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Voice of America, 98-11-20

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO TRIALS (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [02] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [03] TURKEY/ITALY/KURDS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] TURKEY / TERRORISM - CQ BY CHALLISS MCDONOUGH (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] U-N / TORTURE (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [06] E-U-SOUTH AFRICA TRADE (L ONLY) - CQ BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [07] FRANCE / GREENS (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [09] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] BRITAIN / IRAQ (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [11] UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO - CHICAGO BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

  • [01] KOSOVO TRIALS (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241950
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE TERRORISM TRIALS BEING HELD IN KOSOVO FOR HUNDREDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS. PHILIP SMUCKER IN KOSOVO'S CAPITAL, PRISTINA, REPORTS THE U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE TRIALS ARE BEING CONDUCTED HASTILY AND THE EVIDENCE LEADING TO CONVICTIONS IS OFTEN DUBIOUS.

    TEXT: HUNDREDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE ON TRIAL IN KOSOVO, ACCUSED OF HAVING LINKS TO THE REBEL KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY (K-L-A). U-N OFFICIALS MONITORING DEVELOPMENTS SAY THAT UP TO FOUR TRIALS A DAY ARE BEING CONDUCTED IN SOME TOWNS.

    THE U-N OFFICIALS CHARGE THAT ETHNIC ALBANIAN PRISONERS OFTEN ARE TORTURED AND BEATEN BEFORE AND AFTER THEIR TRIALS. AND THEY SAY THAT STANDARDS OF EVIDENCE VARY FROM ONE KOSOVO COURT TO ANOTHER.

    THE U-N OFFICIALS ALSO ARE QUESTIONING ONE PROCEDURE TO GET SOME OF THE EVIDENCE.

    A KEY PIECE OF EVIDENCE LEADING TO THE ARREST AND CONVICTION OF MANY TERRORIST SUSPECTS HAS BEEN WHAT SERBIAN OFFICIALS CALL A "PARAFFIN GLOVE." WAX IS APPLIED TO THE HANDS AND FACE OF SUSPECTS TO DETECT RESIDUE FROM FIRE ARMS.

    BUT A U-N HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICIAL IN BELGRADE, BARBARA DAVIS, SAYS THE PARAFFIN GLOVE TEST IS NOT ACCURATE. SHE SAYS THAT A POSITIVE TEST COULD MEAN ONLY THAT THE SUSPECT WAS NEAR A GUNFIGHT OR WAS SMOKING A CIGARETTE.

    SERB OFFICIALS SAY THE NATURE OF THE YEAR-LONG WAR IN KOSOVO HAS MADE IT DIFFICULT TO CAPTURE K-L-A SUSPECTS. BUT THEY INSIST THAT SPEEDY TRIALS ARE NECESSARY TO RUN THROUGH A LIST OF NEARLY 18-HUNDRED SUSPECTS.

    INTERNATIONAL MONITORS SAY THAT A BROAD SERBIAN INTERPRETATION OF A LAW ABOUT AIDING AND ABETTING TERRORISM HAS LED TO QUICK CONVICTIONS. BUT THEY SAY IT ALSO HAS OFTEN LED TO THE ARREST OF INNOCENT PERSONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PS/JWH
    20-Nov-98 10:38 AM EST (1538 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] NATO / KOSOVO (L) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241968
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE OF KOSOVO, WHERE MR. SOLANA SAYS THERE COULD BE A NEW OUTBREAK OF FIGHTING IN THE SPRING. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS DURING HIS TALKS WITH SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT, MR. SOLANA SAID WESTERN GOVERNMENTS NEED TO STEP UP THE PRESSURE FOR A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    HE SAYS THE PRESSURE SHOULD BE EXERTED NOW -- DURING THE WINTER MONTHS -- WHILE THE TWO SIDES ARE SOMEWHAT RELAXED. MR. SOLANA SAYS EVEN AN INTERIM AGREEMENT COULD WELL PREVENT A NEW ROUND OF FIGHTING IN THE SPRING.

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT SAYS SHE IS CONCERNED ABOUT REPORTS THAT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS ONCE AGAIN BEEFING UP HIS SPECIAL POLICE FORCES IN KOSOVO.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    MILOSEVIC, WHO IS THE BASIC REASON FOR THE PROBLEM, IS THICKENING [STRENGTHENING] SOME OF HIS (SPECIAL) FORCES AND THAT IS CONTRARY TO THE AGREEMENT THAT HAS BEEN MADE.

