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Voice of America, 98-10-28

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [02] KOSOVO FALLOUT BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [03] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [04] KOSOVO SERBS (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [05] HUNGARY / UKRAINE (L-ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)
  • [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [07] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240854
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS SERB PLEDGES OF GREATER POLITICAL FREEDOM FOR THE TROUBLED YUGOSLAV PROVINCE OF KOSOVO REPRESENT ENORMOUS CONCESSIONS BY THE BELGRADE GOVERNMENT. BUT HE SAYS SERB ACTIONS IN THE MOSTLY ETHNIC ALBANIAN PROVINCE WILL HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY MONITORED BEFORE THE CRISIS CAN BE DECLARED OVER. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT, MR. HOLBROOKE WAS CAUTIOUS ABOUT PROSPECTS FOR LONG-TERM PEACE IN KOSOVO.

    WHILE THE SITUATION IS MUCH BETTER THAN IT HAD BEEN JUST A FEW DAYS AGO, HE SAID THERE IS STILL A DANGER THAT VIOLENCE WILL ERUPT AGAIN.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    I THINK THE FLASH POINT, IF THERE WERE ONE, WOULD BE IF EITHER SIDE PROVOKED THE OTHER DELIBERATELY IN A WAY DESIGNED TO RE-ESCALATE THE FIGHTING.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE -- WHO HELPED NEGOTIATE THE SERBIAN PLEDGE TO WITHDRAW MOST OF THEIR TROOPS FROM KOSOVO AND TO ALLOW GREATER POLITICAL FREEDOM FOR ETHNIC ALBANIANS -- SAID INTERNATIONAL VERIFIERS WILL CAREFULLY MONITOR THE AGREEMENT. COMPLIANCE, HE SAID, WILL BE THE KEY TO SUCCESS.

    THE U-S ENVOY SAID SERB RADAR IS TO BE SWITCHED OFF AND U-S RECONNAISSANCE PLANES SHOULD BE ABLE TO FLY WHERE AND WHEN THEY NEED TO. MR. HOLBROOKE SAID AT LEAST TWO THOUSAND PEOPLE WOULD SERVE ON THE GROUND TO VERIFY SERB COMPLIANCE WITH THE AGREEMENT, WHICH HE SAID REPRESENTED ENORMOUS SERB CONCESSIONS.

    IF IMPLEMENTED, HE SAID THE AGREEMENT WOULD REVERSE THE TREND OF THE LAST DECADE, WHICH SAW THE ELIMINATION OF LOCAL AUTONOMY FOR THE ALBANIAN COMMUNITY IN KOSOVO.

    ASKED ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR STATEHOOD FOR THE PROVINCE, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THERE WAS VIRTUALLY NO CHANCE THAT YUGOSLAVIA WOULD EVER AGREE TO IT. HE SAID THE U-S REMAINED OPPOSED TO THE IDEA, WHICH HE SAID SHOULD IN ANY CASE BE SETTLED AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT TWO ///

    WE DO NOT AGREE DO NOT ASK PEOPLE TO RENOUNCE THEIR DREAM OF INDEPENDENCE, BUT WE DO INSIST THAT THEY WORK WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF U-N RESOLUTION 1199 FOR PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF IT, BECAUSE IF EITHER SIDE PROVOKES THE OTHER INTO BREAKING DOWN OF THE CEASEFIRE WE ARE GOING TO HAVE REAL PROBLEMS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE -- WHO WAS RELUCTANT TO EVEN GO AS FAR AS TO SAY THAT A RETURN TO VIOLENCE WAS LESS LIKELY IN KOSOVO -- DID SAY THERE IS AT LEAST LESS DANGER OF IT SINCE, WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS, THE SUMMER RAMPAGE BY THE SERBS HAD ENDED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/WDC/JO
    28-Oct-98 5:54 PM EST (2254 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO FALLOUT BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41713
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S DECISION NOT TO BOMB YUGOSLAV TARGETS IS SPARKING SOME CRITICISM IN THE MOUNTAINS OF KOSOVO, AND IN WASHINGTON. TUESDAY, NATO LEADERS DECIDED NOT TO USE AIR STRIKES AFTER YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC APPEARED TO BE MEETING MOST OF HIS PROMISES TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM KOSOVO PROVINCE. YUGOSLAVIA IS ALSO REQUIRED TO ALLOW INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS INTO KOSOVO TO MONITOR COMPLIANCE WITH U-N RESOLUTIONS DEMANDING AN END TO VIOLENCE AND THE RETURN OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES. CRITICS SAY THE FAILURE TO USE FORCE AFTER MAKING THREATS WILL ONLY MAKE MR. MILOSEVIC BOLDER AND STRONGER IN THE FUTURE. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SPOKESMEN, INCLUDING THOSE AT THE PENTAGON, SAY NATO'S POLICY ON KOSOVO SUCCEEDED THIS WEEK. CAPTAIN MIKE DOUBLEDAY TELLS REPORTERS THE NEWS OUT OF KOSOVO IS VERY GOOD AT THIS POINT.

