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Voice of America, 98-10-29

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BOSNIA WAR CRIME (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [02] KOSOVO / AID (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (PRISTINA)
  • [03] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L-ONLY - ALTERNATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [04] KOSOVO / VERIFICATION (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (PRISTINA)
  • [05] KOSOVO RESCUE FORCE (L-O) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)
  • [06] RETURN OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES? BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] UNICEF / KOSOVO BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [08] WHITHER KOSOVO? BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] EDITORIAL: ANNIVERSARY OF TURKISH REPUBLIC
  • [10] TURKEY / CASPIAN OIL (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] TURKEY PIPELINE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [12] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [13] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BOSNIA WAR CRIME (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240887
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN-SERB CHARGED AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WITH GENOCIDE PLED GUILTY TO MURDERING, BEATING, AND STEALING THE PROPERTY OF MUSLIMS. HE HAD PLED NOT GUILTY TO SIMILAR CHARGES EARLIER THIS YEAR. BUT AS LAUREN COMITEAU REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, THE MAN WHO CALLS HIMSELF -- THE SERB ADOLPH -- SAYS HE IS NOT GUILTY OF GENOCIDE.

    TEXT: SAYING HE WANTED TO SAVE HIS SOUL, 30-YEAR OLD GORAN JELISIC ADMITTED MURDERING 12 PEOPLE, BEATING FOUR OTHERS, AND STEALING MONEY FROM MUSLIM PRISONERS HELD IN A SERB-RUN CAMP OUTSIDE THE BOSNIAN TOWN OF BRCKO.

    PROSECUTORS SAY JELISIC IS RESPONSIBLE FOR COUNTLESS KILLINGS. THEY SAY FOR TWO-WEEKS IN 1992, HE ENTERED THE CAMP ALMOST DAILY, SELECTING PEOPLE FOR INTERROGATION AND THEN SHOOTING THEM IN THE HEAD OR BACK.

    JELISIC IS SAID TO HAVE TOLD PEOPLE HE CAME TO BRCKO TO KILL MUSLIMS. ACCORDING TO WITNESS STATEMENTS MADE PUBLIC BY THE COURT (THURSDAY), JELISIC HANDCUFFED A WOMAN NAMED NAZA TO A TRAFFIC SIGN, REPEATEDLY BEAT HER, AND THEN SHOT HER TWICE IN THE FOREHEAD. LATER THAT SAME DAY, WITNESSES SAY JELISIC KILLED HER FATHER. THE COURT ALSO RELEASED A PHOTO SHOWING JELISIC SHOOTING A MAN IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD WITH A PISTOL.

    JELISIC IS ONLY THE SECOND MAN TO PLEAD GUILTY AT THE SPECIAL INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL ON YUGOSLAVIA. HE SHOWED NO EMOTION AS HE TOLD JUDGES IT WAS UP TO THEM TO DECIDE HIS FATE, EVEN IF THAT MEANT LIFE IN PRISON. JELISIC, THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, ASSURED JUDGES THE DECISION TO CONFESS WAS HIS OWN.

    // ACTUALITY: JELISIC VIA WOMAN TRANSLATOR //

    NO ONE PROMISED ME ANYTHING. NO ONE THREATENED ME. NO ONE BLACKMAILED ME. IT WAS MY OWN GOOD WILL THAT I ADMIT THE CRIME AND SAVE MY SOUL BECAUSE THERE IS NO REASON FOR ME TO KEEP THIS WITHIN MYSELF.

    // END ACT //

    DEFENSE LAWYERS SAID THEY ADVISED JELISIC NOT TO PLEAD GUILTY TO CHARGES OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, BUT THEIR CLIENT DECIDED TO REPENT FOR WHAT HE'S DONE. BUT JELISIC PLED NOT GUILTY TO THE MOST SERIOUS CHARGE AGAINST HIM -- GENOCIDE -- WHICH STATES HE SYSTEMATICALLY TRIED TO WIPE OUT BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS.

    A TRIAL DATE STILL HAS TO BE SET FOR THAT CHARGE BEFORE TRIBUNAL JUDGES CAN SENTENCE BOSNIAN SERB GORAN JELISIC FOR MURDER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LC/PCF/RAE
    29-Oct-98 8:55 AM EST (1355 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO / AID (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240909
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH AN END TO THE FIGHTING IN KOSOVO, THE MAIN GOAL FOR HUMANITARIAN WORKERS IS TO HELP THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES BEFORE THE COLD SETS IN. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA.

    TEXT: CONVINCING THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED ETHNIC ALBANIANS THEY CAN GO HOME AGAIN IS EASIER SAID THAN DONE. MANY ARE STILL FEARFUL OF SERB POLICE WHO CAN BE SEEN DRIVING ALONG COUNTRY ROADS OR SITTING IN GROUPS OUTSIDE SOME DESTROYED VILLAGES.

    ONE TRIO OF SERB MILITIA WAS PARKED IN AN AMBULANCE ON THE OUTSKIRTS OF MALISEVO, A TOWN ONCE CONSIDERED A STRONGHOLD OF THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBELS, WHICH TODAY IS MOSTLY RUBBLE AND THE SKELETON STRUCTURES OF FORMER SHOPS AND HOUSES. REFUGEES SCURRIED AMID THE RUINS TO SEE THE DAMAGE BEFORE RETURNING TO THE REFUGE IN OTHER VILLAGES OR IN THE HILLS ABOVE.

    FERNANDO DEL MUNDO OF THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY (U-N-H-C-R) SAYS MANY REFUGEES HAVE RETURNED TO FIND THEIR HOMES DESTROYED OR UNINHABITABLE. THE U-N-H-C-R AND OTHER AID GROUPS ARE OFFERING MATERIALS TO HELP THEM REPAIR AT LEAST ONE WARM ROOM FOR THE WINTER.

    /// DEL MUNDO ACT ///

    IN SOME AREAS WHERE HOUSES HAVE BEEN DESTROYED, THERE'S NO ROOF BUT THERE'S A SECOND FLOOR. THEY'RE CLEANING IT AND PUTTING PLASTIC OVER IT AND THEY'LL HAVE ONE ROOM ON THE GROUND FLOOR. THAT'S WHERE THEY'LL LIVE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. DEL MUNDO SAYS ONE MAJOR PROBLEM IS FOOD FOR WINTER. THE FIGHTING PREVENTED FARMERS FROM PLANTING OR HARVESTING, SO NOW THERE ARE SHORTAGES.

    /// DEL MUNDO ACT ///

    THEY'D STOCKED FOOD FOR SIX MONTHS BEFORE THE OFFENSIVE BEGAN IN THE SUMMER. AND MOST OF THE FOOD HAS BEEN BURNED OR LOOTED. AND UNTIL THEY'RE ABLE TO HARVEST, THEY'LL NEED A STEADY SUPPLY OF FOOD RATIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    AID GROUPS ARE DELIVERING FOODSTUFFS TO CENTRAL DISTRIBUTION POINTS NOW THAT ROADBLOCKS AND MILITARY CHECKPOINTS HAVE BEEN REMOVED. FOOD AND CLOTHING ALSO ARE BEING DISTRIBUTED TO SEVERAL THOUSAND REFUGEES STILL LIVING IN THE OPEN IN THE HILLS ABOVE THEIR DESTROYED VILLAGES.

    THE U-N-H-C-R IS ALSO ENCOURAGING REFUGEES WHO FLED TO NEIGHBORING ALBANIA, BOSNIA, AND OTHER PARTS OF YUGOSLAVIA TO GO TO THEIR VILLAGES TO SEE FOR THEMSELVES IF IT SAFE ENOUGH TO RETURN HOME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    29-Oct-98 2:42 PM EST (1942 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO / HOLBROOKE (L-ONLY - ALTERNATE) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/28/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240859
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: THIS IS AN ALTERNATE VERSION OF CR 2-240854, FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT ///

    INTRO: U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TODAY (WEDNESDAY) REJECTED SUGGESTIONS THAT NATO IS BLUFFING IN ITS THREAT TO LAUNCH MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST SERBIAN FORCES IN KOSOVO, IF THEY DO NOT END THEIR CRACKDOWN ON ETHNIC ALBANIANS THERE. V-O-A'S MAX RUSTON REPORTS MR. HOLBROOKE MADE THE REMARKS AT THE UNITED NATIONS, AFTER MEETING WITH U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN.

