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Voice of America, 98-10-08

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] A PARALYSIS OVER KOSOVO BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)
  • [03] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [07] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [08] KOSOVO / AIR DEFENSE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [09] KOSOVO / CEASEFIRE (S&L) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [10] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [11] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [12] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [13] KOSOVO AIRSTRIKES-DETAILS-L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [14] KOSOVO DEBATE INTENSIFIES AS ACTION NEARS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] KOSOVO GOALS (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (LONDON)
  • [16] KOSOVO NATO (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [17] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [18] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [19] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [20] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [21] NATO THREATENS SERBIA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [22] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [23] TURKEY SYRIA BY DOUG ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] A PARALYSIS OVER KOSOVO BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/08/98
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10950
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NEWS MEDIA MAY BE SOMEWHAT TRANSFIXED ABOUT THE IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PRESIDENT CLINTON, BUT IN THE REST OF THE WORLD, THE MEDIA IS FOCUSED ONCE AGAIN ON THE BALKANS.

    THE CURRENT STAND-OFF BETWEEN YUGOSLOV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, ON THE ONE HAND, AND BOTH THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO, ON THE OTHER, HAS COMMENTATORS FROM EVERY CORNER OF THE GLOBE CONCERNED. WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM __________________ IN THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE MAJOR CONCERN IN MANY OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST DAILIES IS THE APPARENT INABILITY OF BOTH THE UNITED NATIONS AND ESPECIALLY NATO, THE GREAT WESTERN DEFENSE ALLIANCE, TO FIND ANY KIND OF POLITICAL CONSENSUS ON WHAT TO DO.

    WITH NEWS REPORTS FROM KOSOVO PROVINCE SHOWING DEAD WOMEN AND CHILDREN, THE ALLEGED VICTIMS OF SERBIAN "ETHNIC CLEANSING," AS WELL AS TENS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES LIVING IN THE WOODS AFTER SERBIAN MILITARY SWEEPS, THERE IS NO DOUBT ABOUT THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM.

    IN THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL, RUSSIA AND CHINA ARE ADAMANTLY OPPOSED TO USING MILITARY ACTION, AND THEY HAVE THE POTENTIAL ABILITY TO BLOCK A VOTE CALLING FOR ACTION AGAINST SERBIA. SO FAR, ATTACKS ON MR. MILOSEVIC HAVE CONSISTED MAINLY OF ANGRY WORDS FROM MANY WESTERN LEADERS, INCLUDING PRESIDENT CLINTON, BUT SO FAR NO ACTION. WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN THE NEIGHBORING NATION OF CROATIA, UNTIL RECENTLY PART OF YUGOSLAVIA, WHERE ZAGREB'S "VJESNIK" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: IN THE PAST FEW DAYS, NOT A SINGLE AMERICAN OR BRITISH HIGH OFFICIAL HAS MISSED AN OPPORTUNITY TO "VERBALLY BOMB" SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, EVEN THOUGH WESTERN INTELLIGENCE REPORTS CLAIM THAT A NATO MILITARY INTERVENTION COULD ONLY STRENGTHEN HIM (LIKE SADDAM HUSSEIN), COMPLETELY QUIET DOWN THE OPPOSITION AND HELP RADICAL BOSNIAN SERBS WHO HAVE JUST TAKEN OVER POWER IN THE SERBIAN PART OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: IN THE NEIGHBORING REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, ANOTHER FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC, "DNEVNIK" IN THE CAPITAL, SKOPJE, WORRIES:

    VOICE: CITIZENS OF MACEDONIA LIVE, FOR THESE LAST COUPLE OF DAYS, IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF FEAR THAT EVENTUAL NATO INTERVENTION ON KOSOVO WILL MEAN SPILLOVER OF THE CRISIS IN[TO] MACEDONIA. THERE ARE RUMORS THAT DIPLOMATS HAVE STARTED PACKING AND ARE PREPARING TO LEAVE MACEDONIA ... THE QUESTION OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE IS WHETHER OUR TERRITORY AND AIR SPACE CAN BE USED IN THE INTERVENTION.

    TEXT: IN LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIA'S CAPITAL, "DELO CASOPISNA DRUZBA" WARNS:

    VOICE: THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS HAVE LONG BEEN WAITING FOR NATO'S INTERVENTION ... WHICH -- THEY BELIEVE -- CAN BRING THEM AUTONOMY. ... THE WEST CANNOT GIVE THEM AUTONOMY WITHOUT ENDANGERING ... THE DAYTON ORDER IN BOSNIA ... A LIMITED ATTACK MAY EVEN COME IN HANDY FOR [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC, TO WHOM HUMAN CASUALTIES MEAN NOTHING. ... BESIDES, IT IS THE EASIEST THING TO CALL AN EVENTUAL BOMBING OF SERBIA JUST ANOTHER ATTEMPT BY THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT TO DIRECT ATTENTION AWAY FROM HIS LOWERED PANTS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO WESTERN EUROPE, IN NEARBY ITALY, FROM WHICH A GOOD PORTION OF NATO AIR STRIKES BY U-S AND OTHER WARPLANES WOULD BE LAUNCHED, MILAN'S "IL SOLE-24 ORE" FEELS AN ATTACK IS IMMINENT, THOUGH IT STILL HAS QUALMS.

    VOICE: NATO'S WAR MACHINE IS IN FULL GEAR. "AN ATTACK COULD TAKE PLACE ON SATURDAY," DIPLOMATIC SOURCES SAID. NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL SOLANA REITERATED THAT NATO "CAN ALSO INTERVENE WITHOUT A NEW GREEN LIGHT FROM THE U-N." ... THE MAJORITY OF WESTERN COUNTRIES, INCLUDING ITALY ... ARE IN NO HURRY TO INTERVENE. BUT SOME ALLIES ARE PUSHING FOR RAPID ACTION. ... WHAT IS REALLY AT STAKE IS NATO'S CREDIBILITY ...

    TEXT: THERE IS LITTLE SUPPORT IN SOME QUARTERS IN RUSSIA, BUT "MOSCOW'S" KOMMERSANT-DAILY" IS MILDLY SUPPORTIVE OF SOME ACTION AGAINST THE SERBIAN LEADER.

    VOICE: MOSCOW IS GOING OUT OF ITS WAY TO PREVENT THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA. BUT THE EFFORTS OF THE RUSSIAN DIPLOMATS WILL ONLY BE CROWNED WITH SUCCESS IF [MR.] MILOSEVIC WANTS THEM TO. THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MUST COMPLY WITH ALL THE REQUIREMENTS PUT BEFORE HIM BY MR. YELTSIN IN A LETTER TWO DAYS AGO: TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KOSOVO, TO SECURE THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, TO START NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE ALBANIANS AND INVITE INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS. BUT [MR.] MILOSEVIC IS NOT IN A HURRY TO DO IT, THUS TYING MOSCOW'S HANDS IN THE NEGOTIATIONS WITH NATO.

    TEXT: EDITORIAL PAGE EDITORS AT "DUMA" IN BULGARIA'S CAPITAL, SOFIA, ALSO ARE NOT PLEASED BY THE LATEST TURN OF EVENTS.

    VOICE: WHAT DOES IT MEAN THAT THE UNITED STATES, THE EU [EUROPEAN UNION] AND NATO ISSUE ULTIMATUMS TO BELGRADE TO WITHDRAW ITS MILITARY FROM KOSOVO AND AT THE SAME TIME RECOGNIZE THE AREA AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE YUGOSLAV TERRITORY? WILL LONDON OR MADRID BE WILLING TO WITHDRAW THEIR POLICE AND MILITARY FROM NORTHERN IRELAND OR THE BASQUE COUNTRY[, RESPECTIVELY]? ISN'T THIS JUST AN EXCUSE FOR NATO TO TRAIN ITS FORCES IN A REAL WAR INSTEAD OF IN EXERCISES?

    TEXT: IN THIS HEMISPHERE, TORONTO'S "GLOBE AND MAIL," ONE OF CANADA'S MOST RESPECTED DAILIES, IS NOT HAPPY ABOUT THE DELAY IN MOUNTING A CAMPAIGN TO REIN IN THE SERBIAN FORCES.

    VOICE: ALL THIS SUMMER, AS TELEVISION CAMERAS WATCHED AND NEWSPAPER REPORTERS TOOK NOTES, SERBIAN TROOPS KILLED, BURNED AND PILLAGED THEIR WAY THROUGH ... KOSOVO. ... ONLY NOW, WITH THE DAMAGE DONE AND THE SERB OFFENSIVE EFFECTIVELY OVER, IS [NATO] GIRDING FOR AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBIAN MILITARY -- A GUILT-INDUCED, AFTER-THE-FACT ASSAULT THAT WOULD DO NOTHING FOR THE SHIVERING REFUGEES OF KOSOVO AND COULD WELL WIDEN THE WAR. ... DOES THAT MAKE ANY SENSE?

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE GLOBE NOW, AND "THE WEST AUSTRALIAN," IN PERTH, WHICH OPINES:

    VOICE: THE GRAVE LESSONS OF BOSNIA MUST NOT BE FORGOTTEN. THE WEST CANNOT DRAG ITS FEET, AS IT DID IN BOSNIA FOR THREE YEARS, BEFORE SEALING A PEACE DEAL THAT HAS HELD UP WELL DESPITE ITS IMPERFECTIONS. IT MUST ACT SWIFTLY TO REIN IN MR. MILOSEVIC ...

    TEXT: HOWEVER, IN BEIJING, "THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S DAILY" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: RUSSIA'S OPPOSITION TO NATO'S USE OF FORCE IS BECAUSE IT IS RELUCTANT TO SEE FURTHER ENLARGEMENT OF NATO'S INFLUENCE. THE BALKAN REGION HAS TRADITIONALLY BEEN AN EXPERIMENTAL FIELD WHERE THE BIG POWERS ADJUST THEIR RELATIONSHIPS. THE "SPECIAL PARTNERSHIP" BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO WILL EXPERIENCE MUCH FRICTION IN KOSOVO.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, SOME STRONG SUPPORT FOR THE PENDING NATO ACTION FROM "THE INDEPENDENT" IN DHAKA, CAPITAL OF BANGLADESH, A NATION THAT HAS KNOWN PLENTY OF TROUBLE IN ITS OWN RECENT PAST.

    VOICE: FOR MANY MONTHS, WORLD LEADERS HAVE STOOD BY AS [MR.] MILOSEVIC WAGED A WAR OF TERROR AGAINST THE CIVIL POPULATIONS OF KOSOVO, CARRIED OUT EXTRA-JUDICIAL KILLINGS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVARS, SENT HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVARS UP INTO THE COLD MOUNTAINS TO FACE WINTRY STARVATION AND SLOW DEATH, AND SYSTEMATICALLY DESTROYED CIVILIAN PROPERTY. THE KOSOVARS WILL NOT FEEL SAFE TO RETURN HOME EVEN IF THERE IS PARTIAL SERB WITHDRAWAL ... AS LONG AS THE GENOCIDAL SERBS REMAIN IN CONTROL. TO MAKE [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC ... END THE BRUTALITY IN KOSOVO, NATO WARPLANES AND CRUISE MISSILES MUST IN A MATTER OF DAYS STRIKE SERBIAN AIR FIELDS AND MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN KOSOVO AND THE REST OF SERBIA. ... THERE IS NO ROOM FOR IFS, ANDS OR BUTS ABOUT THE IMPENDING HUMAN TRAGEDY THAT NATO HAS THE POWER TO STOP IF IT HAS THE WILL.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENT ON THE SITUATION IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE, AND THE PENDING NATO THREAT OF MILITARY ACTION TO ADDRESS IT.
    NEB/ANG/WTW
    08-Oct-98 4:35 PM EDT (2035 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239908
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS NATO SHOULD PUT ITS FORCES IN READINESS FOR ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS MEETING IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO OFFICIALS. SHE WILL CONFER LATER WITH FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE SO-CALLED CONTACT GROUP -- RUSSIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES CONCERNED WITH THE KOSOVO ISSUE. CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: U-S SPECIAL BALKANS ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS REPORTING ABOUT HIS RECENT TRIP TO BELGRADE AND KOSOVO, AND WILL BE RETURNING TO YUGOSLAVIA LATER. AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY HE WILL BE CARRYING THE MESSAGE NATO IS PREPARING TO ACT IF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT FULLY COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS.

    THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS SERBIAN SPECIAL SECURITY FORCES MUST BE WITHDRAWN, NEGOTIATIONS MUST BEGIN, AND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND HUMANITARIAN AID MUST BE ALLOWED TO REACH KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES NATO SHOULD MOVE TO THE NEXT STEP IN PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY FORCE. THAT IS WHAT IS CALLED -- AN ACTIVATION ORDER.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    BY RATCHETING THE PRESSURE UP IN THE COMING DAYS, BY MOVING TO THE NEXT PHASE OF NATO DECISION MAKING, PERHAPS MILOSEVIC WILL GET THE MESSAGE HE HAS NOT YET GOTTEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAID MR. HOLBROOKE WILL BE WORKING IN SPECIFIC WAYS TO ENSURE BELGRADE COMPLIES, IN WHAT THE OFFICIAL PHRASE DESCRIBES AS A -- VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE WAY.

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT IS MEETING WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND OTHER U-N AND AMERICAN OFFICIALS IN BRUSSELS. SHE THEN TRAVELS TO LONDON FOR A MEETING OF WHAT IS CALLED -- THE CONTACT GROUP.

    RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV WILL ALSO BRIEF THE OTHER MINISTERS ON HIS RECENT TALKS IN BELGRADE. RUSSIA HAS BEEN OPPOSED TO USING FORCE IN KOSOVO AND THERE IS TALK RUSSIAN TROOPS COULD BE USED AS PEACE-KEEPERS, IF THERE IS A SETTLEMENT THAT REQUIRES THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/RAE
    08-Oct-98 7:40 AM EDT (1140 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239908
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS NATO SHOULD PUT ITS FORCES IN READINESS FOR ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS MEETING IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO OFFICIALS. SHE WILL CONFER LATER WITH FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE SO-CALLED CONTACT GROUP -- RUSSIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES CONCERNED WITH THE KOSOVO ISSUE. CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: U-S SPECIAL BALKANS ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS REPORTING ABOUT HIS RECENT TRIP TO BELGRADE AND KOSOVO, AND WILL BE RETURNING TO YUGOSLAVIA LATER. AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY HE WILL BE CARRYING THE MESSAGE NATO IS PREPARING TO ACT IF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT FULLY COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS.

    THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS SERBIAN SPECIAL SECURITY FORCES MUST BE WITHDRAWN, NEGOTIATIONS MUST BEGIN, AND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND HUMANITARIAN AID MUST BE ALLOWED TO REACH KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES NATO SHOULD MOVE TO THE NEXT STEP IN PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY FORCE. THAT IS WHAT IS CALLED -- AN ACTIVATION ORDER.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    BY RATCHETING THE PRESSURE UP IN THE COMING DAYS, BY MOVING TO THE NEXT PHASE OF NATO DECISION MAKING, PERHAPS MILOSEVIC WILL GET THE MESSAGE HE HAS NOT YET GOTTEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAID MR. HOLBROOKE WILL BE WORKING IN SPECIFIC WAYS TO ENSURE BELGRADE COMPLIES, IN WHAT THE OFFICIAL PHRASE DESCRIBES AS A -- VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE WAY.

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT IS MEETING WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND OTHER U-N AND AMERICAN OFFICIALS IN BRUSSELS. SHE THEN TRAVELS TO LONDON FOR A MEETING OF WHAT IS CALLED -- THE CONTACT GROUP.

    RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV WILL ALSO BRIEF THE OTHER MINISTERS ON HIS RECENT TALKS IN BELGRADE. RUSSIA HAS BEEN OPPOSED TO USING FORCE IN KOSOVO AND THERE IS TALK RUSSIAN TROOPS COULD BE USED AS PEACE-KEEPERS, IF THERE IS A SETTLEMENT THAT REQUIRES THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/RAE
    08-Oct-98 7:40 AM EDT (1140 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239908
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS NATO SHOULD PUT ITS FORCES IN READINESS FOR ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS MEETING IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO OFFICIALS. SHE WILL CONFER LATER WITH FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE SO-CALLED CONTACT GROUP -- RUSSIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES CONCERNED WITH THE KOSOVO ISSUE. CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: U-S SPECIAL BALKANS ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS REPORTING ABOUT HIS RECENT TRIP TO BELGRADE AND KOSOVO, AND WILL BE RETURNING TO YUGOSLAVIA LATER. AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY HE WILL BE CARRYING THE MESSAGE NATO IS PREPARING TO ACT IF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT FULLY COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS.

    THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS SERBIAN SPECIAL SECURITY FORCES MUST BE WITHDRAWN, NEGOTIATIONS MUST BEGIN, AND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND HUMANITARIAN AID MUST BE ALLOWED TO REACH KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES NATO SHOULD MOVE TO THE NEXT STEP IN PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY FORCE. THAT IS WHAT IS CALLED -- AN ACTIVATION ORDER.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    BY RATCHETING THE PRESSURE UP IN THE COMING DAYS, BY MOVING TO THE NEXT PHASE OF NATO DECISION MAKING, PERHAPS MILOSEVIC WILL GET THE MESSAGE HE HAS NOT YET GOTTEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAID MR. HOLBROOKE WILL BE WORKING IN SPECIFIC WAYS TO ENSURE BELGRADE COMPLIES, IN WHAT THE OFFICIAL PHRASE DESCRIBES AS A -- VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE WAY.

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT IS MEETING WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND OTHER U-N AND AMERICAN OFFICIALS IN BRUSSELS. SHE THEN TRAVELS TO LONDON FOR A MEETING OF WHAT IS CALLED -- THE CONTACT GROUP.

    RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV WILL ALSO BRIEF THE OTHER MINISTERS ON HIS RECENT TALKS IN BELGRADE. RUSSIA HAS BEEN OPPOSED TO USING FORCE IN KOSOVO AND THERE IS TALK RUSSIAN TROOPS COULD BE USED AS PEACE-KEEPERS, IF THERE IS A SETTLEMENT THAT REQUIRES THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/RAE
    08-Oct-98 7:40 AM EDT (1140 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ALBRIGHT / KOSOVO (L) BY GIL BUTLER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239908
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS NATO SHOULD PUT ITS FORCES IN READINESS FOR ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS MEETING IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO OFFICIALS. SHE WILL CONFER LATER WITH FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE SO-CALLED CONTACT GROUP -- RUSSIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES CONCERNED WITH THE KOSOVO ISSUE. CORRESPONDENT GIL BUTLER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: U-S SPECIAL BALKANS ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS REPORTING ABOUT HIS RECENT TRIP TO BELGRADE AND KOSOVO, AND WILL BE RETURNING TO YUGOSLAVIA LATER. AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY HE WILL BE CARRYING THE MESSAGE NATO IS PREPARING TO ACT IF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC DOES NOT FULLY COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS.

    THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS SERBIAN SPECIAL SECURITY FORCES MUST BE WITHDRAWN, NEGOTIATIONS MUST BEGIN, AND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS AND HUMANITARIAN AID MUST BE ALLOWED TO REACH KOSOVAR ALBANIANS.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES NATO SHOULD MOVE TO THE NEXT STEP IN PREPARATIONS FOR MILITARY FORCE. THAT IS WHAT IS CALLED -- AN ACTIVATION ORDER.

    /// RUBIN ACT ///

    BY RATCHETING THE PRESSURE UP IN THE COMING DAYS, BY MOVING TO THE NEXT PHASE OF NATO DECISION MAKING, PERHAPS MILOSEVIC WILL GET THE MESSAGE HE HAS NOT YET GOTTEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAID MR. HOLBROOKE WILL BE WORKING IN SPECIFIC WAYS TO ENSURE BELGRADE COMPLIES, IN WHAT THE OFFICIAL PHRASE DESCRIBES AS A -- VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE WAY.

    SECRETARY ALBRIGHT IS MEETING WITH NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND OTHER U-N AND AMERICAN OFFICIALS IN BRUSSELS. SHE THEN TRAVELS TO LONDON FOR A MEETING OF WHAT IS CALLED -- THE CONTACT GROUP.

    RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV WILL ALSO BRIEF THE OTHER MINISTERS ON HIS RECENT TALKS IN BELGRADE. RUSSIA HAS BEEN OPPOSED TO USING FORCE IN KOSOVO AND THERE IS TALK RUSSIAN TROOPS COULD BE USED AS PEACE-KEEPERS, IF THERE IS A SETTLEMENT THAT REQUIRES THEM. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JWH/RAE
    08-Oct-98 7:40 AM EDT (1140 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239935
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS STEPPING UP THE PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC -- WARNING NATO IS PREPARED TO USE AIRSTRIKES AGAINST BELGRADE TARGETS IF IT FAILS TO COMPLY WITH U-N RESOLUTIONS ON KOSOVO. CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: A DAY AFTER GIVING NATO THE AUTHORITY TO CARRY OUT MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERBIA IF IT CONTINUES TO DEFY THE U-N MANDATE, MR. CLINTON OFFERED MR. MILOSEVIC ONE MORE OPPORTUNITY TO COMPLY:

    // CLINTON ACTUALITY //

    WE WOULD PREFER, WE WOULD FAR PREFER, TO SECURE MR. MILOSEVIC'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN A PEACEFUL MANNER. BUT NATO MUST BE PREPARED TO ACT MILITARILY TO PROTECT OUR INTERESTS, TO PREVENT ANOTHER HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN THE BALKANS.

    // END ACT //

    WARNING THE VIOLENCE COULD SPREAD TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, THREATENING A WIDER WAR IN EUROPE -- MR. CLINTON CALLED FOR THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT TO WITHDRAW HIS FORCES FROM KOSOVO, ALLOW THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, AND BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS WITH ETHNIC ALBANIANS ON AUTONOMY FOR THEIR REGION -- AS CALLED FOR IN U-N RESOLUTION 11-99. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/LTD/RAE
    08-Oct-98 12:52 PM EDT (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] CLINTON / KOSOVO (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239935
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS STEPPING UP THE PRESSURE ON YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC -- WARNING NATO IS PREPARED TO USE AIRSTRIKES AGAINST BELGRADE TARGETS IF IT FAILS TO COMPLY WITH U-N RESOLUTIONS ON KOSOVO. CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: A DAY AFTER GIVING NATO THE AUTHORITY TO CARRY OUT MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERBIA IF IT CONTINUES TO DEFY THE U-N MANDATE, MR. CLINTON OFFERED MR. MILOSEVIC ONE MORE OPPORTUNITY TO COMPLY:

    // CLINTON ACTUALITY //

    WE WOULD PREFER, WE WOULD FAR PREFER, TO SECURE MR. MILOSEVIC'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN A PEACEFUL MANNER. BUT NATO MUST BE PREPARED TO ACT MILITARILY TO PROTECT OUR INTERESTS, TO PREVENT ANOTHER HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN THE BALKANS.