    /// DOUBLEDAY ACT ///

    THERE IS VERY SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE OF COMPLIANCE. WE POINT TO ROADBLOCKS THAT HAVE BEEN TAKEN DOWN, HEAVY WEAPONS WHICH HAVE BEEN MOVED INTO CONTAINMENT AREAS, TROOPS THAT HAVE EITHER MOVED OUT OF KOSOVO OR HAVE MOVED BACK INTO THEIR GARRISON AREAS.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY WELL OVER 90 PERCENT OF YUGOSLAV TROOPS SENT INTO KOSOVO PROVINCE SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE YUGOSLAV OFFENSIVE ARE GONE AND MOST OF THOSE FORCES BASED IN THE PROVINCE ARE BACK IN THEIR BARRACKS. U-S OFFICIALS ALSO SAY MANY OF KOSOVO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS DISPLACED BY THE FIGHTING ARE RETURNING HOME.

    // OPT //

    LAST FEBRUARY, SERB-DOMINATED YUGOSLAV FORCES MOVED AGAINST ETHNIC-ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS WHO ARE DEMANDING INDEPENDENCE FOR KOSOVO. THE PROVINCE IS NINETY PERCENT ETHNIC ALBANIAN, BUT THE GOVERNMENT AND SECURITY FORCES ARE RUN BY SERBS. // END OPT //

    EVEN WITH THE CRISIS EASING NOW, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS WATCHING THE SITUATION CLOSELY WITH SPY PLANES AND A GROWING FORCE OF UNARMED OBSERVERS ON THE GROUND. MORE THAN 400 NATO WARPLANES REMAIN AVAILABLE TO ENFORCE THE AGREEMENT IF IT IS VIOLATED.

    BUT THE NATO DECISION TO SHELVE MILITARY ACTION IS SPARKING SOME CRITICISM.

    FORMER U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY CASPAR WEINBERGER TOLD V-O-A NATO SHOULD HAVE WAGED A MAJOR BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S FORCES YEARS AGO. MR. MILOSEVIC HAS BEEN BLAMED FOR MUCH OF THE VIOLENCE IN THE BALKANS THIS DECADE. MR. WEINBERGER SAYS TUESDAY'S DECISION NOT TO LAUNCH AIR STRIKES -- AFTER MAKING A SERIES OF THREATS -- IS A TERRIBLE MISTAKE.

    /// WEINBERGER ACT///

    BY MAKING REPEATED THREATS, BY MAKING ALL KINDS OF STRONG STATEMENTS ABOUT GRAVE CONSEQUENCES WILL BE FACED BY HIM (MILOSEVIC), AND THEN NOTHING EVER HAPPENS, IS THE VERY WORST WAY TO GO ABOUT DEALING WITH AGGRESSION AND TERRORISM. THE MORE YOU ENCOURAGE IT, THE MORE YOU LET THE PEOPLE INVOLVED KNOW IT IS NOT GOING TO BE PUNISHED, THE MORE YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE OF IT AS TIME GOES ON.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. WEINBERGER SUPERVISED THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT FOR REPUBLICAN PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN. HE SAYS THE DEMOCRATIC CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS INEPT AT MILITARY MATTERS, AND IS INCAPABLE OF LEADING THE NATO ALLIANCE.

    FOREIGN POLICY ANALYST JOHN BOLTON OF THE CENTER-RIGHT AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE SAYS WASHINGTON COULD LEAD NATO BETTER IF IT HAD A MORE CONSISTENT LONG-TERM POLICY.

    /// BOLTON ACT ///

    WHAT IT INDICATES IS WHEN AMERICAN POLICY IS IRRESOLUTE AND INDECISIVE -- AS IT IS NOW IN THE CASE OF KOSOVO -- THAT NATO IS NOT ABLE TO TAKE EFFECTIVE ACTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    FORMER REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BOB DOLE, WHO LOST THE RACE FOR PRESIDENT TO BILL CLINTON, HAS SINCE SERVED AS SPECIAL PRESIDENTIAL ENVOY TO THE REGION. HE TOO HAS BEEN CRITICAL OF U-S POLICY, SAYING THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC LEAVES THOUSANDS OF HIS TROOPS AND POLICE IN KOSOVO -- AND THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN POPULATION VULNERABLE.