    TEXT: AFTER MEETING WITH THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL, MR. HOLBROOKE SPOKE TO REPORTERS ABOUT THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO. HE SAYS SOME COMMENTATORS, INCLUDING A FORMER U-S AMBASSADOR, HAVE SUGGESTED NATO WAS BLUFFING WITH ITS THREAT TO ATTACK SERBIAN FORCES, IN THE ABSENCE OF A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT FOR KOSOVO. THAT SUGGESTION, MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS, IS FALSE.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    WHEN OUR LITTLE MISSION LEFT FOR BELGRADE THREE WEEKS AGO I PUT THE CHANCES OF THE USE OF FORCE, THAT IS BOMBING, THAT IS AN AIR WAR, AT WELL OVER 65 PERCENT, BETTER THAN TWO-THIRDS. AND FOR THE FIRST TWO OR THREE DAYS OUT THERE, I WAS ALMOST CERTAIN WE WOULD END UP LEAVING WITHOUT ANYTHING THAT COULD JUSTIFY HOLDING OFF ON THE BOMBING.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-S SPECIAL ENVOY SAYS HE IS CONVINCED SERBIAN AUTHORITIES EVENTUALLY DID TAKE THE THREAT SERIOUSLY, AND THAT IS WHY THEY AGREED TO WITHDRAW THEIR FORCES FROM KOSOVO.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS NATO FORCES REMAIN READY TO LAUNCH STRIKES AGAINST SERBIAN TROOPS IF SERBIAN AUTHORITIES DO NOT CARRY THROUGH WITH ALL THEIR PROMISES. HE SAYS THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THE SITUATION NOW IS IMPLEMENTATION.

    /// REST OPT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE DESCRIBED THE PROCESS OF DEFUSING THE CRISIS -- WHICH CENTERED ON HIS NEGOTIATIONS WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC -- AS PRECEDENT-SETTING. HE SAYS IT WAS AN EXAMPLE OF AN IMPORTANT STYLE OF FOREIGN POLICY. HE SAYS SUCH FOREIGN POLICY SHOULD NOT BE COMPARED TO ARCHITECTURE, WHICH REQUIRES THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CLEAR, PRE-ESTABLISHED PLANS. IHE SAYS IT IS SIMILAR TO JAZZ MUSIC, WHERE THE MUSICIAN MUST LEARN TO IMPROVISE ON A GENERAL THEME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/WTW
    28-Oct-98 7:01 PM EST (0001 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO / VERIFICATION (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (PRISTINA)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240908
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THOUSANDS OF SERB FORCES IN YUGOSLAVIA HAVE WITHDRAWN FROM KOSOVO PROVINCE OR HAVE RETURNED TO THEIR BARRACKS IN THE AREA. BUT MANY STILL REMAIN IN THE COUNTRYSIDE, NEAR VILLAGES WHERE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WANT TO RETURN. AND INTERNATIONAL VERIFIERS ARE STILL NOT IN PLACE TO MONITOR THE CEASEFIRE AND CHECK ON SERB MILITARY MOVEMENTS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENT HAMMERED OUT BY U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE CALLS FOR TWO-THOUSAND VERIFIERS FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- THE O-S-C-E. THEY WILL BE ON THE GROUND IN KOSOVO TO MAKE SURE YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC ADHERES TO THE CEASEFIRE.

    BUT THE ENTIRE TEAM IS NOT YET IN PLACE. RIGHT NOW, THERE ARE FEWER THAN 50 STAFFERS TRYING TO WORK OUT THE ADMINISTRATIVE DETAILS, FROM RENTING OFFICE SPACE AND HOUSING TO LINING UP SOME ONE-THOUSAND VEHICLES FOR THE MONITORING OPERATIONS.

    SPOKESMAN MANS NYBERG SAYS EVEN WITHOUT THE VERIFIERS IN PLACE, THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO ALREADY HAS DRAMATICALLY CHANGED SINCE THE SERB TROOP PULLOUT.

    /// NYBERG ACT ///

    A SUBSTANTIAL NUMBER OF REFUGEES RETURNING TO THEIR HOMES, WHICH IS A VERY GOOD SIGN, RETURNING CONFIDENCE AFTER THIS LARGE TROOP WITHDRAWAL AFTER THE LAST WEEK. I THINK WE COULD CONFIDENTLY SAY THE SITUATION HAS DRASTICALLY IMPROVED SINCE LAST WEEK.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE VERIFIERS WILL BE UNARMED. SO THEY HAVE TO COUNT ON COOPERATION FROM BOTH SIDES IN THE CONFLICT.

    THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBEL FORCE, THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, HAS NOT SIGNED THE HOLBROOKE-MILOSEVIC AGREEMENT. BUT MR. NYBERG SAYS THAT ETHNIC ALBANIAN POLITICAL LEADERS HAVE AGREED TO COOPERATE -- INCLUDING ADEM DEMACI, THE K-L-A POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVE IN PRISTINA WHO HAS SOUNDED SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE VERIFICATION MISSION.

    /// NYBERG ACT TWO ///

    THE K-L-A (MEMBERS) AREN'T PART OF THE AGREEMENT AT ALL. THEY ARE COMPLETELY OUTSIDE THE AGREEMENT. ON THE OTHER HAND, ALL THE ALBANIAN POLITICAL PARTIES, AS WELL AS THE K-L-A, HAVE GIVEN THEIR SUPPORT TO THE O-S-C-E MISSION.

    /// END ACT ///

    SO FAR THE K-L-A HAS REFUSED TO JOIN NEGOTIATIONS FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CONFLICT, BUT NO MAJOR VIOLATIONS OF THE CEASEFIRE HAVE BEEN REPORTED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    29-Oct-98 2:43 PM EST (1943 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] KOSOVO RESCUE FORCE (L-O) BY JIM RANDLE (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240907
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO THOUSAND UN-ARMED FOREIGN OBSERVERS WILL SOON BE IN KOSOVO PROVINCE, MAKING SURE YUGOSLAV FORCES ARE LIVING UP TO CEASEFIRE AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS. NATO SOURCES SAY CONCERNS FOR THE SAFETY OF THE VERIFIERS IS PROMPTING URGENT PLANNING FOR A PROTECTION FORCE. SOME OF THAT WORK WILL BE DISCUSSED AT NATO FRIDAY. V-O-A'S JIM RANDLE REPORTS.

    TEXT: NATO SOURCES SAY THE EXTRACTION FORCE WILL LIKELY CONSIST OF A COUPLE THOUSAND SOLDIERS. THE PENTAGON SAYS THE 'OVER THE HORIZON' FORCE WILL NOT HAVE AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS, THOUGH WASHINGTON MAY OFFER OTHER KINDS OF HELP.

    TOP U-S OFFICIALS HAVE SAID THE PROTECTION FORCE WILL PROBABLY BE BASED NEAR KOSOVO, IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA. BUT A SPOKESMAN FOR THE MACEDONIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY SAYS SUCH AN AGREEMENT HAS NOT YET BEEN WORKED OUT.

    NATO MILITARY PLANNERS ARE STILL WORKING OUT MOST OF THE DETAILS INCLUDING FORCE SIZE, NEEDED EQUIPMENT AND WHICH NATIONS WOULD PROVIDE TROOPS. THE ALLIANCE SAYS IT IS CONSIDERING PUTTING THE TROOPS IN ALBANIA, MACEDONIA OR AT SEA ON SHIPS -- BUT NO FINAL DECISION HAS BEEN MADE.

