST TAKE FISCAL DISCIPLINE SERIOUSLY. ... THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SHOULD CALM INVESTORS BY COMING UP WITH A BAILOUT TO STEM THE HEMORRHAGE OF BRAZIL'S RESERVES. BUT IT MUST BE CONTINGENT ON BRAZIL'S OWN REFORMS. /// OPT /// ... THERE ARE GOOD REASONS FOR THE WORLD TO HELP BRAZIL, BUT BRAZIL MUST ALSO DEAL WITH ITS OWN PROBLEMS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE, AND THE WEST'S RESPONSE TO IT, "THE [NEW YORK] DAILY NEWS" SAYS ANY COMPARISON BETWEEN A RECENT HOLLYWOOD MOVIE AND THE PRESENT SITUATION IS MISUNDERSTOOD.

    VOICE: THOSE WHO CLAIM THAT INVOLVING THE AMERICAN MILITARY IN THE BALKANS WOULD BE LIKE STEALING A SCENE FROM "WAG THE DOG," ARE MISSING THE IRONY. IN THE MOVIE, A PRESIDENT USES A PHONY WAR IN ALBANIA TO DEFLECT ATTENTION FROM A SEX SCANDAL. IN REAL LIFE, THE WHITE HOUSE SEX SCANDAL HAS CAUSED AMERICANS TO IGNORE THE SLAUGHTER OF ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. ... YUGOSLAV BUTCHER-IN-CHIEF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REPEATEDLY HAS PROMISED TO WITHDRAW HIS TROOPS. YET HIS SOLDIERS MOVE FORWARD AND THE KILLING CONTINUES. JUST AS NATO-LED TROOPS CREATED A BUFFER ZONE BETWEEN BOSNIA AND SERBIA, NATO AND THE UNITED NATIONS MUST NOW FIND A WAY TO SEPARATE THE SERBS FROM THE ALBANIANS.

    TEXT: IN A COMMENT ON U-S POLICY TOWARD NORTH KOREA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS IT HAS BASICALLY FAILED, WITH ALL THE FOOD AID FOR THE STARVING NORTH KOREANS FAILING TO SOFTEN, EVEN SLIGHTLY, THE BELLICOSE REGIME IN PYONGYANG.

    /// OPT ///

    VOICE: THE DISARRAY IN U-S POLICY TOWARD NORTH KOREA GROWS MORE EVIDENT AND MORE TROUBLING EACH WEEK, WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S EFFORTS TO "ENGAGE" PYONGYANG ON A VARIETY OF FRONTS PRODUCING LITTLE MORE THAN A STEADY SUCCESSION OF FAILURES AND EMBARRASSMENTS. ... A GENEROUS U-S PROGRAM TO PROVIDE FOOD TO FAMINE-STRICKEN NORTH KOREA HAS PRODUCED NO POLITICAL DIVIDENDS. ... [THERE ARE] SUSPICIONS THAT NORTH KOREA IS FUNNELING MOST FOOD AID TO THE MILITARY AND OTHER PROPS OF KIM JONG IL'S REGIME.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" IS UPSET AT THE PROSPECT OF FAILING COOPERATION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA OVER THE JOINT INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION, AND URGES CONGRESS TO LOOK AT THE PROGRAM'S VIRTUES.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// NASA [NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE AGENCY] TOLD CONGRESS LAST WEEK THAT THE RUSSIAN SPACE AGENCY WOULD BE UNABLE TO DELIVER CRUCIAL COMPONENTS, INCLUDING THE STATION'S SERVICE MODULE, WITHOUT "IMMEDIATE FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE." SO NASA PLANS TO DIVERT 60-MILLION-DOLLARS FROM OTHER SPACE-STATION PROGRAMS TO FINANCE RUSSIA'S WORK, PROBABLY WITH MORE TO FOLLOW LATER. THIS HAS SOME MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE FURIOUS, AND [THEY QUESTION] ... THE CONTINUED NEED FOR RUSSIA AS A SPACE STATION PARTNER. /// END OPT /// KEEPING RUSSIA INVOLVED IS A SMART MOVE FOR SEVERAL REASONS: IT KEEPS THE SPACE STATION ON TRACK [ON SCHEDULE]. ... DELAY, WHICH WOULD BE INEVITABLE WITHOUT DRAWING ON RUSSIA'S EXTENSIVE EXPERIENCE, WOULD BE ... COSTLY. ... PRESERVING THE U-S-RUSSIAN SPACE ALLIANCE ALSO HAS A VITAL EARTH-BOUND PURPOSE: PROMOTING COOPERATION BETWEEN FORMER COLD WAR ADVERSARIES, A CRITICAL ISSUE AT THE MOMENT.

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THESE THOUGHTS FROM "THE NEW YORK POST" ON A NEW, AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF U-S LAW ENFORCEMENT.