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE AGREEMENT WILL WORK BECAUSE TWO THOUSAND UNARMED FOREIGN OBSERVERS ARE ARRIVING IN KOSOVO TO MONITOR YUGOSLAV COMPLIANCE. BUT FORMER SENATOR DOLE SAYS THAT TOO IS A MISTAKE, BECAUSE IF MR. MILOSEVIC RENEGES ON HIS AGREEMENT, NATO WON'T LAUNCH AIR STRIKES THAT MIGHT ENDANGER THE FOREIGN OBSERVERS.

    // OPT //

    MEANWHILE, A TOP COMMANDER OF ETHNIC-ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS FIGHTING FOR KOSOVO'S INDEPENDENCE CALLS THE YUGOSLAV TROOP MOVEMENTS A MASQUERADE -- NOT A REAL WITHDRAWAL. SHABAN SHALA AND SOME OTHER ETHNIC ALBANIANS SAY THEY ARE DISAPPOINTED BY NATO'S DECISION NOT TO BOMB YUGOSLAV TARGETS. // END OPT //

    ADMINISTRATION SPOKESMEN AND NATO OFFICIALS INSIST THAT THE HOLBROOKE AGREEMENT IS A STEP TOWARD A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT AND THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS -- A SOLUTION THEY CALL FAR BETTER THAN DROPPING BOMBS AND RAISING THE LEVEL OF VIOLENCE IN THE TROUBLED PROVINCE. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/JO
    28-Oct-98 4:03 PM EST (2103 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240819
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH SERB FORCES RETURNING TO BARRACKS IN KOSOVO AND OTHER PARTS OF SERBIA, ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES HAVE BEGUN THE TREK HOME. PHILIP SMUCKER IN KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA, REPORTS THAT IN MANY CASES, THE REFUGEES ARE FINDING THEIR HOMES WERE DEMOLISHED BY THE SERB SECURITY FORCES BEFORE THEY WITHDREW.

    TEXT: HUNDREDS OF FRIGHTENED AND CURIOUS KOSOVO ALBANIAN REFUGEES HAVE BEGUN THE TREK HOME. WOMEN, CHILDREN AND OLD PEOPLE ARE RETURNING WITH THEIR LIFE'S POSSESSIONS ON FOOT AND ON TRACTOR. AND, IN MANY CASES THE REFUGEES ARE FINDING THEIR HOMES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.

    A SPOKESWOMAN FOR THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM, ANTHEA WEBB, SAYS THAT REFUGEES WANT TO RETURN BUT REMAIN CAUTIOUS OUT OF FEAR OF THE SERB FORCES.

    /// WEBB ACT ///

    I THINK THAT THE GREAT MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE IN KOSOVO DESPERATELY WANT TO GO BACK TO THEIR HOMES. UNTIL NOW THE BIGGEST OBSTACLE TO THAT HAS BEEN THEIR OWN SECURITY. NOW THAT THINGS SEEM TO BE QUIETING DOWN. THEY ARE CAUTIOUSLY RETURNING. THEY MIGHT SEND ONE FAMILY MEMBER BACK TO THE VILLAGE TO SEE IF THEIR HOUSE IS STILL INTACT, IN MANY CASES IT IS NOT.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR SOME, THE TREK HOME TURNED TRAGIC.

    IN THE VILLAGE OF DRAGOBILJE, ALJI PACARIZI DIED INSTANTLY WHEN A HIDDEN BOMB EXPLODED INSIDE HIS OWN HOME. TWO FAMILY MEMBERS WERE RUSHED TO A HOSPITAL IN PRISTINA. SENIOR COMMANDERS IN THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY (K-L-A) SAID THE BOMB THAT KILLED MR. PACARIZI WAS HIDDEN BY SERBIAN SECURITY FORCES BEFORE THEY LEFT THE AREA.

    IN THE NEARBY TOWN OF MALISEVO, HUNDREDS OF REFUGEES CAME DOWN FROM THE HILLS TO GAZE AT THE CITY'S CENTER WHICH HAD BEEN BURNED AND BULLDOZED BY SERB SECURITY FORCES AFTER THEY CAPTURED FROM IT FROM THE K-L-A A FEW MONTHS AGO. CROWDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS SCATTERED WHEN GUNFIRE WAS HEARD NEAR A POLICE STATION WHERE SEVERAL DOZEN SERB POLICEMEN ARE STILL BASED.