    PLANNERS ARE WORKING QUICKLY BECAUSE MORE THAN 150 MONITORS, MOSTLY DIPLOMATS, ARE ALREADY ON THE GROUND IN KOSOVO -- AND THAT NUMBER IS EXPECTED TO DOUBLE SHORTLY. (SIGNED).
    NEB/JR/JO
    29-Oct-98 2:37 PM EST (1937 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] RETURN OF KOSOVAR REFUGEES? BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-30774
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: YUGOSLAV FORCES CONTINUE THEIR WITHDRAWAL FROM POSITIONS IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE AS ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES GRADUALLY RETURN HOME. HOWEVER, HUMANITARIAN WORKERS FROM WORLD VISION, THE LARGEST PRIVATE AID AGENCY OPERATING IN KOSOVO, REPORT THAT MANY KOSOVARS LIVING IN THE OPEN ARE STILL TOO AFRAID TO RETURN TO THEIR

    VILLAGES. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM HAS TALKED WITH SEVERAL

    OFFICIALS FROM WORLD VISION WHO HAVE BEEN WORKING AMONG THE REFUGEES. HERE'S _____ WITH A REPORT.

    TEXT: JOHN SCHENK FROM THE WORLD VISION OFFICE IN PRISTINA SAYS HE AND A COLLEAGUE RECENTLY SPENT THE NIGHT AT A REFUGEE CAMP ABOUT 40 KILOMETERS FROM PRISTINA. MANY OF THE DISPLACED KOSOVARS, WHO COME FROM 12 DIFFERENT VILLAGES, MR. SCHENK SAYS, HAVE BEEN LIVING IN THE CAMP FOR FOUR TO FIVE MONTHS. ALTHOUGH THE RAINY SEASON HAS COME AND THE REFUGEES ARE ANKLE-DEEP IN MUD, HE ADDS, THEY ARE FEARFUL OF RETURNING HOME -- UNLESS THE MONITORS, OR "VERIFIERS," NOW ARRIVING FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE CAN GUARANTEE THEIR SAFETY.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- SCHENK (0:47) "WE WERE FINDING IN THAT PARTICULAR CAMP, WHICH HAS A POPULATION OF SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 3,000 PEOPLE, THAT THE PEOPLE WERE NOT INTERESTED IN RETURNING TO THEIR VILLAGES AT ALL. WHAT THEY WERE SAYING WAS THEY WANTED TO SEE THE VERIFIERS IN THEIR VILLAGES, FLYING THE FLAG, CREATING A FOREIGN PRESENCE, AND THEN THEY WOULD CONSIDER GOING BACK TO THEIR VILLAGES. BUT THEIR CONDITION WAS THAT THE VERIFIERS WOULD REMAIN THERE. THEIR EXPERIENCE HAS BEEN THAT, IF THERE ARE FOREIGNERS PRESENT, THEN HARRASSMENT, EVEN OUTRIGHT VIOLENCE CEASES. (OPT) FOR INSTANCE, WHEN WE ARRIVED, THE PEOPLE SAID THEY WERE SO GLAD THAT WE WERE THERE BECAUSE IT MEANT THAT THERE WOULD BE A PEACEFUL NIGHT, THERE WOULD BE NO MACHINE GUN FIRE, BECAUSE THE SERBS WOULD KNOW THAT THERE WERE FOREIGNERS IN THE CAMP. AND THE CHILDREN KNEW THAT, AND THEY [THE PARENTS] WERE GLAD BECAUSE THEY SAID THEIR CHILDREN WOULD SLEEP WELL THAT NIGHT." (END OPT)

    TEXT: MR. SCHENK SAYS HE AND THE OTHER HUMANITARIAN WORKERS IN KOSOVO ARE CONCERNED NOT ONLY FOR THE REFUGEES' SURVIVAL THROUGH THE WINTER, BUT FOR THEIR SECURITY -- IF THEY DO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- SCHENK (0:54) "THE CONCERN THAT WEIGHS MOST HEAVILY ON THE AID WORKERS WHO ARE HERE, CERTAINLY MYSELF AND MY COLLEAGUES AT WORLD VISION, IS THAT THERE ARE SO MANY TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE CURRENTLY WHO ARE LIVING IN THE HILLS, WHO ARE LIVING IN THE MOUNTAINS. IT'S COLD, IT'S WET, AND MANY OF THESE PEOPLE ARE EXPRESSING AN EMPHATIC RELUCTANCE TO RETURN TO THEIR VILLAGES BECAUSE THEY'RE NOT CERTAIN YET THAT THEY'RE GOING TO BE SAFE. TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR THEM. THE BALKAN WINTER IS CLOSING IN, AND IF THEY DON'T MOVE IN TIME, THEY'LL BE STUCK WHERE THEY ARE BECAUSE OF THE WINTER. AND THEN, THEY'RE GOING TO BE ISOLATED BECAUSE THE FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES THAT ARE GETTING TO THEM CURRENTLY WILL BE CUT OFF. CERTAINLY, ALL THE AGENCIES ARE TRYING TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO RETURN, BUT AT THE SAME TIME, WE HAVE THE SAME CONCERNS THAT THE PEOPLE HAVE THEMSELVES IN THE CAMPS. WE WANT TO BE SURE THAT IT IS SAFE FOR THEM TO GO BACK TO THEIR HOMES."

    TEXT: JOHN SCHENK SAYS ONE OF THE MAJOR MISSIONS OF HIS AGENCY IS TO HELP THE KOSOVARS REBUILD AND HEAT AT LEAST ONE ROOM IN THEIR HEAVILY DAMAGED AND BURNED-OUT HOMES SO THEY CAN SURVIVE THE WINTER. HIS COLLEAGUE KEVIN COOK, WHO DIRECTS WORLD VISION'S REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EASTERN EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST, SAYS HIS AGENCY IS TRYING TO HELP CREATE THE CONDITIONS SO KOSOVARS CAN GO BACK TO THEIR VILLAGES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- COOK (0:34) "THIS CONFLICT SO FAR HAS DESTROYED OR LARGELY DAMAGED BETWEEN 30,000 AND 50,000 HOMES. WE SPENT A NIGHT IN A REFUGEE CAMP UNDER PLASTIC SHEETING WITH THE REFUGEES, AND I CAN TELL YOU THAT, EVEN WITH A LOT OF BLANKETS, IT'S COLD. SO, FOR THEIR SURVIVAL, THEY NEED TO GET INTO THE VILLAGES. THEY'RE IN A RACE AGAINST THE WINTER. THE WHOLE PLACE WAS JUST A BIG MUDDY QUAGMIRE. THERE'S A REFUGEE DOCTOR THERE, WHO SAID DIARRHEA IS QUITE PREVALENT AMONG CHILDREN, AS ARE INTESTINAL PROBLEMS. A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE TRAUMATIZED."

    TEXT: MR. COOK SAYS HE HAS MADE FIVE TRIPS TO KOSOVO SINCE MARCH, AND IN THE PAST FEW DAYS, HE SAW A "DIMINISHED PRESENCE" OF SERBIAN POLICE AND ARMY TROOPS ON THE MAIN ROADS AND IN THE TOWN AND VILLAGES. (OPT) BUT, HE ADDS, MANY KOSOVARS ARE TOO AFRAID TO RETURN HOME.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- COOK (0:37) "THEY DON'T TRUST THIS AGREEMENT IS GOING TO PROVIDE ANY TYPE OF PERMANENT SECURITY. THEY DON'T TRUST THE GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE AND [PRESIDENT] MILOSEVIC SPECIFICALLY. THERE ARE ALSO VERY STRONG INDICATIONS THAT THE CONFLICT WILL CONTINUE, PERHAPS ABATING NOW DURING THE WINTER MONTHS, BUT QUITE LIKELY TO START AGAIN IN THE SPRING. WE HEARD PEOPLE EXPRESS THEIR FEARS OF BEING ATTACKED FROM ALL SIDES -- LIKE PIGEONS. THEY THINK THAT THE SERBS ARE STILL HIDING OUT IN THE FORESTS, AND THEY DON'T FEEL THAT ASSURED BY THIS PULLOUT THAT, OF COURSE, IS BEING REPORTED NOW." (END OPT)