    /// END ACT ///

    UNDER TERMS OF AN AGREEMENT NEGOTIATED BY U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE LAST MONTH, SERBIAN SPECIAL POLICE UNITS ARE TO BE WITHDRAWN FROM KOSOVO.

    MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS TRYING TO IMPRESS ON THE ETHNIC-ALBANIAN KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY THAT IT WILL LOSE SUPPORT IN THE WEST IF IT CONTINUES TO CARRY OUT WHAT SHE CALLS PROVOCATIVE ACTS.

    NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDER, U-S GENERAL WESLEY CLARK, HAS ACCUSED BOTH SIDES OF VIOLATING THE AGREEMENT WORKED OUT BY MR. HOLBROOKE.

    SEVERAL SERB POLICEMEN WERE REPORTED KILLED AND SEVERAL WOUNDED IN THE LATEST INCIDENT IN SERB-RULED KOSOVO, WHERE HUNDREDS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS WERE KILLED DURING A GOVERNMENT CRACKDOWN BETWEEN FEBRUARY AND OCTOBER. MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE IN THE PROVINCE ARE ETHNIC ALBANIAN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/WTW
    20-Nov-98 4:24 PM EST (2124 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] TURKEY/ITALY/KURDS BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41928
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ITALIAN AND TURKISH GOVERNMENTS ARE EMBROILED IN AN INCREASINGLY VOLATILE CONFRONTATION OVER ROME'S REFUSAL TO EXTRADITE TURKEY'S KURDISH GUERRILLA LEADER, ABDULLAH OCALAN (OH-JA-LAHN). ITALIAN LAW PROHIBITS EXTRADITION TO COUNTRIES THAT HAVE THE DEATH PENALTY. TURKEY IS THREATENING A FULL-SCALE BOYCOTT OF ITALIAN IMPORTS, AND EVEN RAISED THE POSSIBILITY OF A BREAK IN DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. ITALY SAYS IT WILL NOT BE INTIMIDATED AS IT CONSIDERS MR. OCALAN'S REQUEST FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM. MEANWHILE, THE ISSUE HAS INFLAMED PASSIONS AMONG THE MILLIONS OF TURKISH AND KURDISH EMIGRANTS IN EUROPE -- WITH DEMONSTRATIONS AND COUNTER-DEMONSTRATIONS IN MANY CAPITALS. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS TAKES A LOOK AT THE ISSUE.

    TEXT: ABDULLAH OCALAN HAS TOPPED THE ANKARA GOVERNMENT'S "MOST WANTED" LIST FOR THE PAST 14 YEARS. AS LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K, HE HAS WAGED AN OFTEN BRUTAL STRUGGLE AGAINST TURKISH TROOPS IN THE PREDOMINANTLY KURDISH AREAS OF SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY.

    BULENT ALIREZA, OF THE WASHINGTON CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, SAYS MR. OCALAN HAS BECOME A POTENT SYMBOL OF TERRORISM FOR THE TURKISH PEOPLE.

    ///ALIREZA ACT///

    IN HIS PERSON, HE REPRESENTS ALL THAT WAS WRONG IN THE PAST 14 YEARS, WHICH WAS THAT A MARXIST DREAMER NAMED OCALAN BEGAN THIS CAMPAIGN WHICH HAS COST THE LIVES OF 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE. HE HAS FAILED, BUT IN THE PROCESS IT HAS COST TURKEY A HUGE AMOUNT OF MONEY, AS WELL AS THE HUMAN CASUALTIES, AND HE IS BLAMED FOR HIS PURSUIT OF A CRAZY DREAM OF BREAKING TURKEY UP INTO WHAT OCALAN WOULD CALL ITS ETHNIC COMPONENTS.

    ///END ACT///

    BY ALL ACCOUNTS, MR. OCALAN --"APO" AS HE IS KNOWN -- IS A RUTHLESS CHARACTER, WHO HAS REPUTEDLY MURDERED SEVERAL RIVALS, AND WHOSE TACTICS IN THE WAR AGAINST TURKEY HAVE EARNED HIM A PLACE ON THE UNITED STATES' LIST OF TERRORISTS.