    IN MANY LOCATIONS ACROSS THE PROVINCE, SERB FORCES APPEARED TO BE KEEPING A LOW PROFILE, REMAINING IN THEIR BARRACKS OR SOMETIMES HIDING IN FORESTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/JWH
    28-Oct-98 5:48 AM EST (1048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO SERBS (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240841
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH SERB SECURITY FORCES PULLING OUT OF MANY AREAS IN KOSOVO, SERB CIVILIANS ARE INCREASINGLY CONCERNED ABOUT RENEWED ATTACKS FROM THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, THE K-L-A. PHILIP SMUCKER VISITED THE SMALL TOWN OF DECANI, WHERE AN ORTHODOX PRIEST SAID HE SUPPORTS WESTERN PEACEMAKING EFFORTS, BUT ALSO FEARS NEW OUTBREAKS OF VIOLENCE.

    TEXT: KOSOVO'S SMALL SERB POPULATION IS EXPRESSING FEARS WESTERN PEACEMAKING EFFORTS WILL NOT PROTECT THEM FROM GUERRILLA ATTACKS.

    IN THE SMALL TOWN OF DECANI -- MOSTLY RUINED BY A SERB MILITARY OFFENSIVE EARLIER THIS YEAR -- RESIDENTS DEMONSTRATED IN FRONT OF A SERB POLICE STATION. THEY ASKED THE POLICE NOT TO ABANDON THEM, LEAVING THEM SURROUNDED BY THE ETHNIC-ALBANIAN KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY.

    BUT IN THE TOWN CENTER -- NEAR A DESTROYED MOSQUE -- ETHNIC ALBANIANS SAID THEY WANT THE REMAINING SERB POLICE TO LEAVE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

    SINCE A DRAWBACK OF SERBIAN TROOPS THIS WEEK, THE K-L-A HAS TAKEN UP NEW POSITIONS AROUND THE TOWN. THE GUERRILLA GROUP IS FIGHTING FOR COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE FOR ALBANIANS FROM SERBIAN RULE. IN THE 12TH CENTURY DECANI MONASTERY, FATHER SAVA JANJIC SAID THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN KOSOVO SUPPORTS THE U-S-LED PEACE EFFORTS IN KOSOVO.

    /// SAVA JANJIC ACT ///

    YES, WELL THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IS SUPPORTING EVERY EFFORT WHICH WILL BRING CEASEFIRE AND PEACE IN THIS AREA. THE DECISION AND THE AGREEMENT ON THE CEASEFIRE AND O-S-C-E VERIFYING MISSION WHICH WE KNOW OF AND IF IT IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO KILLING AND THE VIOLENCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    FEWER THAN 100 OF AN EXPECTED TWO-THOUSAND INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- THE O-S-C-E -- ARE IN KOSOVO MONITORING THE CEASEFIRE. BUT THE O-S-C-E MISSION HAS YET TO BEGIN MAJOR PATROLS AND REMAINS PREOCCUPIED WITH FINDING HOUSING FOR ITS OBSERVERS. MEANWHILE, FATHER SAVA JANJIC SAYS SERB CITIZENS FEAR THE K-L-A WILL RENEW ATTACKS AND A KIDNAPPING CAMPAIGN AGAINST SERB CIVILIANS IN THE AREA NEAR YUGOSLAVIA'S BORDER WITH ALBANIA.

    /// SAVA JANJIC ACT TWO ///

    YES, THERE IS A GREAT FEAR AMONG THE SERBIAN POPULATION ESPECIALLY IN THIS AREA, THE DECANI AREA, WHERE THE SERBS ARE A LITTLE MINORITY AND HAVE FEARS THAT THE K-L-A WILL MAKE ATTACKS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SENIOR K-L-A COMMANDERS SAY THEY HAVE NOT BEEN CONSULTED CLOSELY ENOUGH ON AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. BUT IN SOME AREAS, THE K-L-A HAS AGREED TO LOCAL CEASEFIRES WHICH HAVE BEEN BROKERED BY U-S DIPLOMATS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/JWH
    28-Oct-98 12:48 PM EST (1748 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] HUNGARY / UKRAINE (L-ONLY) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240850
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT LEONID KUCHMA, WHO IS TRYING TO BRING HIS COUNTRY INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION, SAYS UKRAINE IS UN-FAIRLY BEING BARRED FROM ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP. MR. KUCHMA HAS BEEN VISITING HUNGARY THIS WEEK, ASKING HIS NEIGHBORS TO THE WEST FOR HELP. STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM BUDAPEST.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT KUCHMA SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION IS DISCRIMINATING AGAINST UKRAINE BY DENYING THE KIEV GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ALLIANCE.

    POUNDING A TABLE WITH HIS FISTS TO EMPHASIZE HIS POINTS (WEDNESDAY), MR. KUCHMA RECALLED MEMORIES OF FORMER SOVIET COMMUNIST LEADER NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV, WHO ONCE USED HIS SHOE TO POUND A LECTERN AT THE UNITED NATIONS IN A SIMILAR MANNER.