    TEXT: (OPT) KEVIN COOK SAYS HE WAS ALSO IN MONTENEGRO, WHERE THERE ARE ABOUT 50,000 REFUGEES, AND THEY ARE MORE ETHNICALLY MIXED THAN THOSE INTERNALLY DISPLACED WITHIN KOSOVO. ACCORDING TO MR. COOK, THERE ARE MANY SERBS AND ROMA, OR GYPSIES, IN MONTENEGRO, AS WELL AS ETHNIC ALBANIANS.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- COOK (0:18) "A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE GOTTEN INTO MONTENEGRO DON'T INTEND TO GO BACK TO KOSOVO. GENERALLY THE CONDITIONS ARE BETTER THERE. THEY'RE STILL DEPLORABLE IN TERMS OF OVERCROWDING AND LACK OF SANITATION. BUT, IN GENERAL, PEOPLE WHO WENT TO MONTENEGRO ARE INTENT ON STAYING THERE." (END OPT)

    TEXT: MR. COOK SAYS THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS WHO FLED THEIR HOMES TOLD HIM THEY COULD NOT FEEL SAFE UNLESS THERE WAS A PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE IN THEIR VILLAGES.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- COOK (0:55) "AND SO, ALTHOUGH THE AGREEMENT IS GOOD NEWS, THE DISTRUST AND THE DAMAGE AND THE HATRED ARE TOO DEEP FOR PEOPLE TO ACCEPT IT WITH MUCH OPTIMISM. THEY'VE BEEN UNDER THE THUMB OF THE SERB REGIME FOR 10 YEARS. THEY DON'T SEE ANY WAY OUT OF THIS, UNLESS THEY HAVE SOME RESTORATION OF THEIR HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOM. AND THAT'S A LONG WAYS OFF YET. (OPT) I THINK WHAT THEY WANTED ACTUALLY WAS FOR NATO TO DELIVER A DECISIVE BLOW TO THE SERBS, AND I THINK THEY WERE PREPARED TO SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES. IN THE LONG TERM, SPEAKING AS A HUMANITARIAN WORKER, I THINK IT'S BETTER THAT'S BEEN AVERTED, THAT WE CAN GET AID IN, AND GET THESE PEOPLE INTO THEIR HOMES. PERHAPS MOST OF THE PEOPLE'S LIVES WILL BE SAVED NOW. THE PEOPLE THEMSELVES BELIEVE THAT [MR.] MILOSEVIC HAS JUST MANEUVERED THE SERBS AROUND, AND THEY DON'T TRUST THAT THIS IS REALLY GOING TO ACHIEVE VERY MUCH." (END OPT)

    TEXT: KEVIN COOK OF WORLD VISION SAYS HE HOPES THE REDUCTION IN SERBIAN MILITARY AND POLICE FORCES IN KOSOVO HAS COME IN ENOUGH TIME TO AVERT A HUMAN CATASTROPHE.
    29-Oct-98 2:59 PM EST (1959 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] UNICEF / KOSOVO BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240881
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-N CHILDREN'S FUND, UNICEF, SAYS THE HALT TO FIGHTING IN SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE WILL ALLOW IT AND OTHER AID AGENCIES TO GET URGENTLY NEEDED RELIEF SUPPLIES TO TENS-OF-THOUSANDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS. LISA SCHLEIN REPORTS FROM GENEVA.

    TEXT: UNICEF SAYS U-N AID AGENCIES WILL WORK FEVERISHLY TO BRING CRITICALLY NEEDED HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE TO AN ESTIMATED 200-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN MADE HOMELESS BY THE WAR IN KOSOVO.

    THE HEAD OF UNICEF'S EMERGENCY PROGRAMS IN GENEVA, ABDUL HUSSEIN, SAYS FIGHTING HAD MADE IT DIFFICULT TO GET RELIEF SUPPLIES TO THOSE IN NEED. HE SAYS NOW THAT THE FIGHTING HAS STOPPED, AID AGENCIES WILL GET TO WORK IMMEDIATELY TO BRING IN HELP TO MEET THE MOST CRITICAL NEEDS -- SHELTER, FOOD, AND MEDICINE.

    /// HUSSEIN ACT ///

    TO ENSURE ONCE THESE MATERIALS ARE IN PLACE THAT THE NEEDY ARE FED, THAT THEY ARE SHELTERED, THAT THEY ARE TAKEN CARE OF MEDICALLY, AND THAT AT LEAST THEY WILL HOPEFULLY PASS THROUGH THIS WINTER IN A SITUATION IN WHICH THEY CAN SURVIVE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED NATIONS ESTIMATES ABOUT 15-THOUSAND HOMES WERE DESTROYED AND MANY OTHERS LOOTED AND DAMAGED SINCE THE KOSOVO CONFLICT BEGAN IN FEBRUARY. OFFICIALS ESTIMATE ABOUT 10-THOUSAND PEOPLE STILL ARE CAMPED OUT ON NEARBY MOUNTAINS. UNICEF SAYS DEHYDRATION, DIARRHEAL DISEASES, AND BRONCHIAL PNEUMONIA. ARE WIDESPREAD AMONG DISPLACED CHILDREN AND WOMEN.

    MR. HUSSEIN SAYS U-N AGENCIES DO NOT HAVE ENOUGH SUPPLIES TO MEET ALL THE NEEDS. BUT HE SAYS THE AGENCIES HOPE INTERNATIONAL DONORS WILL RESPOND GENEROUSLY TO ITS APPEAL FOR FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE. HE SAYS IF THE NEEDED RELIEF SUPPLIES ARE NOT IN PLACE WITHIN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS BEFORE WINTER SETS IN, THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO WILL FACE A DANGEROUS HUMANITARIAN SITUATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH/RAE
    29-Oct-98 8:13 AM EST (1313 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WHITHER KOSOVO? BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41722
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH THE IMMEDIATE THREAT OF NATO AIRSTRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAV FORCES AVERTED, THE FOCUS IS NOW SHIFTING TOWARD EFFORTS TO FORGE A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS. U-S ENVOY CHRISTOPHER HILL SAYS HE HOPES TO ACHIEVE AN AGREEMENT WITHIN THE NEXT TWO TO THREE WEEKS THAT WOULD SET THE STAGE FOR INTERNATIONALLY SUPERVISED ELECTIONS IN KOSOVO AND RESTORE A DEGREE OF AUTONOMY TO THE THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN MAJORITY IN THAT SERBIAN PROVINCE. BUT MANY BALKAN AFFAIRS EXPERTS SAY THE OUTLOOK FOR THE NEGOTIATIONS IS BLEAK, AS WE HEAR IN THIS REPORT FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: IT IS CLEAR TO MOST ANALYSTS THAT THE KOSOVAR ALBANIANS ARE DEEPLY DISAPPOINTED THAT NATO DID NOT CARRY OUT ITS THREATENED AIRSTRIKES.

    THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE WASHINGTON-BASED BALKAN ACTION COUNCIL, JAMES HOOPER, ARGUES THAT NATO MILITARY ACTION WOULD HAVE ENHANCED THE PROSPECTS FOR A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT.

    /// HOOPER ACT ///

    YES, IT WOULD HAVE BECAUSE IT WOULD HAVE SHOWN THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS THAT NATO WAS IN FACT PREPARED TO TAKE ITS ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY RESPONSIBILITIES SERIOUSLY, AND IT WOULD HAVE PUT MR. MILOSEVIC ON NOTICE THAT HE COULD NOT PUSH NATO AROUND ANYMORE.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-S MEDIATORS ARE NOW MOVING TO REVIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN BELGRADE AND THE MODERATE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP IN KOSOVO ON THE BASIS OF A DRAFT ACCORD SUBMITTED TO BOTH SIDES LAST SUMMER.

    IT IS DESCRIBED AS AN INTERIM AGREEMENT THAT WOULD DELAY A DECISION ON KOSOVO'S ULTIMATE POLITICAL STATUS FOR SEVERAL YEARS. ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERS HAVE ACCEPTED THAT ASPECT, BUT NOT THE AUTONOMY PROVISIONS CONTAINED IN THE AMERICAN DRAFT.

