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Voice of America, 98-10-18

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO/VERIFIERS (S&L) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [02] MACEDONIA ELECTIONS (S&L) BY JENNIFER GLASSE (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)
  • [03] U-S KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [04] U-S/KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] YUGO - UNIVERSITIES BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [06] YUGO / VERIFICATION / S-O BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

  • [01] KOSOVO/VERIFIERS (S&L) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240367
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FIGHTING IS CONTINUING IN SERBIA'S TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, EVEN AS THE FIRST SPECIAL OBSERVERS FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE HAVE BEGUN TO ARRIVE TO VERIFY A SERB POLICE AND ARMY PULLBACK. PHILIP SMUCKER REPORTS FROM PRISTINA.

    INTRO: THE ADVANCE TEAM OF INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS HAS FOUND THE GUERRILLA CONFLICT IN KOSOVO IS FAR FROM OVER.

    SERB OFFICIALS SAY THE KILLING OF THREE SERBIAN POLICEMEN SATURDAY IS THE BEST EVIDENCE KOSOVO ALBANIAN GUERRILLA FIGHTERS ARE NOT RESPECTING THEIR OWN CEASEFIRE.

    WESTERN REPORTERS SAW THE BODIES OF THE THREE SERBIAN POLICEMEN KILLED IN AN APPARENT SURPRISE GRENADE ATTACK ON THEIR POSITION 30-KILOMETERS WEST OF PRISTINA.

    THE INCIDENT IS LIKELY TO COMPLICATE THE TASK OF TWO-THOUSAND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS ARRIVING TO OVERSEE A WITHDRAWAL OF SERB SECURITY FORCES BACK TO THE LEVELS IN POSITION IN FEBRUARY, BEFORE THE SERBS LAUNCHED ATTACKS AGAINST ALBANIAN MILITIA FORCES.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    AMERICAN DIPLOMAT WILLIAM WALKER WAS APPOINTED SATURDAY TO HEAD THE O-S-C-E MISSION. THE O-S-C-E MONITORS WILL NOT CARRY GUNS AS THEY TRAVEL ABOUT THE TROUBLED PROVINCE. THEIR MISSION -- TO OVERSEE A WITHDRAWAL OF SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES -- IS BEING ENFORCED BY NATO AND THE CONTINUED THREAT OF AIR STRIKES.

    NATO SPY PLANES FLEW OVER KOSOVO THIS WEEKEND FOR THE FIRST TIME, LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE OF THE SERBIAN PULLBACK. ALLIANCE OFFICIALS REPORTED SOME INITIAL SIGNS OF COMPLIANCE.

    SERB POLICE AND CIVILIAN OFFICIALS SAY THEY EXPECT ETHNIC-ALBANIAN REBELS TO CONTINUE THEIR INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE, DESPITE THE O-S-C-E MISSION. THEY BLAMED LOW-INTENSITY FIGHTING ACROSS THE TROUBLED PROVINCE ON ATTACKS BY THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY AGAINST POLICE OUTPOSTS.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS POINT OUT MOST OF THOSE POLICE POSITIONS HAVE TO BE ABANDONED UNDER AN AGREEMENT SIGNED BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/DW/RAE
    18-Oct-98 10:08 AM EDT (1408 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] MACEDONIA ELECTIONS (S&L) BY JENNIFER GLASSE (SKOPJE, MACEDONIA)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240365
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: JUST A FEW KILOMETERS FROM THE TROUBLED KOSOVO REGION, ALBANIANS IN NEIGHBORING MACEDONIA ARE GOING TO THE POLLS SUNDAY. UNLIKE THEIR ALBANIAN NEIGHBORS IN KOSOCVO THEY DO NOT WISH TO SECEDE, BUT DO WANT TO BE MORE FAIRLY REPRESENTED IN THE GOVERNMENT. JENNIFER GLASSE REPORTS FROM THE MACEDONIAN CAPITAL, SKOPJE.

    TEXT: MACEDONIA IS FACING ITS OWN ETHNIC TENSIONS, BUT IS SEEKING TO RESOLVE THEM PEACEFULLY. ALBANIANS, WHO MAKE UP THE LARGEST MINORITY IN MACEDONIA, SAY THE GOVERNMENT HAS TREATED THEM AS SECOND-CLASS CITIZENS SINCE INDEPENDENCE FROM YUGOSLAVIA IN 1991.

    THEY ARE TRYING TO CORRECT THAT AT THE POLLS. AS MORE THAN ONE-AND-ONE-HALF-MILLION MACEDONIANS ELECT A NEW PARLIAMENT, THE ALBANIANS WHO WERE ONCE RIVALS HAVE FORMED A UNITED POLITICAL FORCE. THEIR MAIN COMPLAINTS ARE THE GOVERNMENT DENIES THEM PLACES IN UNIVERSITY, POSITIONS IN THE POLICE AND MILITARY, AND A FAIR SHARE OF POLITICAL POWER.