    // END ACT //

    WARNING THE VIOLENCE COULD SPREAD TO NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, THREATENING A WIDER WAR IN EUROPE -- MR. CLINTON CALLED FOR THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT TO WITHDRAW HIS FORCES FROM KOSOVO, ALLOW THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, AND BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS WITH ETHNIC ALBANIANS ON AUTONOMY FOR THEIR REGION -- AS CALLED FOR IN U-N RESOLUTION 11-99. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/LTD/RAE
    08-Oct-98 12:52 PM EDT (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] KOSOVO / AIR DEFENSE BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41558
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MILITARY EXPERTS SAYS NATO PILOTS HAVE 'REASON FOR CONCERN' AS THEY CONSIDER ATTACKING TARGETS IN KOSOVO AND ELSEWHERE IN YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, WHERE OFFICIALS SAY SOME 430 PLANES MAY BE NEEDED FOR A NATO OPERATION.

    TEXT: MILITARY EXPERTS SAY NATO PILOTS WILL HAVE TO TAKE GREAT CARE WHEN ATTACKING MILITARY TARGETS IN YUGOSLAVIA, BUT -- WITH THE RIGHT TACTICS AND TECHNOLOGY -- THEY SAY THE OPERATION WILL SUCCEED.

    THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT'S SECOND IN COMMAND, JOHN HAMRE, DESCRIBES YUGOSLAVIA'S AIR DEFENSES AS 'NOT TRIVIAL.' THE AVIATION EDITOR OF THE RESPECTED 'JANE'S DEFENSE WEEK,' NICK COOK, AGREES SAYING THE SYSTEM SHOULD GET ABOUT A 'C-PLUS' -- A PASSING BUT NOT EXCELLENT -- GRADE.

    RETIRED ADMIRAL EUGENE CARROLL, A FORMER PILOT WHO ONCE COMMANDED AN AIRCRAFT CARRIER IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, SAYS NATO PILOTS MUST TAKE A WARNING FROM SCOTT O'GRADY -- THE F-16 PILOT WHO WAS SURPRISED AND SHOT DOWN BY A SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE OVER BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IN 1995.

    /// CARROLL ACT ///

    THAT'S THE ONLY INDICATION THAT WE HAVE OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM. IT WORKS.

    /// END ACT ///

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY THE MISSILE WAS PROBABLY A SOVIET-DESIGNED S-A-6. THE SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV FORCES USE SOME OF THE SAME WEAPONS, TACTICS, AND TRAINING AS DID THE SERBS IN BOSNIA.

    JANE'S EDITOR NICK COOK SAYS YUGOSLAVIA HAS SEVERAL OTHER SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE SYSTEMS BESIDES THE S-A-6 -- WHICH ARE OLD, BUT STILL EFFECTIVE.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    WE KNOW THAT THEY HAVE GOT SOME SOPHISTICATED WEAPONRY, AND SOPHISTICATED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS. WE UNDERSTAND SOME OF THOSE SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN UPDATED OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS. SO THEY HAVE BEEN TWEAKED (IMPROVED A BIT) FROM THEIR ORIGINAL SOVIET STATUS WHEN THEY WERE SUPPLIED BY THE SOVIETS. WHEN YOU HAVE UPDATES OF THIS SORT, THEY ARE ALWAYS DANGEROUS BECAUSE YOU DON'T QUITE KNOW WHAT THEIR CAPABILITIES ARE.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO PLANNERS HAVE SEVERAL TACTICS TO DEFEND PLANES OVER YUGOSLAVIA. MOST OF THE PLANS FOCUS ON BLINDING YUGOSLAV RADAR.

    MANY OF THE SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE SYSTEMS ARE RADAR-GUIDED. ADMIRAL CARROLL SAYS NATO ELECTRONIC WARFARE PLANES WILL USE SENSORS TO FIND THE FREQUENCIES YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSE RADARS ARE USING, AND THEN BROADCAST SIGNALS THAT EITHER OVERWHELM OR CONFUSE THE DEFENSIVE SYSTEMS. THE ADMIRAL ALSO SAYS NATO CAN USE SPECIALLY DESIGNED MISSILES TO FOLLOW THE DEFENDER'S RADAR SIGNALS TO THEIR SOURCE AND EXPLODE IN EFFORT TO DESTROY THE RADAR.

    NATO PLANES CAN ALSO TRY TO EVADE RADAR BY FLYING CLOSE TO THE GROUND, WHERE HILLS AND MOUNTAINS CONFUSE RADAR SIGNALS. BUT ADMIRAL CARROLL SAYS OLD, BUT EFFICIENT, SOVIET-DESIGNED 23-MILLIMETER ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS MAY BE WAITING FOR THEM. HE SAYS THE SMALL CANNONS FIRE VERY RAPIDLY, PUTTING A WALL OF PROJECTILES IN THE PATH OF THE PLANES.

    //// CARROLL ACT ///

    ITS LIKE AN IRON STORM THAT THEY CAN THROW UP. BUT THESE HAVE A VERY LIMITED RANGE AND ALTITUDE CAPABILITY.

    /// END ACT //

    EDITOR NICK COOK SAYS YUGOSLAV FORCES ALSO POSE REAL THREAT TO LOW FLYING PLANES WITH SMALL, HAND-HELD ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES LIKE THE S-A-7 AND THE S-A-16. HE EXPLAINS PILOTS WILL TRY TO FLY ABOVE OR AROUND DEFENSES WHEN THEY CAN, AND ATTACK MISSILE SITES WHEN THEY MUST. MR. COOK DESCRIBES THE YUGOSLAV FORCES AS CAPABLE OF 'PULLING OFF SOME NASTY SURPRISES,' AND ARE 'NOT TO BE WRITTEN OFF.'

    BUT THE YUGOSLAV DEFENDERS FACE SOME DIFFICULT PROBLEMS AS WELL. NATO COMMANDERS HAVE U-S STEALTH FIGHTERS AND BOMBERS AVAILABLE TO THEM. THESE PLANES COMBINE EXOTIC RADAR-ABSORBING MATERIALS AND ODD SHAPES IN WAYS THAT MAKE THEM NEARLY INVISIBLE TO RADAR. THIS MAKES THEM IDEAL WEAPONS TO SWEEP AWAY AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS TO CLEAR THE SKIES FOR SUCCEEDING WAVES OF CONVENTIONAL PLANES.

    SEVERAL EXPERTS SAY IF NATO PLANES STRIKE, THEY WILL PAY THE YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSES A COMPLIMENT OF SORTS BY MAKING THEM THE HIGHEST PRIORITY MILITARY TARGETS. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/JO
    08-Oct-98 5:25 PM EDT (2125 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] KOSOVO / CEASEFIRE (S&L) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239943
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE ARE FRESH SIGNS OF A POSSIBLE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IN YUGOSLAVIA'S EMBATTLED KOSOVO PROVINCE THAT COULD HEAD OFF NATO AIR STRIKES. AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE RETURNS FRIDAY TO BELGRADE FOR MORE TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. MEANWHILE, THE PRO-INDEPENDENCE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY HAS DECLARED A CEASEFIRE. CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM KOSOSVO.

    TEXT: IN A STATEMENT RELEASED TO THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE "KOHA DITORE" NEWSPAPER, THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY SAID ITS FORCES WOULD EXERCISE SELF-RESTRAINT, STARTING FRIDAY. THE DURATION OF THE CEASEFIRE WAS SOMEWHAT VAGUE, BUT THE REBEL STATEMENT SAID IT WOULD EXTEND AT LEAST UNTIL THE END OF NATO AIR OPERATIONS AGAINST SERB MILITARY TARGETS.

    THE GUERRILLAS SAY THEIR ACTION IS IN RESPONSE TO LAST MONTH'S U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION WHICH CALLED FOR AN END TO VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO.

    // OPT //

    YUGOSLAVIA DECLARED IT HAD CRUSHED THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, BUT SOME GUERRILLAS HAVE REMAINED ACTIVE, MOUNTING OCCASIONAL ATTACKS AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO. // END OPT //

    A POLITICAL OBSERVER IN KOSOVO DESCRIBED THE CEASEFIRE ANNOUNCEMENT AS VERY SIGNIFICANT, SINCE IT INDICATES THE GUERRILLAS MAY BE WILLING TO SEEK THEIR GOAL OF INDEPENDENCE THROUGH NON-VIOLENT MEANS.

    // REST OPT FOR LONG VERSION //

    IF SO, IT REPRESENTS A MAJOR REVERSAL OF TACTICS FOR THE REBEL FORCE WHICH EMERGED EARLY THIS YEAR AFTER A LONG AND UNSUCCESSFUL NON-VIOLENT CAMPAIGN FOR INDEPENDENCE PROMOTED BY ETHNIC-ALBANIAN LEADER IBRAHIM RUGOVA.

    AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE MET WITH MR. RUGOVA AND OTHER ALBANIAN LEADERS TUESDAY IN KOSOVO. KOSOVO'S 90-PERCENT ETHNIC-ALBANIAN POPULATION WANTS INDEPENDENCE, BUT BELGRADE INSISTS IT MUST REMAIN IN YUGOSLAVIA. THE PROVINCE ENJOYED CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY UNTIL 1989, AND MANY ANALYSTS BELIEVE A SOLUTION TO THE CURRENT CRISIS COULD CENTER ON RE-ESTABLISHED AUTONOMY.

    MONTHS OF FIGHTING IN KOSOVO HAS FORCED HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF RESIDENTS FROM THEIR HOMES. MANY ARE STILL AFRAID TO RETURN, AND THOUSANDS OF THEIR HOUSES AND FARMS HAVE BEEN BADLY DAMAGED OR DESTROYED. TENS-OF-THOUSANDS ARE LIVING OUT IN THE OPEN, AS THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER APPROACHES.

    THE SPECTER OF A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER HAS GIVEN SPECIAL URGENCY TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S EFFORTS TO RESOLVE THE KOSOVO CRISIS, AND RESOLVE IT QUICKLY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF/RAE
    08-Oct-98 2:44 PM EDT (1844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239904
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: CONTACT GROUP MEMBERS ARE BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA, AND THE UNITED STATES ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON THE BALKANS ARE TO MEET THURSDAY EVENING IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THE CONTACT GROUP WILL BE BRIEFED ON U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE'S LATEST EFFORTS TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO PULL HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT STOPS AT LONDON'S HEATHROW AIRPORT TO BRIEF THE CONTACT GROUP ON THE HOLBROOKE MISSION TO BELGRADE. THE HASTILY-ARRANGED MEETING HAS BEEN BILLED AS A BRIEFING SESSION ONLY, BUT THE THREAT OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO HAS INCREASED.

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER WILL ATTEND THE LONDON MEETING. BUT FIRST HE STOPS IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. RUSSIA OPPOSES MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS IT IS TIME TO SEND MR MILOSEVIC A STRONG MESSAGE. BUT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WARNS THAT A NATO STRIKE WILL ONLY MAKE THINGS WORSE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/PLM
    08-Oct-98 7:00 AM EDT (1100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239904
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: CONTACT GROUP MEMBERS ARE BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA, AND THE UNITED STATES ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON THE BALKANS ARE TO MEET THURSDAY EVENING IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THE CONTACT GROUP WILL BE BRIEFED ON U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE'S LATEST EFFORTS TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO PULL HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT STOPS AT LONDON'S HEATHROW AIRPORT TO BRIEF THE CONTACT GROUP ON THE HOLBROOKE MISSION TO BELGRADE. THE HASTILY-ARRANGED MEETING HAS BEEN BILLED AS A BRIEFING SESSION ONLY, BUT THE THREAT OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO HAS INCREASED.