    JAMES HOOPER SAYS NO ONE IN THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP IS IS PREPARED TO ENDORSE THE PROPOSAL.

    ///HOOPER ACT///

    WELL, FIRST OF ALL, IT IS BILLED AS AUTONOMY PLUS; THAT IS (TO SAY) BETTER THAN THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS HAD BEFORE THEIR AUTONOMY WAS TAKEN AWAY FROM THEM AND A REPRESSIVE REGIME WAS INSTITUTED IN ITS PLACE BY BELGRADE. IN FACT, IT IS AUTONOMY MINUS. IT IS FAR FAR SHORT OF THE AUTONOMY THAT THEY ENJOYED BEFORE (1989).

    ///END ACT///

    ANOTHER BALKAN EXPERT, PAUL WILLIAMS, A PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AT WASHINGTON'S AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, AGREES. HE CALLS THE U-S PROPOSAL FLAWED.

    ///WILLIAMS ACT///

    AND SO SIMPLY PUT, IT WILL NOT PROTECT THE RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OR PROVIDE FOR A MEANS OF DEMOCRATIC GROWTH IN KOSOVO, AND IT WILL NOT SERVE AS A BASIS FOR A LONG TERM SOLUTION.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. WILLIAMS -- WHO HAS SERVED AS A LEGAL ADVISOR TO THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN "SHADOW" GOVERNMENT IN KOSOVO -- HAS PUT FORWARD AN ALTERNATIVE PLAN. IT IS BASED ON A CONCEPT HE CALLS INTERMEDIATE SOVEREIGNTY OR EARNED INDEPENDENCE. IT WOULD PROVIDE THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS WITH A BROAD DEGREE OF AUTONOMY, AND -- AFTER A PERIOD OF THREE TO FIVE YEARS -- ALLOW THEM TO APPLY FOR INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF AT LEAST SOME OF THE TRAPPINGS OF STATEHOOD.

    BUT U-S OFFICIALS ARGUE THAT THE PLAN IS UN-WORKABLE BECAUSE IT WOULD NEVER BE ACCEPTED BY THE MILOSEVIC GOVERNMENT IN BELGRADE. AND, AS U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE POINTS OUT, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOT PREPARED TO SUPPORT THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN DESIRE FOR INDEPENDENCE.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    THE BOUNDARIES OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA AS CURRENTLY SHOWN ON THE MAP ARE THE CORRECT BOUNDARIES, AND WE ARE NOT SUPPPORTING THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT FOR INDEPENDENCE ALTHOUGH I THINK EVERYONE WHO KNOWS THE KOSOVO ALBANIANS UNDERSTANDS THEIR DESIRE FOR IT AND HAS GREAT SYMPATHY FOR THE MOTIVATIONS THAT LED THEM THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE MOST FORCEFUL PROPONENTS OF INDEPENDENCE ARE THE GUERRILLAS OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY.

    THEY ARE NOW MOVING BACK INTO THE OPEN, STAKING CONTROL OF TERRITORY ABANDONED BY THE YUGOSLAV ARMY AND SERB PARAMILITARY FORCES.

    THE LOOMING QUESTION FOR MOST ANALYSTS NOW IS WHETHER THE REBELS WILL RESUME GUERRILLA ATTACKS, INVITING RETALIATION FROM YUGOSLAV FORCES AND EFFECTIVELY SCUTTLING HOPES FOR A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT.

    JAMES HOOPER BELIEVES THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF YUGOSLAV AND SERB FORCES IN KOSOVO IS BOUND TO PROVOKE ACTION BY THE GUERRILLAS, AND HE -- LIKE MANY ANALYSTS -- PREDICTS THE WAR WILL RESUME.

    /// HOOPER ACT ///

    SO IT IS JUST A TIME BOMB TICKING AWAY. IT IS INEVITABLE THAT THERE IS GOING TO BE A RESURGENCE OF FIGHTING.

    ///END ACT////

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THEY RECOGNIZE THE DANGERS OF THE SITUATION, AND THE OBSTACLES IN THE PATH OF A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT.

    AMBASSADOR HOLBROOKE SAYS THE KOSOVO EMERGENCY -- THE THREAT OF A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE -- APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN CONTAINED. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGES THAT THE DECADE-OLD KOSOVO CRISIS IS FAR FROM OVER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/KL
    29-Oct-98 12:39 PM EST (1739 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] EDITORIAL: ANNIVERSARY OF TURKISH REPUBLIC

    DATE= OCTOBER 30, 1998
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08031
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF THREE EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST OCTOBER 30, 1998.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    THIS MONTH, TURKEY IS CELEBRATING ITS SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY AS A REPUBLIC. LONG THE CENTER OF A GREAT EMPIRE, TURKEY HAS AN ANCIENT CULTURE AND HAS BEEN A UNITARY STATE FOR CENTURIES. BUT AS A REPUBLIC, TURKEY WAS BORN ON OCTOBER 29TH, 1923. ITS FIRST PRESIDENT WAS KEMAL ATATURK. UNDER HIS LEADERSHIP, TURKEY SEPARATED RELIGION FROM THE STATE AND RECOGNIZED THE CIVIL RIGHTS OF WOMEN, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO VOTE. TURKEY ALSO MOVED TO HEAL LONGSTANDING ANIMOSITIES WITH ITS NEIGHBORS -- A PROCESS THAT CONTINUES TODAY. AND IT MADE A STRATEGIC DECISION TO BE PART OF EUROPE.

    A LONGTIME FRIEND AND ALLY OF THE UNITED STATES, TURKEY JOINED THE NATO ALLIANCE IN 1952. THROUGHOUT THE COLD WAR, NATO BASES IN TURKEY WERE CRUCIAL TO THE DEFENSE OF WESTERN EUROPE AND THE U.S. TURKEY WAS ALSO AN INVALUABLE MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL COALITION THAT LIBERATED KUWAIT FROM BRUTAL IRAQI OCCUPATION IN 1991. TODAY, TURKEY REMAINS A VALUED MEMBER OF NATO. IT PROVIDES TROOPS TO UNITED NATIONS FORCES IN BOSNIA AND HAS WORKED CLOSELY WITH THE U.S. AND OTHER NATO MEMBERS ON KOSOVO.

    IN RECENT YEARS, TURKEY HAS MOVED AWAY FROM GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN THE ECONOMY AND PUT MORE EMPHASIS ON THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND MARKETS. TURKEY HAS OPENED ITSELF UP TO MORE INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT. THIS HAS LED TO A BOOM IN TURKISH TRADE WITH THE U.S. AND THE REST OF THE WORLD. THESE CHANGES HAVE HELPED TURKEY WEATHER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 1998 BETTER THAN MANY OTHER COUNTRIES. TURKEY MADE THE DECISION LONG AGO TO FACE WEST, TYING ITS SECURITY AND PROSPERITY TO DEMOCRACY AND OPEN MARKETS. TODAY, THE U.S. SUPPORTS TURKEY'S CANDIDACY FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON ASKED SECRETARY OF ENERGY BILL RICHARDSON TO REPRESENT HIM AT TURKEY'S ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION IN ANKARA, THE CAPITAL. THE U.S. AND TURKEY ARE PARTNERS ON CASPIAN BASIN AND OTHER ENERGY ISSUES. THE U.S. LOOKS FORWARD TO A CONTINUING STRONG FRIENDSHIP WITH TURKEY.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    29-Oct-98 12:25 PM EST (1725 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY / CASPIAN OIL (L-ONLY) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240916
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A PROPOSED OIL PIPELINE THAT WOULD RUN FROM THE CASPIAN SEAPORT OF BAKU THROUGH TO THE TURKISH PORT OF CEYHAN ON THE MEDITERRANEAN COULD BE A STEP CLOSER TO REALITY, FOLLOWING THE SIGNING THURSDAY OF A DECLARATION OF SUPPORT FOR THE PROJECT BY FIVE COUNTRIES IN THE REGION. TURKEY AND THE UNITED STATES ARE STRONGLY BACKING THE PLAN, BUT AS CORRESPONDENT NICK SIMEONE REPORTS, WHETHER OIL COMPANIES WILL DO SO REMAINS AN OPEN QUESTION.