    BUT FOR MANY KURDS, HE IS REGARDED AS A SAVIOR AND A POTENT SYMBOL OF THE KURDISH DREAM OF SELF-DETERMINATION AND STATEHOOD. MIKE AMITAY, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF WASHINGTON'S KURDISH INSTITUTE, SAYS THIS SENTIMENT IS LARGELY THE FAULT OF THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT, WHICH CONTINUES TO REPRESS THE KURDS AND HAS EFFECTIVELY SILENCED THEIR MODERATE LEADERS.

    ///AMITAY ACT///

    HE (OCALAN) HAS DEVELOPED A SORT OF KURDISH FOLK HERO STATUS BY DEFAULT, IF YOU WILL. BUT THE P-K-K IN MY MIND IS BEING KEPT ALIVE BY THE GOVERNMENT OF TURKEY AS WELL. THIS IS THE BOOGEYMAN (IMAGINARY MONSTER) THAT THEY CAN USE TO JUSTIFY SPENDING 20 PERCENT OF THEIR G-N-P ON DEFENSE, FOR KEEPING THE MILITARY FIRMLY IN CONTROL OF POLITICS IN THE COUNTRY. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT NEEDS "APO" AND THE P-K-K PERHAPS MORE THAN THE KURDISH PEOPLE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. OCALAN'S ARRIVAL IN ROME (NOVEMBER 12TH) CAME JUST WEEKS AFTER TURKEY SUCCEEDED IN PRESSING SYRIA TO DENY THE P-K-K BASES ON ITS TERRITORY AND IN NEIGHBORING LEBANON. BULENT ALIREZA SAYS MOST TURKS BELIEVED THE LONG PURSUIT OF THE GUERRILLA LEADER WAS NEARING A SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION.

    ///ALIREZA ACT///

    THERE WAS EUPHORIA WHEN OCALAN WAS DETAINED IN ROME, AND THE EXPECTATION WAS THAT HE WOULD BE RETURNED WITHIN A FEW DAYS. AND NOW THERE IS THIS DEEP DISAPPOINTMENT, WHICH HAS TURNED TO ANGER AGAINST ITALY PRIMARILY -- AND AGAINST THE WEST, I AM AFRAID -- FOR ITS FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE TURKISH CASE. AND I THINK ALMOST ANYTHING SHORT OF WAR BETWEEN TURKEY AND ITALY IS POSSIBLE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. ALIREZA BELIEVES THE WEAKNESS OF THE PRESENT TURKISH GOVERNMENT, WHICH FACES A NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE NEXT WEEK, MAY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE HARSHNESS OF ANKARA'S RESPONSE TO ITALY. BUT HE SAYS THERE IS NO PROSPECT OF A MAJOR POLICY SHIFT NO MATTER WHO HEADS THE GOVERNMENT. AND HE SAYS ANKARA'S THREATS OF AN ECONOMIC BOYCOTT OR EVEN A BREAK IN DIPLOMATIC TIES WITH ROME SHOULD BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY.

    ///ALIREZA ACT///

    THE PROBLEM IS THAT TURKEY FEELS TOTALLY JUSTIFIED IN ITS POSITION, THAT IT IS INVOLVED IN A VITAL LIFE-DEATH STRUGGLE AGAINST THE P-K-K, WHICH IT BELIEVES IT IS ON THE VERGE OF WINNING. AND SUDDENLY IT SEES ONE OF ITS NATO PARTNERS, ONE OF ITS WOULD-BE PARTNERS IN THE E-U -- IF EVER IT JOINS THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY -- GIVING SHELTER TO A MAN WHO HAS BEEN STRUGGLING TO UNDERMINE THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF TURKEY.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. ALIREZA SAYS THERE IS MUCH RESIDUAL ANGER AMONG TURKEY'S LEADERS OVER THE E-U'S REJECTION OF ITS MEMBERSHIP BID JUST UNDER A YEAR AGO. BUT MIKE AMITAY SAYS IT IS PRECISELY THE KURDISH ISSUE THAT HAS BLOCKED TURKEY'S APPLICATION.