    THE TINY NATION OF MACEDONIA SITS IN THE HEART OF THE TROUBLED BALKAN REGION WEDGED BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA, GREECE, BULGARIA, AND ALBANIA.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    ABOUT 20-THOUSAND ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO ARE IN MACEDONIA WHICH IS CALLING THEM GUESTS OF THE GOVERNMENT RATHER THAN REFUGEES.

    HUNDREDS OF NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS HAVE BEEN STATIONED IN MACEDONIA MORE THAN FIVE YEARS TO INSURE REGIONAL STABILITY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JG/DW/RAE
    18-Oct-98 9:53 AM EDT (1353 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] U-S KOSOVO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240374
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ARCHITECT OF LAST WEEK'S KOSOVO AGREEMENT -- U-S DIPLOMAT RICHARD HOLBROOKE -- SAYS NATO DID NOT BACK DOWN BY GIVING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MORE TIME TO COMPLY WITH TERMS OF THE DEAL. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE -- WHO HAMMERED OUT THE DEAL IN WEEKS OF BALKANS SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY -- SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC MADE A "HUGE SET OF CONCESSIONS. HE SAYS WHILE THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT WAS GIVEN 10-MORE DAYS, UNTIL OCTOBER 27TH, TO WITHDRAW SECURITY FORCES AND MEET OTHER TERMS OF THE ACCORD, NATO IS NOT BACKING DOWN IN ITS THREAT TO USE FORCE AGAINST HIM.

    QUESTIONED ON THE A-B-C TELEVISION NETWORK, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID NATO'S ACTIVATION ORDER FOR MILITARY ACTION IS NOT BEING RESCINDED AND HE LIKENED IT TO A LOADED GUN BEING HELD AGAINST THE YUGOSLAV LEADERSHIP:

    /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    NATO DID NOT BLINK. MILOSEVIC AND THE SERBS HAVE BEEN DESPERATE TO GET THIS ACTIVATION ORDER, WHICH IS ONLY THE SECOND IN NATO'S 50-YEAR HISTORY LIFTED. WE REFUSE TO LIFT IT. THE PLANES REMAIN ON THE RUNWAYS, INCLUDING THE B-52'S IN BRITAIN AND THE FIGHTERS IN ITALY. THEY ARE READY TO GO THE TARGETS HAVE BEEN PICKED. GENERAL CLARK, THE NATO SUPREME COMMANDER, IS RETURNING TO BELGRADE ON TUESDAY TO GO OVER THE FURTHER WITHDRAWALS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF YUGOSLAVIA'S REGULAR FORCES HAD BEEN WITHDRAWN AS OF SUNDAY, BUT THIS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. THE U-S ENVOY, WHO WAS ALSO INSTRUMENTAL IN REACHING THE BOSNIA PEACE ACCORDS, SAID MR. MILOSEVIC KNOWS THE NATO THREAT OF FORCE IS CREDIBLE, SINCE FORCES UNDER HIS CONTROL WERE THE TARGET OF NATO'S WIDE-RANGING BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN BOSNIA IN 1995.

    UNDER QUESTIONING, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE MANDATE TO THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, TO RAISE A TWO-THOUSAND-MEMBER CIVILIAN FORCE TO VERIFY THE KOSOVO AGREEMENT, IS A MILESTONE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE O-S-C-E AS A FACTOR IN THE POST-COLD-WAR STRUCTURE OF EUROPE.

    HE SAID PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS GIVEN ABSOLUTE ASSURANCE FOR THE SAFETY OF THE O-S-C-E PERSONNEL, AND SAID MEMBERS THE ALBANIAN-SEPARATIST KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY SHOULD UNDERSTAND THEY TOO, HIS WORDS -- MUST NOT FOOL AROUND -- WITH THE VERIFICATION MISSION.

    AN ADVANCE TEAM FROM THE O-S-C-E ARRIVED SATURDAY IN KOSOVO, WHILE NATO BEGAN AERIAL SURVEILLANCE BY SENDING AMERICAN U-2 SPY PLANES OVER THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RAE
    18-Oct-98 2:00 PM EDT (1800 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] U-S/KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240372
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ARCHITECT OF LAST WEEK'S KOSOVO AGREEMENT -- U-S DIPLOMAT RICHARD HOLBROOKE -- SAYS NATO DID NOT BACK DOWN BY GIVING YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC MORE TIME TO COMPLY WITH TERMS OF THE DEAL. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE -- WHO HAMMERED OUT THE DEAL IN WEEKS OF BALKANS SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY -- SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC MADE A -- HUGE SET OF CONCESSIONS.