    TEXT: DESPITE A STRONG SHOW OF POLITICAL WILL BACKING THE PROJECT IN TURKEY, OIL-INDUSTRY ANALYSTS SAY IT IS TOO EARLY TO SAY WHETHER THE BAKU TO CEYHAN PIPELINE, WITH AN ESTIMATED COST OF FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS, WILL EVER GET BEYOND THE DRAWING BOARD.

    ROBERT BARTON IS AN EDITOR AT THE ENERGY INTELLIGENCE GROUP, WHICH COVERS THE OIL-AND-GAS INDUSTRY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION.

    /// BARTON ACT ///

    THAT'S A VERY EXPENSIVE PIPELINE. THE MOST ECONOMICAL ROUTE I THINK ANYONE WILL TELL YOU -- EVEN U-S COMPANIES, IF THEY ARE TALKING OFF THE RECORD -- IS THROUGH IRAN. POLITICALLY IT'S MORE DIFFICULT. THE ARGUMENT FOR BAKU-CEYHAN AT THIS POINT IS THAT THE POLITICAL MOMENTUM IS THERE. PRESIDENT (HEYDAR) ALIYEV WANTS IT ON THE PART OF AZERBAIJAN. TURKEY WANTS IT, THE U-S WANTS VERY MUCH TO HAVE MULTIPLE PIPELINE ROUTES OUT OF THE CASPIAN. THEY DON'T WANT ANY PIPELINES GOING THROUGH IRAN. THEY DON'T WANT ALL OF THE PIPELINES AND OIL GOING THROUGH RUSSIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    TO ENTICE AMERICAN OIL COMPANIES, THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEY HAVE OFFERED FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR THE PROJECT. BUT CHEVRON, WHICH IS NOW PUMPING MORE THAN 200-THOUSAND BARRELS OF OIL A DAY AT A FIELD IN TENGIZ, KAZAKHSTAN, IS ALREADY PLANNING TO USE A DIFFERENT PIPELINE, NOW IN THE FINAL STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. THAT ROUTE WOULD CARRY OIL FROM KAZAKHSTAN THROUGH TO RUSSIA'S BLACK SEA PORT OF NOVOROSSIYSK. CHEVRON SPOKESMAN MIKE LIBBEY:

    // LIBBEY ACT //

    IN REALITY, THE CASPIAN PIPELINE IS WITHIN JUST A FEW MONTHS OF ACTUALLY LETTING [GRANTING] CONTRACTS TO BUY PIPE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THAT LINE TO NOVOROSSIYSK, AND THAT IS THE NEAR-TERM PROJECT THAT IS CERTAINLY GOING TO COME TO REALITY FIRST.

    // END ACT //

    EVEN THOSE WHO HAVE A VESTED FINANCIAL INTEREST IN THE BAKU-CEYHAN ROUTE -- SUCH AS THE GOVERNMENT OF AZERBAIJAN -- ARE UNCERTAIN ABOUT ITS FUTURE. ELIN SULEYMANOV IS A SPOKESMAN FOR THE AZERBAIJAN EMBASSY HERE IN WASHINGTON.

    /// SULEYMANOV ACT ///

    WORKING GROUPS ARE STILL WORKING ON THE FINAL DECISIONS, SO IT'S EARLY TO SAY ANYTHING IN THIS RESPECT. BUT OIL COMPANIES HAVE NOT SUBMITTED YET THEIR RECOMMENDATIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DECISION ON WHETHER TO GO AHEAD WITH THE BAKU-TO-CEYHAN ROUTE IS LOADED WITH POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR BOTH TURKEY AND AZERBAIJAN, TWO COUNTRIES IN AN UNSTABLE REGION THAT APPEAR TO CONSIDER THE PIPELINE A WAY TO FURTHER CEMENT TIES TO THE WEST. A DECISION BY OIL COMPANIES ON WHETHER TO BACK THE PIPELINE IS EXPECTED NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/WTW
    29-Oct-98 6:10 PM EST (2310 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] TURKEY PIPELINE (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240889
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY ON THURSDAY TOOK ANOTHER STEP FORWARD IN ITS STRATEGIC GOAL OF BECOMING THE MAIN EXPORT ROUTE FOR VAST RESERVES OF OFF-SHORE OIL FROM THE CASPIAN SEA. FOUR LEADERS FROM FORMER SOVIET STATES GATHERED IN ANKARA TO SIGN A DECLARATION OF SUPPORT FOR A PIPELINE TO CARRY THE OIL TO TURKEY'S SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN PORT OF CEYHAN. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE SIGNING CEREMONY COINCIDES WITH CELEBRATIONS MARKING THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING OF THE TURKISH REPUBLIC.

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENTS OF AZERBAIJAN, UZBEKISTAN, KAZAKHSTAN AND GEORGIA SIGNED THE DECLARATION OF SUPPORT FOR A PROPOSED PIPELINE TO CARRY OFFSHORE CASPIAN CRUDE FROM THE AZERBAIJANI CAPITAL BAKU TO TURKEY'S PORT OF CEYHAN. THE SIGNING TOOK PLACE IN A SPECIAL CEREMONY AT THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT BUILDING.

    U-S ENERGY SECRETARY BILL RICHARDSON WAS PRESENT TO UNDERSCORE WASHINGTON'S FIRM BACKING FOR THE PROJECT, WHICH IS AIMED AT REDUCING RUSSIA'S INFLUENCE OVER THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT FORMER SOVIET STATES.

    MR RICHARDSON SAID, IN HIS WORDS, THAT THE ISSUE IS NOT WHETHER THE BAKU-CEYHAN PIPELINE IS GOING TO HAPPEN -- BECAUSE IT IS GOING TO HAPPEN. THE ISSUE, HE SAID, IS HOW.

    THE AZERBAIJANI PRESIDENT HAYDAR ALIYEV SAID THAT IT WAS UP TO HIS GOVERNMENT TO DECIDE WHICH COUNTRY ITS OIL WOULD BE EXPORTED THROUGH.

    A GROUP OF WESTERN OIL COMPANIES KNOWN COLLECTIVELY AS THE A-I-O-C ARE DEVELOPING THREE OFFSHORE CASPIAN FIELDS NEAR BAKU WHICH WILL PRODUCE THE OIL. THE A-I-O-C IS EXPECTED TO MAKE A RECOMMENDATION BY THE MIDDLE OF NEXT MONTH ON WHICH ROUTE IT BELIEVES THE PIPELINE SHOULD FOLLOW. THERE HAVE BEEN WIDESPREAD MEDIA REPORTS THAT RATHER THAN GOING TO TURKEY, THE WESTERN CONSORTIUM FAVORS EXPORTING THE OIL THROUGH A PIPELINE THAT WOULD RUN FROM BAKU TO GEORGIA'S BLACK SEA PORT OF SUPSA. NEWS REPORTS SUGGEST THE OIL COMPANIES FAVOR THE GEORGIAN ROUTE BECAUSE THAT PIPELINE MIGHT BE CHEAPER TO BUILD.

    BUT SOME ANALYSTS SAY THURSDAY'S DECLARATION BY THE FOUR HEADS OF STATE IN FAVOR OF THE BAKU-CEYHAN ROUTE IS A CLEAR SIGNAL TO THE A-I-O-C TO OPT FOR TURKEY AS THE MAIN EXPORT DESTINATION ROUTE.