    VOICE: TO HEAR AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL TELL IT, THE NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT IS LITTLE MORE THAN A SINKHOLE OF BRUTALITY, RACISM AND CORRUPTION. IN FACT, IF ALL YOU DID WAS READ THE LONDON-BASED GROUP'S REPORT ON POLICE BRUTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES, YOU WOULD NEVER KNOW THAT THE N-Y-P-D IS THE INSTRUMENT THAT HAS MADE NEW YORK THE NATION'S SAFEST MAJOR CITY. INDEED, [THE] ... TRAVESTY OF A REPORT, "RIGHTS FOR ALL," IS SO UTTERLY DEVOID OF CONTEXT OR A SENSE OF PROPORTION THAT IT TRIVIALIZES GENUINE HUMAN-RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AROUND THE WORLD. /// TOSSING THE UNITED STATES -- A DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC WITH THE INSTITUTIONS NEEDED TO PREVENT OR CORRECT OFFICIAL ABUSES -- INTO SUCH COMPANY [AS CUBA OR IRAQ], EVEN IMPLICITLY, IS EVIDENCE OF MORAL BLINDNESS ON A TRULY EPIC SCALE.

    TEXT: ON THAT EXCULPATORY NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/WTW
    07-Oct-98 11:33 AM EDT (1533 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] ROMANI CRISS: ROMANI RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN ROMANIA BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/7/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30628
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: TODAY, THE ROMA REPRESENT THE SECOND LARGEST MINORITY IN ROMANIA, AFTER THE HUNGARIANS. AND, THE ROMA IN ROMANIA -- AS IN THE OTHER COUNTRIES OF EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE -- HAVE BEGUN THEIR OWN CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. RECOGNIZED AS THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ROMANI ORGANIZATION IN ROMANIA, ROMANI-CRISS [KRIS] IS IN THE FOREFRONT OF THIS POLITICAL MOVEMENT, WHILE PROVIDING SOCIAL SERVICES TO

    LOCAL ROMANI COMMUNITIES. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM HAS

    TALKED WITH ITS DIRECTOR AND STAFF MEMBERS. HERE'S _____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: NICOLAE GHEORGHE ['NEE-KOH-LYE GAY-'OR-GAY], FOUNDER OF ROMANI-CRISS IS SOMETHING OF AN ANOMALY IN HIS OWN COMMUNITY. IN A SOCIETY WHERE ONLY ONE IN ONE THOUSAND ROMA, OR "GYPSIES," HAS A COLLEGE EDUCATION, MR. GHEORGHE HOLDS A DOCTORATE IN SOCIOLOGY. HE IS A RESPECTED SCHOLAR, A LEADER OF THE ROMA IN EUROPE, AND HE HAS TESTIFIED BEFORE THE U-S CONGRESS ABOUT THE ROMANI CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- GHEORGHE (0:09) "I'M A COMBINATION OF MILITANT, HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST, SOCIOLOGIST, SOCIAL WORKER, AND INFORMAL LOBBYIST."

    TEXT: ROMANI-CRISS, AN ACRONYM THAT IN ROMANIAN MEANS ROMA CENTER FOR SOCIAL INTERVENTION AND STUDIES, IS ACTUALLY A PLAY ON AN IMPORTANT WORD IN THE ROMANY LANGUAGE, MR. GHEORGHE EXPLAINS.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- GHEORGHE (0:21) "'CRISS' IS ONE OF THE BASIC INSTITUTIONS OF ROMANI CULTURE AND SOCIETY. IT'S A DISPUTE RESOLUTION BODY. IT'S A COMMUNAL MEETING WHERE PEOPLE DISCUSS DISPUTES AND OTHER THINGS OF INTEREST IN THE COMMUNITY. AND RULES OF THE GROUP AND VALUES OF THE GROUP ARE ENACTED IN SUCH DEBATES, WHICH IS LIKE IN A COURT."

    TEXT: AS A CONFLICT RESOLUTION BODY, MUCH OF THE EARLY WORK OF ROMANI-CRISS, MR. GHEORGHE SAYS, WAS CONCERNED WITH REBUILDING SOCIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN ROMA AND THE MAJORITY POPULATION. IN THE YEARS IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE OVERTHROW OF THE ROMANIAN DICTATOR NICOLAE CEAUCESCU IN DECEMBER 1989, HE SAYS, THE ROMANI COMMUNITY WAS OFTEN VICTIMIZED BY OUTBREAKS OF MOB VIOLENCE, AND MANY ROMANI HOMES WERE BURNED. THE FIRST FUNDING FOR ROMANI-CRISS CAME FROM THE WORLD COUNCIL OF CHURCHES AS PART OF ITS PROGRAM TO COMBAT RACISM.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- GHEORGHE (0:26) "DURING THOSE YEARS WE DEVELOPED A WAY OF WORKING, DEALING WITH SUCH SITUATIONS CREATED BY VIOLENCE, BUT ALSO TO REBUILD SOCIETY. SO, SOCIAL INTERVENTION WAS ALSO AN ALTERNATIVE TO SOCIAL WORK. BASICALLY I'M LIKE A SOCIAL WORKER, AND [SO ARE] MY COLLEAGUES. WE ARE RUNNING 10 TO 15 DIFFERENT PROJECTS IN DIFFERENT AREAS, AND WE TRY TO ANALYZE WHAT WE ARE DOING, EVALUATE IT, AND DO STUDIES."