    PRESIDENT KUCHMA SAYS BUREAUCRATS IN BRUSSELS [THE EUROPEAN UNION'S HEADQUARTERS] ARE NOT TAKING UKRAINE'S APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP SERIOUSLY.

    /// FIRST KUCHMA ACT IN UKRAINIAN, IN AND UNDER ///

    HE SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION IS BLOCKING UKRAINE BECAUSE THE KIEV GOVERNMENT IS NOT A MEMBER OF THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, AND THERE IS NO SIGN WESTERN OFFICIALS ARE WILLING TO DROP THIS PRE-CONDITION.

    /// SECOND KUCHMA ACT IN UKRAINIAN, IN AND UNDER ///

    MR. KUCHMA ASKED HIS HUNGARIAN COUNTERPART, ARPAD GONCZ, TO HELP UKRAINE TRY TO CHANGE THE EUROPEAN UNION'S POSITION. // OPT // HE ALSO IS ASKING HUNGARY TO HELP ENSURE THAT EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OUTSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION DO NOT FACE MORE STRINGENT VISA BARRIERS IN THE FUTURE. // END OPT //

    HUNGARY WILL HAVE A VOTE WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION EVENTUALLY -- PERHAPS AS EARLY AS THE YEAR 2002 -- AND PRESIDENT GONCZ SAYS HIS COUNTRY WILL TRY TO HELP UKRAINE.

    /// GONCZ ACT IN HUNGARIAN, IN AND UNDER ///

    THE HUNGARIAN LEADER SAYS HE WOULD BE HAPPY TO SIGN A FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT WITH UKRAINE, BUT THE PROGRESS OF KIEV'S ECONOMIC REFORMS WILL BE A KEY FACTOR IN DETERMINING WHETHER UKRAINE JOINS THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    PRESIDENT KUCHMA, WHO RETURNED TO UKRAINE WEDNESDAY NIGHT, SAID IN BUDAPEST HE EXPECTS TO REACH AGREEMENT WITH THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SOON ON TERMS FOR A TWO-BILLION-DOLLAR LOAN.

    THE I-M-F RECENTLY POSTPONED DISBURSEMENT OF THE LOAN BECAUSE OF CONERN OVER UKRAINE'S FOREIGN-EXCHANGE RESERVES AND TAX POLICY, ALONG WITH ITS PROBLEMS IN PAYING BACK A 109-MILLION-DOLLAR LOAN TO A EUROPEAN BRANCH OF A U-S BANK.

    PRESIDENT KUCHMA SAYS NONE OF THESE PROBLEMS SHOULD PREVENT UKRAINE FROM EXPANDING TRADE WITH HUNGARY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SB/WTW
    28-Oct-98 6:56 PM EST (2356 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240848
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AS CONCERNS EASED ON WALL STREET ABOUT THE BRAZILIAN ECONOMIC SITUATION. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 83 HUNDRED 71, UP ALMOST SIX POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT ONE THOUSAND 68, UP MORE THAN TWO AND ONE-HALF POINTS.

    THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE, WHICH HAD BEEN UP MORE THAN 50 POINTS, SOLD OFF IN THE LAST FEW MINUTES OF TRADING BUT OTHER INDEXES MAINTAINED THEIR GAINS.

    ANALYSTS SAY TRADERS WERE SOMEWHAT RE-ASSURED BY THE FISCAL REFORM MEASURES PROPOSED IN BRAZIL AND ANOTHER DENIAL THAT THERE ARE ANY PLANS TO DEVALUE THE BRAZILIAN CURRENCY. ECONOMISTS SAY BRAZIL IS THE KEY TO ECONOMIC HEALTH THROUGHOUT LATIN AMERICA.

    U-S ORDERS FOR DURABLE GOODS -- PRODUCTS EXPECTED TO LAST THREE YEARS OR LONGER -- ROSE IN SEPTEMBER FOR THE FOURTH CONSECUTIVE MONTH. HOWEVER, MOST OF THE GAIN CAME FROM AN INCREASE IN DEFENSE DEPARTMENT ORDERS.

    ///REST OPT///

    THERE WAS A LARGE DROP IN ORDERS FOR NON-DEFENSE CAPITAL GOODS. ECONOMIST GARY CEMINARO SAYS THAT IS A DIRECT RESULT OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL PROBLEMS.

    ///CEMINARO ACT///

    PART OF THAT DECLINE IN ORDERS IS RELATED TO OVERSEAS PROBLEMS, PARTICULARLY ASIAN NATIONS CANCELLING PRIOR ORDERS AND NOT MAKING NEW ONES FOR OUR EXPORTS OF CAPITAL GOODS.