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER WILL ATTEND THE LONDON MEETING. BUT FIRST HE STOPS IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. RUSSIA OPPOSES MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS IT IS TIME TO SEND MR MILOSEVIC A STRONG MESSAGE. BUT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WARNS THAT A NATO STRIKE WILL ONLY MAKE THINGS WORSE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/PLM
    08-Oct-98 7:00 AM EDT (1100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] KOSOVO / CONTACT GROUP (S) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239904
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: CONTACT GROUP MEMBERS ARE BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA, AND THE UNITED STATES ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON THE BALKANS ARE TO MEET THURSDAY EVENING IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THE CONTACT GROUP WILL BE BRIEFED ON U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE'S LATEST EFFORTS TO PERSUADE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO PULL HIS TROOPS OUT OF KOSOVO.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT STOPS AT LONDON'S HEATHROW AIRPORT TO BRIEF THE CONTACT GROUP ON THE HOLBROOKE MISSION TO BELGRADE. THE HASTILY-ARRANGED MEETING HAS BEEN BILLED AS A BRIEFING SESSION ONLY, BUT THE THREAT OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO HAS INCREASED.

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER WILL ATTEND THE LONDON MEETING. BUT FIRST HE STOPS IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. RUSSIA OPPOSES MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS IT IS TIME TO SEND MR MILOSEVIC A STRONG MESSAGE. BUT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WARNS THAT A NATO STRIKE WILL ONLY MAKE THINGS WORSE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/PLM
    08-Oct-98 7:00 AM EDT (1100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] KOSOVO AIRSTRIKES-DETAILS-L BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239925
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY THREATENED NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV TARGETS WILL INVOLVE 430 PLANES FROM MANY NATIONS. CORRESPONDENT JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON, 260 OF THOSE PLANES WILL BE FROM THE UNITED STATES.

    TEXT: U-S FORCES ARE BASED IN ITALY, GERMANY, BRITAIN AND AT SEA ON THE U-S-S EISENHOWER.

    THE FIRST WAVE OF ANY ATTACK IS SAID LIKELY TO BE A BARRAGE OF CRUISE MISSILES AIMED AT YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSE RADARS, SURFACE TO AIR MISSILES, AND ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN BATTERIES. CRUISE MISSILES CAN BE LAUNCHED BY NAVY SHIPS OR FROM HEAVY BOMBERS FLYING OUT OF REACH OF YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSES.

    SECOND AND THIRD WAVE ATTACKS WILL INVOLVE MANNED PLANES THAT CAN STRIKE MOBILE TARGETS, AND CARRY FAR HEAVIER EXPLOSIVES THAN CRUISE MISSILES. SPECIALIZED WEAPONS DESIGNED TO PENETRATE BUNKERS PROTECTED BY SEVERAL METERS OF RE-INFORCED CONCRETE ARE TOO HEAVY TO BE CARRIED BY THE ROBOT MISSILES.

    NATO COMMANDERS ALSO HAVE U-S 'STEALTH' FIGHTERS AND BOMBERS AVAILABLE FOR THESE AIR STRIKES. THE UNIQUE SHAPES AND MATERIALS OF THESE PLANES MAKE THEM DIFFICULT TO FIND WITH RADAR AND DIFFICULT FOR DEFENDERS TO HIT.

    YUGOSLAV AIR DEFENSES INCLUDE RADAR-GUIDED SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILES, ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS, AND SOME JET-FIGHTER PLANES. MILITARY EXPERTS SAY NATO PILOTS WILL HAVE TO USE SKILL AND TECHNOLOGY TO DEFEAT THESE DEFENSES, BUT IN THE END WILL BE ABLE TO OVERPOWER THEM.

    PLANS ARE SAID TO INCLUDE A PAUSE AFTER THE INITIAL ATTACK TO ALLOW YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO CHANGE HIS MIND AND MEET U-N SECURITY COUNCIL DEMANDS HE STOP KILLING KOSOVAR ALBANIANS IN THE SOUTHERN SERBIAN PROVINCE.

    THE COUNCIL ALSO DEMANDS HE BEGIN TALKS WITH THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WHO MAKE UP A MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO, ALLOW DISPLACED PEOPLE TO RETURN HOME AND ALLOW HUMANITARIAN AID TO REACH THE TENS-OF-THOUSANDS OF NEEDY PEOPLE IN THE PROVINCE. KOSOVO IS A PROVINCE OF SERBIA, WHICH IS THE LARGEST OF YUGOSLAVIA'S TWO REPUBLICS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JR/LTD/RAE
    08-Oct-98 11:28 AM EDT (1528 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] KOSOVO DEBATE INTENSIFIES AS ACTION NEARS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/08/98
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10949
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE TIME IS APPROACHING WHEN A MILITARY ATTACK BY NATO MISSILES AND JET AIRCRAFT AGAINST WHAT IS LEFT OF THE YUGOSLOVIAN REPUBLIC IS POSSIBLE, IN RESPONSE TO THE CONTINUED ETHNIC CLEANSING BY SERBIAN FORCES IN THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. MANY U-S PAPERS ARE CALLING FOR AIR STRIKES, AND EVEN A FOLLOW-UP GROUND FORCE TO HELP THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    WE ARE JOINED NOW BY __________________ WITH TODAY'S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE UNITED NATIONS AND NATO APPEAR TO BE MOVING CLOSER TO AN ATTACK ON SERBIA, BECAUSE PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS REFUSED TO WITHDRAW ALL HIS PARAMILITARY AND REGULAR ARMY UNITS FROM THE FORMERLY AUTONOMOUS PROVINCE OF KOSOVO.

    HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF THE PROVINCE'S MAJORITY ETHNIC-ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN FORCED FROM THEIR VILLAGES BY SERB ATTACKS WHICH HAVE LEFT MUCH OF THE COUNTRYSIDE GUTTED. WITH WINTER APPROACHING, AND MANY REFUGEES LIVING IN THE WOODS, THE POSSIBILITY OF THOUSANDS DYING HAS SPURRED THE WEST INTO ACTION.

    MOST U-S PAPERS AGREE THAT MILITARY ACTION IS PROBABLY THE ONLY WAY TO TRY TO SOLVE THE SITUATION AT THIS POINT. IN HAWAII, "THE HONOLULU STAR-BULLETIN" CAUTIONS THAT THE STRIKES SHOULD BE SHORT IN DURATION AND CAREFULLY TARGETED:

    VOICE: ANY NATO MILITARY INTERVENTION THAT MIGHT BE APPLIED SHOULD BE BRIEF, PRECISELY TARGETED AND LIMITED TO ACHIEVING A CEASEFIRE UNDER WHICH EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE CAN BE PROVIDED. THAT SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BY A RESUMPTION OF EFFORTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT THROUGH DIPLOMACY.

    TEXT: MORE THAN 5-THOUSAND KILOMETERS AWAY, IN MAINE, "THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" ALSO AGREES THAT THE TIME HAS COME FOR MILITARY INTERVENTION, AFTER CHASTISING THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES FOR MONTHS OF INACTION.

    VOICE: ....YUGOSLAVIAN OFFICIALS HAVE OFFERED TOKEN GESTURES OF WITHDRAWAL FROM KOSOVO UNDER GROWING INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE, BUT ONLY A CREDIBLE THREAT OF FORCE WILL END THE KILLING. NATO IS NOW PREPARING FOR THE PROPER ACTION. .... IT'S A PLAN THAT DESERVES THE BACKING OF NATO AND THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL. UNIVERSAL APPROVAL OF IT MAY NOT BE POSSIBLE ..... AT THE UNITED NATIONS, CHINA AND RUSSIA OPPOSE THE USE OF FORCE. [BUT] THERE COMES A TIME ...WHEN DIPLOMATIC CONCERNS SHOULD GIVE WAY TO LEADERSHIP. THAT TIME IS WELL PAST, AND ACTION ON KOSOVO LONG OVERDUE.

    TEXT: NOT SO SAYS "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL," WHICH EXPLAINS THE PENDING IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDINGS AND THE WORLD'S FISCAL TURMOIL SHOULD OCCUPY PRESIDENT CLINTON, WHILE HE LETS THE EUROPEAN'S SORT OUT THE KOSOVO DILEMMA.

    VOICE: EITHER CHALLENGE WOULD RISE TO A LEVEL SUFFICIENT TO DOMINATE MOST PRESIDENTS' ATTENTION. ..... COMBINED, THOSE CHALLENGES SHOULD MAKE INCIDENTS SUCH AS KOSOVO APPEAR INFINITESIMAL - - AND THE UNITED STATES SHOULD VIEW THE DISRUPTION THERE THAT WAY. ..... IT'S NOT A CRITICAL U-S CONCERN. ..... EUROPEANS SHOULD TAKE THE LEAD IN A MILITARY INTERVENTION, IF ONE BECOMES NECESSARY.

    TEXT: COLUMNIST JIM HOAGLAND, WRITING IN "THE WASHINGTON POST," SAYS THAT BEFORE THE BOMBS FALL, PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS BETTER BE CLEAR ON HIS STRATEGY, AND IT SHOULD BE LONG-TERM.

    VOICE: THE TEMPTATION WILL BE TO DEAL WITH KOSOVO IN AN ISOLATED, SHORT-TERM FASHION JUST TO GET THE STORY OFF THE FRONT PAGES. THIS WOULD FIT [MR.] CLINTON'S PREDILECTION FOR SHOOTING OFF A FEW CRUISE MISSILES AT EMPTY BUILDINGS AND DECLARING HIS CRISIS-DU-JOUR SOLVED. .... AIRSTRIKES MUST CENTER ON MILITARY TARGETS IN THE SERBIAN HEARTLAND, NOT ON KOSOVO. THIS APPROACH ALONE WOULD COMMUNICATE TO [MR.] MILOSEVIC THAT THIS CAMPAIGN IS SERIOUS. ... THE KLA [KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY] MUST ALSO BE ADDRESSED IN THE PRE-STRIKE ULTIMATUM ..... IF THE GUERRILLAS OBSTRUCT THE U-S-DESIGNED AUTONOMY NEGOTIATIONS .... THEY WILL FACE SANCTIONS, INCLUDING BEING TREATED AS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION BY AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. [MR.] CLINTON MUST IMMEDIATELY GIVE THE AMERICAN PUBLIC A CLEAR, DETAILED EXPLANATION OF THE REASON FOR THIS OPERATION ..... PLANNING MUST BEGIN NOW ON THE NATURE AND SIZE OF THE SMALL INTERNATIONAL GROUND FORCE THAT WILL BE NEEDED TO OVERSEE ANY KOSOVO SETTLEMENT .....

    TEXT: TAKING ISSUE WITH THE EFFICACY OF A GRADUALLY ESCALATING AERIAL BOMBARDMENT IS "THE KANSAS CITY [M I S S O U R I] STAR" WHICH SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: A BETTER APPROACH WOULD BE TO GIVE [MR.] MILOSEVIC A FIRM DEADLINE AND WARN HIM THAT UTTER DEVASTATION OF HIS FORCES WILL FOLLOW SHORTLY THEREAFTER. HOWEVER, THAT APPROACH SHOULD BE TAKEN ONLY IF THE U-N AND NATO ARE SERIOUS ABOUT FOLLOWING THROUGH. THEY OUGHT TO BE SERIOUS ABOUT STOPPING ETHNIC SLAUGHTER.