    HE SAYS WHILE THE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT WAS GIVEN 10-MORE DAYS, UNTIL OCTOBER 27TH, TO WITHDRAW SECURITY FORCES AND MEET OTHER TERMS OF THE ACCORD, NATO IS NOT BACKING DOWN. HE SAYS THE ALLIANCE REMAINS READY TO CARRY OUT ITS THREAT TO USE FORCE AGAINST THE SERBIANS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACTUALITY ///

    IT HAS BEEN PORTRAYED IN SOME NEWSPAPERS AS NATO BLINKING, WHEN IN FACT IT HAS NATO KEEPING THE TRIGGER COCKED AND HELD OVER THE SERB HEAD.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS WHILE SOME YUGOSLAV FORCES HAVE BEEN PULLED BACK, THE NATO ALLIES ARE NOT SATISFIED. HE SAID U-S ARMY GENERAL WESLEY CLARK -- THE NATO SUPREME COMMANDER -- WILL RETURN TO BELGRADE TUESDAY TO REVIEW COMPLIANCE.

    IN THE MEANTIME, MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS THE ACTIVATION ORDER FOR NATO MILITARY ACTION IS NOT BEING RESCINDED AND ALLIED WARPLANES REMAIN ON THE RUNWAYS READY TO GO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RAE
    18-Oct-98 12:34 PM EDT (1634 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] YUGO - UNIVERSITIES BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41626
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE THE WORLD'S ATTENTION HAS BEEN FOCUSED ON THE ONGOING KOSOVO CRISIS, AUTHORITIES IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE BEEN MAKING CHANGES IN THE COUNTRY'S UNIVERSITY SYSTEM. CRITICS SAY FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION APPOINTMENTS HAVE BECOME POLITICIZED, AND QUALITY IS DECLINING. CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM BELGRADE.

    TEXT: AT YUGOSLAV UNIVERSITIES IN BELGRADE AND AROUND THE COUNTRY, PROFESSORS AND DEANS ARE FINDING POLITICAL QUALIFICATIONS ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT TO GET AND HOLD A JOB.

    THE ACTION, LIKE THE MORE RECENT CLOSURE OF INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPERS AND RESTRICTIONS ON BROADCASTERS, CAME AS INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION WAS MORE FOCUSED ON THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO. POLITICAL OPPONENTS OF PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SAY IT IS ALL PART OF HIS CAMPAIGN TO CONSOLIDATE POWER AND SILENCE THE OPPOSITION.

    AMONG THOSE FORCED OUT OF THE BELGRADE UNIVERSITY LAW SCHOOL IS PROFESSOR VOJIN DIMITRIJEVIC. HE WAS RETIRED INVOLUNTARILY AFTER HE REFUSED TO SIGN A NEW EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT THAT INCLUDED WHAT MIGHT BE DESCRIBED AS A LOYALTY OATH.

    PROFESSOR DIMITRIJEVIC SAYS THE NEW UNIVERSITY LAW, ADOPTED EARLIER THIS YEAR, STRIPPED FACULTY MEMBERS OF ANY AUTHORITY IN APPOINTING NEW COLLEAGUES AND ADMINISTRATORS. HE CALLS IT AN "OPEN AND BRUTAL DENIAL" OF THE TRADITIONAL FACULTY AUTONOMY.

    HE SAYS AS A RESULT, ALMOST TWO-THIRDS OF THE DEANS IN SERBIA HAVE BEEN REPLACED WITH NEW ADMINISTRATORS WHOSE POLITICAL LOYALTIES ARE ASSURED. PROFESSOR. DMITRIJEVIC SAYS THE GOVERNMENT PRESENTED THE NEW UNIVERSITY LAW AS A WAY OF REMOVING POLITICS FROM HIGHER EDUCATION.

    // DMITRIJEVIC ACTUALITY //

    //OPT//

    IN THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE NEW LAW, ONE OF THE REASONS STATED WAS TO REMOVE (AS THEY SAID IN THEIR CRUDE LANGUAGE) POLITICS FROM THE UNIVERSITY. // END OPT// BUT WHAT THEY MEANT WAS TO REMOVE [WAS] ANY KIND OF POLITICAL THINKING, NOT ACTIVITY, [BUT] POLITICAL THINKING THAT WAS NOT OF THE OFFICIAL POLITICAL PARTIES.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    NOT ALL PARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY ARE AFFECTED. A 20-YEAR OLD STUDENT NAMED VANYA SAYS THERE HAS BEEN LITTLE IMPACT IN THE PHYSICS FACULTY WHERE SHE STUDIES.

    // VANYA ACTUALITY IN SERBIAN -- ESTAB AND FADE //

    SHE SAYS THE PROFESSIONAL STAFF CONCENTRATES ON SCIENCE AND AS OF NOW YOU CAN NOT FEEL ANY POLITICAL CHANGE.