    WASHINGTON HAS STRONGLY BACKED TURKEY'S CAMPAIGN TO BECOME A STRATEGIC ENERGY BRIDGE FOR CASPIAN SEA OIL AND GAS IN PART, SAY ANALYSTS, BECAUSE THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT WANT IT TO BE PIPED THROUGH IRAN -- ANOTHER COUNTRY VYING TO BECOME THE MAIN EXPORT ROUTE. RUSSIA, WHICH WANTS TO RETAIN ITS INFLUENCE OVER ITS FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS, REMAINS STRONGLY OPPOSED TO THE BAKU-CEYHAN ROUTE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    29-Oct-98 9:56 AM EST (1456 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-240915
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP STRONGLY TODAY (THURSDAY) AS AN INFECTIOUS OPTIMISM SWEPT WALL STREET. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 84 HUNDRED 95, UP 123 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT ONE THOUSAND 85, UP 17 POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY TRADERS WERE OPTIMISTIC ABOUT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SITUATION, ESPECIALLY IN LATIN AMERICA WHERE THE BRAZILIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ANNOUNCED AUSTERITY MEASURES. THERE WAS ALSO A STRONG MOVEMENT BACK INTO STOCKS BY MANY MUTUAL FUND MANAGERS.

    THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS FILING CLAIMS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS LAST WEEK DROPPED SHARPLY, INDICATING A CONTINUED STRONG JOB MARKET. HOWEVER, A NATIONAL SURVEY SHOWS HELP WANTED ADVERTISING IN U-S NEWSPAPERS FELL SLIGHTLY IN SEPTEMBER.

    ///REST OPT///

    KEN GOLDSTEIN, AN ECONOMIST WITH THE CONFERENCE BOARD RESEARCH GROUP WHICH PREPARES THE SURVEY, SAYS IT INDICATES SOME CONCERN ABOUT A U-S ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN NEXT YEAR.

    ///GOLDSTEIN ACT///

    THERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF HYSTERIA OUT THERE ABOUT SOMETHING THAT MAY DEVELOP IN 1999. IT IS CAUSING SOME NERVOUSNESS, SOME JITTERS AND LEADING PEOPLE TO TAKE VERY CAUTIOUS STANDS.

    ///END ACT///

    C-B-S, WHICH OPERATES A MAJOR AMERICAN TELEVISION NETWORK, REPORTED A 43-MILLION DOLLAR LOSS IN THE THIRD QUARTER BUT IT WAS A BIG IMPROVEMENT OVER A 162 MILLION DOLLAR LOSS A YEAR AGO. THE ANNOUNCEMENT CAME A DAY AFTER C-B-S ANNOUNCED THAT MEL KARMAZIN WILL REPLACE MICHAEL JORDAN AS COMPANY CHIEF EXECUTIVE WHEN MR. JORDAN RETIRES IN JANUARY.

    THE M-C-I WORLDCOM CORPORATION REPORTED AN ALMOST THREE BILLION DOLLAR QUARTERLY LOSS. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THAT WAS EXPECTED AS A RESULT OF CHARGES RELATED TO THE MERGER OF THE TWO TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES. HOECHST, THE GERMAN DRUG AND CHEMICAL COMPANY, HAS SOLD ITS HERBERTS COATINGS DIVISION TO THE DUPONT CHEMICAL COMPANY OF THE UNITED STATES. DUPONT IS PAYING ONE POINT NINE BILLION DOLLARS AND THE ACQUISITION WILL MAKE DUPONT THE WORLD'S THIRD-LARGEST MAKER OF AUTOMOTIVE COATING PRODUCTS.

    I-B-M HAS INTRODUCED THE CHEAPEST PERSONAL COMPUTER IN THE WORLD. PRICED AT JUST UNDER 600 DOLLARS, THE APTIVA MODEL WILL BE AIMED AT FIRST-TIME COMPUTER BUYERS, ESPECIALLY CHILDREN AND GRANDPARENTS. I-B-M SAYS RETIRED AMERICANS ARE ONE OF THE FASTEST GROWING SEGMENTS OF THE PERSONAL COMPUTER MARKET.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WFR
    29-Oct-98 5:01 PM EST (2201 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/29/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10981
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    [EDITORS: DUE TO TIMING OF GLENN LIFT OFF - - BE PREPARED TO AMEND THIS SCRIPT TO CONFORM TO DEVELOPMENTS. ]

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - D - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: THE SECOND SPACE FLIGHT OF VETERAN ASTRONAUT AND NOW U-S SENATOR JOHN GLENN IS A MAJOR TOPIC OF MANY U-S EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS THURSDAY, THE SCHEDULED DAY OF HIS LAUNCH.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE RULING BY A BRITISH HIGH COURT, INVALIDATING THE ARREST ORDER ON CHILE'S AUGUSTO PINOCHET; WHY AID TO RUSSIA IS SO CRUCIAL; RETHINKING POLICY TOWARD CUBA; AND THE PENDING U-S CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION APPEARS TO BE POISED TO MAINTAIN THE STATUS QUO. NOW, HERE WITH US IS _________________________ WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FORMER U-S ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN, THE FIRST MAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH FOR THIS COUNTRY, AND NOW AGE 77, IS POISED TO FLY INTO SPACE AGAIN // HAS ROCKETED INTO ORBIT. OSTENSIVELY, HIS MISSION IS TO TEST THE EFFECTS OF SPACE TRAVEL ON AN ELDERLY PERSON, BUT MOST AMERICANS SEE THIS AS A TRIBUTE TO A TRUE AMERICAN HERO. WHILE THERE IS SOME SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE VALUE OF THE FLIGHT IN SOME EDITORIALS, THERE IS ALSO MUCH AGREEMENT THAT THE NOSTALGIA OF THE EVENT WILL BOOST THE NATION'S SPIRITS. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" REMEMBERS THAT HISTORIC 1962 FIRST ORBITAL FLIGHT.

    VOICE: IT IS HARD TO RECAPTURE, SO LONG AFTER THE EVENT, WHAT A GALVANIZING EFFECT JOHN GLENN'S FIRST RIDE INTO ORBIT HAD ON AN APPREHENSIVE NATION. /// OPT /// IN THE YEARS BEFORE THAT TRIUMPH, AMERICANS HAD BEEN PLUNGED INTO SELF-DOUBT BY THE SOVIET UNION'S SUCCESS IN ORBITING AN UNMANNED SPUTNIK SATELLITE AND THEN TWO RUSSIAN COSMONAUTS, WHILE A SUCCESSION OF AMERICAN ROCKETS EXPLODED OR MISFIRED. THEN, ON FEBRUARY 20, 1962, THE FRECKLE-FACED, SQUARE-JAWED MARINE FLIER GOT AMERICA BACK IN THE SPACE RACE ...... NOW [HOWEVER] ... /// END OPT /// THERE IS SOMETHING A LITTLE SAD - - EVEN DESPERATE - - ABOUT ALL THE HOOPLA [PUBLICITY] SURROUNDING THIS OTHERWISE UNREMARKABLE FLIGHT. IT IS AS IF A NATION THAT NO LONGER HAS [PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL HERO, ST. LOUIS CARDINALS FIRST BASEMAN AND RECORD-BREAKING 70 HOMER RUN HITTER] MARK MCGWIRE AND [CHICAGO CUB HOME RUN HITTER RECORD RUNNER-UP] SAMMY SOSA TO CHEER ON SEEMS DETERMINED TO WALLOW IN NOSTALGIA WHILE MR. GLENN AND THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRY TO REKINDLE PAST GLORIES. /// OPT /// THE IRONY OF THIS MUCH-BALLYHOOED [PUBLICIZED] FLIGHT IS THAT IS MAY DO MORE TO COMBAT AGEISM [AGE DISCRIMINATION] ON THE GROUND THAN TO RESISTER NEW TRIUMPHS IN SPACE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE MIAMI HERALD" ALSO IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE MISSION, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THIS [THE ATTENTION TO THE MISSION] IS ALL VERY INTERESTING, BUT NASA NEEDS MORE THAN A FLEETING MOMENT'S ADORATION GENERATED BY THE RETURN TO SPACE OF THE FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH. /// END OPT /// HAVING JOHN GLENN ABOARD CREATES A FASCINATING MIX OF NOSTALGIA, EGO, AND ERSATZ SCIENCE. ..... WHEREAS THE SPACE PROGRAM ONCE FIRED THE IMAGINATION WITH THE PROSPECT OF EXPLORATION OF THE COSMOS AND A SEARCH FOR ANSWERS TO THE MYSTERIES OF THE UNIVERSE, ITS REALITY HAS BEEN MORE LIKE A SHUTTLE BUS TO A NEARBY [EDITORS: SHOPPING] MALL. /// OPT /// ... WITH OR WITHOUT JOHN GLENN, NASA DESPERATELY NEEDS TO FIND THE RIGHT STUFF. [EDITORS NOTE: "THE RIGHT STUFF" WAS A PHRASE INVENTED TO EXPRESS THE EXCEPTIONAL PHYSICAL, MENTAL, MECHANICAL AND EMOTIONAL TALENTS AND STRENGTHS NEEDED TO BECOME AMONG THE NATION'S FIRST ASTRONAUTS] /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THERE IS SWIFT REACTION TO THE RULING BY ENGLAND'S HIGH COURT WEDNESDAY THAT THE SPANISH ARREST ORDER FOR EX-CHILEAN DICTATOR, GENERAL AUGUSTO PINOCHET, IS NOT VALID. THE "MIAMI (FLORIDA) HERALD" HAS THESE THOUGHTS.