    TEXT: MINNESOTA'S "[MINNEAPOLIS] STAR-TRIBUNE" SAYS THAT THE TIME HAS COME FOR MILITARY ACTION, EVEN AT THE RISK OF U-S LIVES.

    VOICE: IF [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC FAILS TO WITHDRAW HIS TROOPS AND SPECIAL POLICE FROM KOSOVO, STRONG NATO ACTION WILL BE JUSTIFIED TO PREVENT A HUMANITARIAN DISASTER THERE. AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR THAT ACTION SHOULD BE STRONG; IT SHOULD ALSO RECOGNIZE THAT THERE MAY BE A HIGH PRICE TO PAY, IN AMERICAN TREASURE CERTAINLY, AND PERHAPS IN AMERICAN BLOOD.

    /// REST OPT ///

    TEXT: ELSEWHERE IN THE REGION, "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE" ADDS:

    VOICE: ... THE IMMEDIATE GOAL OF NATO AIRSTRIKES IS TO STOP THE KILLING WHILE GIVING AID ORGANIZATIONS TIME TO ASSIST THE POPULATION WITH FOOD AND SHELTER BEFORE SNOW FLIES. LONG TERM, IT SENDS A MESSAGE TO [MR.] MILOSEVIC THAT HE CAN'T GET AWAY WITH GENOCIDE. ... MILITARY FORCE IS ALWAYS A LAST RESORT, BUT IT DEFINITELY MUST BE A RESORT. AND ESPECIALLY IN THIS CASE, SINCE [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC, SADLY, APPEARS TO BE MONOLINGUAL: FORCE IS THE ONLY LANGUAGE HE UNDERSTANDS.

    TEXT: MORE SUPPORT COMES FROM "[THE] SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE," WHICH SAYS THIS IS NOW A GLOBAL MORAL ISSUE. VOICE; THE CIVILIZED WORLD - - REPRESENTED BY THE U-N AND NATO - - IS LEFT WITH THE UGLY CHOICE OF TAKING MILITARY ACTION OR SITTING IDLY BY AS INNOCENT ALBANIANS ARE KILLED AND TERRORIZED BY [MR] MILOSEVIC'S SERBS. ... THE CONSCIENCE OF HUMANITY DEMANDS THAT SERB DEPREDATIONS ARE STOPPED IMMEDIATELY BY WHATEVER MEANS NECESSARY, INCLUDING AIR STRIKES AND EVEN A COMMITMENT [OF] NATO TROOPS ON THE GROUND.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THERE IS NO QUESTION ABOUT WHERE "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" STANDS ON THE ISSUE, SINCE ITS HEADLINE READS "BOMB KOSOVO" AND THE PAPER GOES ON:

    VOICE: IT IS LONG PAST TIME TO ACT. THERE IS BIPARTISAN CONGRESSIONAL SUPPORT FOR AIR STRIKES. UNLESS MR. MILOSEVIC WITHDRAWS HIS SECURITY FORCES WITHIN DAYS, NATO FORCES SHOULD BOMB SERB MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN KOSOVO AND THE REST OF SERBIA ....THERE IS NO NEED FOR FURTHER UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS. .... IF MR. MILOSEVIC CONTINUES TO STALL, STEP UP THE AIR STRIKES; INDICT HIM FOR HIS WAR CRIMES.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENTARY ABOUT THE PENDING ATTACKS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA FOR ITS ACTIONS IN SERBIA.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    08-Oct-98 1:18 PM EDT (1718 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] KOSOVO GOALS (L ONLY) BY GIL BUTLER (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239938
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: LOOK FOR UPDATE AFTER 3 PM EDT; MAY HAVE KASSMAN BYLINE STED OF BUTLER. ///

    INTRO: WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF MILITARY ACTION AGAINST SERBS INCREASING, U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS MEETING AT THIS HOUR (BEGAN AT 4:25 PM UNIVERSAL TIME) IN LONDON WITH OTHER FOREIGN MINISTERS CONCERNED OVER THE GROWING CRISIS IN KOSOVO. AMERICAN OFFICIALS DESCRIBE THE GOAL OF THE MEETING AS REACHING A UNANIMOUS POSITION THAT THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT HAS NOT COMPLIED WITH A UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION CALLING FOR, AMONG OTHER THINGS, REMOVING SERBIAN FORCES FROM KOSOVO. VOA'S GIL BUTLER IS AT THE MEETING IN LONDON/ AT LONDON'S HEATHROW AIRPORT AND HAS A REPORT.

    TEXT: SENIOR AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY 60 PERCENT OF THE YUGOSOLAV TROOPS THAT WERE SENT TO KOSOVO ARE STILL THERE AND OF THE 10- THOUSAND SPECIAL POLICE, MOST ARE STILL IN PLACE AND DIGGING IN FOR THE WINTER, ESPECIALLY ALONG THE ROADS OUT OF THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    SO THEY ARE MOVING AHEAD WITH STEPS THAT COULD LEAD TO AIR STRIKES TO FORCE COMPLIANCE WITH THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION THAT CALLS FOR THE TROOPS TO BE WITHDRAWN, HUMANITARIAN WORKERS AND INTERNATIONAL MONITORS TO BE ALLOWED FREE ACCESS, AND FOR NEGOTIATIONS WITH KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL ACCOMPANYING SECRETARY ALBRIGHT TO LONDON SAID UNILATERAL HALTS IN THE SERB ACTIONS CAN JUST AS EASILY BE RESTORED. THE AMERICANS ARE LOOKING FOR IRREVOCABLE AND VERIFIABLE COMPLIANCE.

    IF BELGRADE DOES -- AT THE LAST MINUTE -- COMPLY WITH THE INTERNATIONAL DEMANDS, VERIFICATION MIGHT INCLUDE AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE THAT COULD INCLUDE RUSSIANS.

    HERE IN LONDON, SECRETARY ALBRIGHT IS MEETING FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM FIVE OTHER COUNTRIES AT HEATHROW AIRPORT. THEY WILL HEAR FROM RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IVANOV ABOUT HIS RECENT TALKS WITH SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND FROM RICHARD HOLBROOKE, THE SPECIAL AMERICAN BALKANS ENVOY WHO HAS BEEN NEGOTIATING IN BELGRADE AND KOSOVO. AFTER THE HEATHROW TALKS, MR. HOLBROOKE WILL RETURN TO YUGOSLAVIA. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SAYS HE WILL TRY AGAIN TO CONVINCE MR. MILOSEVIC THAT HE MUST COMPLY.

    A NATO DECISION AUTHORIZING FORCE COULD COME IN A MATTER OF DAYS. IT IS CLEAR THE UNITED STATES AND LIKE-MINDED ALLIES ARE TURNING UP THE HEAT ON BELGRADE IN HOPES OF FORCING COMPLIANCE THAT WOULD END THE VIOLENCE IN KOSOVO -- AND ALLOW THOUSANDS OF KOSOVAR ALBANIANS TO RETURN HOME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/PCF
    08-Oct-98 1:55 PM EDT (1755 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] KOSOVO NATO (L ONLY) BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239931
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE RETURNS TO BELGRADE TOMORROW (FRIDAY) FOR MORE TALKS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. IT'S THE LATEST, AND PERHAPS ONE OF THE LAST, DIPLOMATIC MANEUVERS BEFORE NATO DECIDES WHETHER TO ORDER AIR STRIKES DESIGNED TO BRING PEACE AND SECURITY TO YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM THE KOSOVO CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    TEXT: WORD OF MR. HOLBROOKE'S SURPRISE RETURN TO BELGRADE CAME FROM BRUSSELS WHERE HE BRIEFED U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ON HIS THREE MEETINGS WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC EARLIER THIS WEEK.

    THERE WAS LITTLE INDICATION WHILE MR. HOLBROOKE WAS IN BELGRADE OF ANY PROGRESS IN GETTING AGREEMENT ON FULL COMPLIANCE WITH A UNITED NATIONS DEMAND FOR A TROOP WITHDRAWAL FROM KOSOVO. BUT A WESTERN DIPLOMAT SAYS THE FACT THAT TALKS ARE STILL GOING ON IS A GOOD SIGN. MEANWHILE, TEAMS OF DIPLOMATIC OBSERVERS CONTINUE TO TRAVEL DAILY THROUGH KOSOVO TO ASSESS THE SECURITY SITUATION. THEY HAVE BEEN SEEING A BIG WITHDRAWAL OF REGULAR SERB ARMY TROOPS, BUT THEY SAY THERE ARE STILL TOO MANY POLICE UNITS IN KOSOVO. THE POLICE ARE FORTIFYING THEIR POSITIONS WITH SANDBAGS AND GENERALLY MAKING THEM MORE DEFENDABLE, SIGNS THEY DO NOT EXPECT AN IMMINENT ORDER TO WITHDRAW. SERB POLICE CONTINUE TO INTERFERE WITH THE FREE MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS. ONE OF THE WEST'S IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES IN KOSOVO IS TO WITHDRAW SERB FORCES WHICH ARE PREVENTING FRIGHTENED RESIDENTS FROM RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES.

    //OPT//

    SINCE EARLY THIS YEAR, SERB FORCES HAVE BEEN BATTLING THE PRO-INDEPENDENCE GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY. KOSOVO'S POPULATION IS 90-PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN, AND MOST OF THEM WANT INDEPENDENCE. BELGRADE SAYS THE PROVINCE MUST REMAIN IN SERBIA. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALSO OPPOSES INDEPENDENCE FOR KOSOVO.

    MONTHS OF FIGHTING FORCED HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF KOSOVO RESIDENTS FROM THEIR HOMES. MANY ARE STILL AFRAID TO RETURN, AND THOUSANDS OF THEIR HOUSES AND FARMS HAVE BEEN BADLY DAMAGED OR DESTROYED. TENS OF THOUSANDS ARE LIVING OUT IN THE OPEN, AS THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER APPROACHES. //END OPT//

    THERE HAS BEEN LITTLE ACTUAL FIGHTING GOING ON IN THE LAST COUPLE OF WEEKS, AND OBSERVERS SAY MOST OF THAT HAS BEEN INSTIGATED BY GUERRILLAS. THAT -- DESPITE SERBIAN ASSERTIONS LAST MONTH THAT IT CRUSHED THE REBEL MOVEMENT.