    BUT ANOTHER STUDENT, A YOUNG MOTHER NAMED SVETLANA, WHO IS STUDYING GEOGRAPHY, WORRIES ABOUT THE QUALITY OF HER EDUCATION.

    // SVETLANA ACTUALITY IN SERBIAN -- ESTAB AND FADE //

    SHE SAYS SOME OF THE MOST EXPERIENCED PROFESSORS, THE BEST TEACHERS, HAVE BEEN EXPELLED, AND THE ONES THAT HAVE COME IN THEIR PLACE HAVE BEEN CHOSEN ONLY BECAUSE THEY ARE PARTY MEMBERS, AND THEY ARE NOT AS GOOD.

    ALTHOUGH STUDENTS LAUNCHED STREET PROTESTS IN BELGRADE ALMOST TWO-YEARS AGO, THERE IS NO SIGN THE CHANGES IN THE UNIVERSITY WILL SOON TRIGGER A STUDENT UPRISING.

    ONE OF THE DISMISSED LAW PROFESSORS, DRAGOLJUB POPOVIC, SAYS HE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT HOW THIS WILL TURN OUT. HE FORESEES A PERIOD OF OPPRESSION, FOLLOWED BY A COMPROMISE:

    // POPOVIC ACTUALITY //

    THAT COMPROMISE COULD BE IN LETTING AT LEAST FOREIGN CAPITAL (OR MAYBE EVEN DOMESTIC CAPITAL) CREATE FREE UNIVERSITIES THAT WOULD NOT BE UNDER THE GOVERNMENT'S CONTROL ... AND AT A CERTAIN MOMENT THE GOVERNMENT OF SERBIA WILL REALIZE IT COULD BE BETTER TO ALLOW SOME CAPITAL TO INVEST IN THAT SORT OF BUSINESS, THE UNIVERSITY BUSINESS, AND THEN LET SOME OTHER PERSONS OR COMPANIES OR CORPORATIONS OR FOUNDATIONS PAY THE PROFESSORS INSTEAD OF THE GOVERNMENT.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO SAY WHETHER THE NEW POLITICAL INFLUENCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION HERE WILL ACTUALLY LEAD TO THE CREATION OF NEW UNIVERSITIES, OR STUDENT PROTESTS AGAINST THE CHANGES. BUT WHAT IS CLEAR, IS THAT POLITICS IS PLAYING AN INCREASING ROLE IN YUGOSLAVIA'S UNIVERSITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/RAE
    18-Oct-98 1:51 PM EDT (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] YUGO / VERIFICATION / S-O BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=10/18/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240354
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SPY PLANES HAVE BEGUN SURVEILLANCE FLIGHTS OVER YUGOSLAVIA'S EMBATTLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, TO MONITOR WITHDRAWAL OF FORCES AS DEMANDED BY THE UNITED NATIONS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM (THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL,) BELGRADE

    TEXT: HIGH-ALTITUDE U-TWO SPY PLANES ARE FLYING OVER KOSOVO SO WESTERN EXPERTS CAN BE SURE ARMY TROOPS AND SPECIAL POLICE UNITS ARE PULLING OUT.

    THE VERIFICATION SYSTEM INCLUDES BOTH AERIAL SURVEILLANCE AND A TWO THOUSAND PERSON TEAM ON THE GROUND. ITS VISIBLE PRESENCE WILL ALSO ASSURE KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    A SMALL ADVANCE TEAM IS SURVEYING LOGISTICAL NEEDS, INCLUDING HOUSING AND COMMUNICATIONS. THE VERIFICATION MISSION (FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE) WILL EXPAND ON THE EXISTING SMALL GROUP OF DIPLOMATIC MONITORS.

    //UNVOICED OPT//

    AIR SURVEILLANCE AND THE GROUND OBSERVERS ARE PART OF A DEAL BROKERED BY AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO ENSURE BELGRADE COMPLIES WITH UNITED NATIONS DEMANDS ON KOSOVO. THE SECURITY COUNCIL DEMANDED YUGOSLAVIA WITHDRAW ITS FORCES FROM THE REBELLIOUS PROVINCE; ALLOW HUMANITARIAN AID TO REACH RESIDENTS DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES BY MONTHS OF FIGHTING; AND ENTER TALKS ON A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT FOR KOSOVO, WHERE THE 90 PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY WANTS TO BE INDEPENDENT. //END OPT//

    SEVEN MONTHS OF FIGHTING BETWEEN PRO-INDEPENDENCE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBELS (OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY) AND FORCES FROM SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAVIA HAVE DRIVEN A QUARTER MILLION PEOPLE FROM THEIR HOMES. MANY ARE STILL AFRAID TO RETURN HOME AND ARE LIVING OUT IN THE OPEN, AS THE HARSH BALKAN WINTER APPROACHES. (SIGNED)
    NEB / ART / WD / WD
    18-Oct-98 2:46 AM EDT (0646 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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