    VOICE: THE DARING ARREST OF ..... AUGUSTO PINOCHET IN A LONDON HOSPITAL ON OCTOBER 16 [TH] INSPIRED MANY. INDEED, IT'S A HEADY, HEARTENING THOUGHT THAT TYRANTS WHO KIDNAP, TORTURE, AND KILL CAN BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE - - PERHAPS TOO MUCH TO HOPE FOR IN A WORLD THAT EMBRACES THE PRINCIPLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS BUT SHRINKS AT IMPLEMENTING IT. /// OPT /// SO IT IS THAT BRITAIN'S HIGH COURT YESTERDAY RULED .... THE ARREST ... WAS UNLAWFUL. .... THOSE WHO ARGUE ... GENERAL PINOCHET SAVED CHILE FROM COMMUNISM RARELY RECKON WITH HIS CRUSHING OF DEMOCRACY TO DO SO. DID HE REDEEM HIMSELF WHEN HE RELINQUISHED POWER AFTER 17 YEARS? APPARENTLY HE DIDN'T THINK SO. HE ORDERED CHILE'S CONSTITUTION REWRITTEN TO GIVE HIM THE LIFELONG IMMUNITY THAT A BRITISH COURT UNACCOUNTABLY FINDS BINDING ON BRITAIN AS WELL. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" IS FRUSTRATED AT WHAT IT BELIEVES IS A "MISGUIDED" OPINION BY THE BRITISH JURISTS.

    VOICE: ... THE REAL PROBLEM WITH THE DECISION WAS THAT INTERNATIONAL LAW - - THE BASIS OF SPAIN'S EXTRADITION REQUEST - - WAS APPARENTLY NOT EVEN CONSIDERED BY THE COURT. /// OPT /// ... BRITAIN HAS SIGNED AND RATIFIED INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AGAINST TORTURE AND GENOCIDE. THESE ALLOW PROSECUTION OF GENOCIDE AND WIDESPREAD TORTURE - - INCLUDING BY LEADERS - - NOT MATTER WHERE IN THE WORLD THEY ARE COMMITTED. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: BOTH "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" AND "BALTIMORE SUN" ARE WORRIED ABOUT THE SITUATION IN RUSSIA, FROM FOOD SHORTAGES TO THE LEADERSHIP VACUUM CAUSED BY BORIS YELTSIN'S ON-GOING ILLNESSES. "THE TIMES" NOTES:

    VOICE: THIS WEEK RUSSIA FORMALLY ASKED FOR SHIPMENTS OF AMERICAN MEAT, RICE AND OTHER FOOD TO HELP GET ITS 150 MILLION PEOPLE THROUGH WHAT IS SHAPING UP AS AN ESPECIALLY BLEAK WINTER. MOSCOW DOES NOT HAVE THE MONEY TO PAY FOR WHAT IT NEEDS, SO THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND CONGRESS WILL HAVE TO SET GENEROUS TERMS. THERE'S NO QUESTION THAT GIVING HUMANITARIAN HELP WOULD SERVE U-S INTERESTS. /// OPT /// .... FOR ALL ITS WEAKNESSES, NUCLEAR-ARMED RUSSIA CONTINUES TO OCCUPY A LARGE PLACE ON THE WORLD'S POLITICAL STAGE, A COUNTRY WHOSE COOPERATION WITH THE WEST REMAINS OF KEY IMPORTANCE WHEN GLOBAL CRISES OCCUR. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AS REGARDS MR. YELTSIN'S FUTURE, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE ADDS:

    VOICE: THE PATTERN ESTABLISHED UNDER SOVIET RULE CONTINUES: RUSSIA IS ONCE AGAIN ON AUTOPILOT, LED BY A DODDERING PRESIDENT. SURROGATES INSIST EVERYTHING IS NORMAL ... BUT PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS BECOME A FIGUREHEAD AS HIS FALTERING HEALTH HAS FORCED FREQUENT ABSENCES FROM PUBLIC LIFE. /// OPT /// COULD THIS CONTINUE UNTIL THE SUMMER OF TWO-THOUSAND, WHEN MR. YELTSIN'S TERM ENDS? JUDGING FROM THE MARKED DETERIORATION OF MR. YELTSIN'S CONDITION, THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS A SOURCE OF CONCERN. /// END OPT ///

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION" IS SUPPORTING THE POSSIBILITY OF RETHINKING THIS NATION'S POLICY TOWARD CUBA.

    VOICE: AFTER PURSUING A RELENTLESSLY HOSTILE POLICY TOWARD CUBA FOR NEARLY FOUR DECADES WITH NOTHING TO SHOW FOR IT, ISN'T IT TIME WASHINGTON RETHOUGHT ITS STRATEGY REGARDING ITS STUBBORNLY COMMUNIST NEIGHBOR? THAT IS THE EMINENTLY SENSIBLE RECOMMENDATION OF A GROUP OF STATESMEN FROM PAST REPUBLICAN ADMINISTRATIONS, LED BY FORMER SECRETARIES OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER AND LAWRENCE EAGLEBURGER. /// OPT /// IN THE U-S SENATE, JOHN WARNER, REPUBLICAN OF VIRGINIA, IS ROUNDING UP SUPPORT TO TURN THE PROPOSAL INTO A REALITY. /// END OPT /// .... THE KEY TO BREAKING HIS [PREMIER FIDEL CASTRO'S] HOLD OVER HIS ISLAND-NATION IS MORE AMERICAN-CUBAN CONTACT, NOT LESS.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IN BOSTON, COMMENTING ON NEXT TUESDAY'S CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION, WONDERS WHETHER IT WILL BE "STATUS QUO - - OR SURPRISES?"

    VOICE: THE NATION APPEARS HEADED FOR AN ELECTION IN WHICH VOTERS OPT FOR THE STATUS QUO, RETURNING INCUMBENTS TO OFFICE. WHILE THE PARTY OUT OF THE WHITE HOUSE OFTEN WINS BIG IN THE SIXTH YEAR OF A PRESIDENCY, REPUBLICANS ARE PROBABLY NOT ON THE VERGE OF SUCH GAINS, ESPECIALLY IN THE HOUSE. /// OPT /// ..... THAT'S WHY THE WHITE HOUSE AND CONGRESSIONAL DEMOCRATS ARE BATTLING TO MOTIVATE SUCH CORE CONSTITUENCIES AS MINORITIES AND 'WAITRESS MOMS.' ..... GIVEN THE UNCERTAINTY OF TURNOUT AND THE PREDOMINANCE OF LOCAL ISSUES IN THIS YEAR'S RACES, ONE THING IS CERTAIN: SOME SERIOUS SURPRISES ARE IN THE OFFING. THAT'S WHY ALL REGISTERED VOTERS SHOULD DO THEIR DUTY AS CITIZENS AND GO TO THE POLLS NOVEMBER THIRD. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: WITH THAT, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF TODAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    29-Oct-98 11:11 AM EST (1611 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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