    TEXT: FOR EXAMPLE, ROMANI-CRISS DID A MAJOR STUDY ON THE THE SITUATION OF ROMA IN THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FOR THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. MR. GHEORGHE SAYS THAT IN THE TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER COMMUNISM, MANY PEOPLE WERE UNABLE TO COPE WITH THE "NEW REALITY," WHEN THEY WERE FORCED OUT OF THEIR JOBS ON STATE-OWNED FARMS. BUT, THE ROMA, WHO WERE THE LEAST EDUCATED GROUP IN ROMANIA, HAD THE HARDEST TIME FINDING ALTERNATIVE EMPLOYMENT, AND SOME OF THEM TURNED TO THE BLACK MARKET OR TO PETTY CRIME.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- GHEORGHE (0:36) "THE MAJORITY [ETHNIC ROMAIANS], WHO THEMSELVES ARE CONFRONTED WITH THE SAME PROBLEMS, ARE REACTING BY SAYING, 'GYPSIES ARE NOT WORKING, GYPSIES ARE DOING THIS, GYPSIES ARE DOING THAT, THEY ARE THIEVES, THEY ARE CRIMINALS. THE MAJORITY BLAME THE ROMA, THE ROMA BLAME THE MAJORITY, SO IT'S RECIPROCAL. THE POLICE WILL TRY TO SIGNAL TO THE MAJORITY POPULATION THAT THEY ARE CONTROLLING THE ROMA AND THEY'RE REPRESSING ANY KIND OF DISTURBANCE IN THE ROMA COMMUNITY, AND THEY ARE DOING 'PROPHYLACTIC' WORK, PREVENTION OF INTERETHNIC VIOLENCE BY PUNISHING ROMA BEFORE THEY DO ANYTHING."

    TEXT: MR. GHEORGHE SAYS PART OF HIS WORK INVOLVES INVESTIGATING REPORTS OF POLICY BRUTALITY, IN WHICH HE COOPERATES WITH HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS FROM THE HELSINKI COMMITTEE. ROMANI-CRISS ALSO OVERSEES LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN ROMANI COMMUNITIES. (OPT) THESE INCLUDE THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES AFTER ANTI-ROMA VIOLENCE, PREVENTION OF VIOLENCE, LEADERSHIP SEMINARS ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, ECONOMIC SELF-HELP PROJECTS, EDUCATION IN MAJORITY-MINORITY RELATIONS, HEALTH PROJECTS, AND THE SCHOOLING OF ROMANI CHILDREN. (END OPT) (OPT) SOCIOLOGIST NICOLETA BITU [BEET-SOO], WHO WORKED AS A MEDIATOR BETWEEN THE ROMA, OTHER MINORITIES, AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN CONSTANTA [KON-STAN-ZAH] BEFORE COMING TO BUCHAREST, IS A LEADER IN ROMANI-CRISS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- BITU (0:29) "WE'RE WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP WITH LOCAL ROMA ASSOCIATIONS. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE IS SOCIAL INTERVENTION, BUT ALL THESE ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF ROMA. OUR WORK IS IN ROMANIA, BUT WE ARE VERY MUCH INVOLVED IN THE EUROPEAN ROMANI MOVEMENT. WE'VE BEEN ORGANIZING MEETINGS FOR THE ROMA STANDING CONFERENCE, WHICH IS A FORUM OF ROMANI ASSOCIATIONS IN EUROPE. THEN, WE'RE INVOLVED IN WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP WITH INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS." (END OPT)

    TEXT: OTHER PROJECTS INCLUDE WORKING WITH THE MEDIA TO COMBAT NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES AND DEVELOPING A NETWORK OF LOCAL RADIO STATIONS. (OPT) MARIA BUCEANU SAYS SHE HAS WORKED AS A BROADCASTER FOR A SMALL RADIO STATION THAT HAS A MULTILINGUAL AND MULTIETHNIC AUDIENCE. TAPE B: CUT ONE -- BUCEANU (ESTABLISH ROMANIAN 5 SECONDS AND FADE) TAPE A: CUT SIX -- ENGLISH TRANSLATION (0:24) "I REALIZED THAT IT IS A LACK OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE ROMA MINORITY, AND THIS IS MAYBE THE CAUSE OF ALL THE PROBLEMS AND THE TENSIONS BETWEEN THE TWO POPULATIONS. AND I'M VERY HAPPY I'VE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS AND GO TO THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEMS, WHICH WILL GIVE ME COURAGE IN THE FUTURE TO OPEN A NEW RADIO STATION FOR THE ROMANI MINORITY." (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE MEMBERS OF ROMANI-CRISS SAY MUCH WORK NEEDS TO BE DONE TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS AND THE ROMA, WHO REPRESENT THE FAST-GROWING SEGMENT OF THE POPULATION OF ROMANIA.
    07-Oct-98 2:10 PM EDT (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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