    ///END ACT///

    THE LAST OF THE MAJOR OIL COMPANIES TO REPORT QUARTERLY PROFITS REFLECT THE CONTINUED DEPRESSION OF CRUDE OIL PRICES. THE U-S BASED MOBIL CORPORATION REPORTED A 45 PERCENT EARNINGS DROP AND SHELL OF CANADA SAYS ITS PROFITS FELL BY 54 PERCENT.

    FALLING COPPER PRICES HAVE HURT EARNINGS FOR THE ASARCO MINING CORPORATION WHICH HAS CUT ITS QUARTERLY STOCK DIVIDEND IN HALF.

    THE BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION SAYS ITS PROFITS FELL BY ALMOST NINE PERCENT IN THE THIRD QUARTER. BETHLEHEM SAYS THE ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS IS CAUSING ASIAN STEEL COMPANIES TO FLOOD THE U-S MARKET WITH CHEAPER PRODUCTS. STARWOOD, THE LUXURY HOTEL AND CASINO COMPANY, REPORTED A STUNNING PROFIT INCREASE OF ALMOST 600 PERCENT IN THE LATEST QUARTER. STARWOOD SAYS RESULTS AT ITS EUROPEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN PROPERTIES WERE ESPECIALLY STRONG.

    U-S GOVERNMENT SECURITIES REGULATORS HAVE CHARGED 44 INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES WITH COMMITTING FRAUD OVER THE COMPUTER INTERNET. IN MOST CASES THEY ARE ACCUSED OF PROMOTING THE STOCK OF SMALL COMPANIES WITHOUT DISCLOSING THEIR FINANCIAL INTERESTS IN THOSE COMPANIES.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/JO
    28-Oct-98 5:08 PM EST (2208 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10979
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    RE-PRINTING TO ADD ATTRIBUTION, "BOSTON GLOBE", TO LAST EDITORIAL. /////

    ///// ED'S: OUTDATED AFTER 10 PM EDT. /////

    INTRO: THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICA'S DAILY NEWSPAPERS ARE FILLED WITH THOUGHTS ON A NEW ROLE FOR THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, WHICH PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS PLEDGED WILL TAKE AN OVERT PART IN HELPING POLICING THE PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS. WITH ELECTION DAY NOW LESS THAN A WEEK AWAY, MANY EDITORIAL COLUMNS ARE FILLED WITH CANDIDATE ENDORSEMENTS OR OTHER RELATED COMMENTS. THE "WASHINGTON POST" SALUTES A BORDER PEACE IN LATIN AMERICA; WHILE "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE DECRIES THE SNIPER KILLING OF A DOCTOR WHO PERFORMED ABORTIONS. THERE ARE ALSO COMMENTS ON CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM AND DECLINING CONSUMER CONFIDENCE. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IS _______________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: AS PART OF THE WYE RIVER PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS, PRESIDENT CLINTON VOLUNTEERED THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY'S STAFF TO HELP THE PALESTINIANS ROOT OUT TERRORISTS FROM THEIR MIDST. MANY PAPERS ARE WONDERING WHETHER IT IS A GOOD IDEA FOR MEN AND WOMEN WHO NORMALLY OPERATE IN SECRET, TO BE OPERATING IN THE OPEN. "NEWSDAY" ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND TITLES IT EDITORIAL "SPIES IN THE SUNSHINE," WONDERING: IS IT WISE TO CHARGE THE CIA WITH VERIFYING ANTI TERRORIST EFFORTS IN THE MIDEAST?

    VOICE: THE C-I-A, IN EFFECT, IS TO PROVIDE THE TRUST THAT IS INHERENTLY LACKING BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY. ... PRESUMABLY, THE C-I-A COULD DISPATCH OFFICERS WHO COULD OPERATE ABOVE GROUND WITHOUT BLOWING THE COVER [EXPOSING THE IDENTITIES] OF COVERT OPERATIVES. BUT THE DANGER OF COMPROMISING SENSITIVE SOURCES WOULD UNDOUBTEDLY INCREASE. AND BY MONITORING PALESTINIAN ANTI-TERROR EFFORTS AND ASSISTING BOTH SIDES, THE C-I-A WOULD HELP CARRY OUT POLICY OVERTLY INSTEAD OF ACTING BEHIND THE SCENES. IT IS A QUALITATIVE SHIFT THAT MAKES MANY IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY AND IN CONGRESS SOMEWHAT QUEASY.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS ALSO SKEPTICAL, BUT ADDS:

    VOICE: THE C-I-A HAS LONG MIXED ACTION AND ANALYSIS, OFTEN WITH DISASTROUS RESULTS. THAT NEED NOT BE THE CASE THIS TIME, BUT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND CONGRESS MUST BE MINDFUL OF THE AGENCY'S HISTORY AS THEY REVIEW THE PLANS FOR THE MIDDLE EAST. THE PROBLEM IN THE PAST WAS NOT ONLY THAT THE C-I-A SUPPORTED NEFARIOUS THROUGH FRIENDLY FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS AND TRAINED THEIR SECURITY SERVICES, BUT THAT IN DOING SO IT COMPROMISED ITS ABILITY TO GENERATE INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENTS ABOUT THOSE COUNTRIES. PERHAPS THE BEST EXAMPLE WAS IRAN, WHERE THE AGENCY'S SUPPORT OF THE SHAH BLINDED IT TO THE REBELLION BREWING IN THE STREETS BEFORE THE 1979 ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST REVOLUTION. ... IF THE C-I-A IS CAREFUL ABOUT AVOIDING PAST MISTAKES, IT CAN MAKE AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THIS IS NOT A GOOD IDEA IN THE VIEW OF "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" WHICH SAYS THERE ARE THREE MAIN THINGS WRONG WITH IT, INCLUDING THIS:

    VOICE: ... THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THE C-I-A IS NOT REPORTING TO A U-S INSTITUTION, OR EVEN TO A SINGLE AUTHORITY. HOW CAN AN INTELLIGENCE AGENCY -- DESIGNED IN NATURE TO REPORT TO ONE AUTHORITY -- EFFECTIVELY BE RESPONSIVE TO TWO OPPOSED ENTITIES? ... THIS, IN EFFECT, WOULD REQUIRE A SPY AGENCY TO ACT AS LEGISLATOR AS IT CREATES CONDUCT EVALUATION STANDARDS AND TO ACT AS POLICEMAN BY UPHOLDING THOSE STANDARDS. EVEN IF THE AGENCY IS STRONG ENOUGH TO WEATHER THE DONNING OF SO MANY ILL SUITED HATS, [JOBS] THE PUBLICIZING OF ITS NEW MISSION -- WHEN THE VERY NATURE OF ITS OPERATION REQUIRES SECRECY -- MAKES IT SUBJECT TO ATTACK FROM BOTH SIDES AND ELIMINATES THE COVERT PROTECTION NEEDED TO CONDUCT THEIR INVESTIGATION.

    TEXT: TURNING TO LATIN AMERICAN AFFAIRS, A BORDER PEACE AGREEMENT IS BEING HAILED BY "THE WASHINGTON POST."

    VOICE: GENEROUS CREDIT IS DUE TO ECUADOR AND PERU FOR THE MUTUAL POLITICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL BREAKTHROUGH THAT ALLOWED THEM TO RESOLVE THEIR DECADES-LONG VIOLENCE-STAINED BORDER DISPUTE. IT IS A LONG WAY FROM WASHINGTON TO THE UNCHARTED HEADWATERS OF THE AMAZON, BUT IT IS NOT SO FAR THAT AMERICANS CAN NOT APPRECIATE THE RIGORS OF PEACEMAKING BETWEEN CONTESTANTS WHO HAVE FOUGHT THREE WARS OVER THE BORDER ... ECUADOR AND PERU HAVE SET AN EXAMPLE FOR OTHERS LOCKED INTO HISTORICAL CONFLICTS THAT ARE IRRELEVANT AND HARMFUL TO THEIR CURRENT NEEDS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER "WASHINGTON POST" EDITORIAL, THE PAPER SUGGESTS IT IS TIME AGAIN TO CONFRONT SADDAM HUSSEIN.

    VOICE: WEAPONS EXPERTS FROM SEVEN COUNTRIES HAVE CONFIRMED WHAT AMERICAN INVESTIGATORS REPORTED MONTHS AGO: THAT IRAQ LOADED DEADLY V-X NERVE GAS INTO MISSILE WARHEADS. IRAQ HAD LIED ABOUT THIS BEFORE U-N INVESTIGATORS FOUND THE WARHEAD FRAGMENTS. IT LIED ABOUT IT AGAIN AFTER THE DISCOVERY, MAINTAINING THAT U-S ANALYSES WERE FLAWED BY ANTI-IRAQ BIAS. ... FOR MOST OF THE PAST YEAR, SADDAM HUSSEIN HAS BEEN TESTING INTERNATIONAL RESOLVE. WITH EACH TEST, THE IRAQI DICTATOR FOUND HE COULD PUSH A BIT HARDER, AND THE UNITED NATIONS WOULD NOT PUSH BACK. NOW NEARLY THREE-MONTHS HAVE PASSED SINCE HE KICKED OUT U-N WEAPONS INSPECTORS, AND THE ADMINISTRATION -- WHICH EXPLICITLY PROMISED A FORCEFUL RESPONSE -- HAS NOT RESPONDED. ... UNTIL RECENTLY, IT [THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION] PORTRAYED SADDAM HUSSEIN AND HIS WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AS IMMINENT DANGERS TO THE REGION. IF THAT IS NO LONGER TRUE, THE ADMINISTRATION SHOULD EXPLAIN WHY NOT. IT IS IS TRUE, WHAT DOES MR. CLINTON PLAN TO DO ABOUT IT?