    IF THE DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FAIL, NATO COULD DECIDE AS SOON AS SATURDAY TO AUTHORIZE AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY TARGETS. BUT IT IS STILL FAR FROM CERTAIN THAT THERE WILL BE AN ATTACK. ONE DIPLOMAT IN KOSOVO SAID THAT IF AIR STRIKES WERE IMMINENT, HE WOULDN'T BE HERE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF
    08-Oct-98 12:25 PM EDT (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [17] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239952
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: SUBS BUTLER KOSOVO/GOALS, CR 2-239938; CONTACT GROUP INCLUDES BRITAIN, UNITED STATES, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA
    ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION "CONTACT GROUP" SAY THEY SUPPORT A NEW ATTEMPT BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO CONVINCE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KOSOVO, OR FACE THE CONSEQUENCES. THE MINISTERS MET LATE THURSDAY IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S COMPLIANCE WITH U-N DEMANDS MUST BE VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE. U-S ENVOY HOLBROOKE WILL CARRY THAT MESSAGE BACK TO BELGRADE FRIDAY. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SAYS THE SIX MINISTERS ARE UNITED ON SUPPORT FOR THAT MISSION, AND SHE UNDERLINES THE SENSE OF URGENCY.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    IF DIPLOMACY BACKED BY THE THREAT OF THE USE OF FORCE WORKS -- ALL THE BETTER. BUT THE SENSE THAT WE HAD IS THAT TIME FOR DIPLOMACY IS RUNNING OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS A POLITICAL SOLUTION MAY BE NEAR, BUT OTHER CONTACT GROUP MINISTERS DO NOT RULE OUT THE USE OF FORCE, IF THE HOLBROOKE MISSION FAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/WTW
    08-Oct-98 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239952
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: SUBS BUTLER KOSOVO/GOALS, CR 2-239938; CONTACT GROUP INCLUDES BRITAIN, UNITED STATES, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA
    ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION "CONTACT GROUP" SAY THEY SUPPORT A NEW ATTEMPT BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO CONVINCE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KOSOVO, OR FACE THE CONSEQUENCES. THE MINISTERS MET LATE THURSDAY IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S COMPLIANCE WITH U-N DEMANDS MUST BE VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE. U-S ENVOY HOLBROOKE WILL CARRY THAT MESSAGE BACK TO BELGRADE FRIDAY. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SAYS THE SIX MINISTERS ARE UNITED ON SUPPORT FOR THAT MISSION, AND SHE UNDERLINES THE SENSE OF URGENCY.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    IF DIPLOMACY BACKED BY THE THREAT OF THE USE OF FORCE WORKS -- ALL THE BETTER. BUT THE SENSE THAT WE HAD IS THAT TIME FOR DIPLOMACY IS RUNNING OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS A POLITICAL SOLUTION MAY BE NEAR, BUT OTHER CONTACT GROUP MINISTERS DO NOT RULE OUT THE USE OF FORCE, IF THE HOLBROOKE MISSION FAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/WTW
    08-Oct-98 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] KOSOVO/CONTACT GROUP (S-UPDATE) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239952
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: SUBS BUTLER KOSOVO/GOALS, CR 2-239938; CONTACT GROUP INCLUDES BRITAIN, UNITED STATES, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, RUSSIA
    ///

    INTRO: FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE SIX-NATION "CONTACT GROUP" SAY THEY SUPPORT A NEW ATTEMPT BY U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO CONVINCE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO COMPLY WITH U-N DEMANDS TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KOSOVO, OR FACE THE CONSEQUENCES. THE MINISTERS MET LATE THURSDAY IN LONDON. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S COMPLIANCE WITH U-N DEMANDS MUST BE VERIFIABLE AND DURABLE. U-S ENVOY HOLBROOKE WILL CARRY THAT MESSAGE BACK TO BELGRADE FRIDAY. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT SAYS THE SIX MINISTERS ARE UNITED ON SUPPORT FOR THAT MISSION, AND SHE UNDERLINES THE SENSE OF URGENCY.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    IF DIPLOMACY BACKED BY THE THREAT OF THE USE OF FORCE WORKS -- ALL THE BETTER. BUT THE SENSE THAT WE HAD IS THAT TIME FOR DIPLOMACY IS RUNNING OUT.

    /// END ACT ///

    RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS A POLITICAL SOLUTION MAY BE NEAR, BUT OTHER CONTACT GROUP MINISTERS DO NOT RULE OUT THE USE OF FORCE, IF THE HOLBROOKE MISSION FAILS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/WTW
    08-Oct-98 4:52 PM EDT (2052 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-239956
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) IN A WILDLY VOLATILE SESSION. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 77 HUNDRED 31, DOWN NINE POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT NINE HUNDRED 59, DOWN 11 POINTS. THE VOLUME ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE WAS ONE BILLION, ONE HUNDRED MILLION SHARES, THE THIRD LARGEST IN HISTORY.

    THE VOLATILITY WAS ABSOLUTELY DIZZYING. THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE PLUNGED MORE THAN 270 POINTS -- OVER THREE PERCENT -- BY MID-SESSION. BUT IT STAGED A STUNNING RECOVERY LATE IN THE DAY. ANALYSTS SAY IT IS UNNERVING THAT THERE SEEMS TO BE NO CONSISTENT DIRECTION TO STOCK PRICES, MAKING SHORT-TERM TRADING MORE LIKE GAMBLING THAN INFORMED SPECULATION.

    THERE WAS SERIOUS CONCERN ON WALL STREET ABOUT THE PLUNGE IN THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR AND ABOUT RUMORS THAT SEVERAL LARGE HEDGE FUNDS HAVE BEEN FORCED TO LIQUIDATE THEIR DOLLAR POSITIONS.

    ///REST OPT///

    THERE WAS ALSO SOME NERVOUSNESS ABOUT THE UNCERTAINTIES THAT THE IMPEACHMENT INVESTIGATION OF PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL BRING. THE GENERAL MOOD ON WALL STREET IS CURRENTLY BEING DESCRIBED AS "RISK AVERSE" AND, BY DEFINITION, THE OWNERSHIP OF STOCKS INVOLVES RISK.

    ALTHOUGH THE CURRENT VOLATILITY IN THE STOCK MARKET CAN WREAK HAVOC FOR PROFESSIONAL TRADERS, TONY DWYER OF THE LADENBURG THALMAN INVESTMENT COMPANY, SAYS INDIVIDUAL INVESTORS SHOULD NOT GET SUCKED INTO THE SELLING PANIC.

    ///DWYER ACT///

    IF YOU ARE AN INVESTOR WHO PLANS TO BE IN THE MARKET OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS, YOU MIGHT WANT TO USE THIS PERIOD AS A BUYING OPPORTUNITY. HOWEVER, TRADERS SHOULD BEWARE. THIS MARKET IS BEING DRIVEN BY EMOTION.

    ///END ACT///

    THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS FILING NEW CLAIMS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS ROSE BY 11 THOUSAND LAST WEEK. HOWEVER, ANALYSTS SAY THE U-S LABOR MARKET REMAINS GENERALLY VERY STRONG. CITIGROUP, THE NEWLY FORMED FINANCIAL CONGLOMERATE CREATED BY THE COMBINATION OF CITICORP AND THE TRAVELERS GROUP, IS WARNING THAT ITS THIRD-QUARTER PROFITS WILL BE DOWN BY MORE THAN 50 PERCENT BECAUSE OF INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS.

    ONE BRIGHT SPOT ON WALL STREET INVOLVES GENERAL ELECTRIC WHICH REPORTED RECORD QUARTERLY PROFITS OF TWO-POINT-TWO BILLION DOLLARS. G-E SAYS STRONG GROWTH IN ITS FINANCIAL SERVICES UNIT FUELED THE PROFIT INCREASE.

    PHILLIPS PETROLEUM AND THE DIAMOND SHAMROCK CORPORATION WILL COMBINE THEIR U-S OIL REFINING AND MARKETING OPERATIONS IN A DEAL WORTH EIGHT BILLION DOLLARS. THE NEW COMPANY, TO BE CALLED "DIAMOND 66," WILL OPERATE MORE THAN 12 THOUSAND SERVICE STATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    THERE WAS A HUGE TAKEOVER IN THE U-S RADIO BROADCASTING BUSINESS. CLEAR CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS WILL PAY FOUR-POINT-FOUR BILLION DOLLARS FOR THE JACOR (JAY-COR) COMMUNICATIONS COMPANY. THE DEAL WILL GIVE CLEAR CHANNEL A TOTAL OF 454 RADIO STATIONS IN 100 AMERICAN COMMUNITIES.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WFR
    08-Oct-98 5:49 PM EDT (2149 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] NATO THREATENS SERBIA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41559
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS DIPLOMATS WORK TO HEAD OFF THE POSSIBILITY OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERBIAN TARGETS IN KOSOVO AND OTHER PARTS OF YUGOSLAVIA, MOST SERBS ARE PREPARING FOR WAR. EVEN SERBS WHO HAVE OPPOSED YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN THE PAST, NOW SUPPORT HIM -- SAYING BOMBS ARE NOT THE SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO PROBLEM AND THAT SUCH ACTION WILL ONLY TURN MORE SERBS AGAINST THE WEST. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR HAS MORE IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT.

    TEXT: INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS IN BELGRADE SAY FEAR AND PARANOIA HAVE REACHED UNPRECEDENTED LEVELS AMONG THE SERBS OF YUGOSLAVIA FOLLOWING THE LATEST THREAT OF NATO AIRSTRIKES. THE NORMALLY RESTRICTED NEWS MOST SERBS HAVE ACCESS TO MAY SOON BECOME EVEN FURTHER RESTRICTED.

    EARLY THIS MONTH A SENIOR SERBIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL TOLD THE INDEPENDENT MEDIA NOT TO CARRY FOREIGN REPORTS WHICH CRITICIZE GOVERNMENT POLICY. DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER VOJISLAV SESELJ WARNED THAT FOREIGN BROADCASTS -- INCLUDING THOSE BY THE B-B-C, DEUTSCHE WELLE AND V-O-A -- MAY SOON BE BANNED ALTOGETHER. WITH LESS AND LESS OUTSIDE INFORMATION REACHING THE PUBLIC, MANY SERBS BELIEVE THEIR GOVERNMENT'S CLAIM THE WEST IS AGAINST THEM.

    PROMINENT SERBIAN POLITICIAN VUK DRASKOVIC -- WHO JUST A FEW YEARS AGO LED MASS POPULAR PROTESTS AGAINST THE MILOSEVIC GOVERNMENT -- IS ALSO CONCERNED THAT WESTERN NATIONS ARE TREATING THE SERBS UNFAIRLY IN THE KOSOVO CRISIS. MR. DRASKOVIC ASKED V-O-A TO ALLOW HIM TO RESPOND TO COMMENTS BY UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE FOR POLITICAL AFFAIRS, THOMAS PICKERING, WHO SAYS SERB FORCES HAVE IN THE LAST FEW MONTHS DISPLACED AS MANY AS 400-THOUSAND ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    // ACT ONE / DRASKOVIC //

    THERE ARE IN ALL OF KOSOVO A FEW HUNDRED ALBANIAN HOUSES DESTROYED BY THE MILITARY ACTIVITIES OF OUR FORCES. OUT ANTI-TERRORIST FORCES ATTACKED ONLY HOUSES WHERE TERRORISTS WERE. (BUT) LET'S GO TO THE CRUX OF THE PROBLEM: ALBANIAN TERRORISTS STOOD UP AGAINST THE SERBIAN STATE, THEY STARTED TO KILL OUR SOLDIERS, OUR POLICEMEN, CIVILIANS. AND THEY PROCLAIMED THE CREATION OF A SO-CALLED ALBANIAN LIBERATION ARMY WITH THE POLITICAL AIM OF CREATING AN ETHNIC ALBANIAN STATE ON THE TERRITORY OF OUR STATE AND THEN TO CREATE A 'GREATER ALBANIA.'