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: DOMESTICALLY AGAIN, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE EXPRESSES SHOCK AND DISMAY AT THE SNIPER DEATH OF A DOCTOR IN NEW YORK STATE WHO PERFORMED ABORTIONS ALONG WITH HIS OTHER TREATMENTS. THE PAPER SAYS THIS TYPE OF TERRORISM IS REMINISCENT OF A DARK MOMENT IN THE NATION'S HISTORY.

    VOICE: THE ACTIONS OF A FEW EXTREME ABORTION OPPONENTS ARE REMINISCENT OF THE CAMPAIGN OF TERROR BY KU KLUX KLANSMEN EARLIER IN THE CENTURY. BESIDES GIVING THOSE WHO PROTEST LEGALLY AND NONVIOLENTLY A BAD NAME, THE HATERS, BOMBERS AND KILLERS PRESENT ALL OF US WITH A CHALLENGE. A COMBINATION OF STRONG CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSISTENT VIGILANCE AND RESISTANCE BY LAW-ABIDING AND ANGRY AMERICANS CHANGED THE CLIMATE AND THE LAWS SO THAT KIND OF BEHAVIOR BY THE KLAN WAS NOT TOLERATED. IT WILL TAKE THAT SAME COMBINATION TO COMBAT THOSE WHO ATTACK PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A CONSTITUTIONALLY PROTECTED ACTIVITY.

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" NOTES THE DRAMATICALLY FALLING CONSUMER CONFIDENCE IN THE LATEST SURVEYS, AND WORRIES WHETHER UNFOUNDED FEARS, RATHER THAN REAL ECONOMIC PROBLEMS, MAY ACTUALLY MAKE THINGS WORSE.

    VOICE: USUALLY CONFIDENCE FALLS AS THE PUBLIC CONFRONTS REAL ECONOMIC LOSSES, SUCH AS THOSE CAUSED BY THE OIL PRICE HIKES IN 1973, 1979 AND 1990. ... THERE IS LITTLE SIGN OF THAT THIS TIME AROUND, WITH DIRECT ECONOMIC LOSSES STILL CONFINED TO INDUSTRIES AFFECTED DIRECTLY BY THE WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS... BUT WITH STOCK OWNERSHIP AT ALL-TIME HIGHS, PAPER LOSSES ALONE CREATE RISK. ... UNLESS AMERICANS CAN LOOK PAST THEIR PAPER LOSSES, THE MORE PAINFUL VARIETY WILL LIKELY TURN UP SOON ENOUGH.

    TEXT: LASTLY, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" HAS SOME PRAISE FOR OHIO SENATOR AND FORMER ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN, WHO AT 77, IS ABOUT TO BECOME THE OLDEST MAN IN SPACE

    VOICE: IN THE 36-YEARS SINCE HE BECAME THE FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH, JOHN GLENN HAS BEEN A SYMBOL OF THE CAREFUL DARING THAT LED TO THAT PIONEERING EFFORT AND FOLLOWED IT. HE IS ABOUT TO EMBARK ON HIS SECOND VISIT TO SPACE, HIS PIONEERING ROLE LIMITED TO SETTING A RECORD AS THE OLDEST PERSON TO MAKE THE JOURNEY. ... IT IS EASY ... TO UNDERESTIMATE THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CHALLENGES OF THIS TRIP -- NO MERE BUS RIDE, BUT A JOURNEY REQUIRING GRUELING PHYSICAL TRAINING, PROGRAM PREPARATION, AND INTENSE CONCENTRATION. IT IS A CHALLENGE REMARKABLE FOR A 77-YEAR-OLD MAN, EVEN ONE IN [SENATOR] GLENN'S FINE PHYSICAL CONDITION. [MR.] GLENN'S REPUTATION WAS SECURE WITHOUT A RETURN TO ORBIT, BUT HE IS GIVING ADDED DEPTH TO ITS MEANING.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM WEDNESDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    28-Oct-98 11:51 AM EST (1651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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