    // END ACT //

    IN RESPONDING TO V-O-A'S INTERVIEW WITH MR. PICKERING (ON MONDAY 10/5), MR. DRASKOVIC ALSO TOOK SERIOUS EXCEPTION TO U-S CLAIMS THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS LYING TO HIS OWN PEOPLE -- NOT JUST THE WEST -- WHEN HE SAYS HE HAS ENDED THE OFFENSIVE AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO AND WITHDRAWN SERBIAN TROOPS FROM THE PROVINCE. MR. DRASKOVIC INSISTS THESE ARE NOT LIES:

    // ACT TWO / DRASKOVIC //

    SERB ANTI-TERRORIST FORCES HAVE WITHDRAWN FROM KOSOVO, SOME POLICE FORCES ARE NOW IN THEIR BARRACKS, SOME ARMY UNITS ARE IN THEIR LEGAL ARMY BARRACKS IN KOSOVO AND AT THE BORDER WITH ALBANIA. BUT IT IS THE RIGHT OF A STATE TO HAVE ITS OWN POLICE FORCES AND ARMY ON ITS TERRITORY.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THIS IS NOT THE SCENARIO MR. PICKERING PAINTED IN THE INTERVIEW WITH V-O-A'S SERBIAN SERVICE CHIEF MAJA DRUCKER:

    // ACT THREE / - PICKERING/DRUCKER //

    (PICKERING) MILITARIZED POLICE AND A NUMBER OF MILITARY FORCES ACCORDING TO OUR BEST INFORMATION, CONTINUE TO REMAIN IN KOSOVO. THEY STILL CARRY OUT OPERATIONS AT A SOMEWHAT LOWER LEVEL. THEY HAVE NOW DISPLACED BETWEEN 200-THOUSAND AND 400-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS. THEY HAVE ATTACKED AND DEMOLISHED BUILDINGS AND REMOVED PEOPLE FROM OVER 300 VILLAGES. AT BEST COUNT WE THINK THAT BETWEEN SEVEN AND TEN THOUSAND HOMES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. (DRUCKER) YOU'RE SAYING THE MILOSEVIC GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN LYING TO ITS OWN PEOPLE? (PICKERING) I THINK THE MILOSEVIC GOVERNMENT, UNFORTUNATELY, HAS CONTINUED TO LIE TO ITS PEOPLE ON THIS ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    SERBIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS ARE ANGRY THAT NATO GOVERNMENTS STILL PLAN TO PUNISH YUGOSLAVIA EVEN THOUGH THEY SAY THAT THE LEGITIMATE ANTI-TERRORIST OPERATIONS IN KOSOVO HAVE ENDED. SUCH STRIKES, THEY SAY WILL ONLY HELP THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS IN THEIR GOAL OF GAINING INDEPENDENCE FROM SERBIA.

    BUT UNDERSECRETARY PICKERING FLATLY DENIES NATO AIR STRIKES AND OTHER WESTERN ACTIONS ARE AIMED AT GAINING KOSOVO INDEPENDENCE.

    // ACT FOUR / PICKERING //

    ABSOLUTELY NOT. OUR NEGOTIATING OBJECTIVE IS AN INTERIM AGREEMENT, ONE NOT PARTICULARLY GEARED TO INDEPENDENCE BUT TO PROVIDING A VERY BROAD RANGE OF AUTONOMY. WE HAVE DESCRIBED IT AS 'ENHANCED STATUS' FOR THE ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO TO DEAL WITH THEIR OWN PROBLEMS ON A LOCAL LEVEL. WASHINGTON DOESN'T HATE THE SERBIAN PEOPLE. THAT IS CLEAR. OUR PROBLEM CLEARLY IS WITH THE SERBIAN LEADERSHIP AND PARTICULARLY WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    FORMER U-S SENATOR ROBERT DOLE, NOW A PRESIDENTIAL ENVOY TO THE BALKANS -- ECHOES MR. PICKERING'S COMMENTS. HE EXPLAINED TO V-O-A WHY HE SUPPORTS NATO AIR STRIKES AS A WAY TO END THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO.

    // ACT FIVE / DOLE - OPT //

    I DON'T HAVE ANY PROBLEM WITH THE SERBIAN PEOPLE. I'M TALKING ABOUT THE SERBIAN LEADERSHIP. HOW ARE WE GOING TO HAVE DEMOCRACY IN SERBIA UNLESS WE LET THE SERBIAN PEOPLE KNOW WE DO CARE ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS, THAT WE DO CARE ABOUT DEMOCRACY. I'VE MET WITH SERB MOTHERS WHO'VE LOST THEIR SONS AND MILOSEVIC HAS NEVER MET WITH THESE MOTHERS. I ASKED HIM TO MEET WITH THEM AND HE TOLD ME 'YES'. HE NEVER DID. THEY (THE MOTHERS) DON'T UNDERSTAND THE 600 YEARS OF HATRED, ALL THEY KNOW IS THEY'VE LOST THEIR SONS AND THEY WANT IT TO STOP.

    // END ACT / END OPT //

    THE UNITED STATES HAS ISSUED WARNINGS FOR ITS CITIZENS TO LEAVE YUGOSLAVIA. NATO CONTINUES TO PREPARE TO STRIKE SERB TARGETS SHOULD LAST DITCH DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FAIL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/JO
    08-Oct-98 5:39 PM EDT (2139 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/08/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10948
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - D - T ! ! ////

    INTRO: WITH THE FULL HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES SCHEDULED TO VOTE TODAY ON APPROVING A FULL IMPEACHMENT INVESTIGATION OF PRESIDENT CLINTON, THE MATTER HAS TEMPORARILY SLIPPED OUT OF MANY EDITORIAL COLUMNS. HOWEVER SOME PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE PROCESS.

    KOSOVO CONTINUES TO RECEIVE ATTENTION AS NATO AND THE U-N DEBATE THEIR NEXT MOVE. THERE IS ALSO CHAGRIN AT HOW SADDAM HUSSEIN IS GETTING AWAY WITH FLAUNTING A U-N MANDATE FOR WEAPONS INSPECTIONS; SOME THOUGHTS ON PROGRESS IN MEXICO'S TROUBLED CHIAPAS STATE AND THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL WOES. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK, INCLUDING SOME EXCERPTS AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE IMPEACHMENT VOTE ON PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS THE ATTENTION OF "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND, WHICH SAYS THAT CONGRESS SHOULD CONSIDER NOT ONLY THE PRESIDENT'S TRANSGRESSIONS, BUT ALSO WHERE THE PROCESS IS TAKING THE NATION.

    VOICE: WITHOUT THE SURE AND SUBSTANTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC, A RECOMMENDATION OF IMPEACHMENT MIGHT JUST AS WELL BE A RECOMMENDATION FOR A COUP D'ETAT. NOW, NO BROAD PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR IMPEACHMENT EXISTS. ... THIS IS NOT AN ARGUMENT FOR CONGRESS TO TIE ITSELF TO THE POLLS AS IT GOES ABOUT THIS UGLY BUSINESS ..... ULTIMATELY, THOUGH, CONGRESS MUST DO THE PUBLIC'S BIDDING. ... THE PUBLIC DOES NOT WANT IMPEACHMENT. /// OPT /// AND THE EVIDENCE OFFERED SO FAR BACKS THE PUBLIC'S VIEW OF IT. [MR.] CLINTON'S OFFENSES, HOWEVER REPREHENSIBLE, DO NOT MERIT HIS REMOVAL FROM OFFICE. /// END OPT /// CONGRESS MUST FIND A COMPROMISE.

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES," QUOTING THE PRESIDENT'S REMARK THAT CONGRESS "SHOULD CAST A VOTE ON PRINCIPLE AND CONSCIENCE" IN THESE PROCEEDINGS, SAYS:

    VOICE: PERHAPS FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE SORDID LEWINSKY AFFAIR BEGAN, THE PRESIDENT HAS SAID SOMETHING UNAMBIGUOUSLY TRUE. THERE ARE MANY PRINCIPLES TO BE CONSIDERED. THERE IS THE PRINCIPLE THAT NO MAN IS ABOVE THE LAW. THERE IS THE PRINCIPLE THAT LYING UNDER OATH IS WRONG. ... THERE IS THE PRINCIPLE THAT OBSTRUCTING THE WHEELS OF JUSTICE IS WRONG. ... IN THE CAPITOL HILL DEBATE SO FAR, THERE HAS BEEN A LOT OF TALK ABOUT THE HIGH CONSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY ENTAILED WHEN CONGRESS EVEN CONSIDERS IMPEACHMENT. IS THAT TALK JUST SO MUCH BLATHER? IT IS ACTUALLY POSSIBLE TO VOTE ONE'S CONSCIENCE. ... IT IS ACTUALLY POSSIBLE TO VOTE ON PRINCIPLE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: BUT IN NEW YORK, "THE DAILY NEWS" CALLS THE REPUBLICAN MAJORITY IN THE HOUSE WHICH IS GOING TO CARRY THE VOTE "THE HANGING PARTY" AND NOTES:

    VOICE: THE HANGIN' PARTY IS IN SESSION. THE PLAN BY GOP LEADERS TO PUT ALL THEIR BETS ON THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS HAS BEEN AN OPEN SECRET FOR MONTHS, BUT IT IS NOW OFFICIAL, THANKS TO COMMENTS MADE BY HOUSE MAJORITY LEADER DICK ARMEY OF TEXAS. .... THE VAST MAJORITY OF AMERICANS WISELY BACKS CENSURE, AS DO A GOOD NUMBER OF HOUSE DEMOCRATS. IT'S THE APPROPRIATE PUNISHMENT FOR [MR.] CLINTON'S 'CRIMES.' IT COULD WELL BE THE OUTCOME, FOR THERE PROBABLY AREN'T ENOUGH VOTES IN THE SENATE TO ACTUALLY REMOVE [PRESIDENT] CLINTON FROM OFFICE. ... BUT IT TAKES TWO SIDES TO CUT [ARRANGE] A DEAL, AND THE GOP IS TOO BUSY LOOKING FOR A HANGING TREE TO TALK.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TWO VERY DIFFERENT VIEWS OF HOW THE UNITED STATES SHOULD RESPOND TO THE ETHNIC CLEANSING IN YUGOSLOVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE NOW, WITH "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" FIRST.

    VOICE: LIKE THE MANIC RABBIT IN **ALICE IN WONDERLAND,** [ITALICS FOR BOOK TITLE] THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION RUNS AROUND, DECLARING THAT TIME IS RUNNING OUT - - IN ..... KOSOVO... THE ONLY SOLUTION THE WHITE HOUSE SEEMS CAPABLE OF MUSTERING FOR THAT CIVIL CONFLICT POINTS TOWARD MILITARY INTERVENTION ..... TIME IS RUNNING OUT, ALL RIGHT - - BUT NOT FOR KOSOVO. THE CLOCK IS TICKING FOR PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON TO DEAL WITH IMPENDING IMPEACHMENT HEARINGS AND WITH THE NATION'S WELL-BEING, AS THE GLOBAL ECONOMY FOUNDERS. .... COMBINED, THOSE CHALLENGES SHOULD MAKE INCIDENTS SUCH AS KOSOVO APPEAR INFINITESIMAL - - ..... IT'S NOT A CRITICAL U-S CONCERN. THE BURDEN OF DEALING WITH KOSOVO FALLS PRINCIPALLY TO EUROPE. /// OPT /// EUROPEANS SHOULD TAKE THE LEAD IN A MILITARY INTERVENTION, IF ONE BECOMES NECESSARY. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: BUT "THE NEW YORK TIMES," WORRIED ABOUT THE THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO BEGS TO DIFFER.

    VOICE: RICHARD HOLBROOKE, THE AMERICAN ENVOY, HAS OFFERED A GENEROUS DEAL TO MR. [SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC, ASKING HIM TO WITHDRAW HIS FORCES AND... RESTORE SOME DEGREE OF AUTONOMY WHILE POSTPONING FOR SEVERAL YEARS ANY RESOLUTION OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN DEMAND FOR INDEPENDENCE. ... IF MR. MILOSEVIC REJECTS THE AMERICAN PLAN, NATO WARPLANES AND CRUISE MISSILES SHOULD ATTACK SERBIAN MILITARY TARGETS IN KOSOVO AND IN SERBIA UNTIL HE BENDS. /// OPT /// ONCE SERBIAN FORCES ARE REMOVED, AND THREATENED WITH FURTHER NATO ATTACK IF THEY RETURN, THE REFUGEES CAN BEGIN HEADING HOME .... /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS ARE CRITICIZING THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED STATES FOR ALLOWING SADDAM HUSSEIN TO REFUSE TO ALLOW CONTINUED WEAPONS INSPECTIONS WITHIN IRAQ. "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS BOTH BODIES ARE "IN SEARCH OF A POLICY," WHILE "THE BOSTON GLOBE" OPINES:

    VOICE: .... THERE IS NO JUSTIFICATION FOR THE DEAL THAT U-N SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN HAS REPORTEDLY OFFERED ..... CAVING IN TO BAGHDAD'S DEMANDS, [MR.] ANNAN OFFERED TO HOLD THE 'COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW' OF U-N SANCTIONS THAT SADDAM DESIRES - - AND TO HOLD SUCH A REVIEW BEFORE THE U-N WEAPONS INSPECTORS ARE PERMITTED TO RESUME THEIR WORK WITHIN IRAQ. .... SADDAM HAS BEEN ABLE TO ENTICE [MR.] ANNAN INTO NEGOTIATING MATTERS THAT SHOULD BE THE PROVINCE OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL BECAUSE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS DRIFTED ALONG ON THE ILLUSION THAT ITS POLICY HAS KEPT SADDAM IN WHAT SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT CALLS 'A STRATEGIC BOX.' /// IN REALITY HE HAS BUSTED OUT OF HIS BOX. HE IS RID OF THE U-N INSPECTORS, HE IS ABLE TO REVIVE HIS CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAMS, AND HIS NEIGHBORS ARE COMPELLED TO COME TO TERMS WITH HIM AS A REGIONAL THREAT ONCE AGAIN./// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN OUR OWN HEMISPHERE, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" TAKES NOTE OF SOME PROGRESS TOWARD REAL DEMOCRACY IN MEXICO'S TROUBLED CHIAPAS STATE, WHERE ELECTIONS WERE HELD LAST WEEK.

    VOICE: SKEPTICS MAY LOOK AT THE TURNOUT - - BETWEEN 35 AND 45 PERCENT OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS - - AND DISPARAGE THE PROSPECTS OF DEMOCRACY, BUT THEY SHOULD KEEP IN MIND THAT 45 PERCENT APPEARS ROBUSTLY ENTHUSIASTIC COMPARED WITH THE 41 PERCENT OF ELIGIBLE CALIFORNIANS WHO VOTED IN OUR LAST STATE ELECTIONS. AND THIS IS IN A TROUBLED, INDEED NEARLY LAWLESS CORNER OF MEXICO WHERE ANY TRAVEL CAN BE DANGEROUS. ..... ALAS IT DOES NOT SIGNAL PEACE IN CHIAPAS. ... [BUT] ... THE CHIAPAS CONFLICT BETWEEN RICH AND POOR, LEFT AND RIGHT, IS RIPE FOR A SOLUTION. ... THE GOVERNMENT IN MEXICO CITY SHOULD SEIZE THIS MOMENT.

    TEXT: FINALLY, "USA TODAY," NOTING THAT THE WORLD'S GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT HAS FALLEN A FULL TWO PERCENT THIS YEAR, CHIEFLY AS THE RESULT OF THE ASIAN ECONOMIC COLLAPSE, IS SLIGHTLY HOPEFUL FOR THE FUTURE.

    VOICE: WORLD ECONOMIC POLICYMAKERS CONCLUDE THEIR ANNUAL MEETING IN WASHINGTON TODAY LACKING AGREEMENT ON ANY GRAND PLAN TO REVIVE A DEPRESSED GLOBAL ECONOMY. /// OPT /// THERE'LL BE NO NEW FINANCIAL ARCHITECTURE, AS PRESIDENT CLINTON CALLED FOR, TO DEAL WITH CURRENCY AND BANKING CRISES THAT HAVE THROWN HALF OF ALL NATIONS INTO RECESSION AND THREATEN THE PROSPERITY OF THE REST. AND

    /// END OPT ///

    THERE'LL BE NO NEW DIRECTION FOR INTERNATIONAL LENDING INSTITUTIONS TO DEAL WITH SOCIAL AS WELL AS ECONOMIC EMERGENCIES, AS EUROPEAN AND WORLD BANK OFFICIALS PROPOSE. AT LEAST NOT ANY TIME SOON. BUT THERE ARE SIGNS, FINALLY, THAT THE VIEWS OF KEY PLAYERS ARE CONVERGING, SETTING THE STAGE FOR AN AGREEMENT LATER. ..... THE NEW SERIOUSNESS REFLECTS SELF-INTEREST. EUROPE'S GROWTH FORECASTS FOR NEXT YEAR ARE NOW FALLING. JAPAN'S OUTLOOK IS DISMAL, TOO. ... IN SHORT, LEADERS EVERYWHERE AT LAST SEEM TO REALIZE THAT NO NATION IS IMMUNE, AND ALL MUST CONTRIBUTE.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    08-Oct-98 11:02 AM EDT (1502 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] TURKEY SYRIA BY DOUG ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/8/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41551
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LONG-SIMMERING TENSIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND NEIGHBORING SYRIA REACHED A CRISIS POINT THIS WEEK, WITH ANKARA WARNING OF POSSIBLE MILITARY ACTION UNLESS SYRIA ENDS SUPPORT FOR THE INSURGENTS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY. THE P-K-K IS FIGHTING FOR AN INDEPENDENT HOMELAND IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. THE SABER-RATTLING FROM ANKARA HAS PROMPTED EXPRESSIONS OF CONCERN FROM U-S OFFICIALS AND INDEPENDENT ANALYSTS IN WASHINGTON, AS WE HEAR IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS.

    TEXT: A TOP TURKISH MILITARY COMMANDER (GENERAL HUSEYIN KIVRIKOGLU) SAYS AN UNDECLARED STATE OF WAR ALREADY EXISTS WITH SYRIA. PRESS REPORTS IN ANKARA SAY TURKEY HAS DISPATCHED TROOP REINFORCEMENTS TO THE SOUTHERN BORDER, AND STEPPED UP HELICOPTER PATROLS ALONG THE SYRIAN FRONTIER.

    PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ SAYS TURKEY HAS GIVEN DAMASCUS ITS FINAL WARNING -- STOP SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K INSURGENTS OR BE PREPARED TO SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES. ANKARA'S HARDLINE STANCE HAS GARNERED OVERWHELMING SUPPORT IN THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT.

    THE HEAD OF THE TURKISH STUDIES PROGRAM AT WASHINGTON'S CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, BULENT ALIREZA, SAYS THE LONG-SIMMERING TENSIONS BETWEEN ANKARA AND DAMASCUS HAVE REACHED THE BOILING POINT.

    /// ALIREZA ACT ///

    CLEARLY, WE HAVE ENTERED A NEW PHASE AND A VERY DANGEROUS PHASE IN THE TURKISH-SYRIAN RELATIONSHIP WHICH, STRETCHING BACK DECADES, HAS BEEN A VERY DIFFICULT ONE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS URGING BOTH SIDES TO RESOLVE THEIR DIFFERENCES PEACEFULLY, AND WASHINGTON IS PUBLICLY BACKING EFFORTS BY EGYPT'S PRESIDENT, HOSNI MUBARAK, TO MEDIATE A SETTLEMENT OF THE CRISIS.

    BUT WHILE APPEALING TO ANKARA TO EXERCISE RESTRAINT, THE U-S GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO MADE CLEAR ITS SUPPORT FOR TURKEY'S MAIN DEMAND -- AN END TO SYRIAN BACKING FOR THE P-K-K, WHICH WASHINGTON CONSIDERS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION.

    DAMASCUS FLATLY DENIES IT SUPPORTS THE P-K-K, OR THAT IT SHELTERS THE GROUP'S LEADER, ABDULLAH OCALAN. BUT TURKISH AND WESTERN OFFICIALS SAY MR. OCALAN RESIDES IN DAMASCUS, AND THE P-K-K MAINTAINS BASES BOTH IN SYRIA, AND IN THE BEKAA VALLEY OF NEIGHBORING LEBANON.

    THE SYRIAN GOVERNMENT ACCUSES ANKARA OF FABRICATING THE CRISIS, IN LEAGUE WITH ISRAEL. THAT ALLEGATION HAS BEEN WIDELY ECHOED IN OTHER ARAB CAPITALS, WHERE THERE HAS BEEN SHARP AND SUSTAINED CRITICISM OF TURKEY'S GROWING TIES WITH ISRAEL, INCLUDING MILITARY ACCORDS.

    UNDER AN AGREEMENT WITH ANKARA, ISRAEL IS UPGRADING AND MODERNIZING MORE THAN 100 OF TURKEY'S U-S BUILT WARPLANES. ISRAEL HAS SOLD TURKEY 100 OF ITS "POPEYE" MISSILES, AND THE TWO SIDES HAVE TENTATIVELY AGREED TO JOINTLY PRODUCE A MORE ADVANCED VERSION OF THE MISSILE IN A DEAL VALUED AT ONE-HALF-BILLION DOLLARS.

    ARAB COMMENTATORS SAY THIS SHOWS THE DEPTH OF WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS THE ISRAELI-TURKISH ALLIANCE AGAINST SYRIA.

    BUT MR. ALIREZA, THE WASHINGTON-BASED TURKISH ANALYST, DISMISSES THE ASSERTION.

    /// ALIREZA ACT ///

    THERE IS A GENUINE GRIEVANCE ON THE PART OF TURKEY VIS-A-VIS SYRIA THAT EXISTED BEFORE THE TURKISH-ISRAELI RELATIONSHIP BLOSSOMED RECENTLY.

    /// END ACT ///

    ANKARA HAS LONG DEMANDED THAT SYRIA DROP ITS (IRREDENTIST) CLAIM TO TERRITORY IN SOUTHWESTERN TURKEY, AND THE TWO SIDES ARE ALSO EMBROILED IN A LONG-STANDING DISPUTE OVER THE SHARING OF THE WATERS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER.

    A SENIOR TURKISH ENVOY TRAVELLED THE DAMASCUS OVER THE SUMMER TO DISCUSS THESE DISPUTES AS WELL AS THE QUESTION OF SYRIAN SUPPORT FOR THE P-K-K. BUT MR. ALIREZA SAYS THAT DIALOGUE PRODUCED NOTHING. HE ADDS IT WAS AT THAT POINT TURKEY DECIDED TO ESCALATE THE RHETORIC, ADDING ITS WARNING OF POSSIBLE MILITARY ACTION.

    MR. ALIREZA SAYS IT IS DIFFICULT TO GAUGE WHERE THE CRISIS IS HEADING, BUT ADDS HE IS NOT OPTIMISTIC.

    /// ALIREZA ACT ///

    THIS ONE SEEMS TO BE A VERY DIFFICULT ONE TO SETTLE, AND THERE IS, I AM AFRAID, GENUINE CONCERN ON MY PART THAT THIS COULD WELL DEGENERATE INTO WAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ALIREZA SAYS ANKARA WOULD LIKELY BE SATISFIED IF SYRIA EXPELLED THE P-K-K LEADERSHIP. BUT HE SAYS THERE IS NO INDICATION DAMASCUS IS WILLING TO DO THAT.

    HE SAYS FOR THE MOMENT THERE IS NO SIGN OF A FORMULA THAT WOULD RESOLVE THE CRISIS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/RAE
    08-Oct-98 11:52 AM EDT (1552 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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