    ///AMITAY///

    TURKEY IS AN ASPIRING ENTRANT INTO THE E-U, AND THEY HAVE TO MAKE IMPROVEMENTS IN THEIR HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD BEFORE THIS HAPPENS. BUT THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO IMPROVE THEIR HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD UNTIL THEY FACE THE KURDISH PROBLEM IN A REALISTIC PERSPECTIVE. IT IS NOT A MILITARY PROBLEM. THEY CAN NOT DEFEAT THE IDEA THAT PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS. I MEAN THAT IS NOT SOMETHING YOU CAN KILL WITH A TANK. AND SO UNTIL THEY FACE THIS REALIZATION, THERE WILL NOT BE PEACE IN THE SOUTHEAST OF TURKEY, AND THERE WILL NOT BE POLITICAL STABILITY IN TURKEY.

    ///END ACT///

    WHILE THEY DISAGREE ON MANY POINTS, MIKE AMITAY AND BULENT ALIREZA SHARE THE VIEW THAT THERE IS NO EASY WAY OUT OF THE PRESENT CRISIS BETWEEN TURKEY AND ITALY. AND BOTH BELIEVE THAT RESOLVING THE FATE OF ABDULLAH OCALAN COULD TAKE MONTHS OR EVEN YEARS.(SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JO
    20-Nov-98 2:08 PM EST (1908 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] TURKEY / TERRORISM - CQ BY CHALLISS MCDONOUGH (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241948
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: (EDS: IN THE THIRD GRAF OF THE TEXT -- AFTER THE FIRST ILKIN ACT PLEASE MAKE IT READ, "MR. OCALAN HAS APPLIED FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM IN ITALY..." RATHER THAN AS PREVIOUSLY SENT IN IN CR 2-241910, ISSUED 11/19/98. NO OTHER CHANGES.

    INTRO: ITALIAN AUTHORITIES LAST WEEK ARRESTED TURKEY'S MOST WANTED FUGITIVE, THE LEADER OF KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K. THE P-K-K SEEKS KURDISH SELF-RULE, AND WAGED A GUERRILLA WAR AGAINST TURKEY FROM NEIGHBORING SYRIA UNTIL DAMASCUS CUT TIES WITH THE GROUP LAST MONTH. P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN (OH'-JAH-LAHN) WAS CAUGHT IN ROME NOVEMBER 13TH, AFTER ARRIVING FROM MOSCOW CARRYING A FALSE PASSPORT. V-O-A'S CHALLISS MCDONOUGH REPORTS THE TURKISH AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES BRIEFED REPORTERS IN WASHINGTON (THURSDAY) ABOUT TURKEY'S EFFORTS TO EXTRADITE MR. OCALAN.

    TEXT: THE TURKISH AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, BAKI ILKIN (BAH-KEE' EEL'-KIHN), SAYS THE THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, THE P-K-K, HAS KILLED MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE SINCE ABDULLAH OCALAN FORMED IT IN 1978.

    MR. ILKIN URGED ITALY TO EXTRADITE THE REBEL LEADER TO TURKEY TO STAND TRIAL ON CHARGES OF TERRORISM AND TREASON.

    // ILKIN ACT //

    WE ALL KNOW THAT ITALY ITSELF HAS SUFFERED TREMENDOUSLY FROM THE SCOURGE OF TERRORISM IN THE RECENT PAST. IT MUST, THEREFORE, SURELY UNDERSTAND HOW TURKS EVERYWHERE FEEL ABOUT THIS BRUTAL TERRORIST. I WOULD LIKE TO REMAIN OPTIMISTIC THAT ITALY WILL EXERCISE SOUND AND WISE JUDGMENT IN RENDERING THE RIGHT DECISION IN THIS MATTER.

    // END ACT //

    MR. OCALAN HAS APPLIED FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM IN ITALY BECAUSE HE COULD FACE THE DEATH PENALTY IF HE IS CONVICTED IN ANKARA. ITALIAN LAW FORBIDS EXTRADITION TO COUNTRIES THAT USE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. BUT MR. ILKIN SAYS TURKEY HAS NOT EXECUTED ANY PRISONERS SINCE 1984. HE SAYS THE REBEL LEADER WOULD RECEIVE A FAIR TRIAL IN AN INDEPENDENT TURKISH COURT.

    THE AMBASSADOR SAYS REFUSAL TO EXTRADITE MR. OCALAN COULD SERIOUSLY STRAIN TURKISH RELATIONS WITH ITALY.

    // ILKIN ACT //

    COMBATTING TERRORISM IS ON TOP OF TURKEY'S AGENDA, AND WE HAVE SUFFERED ENOUGH. WE WOULD TEST OUR FRIENDS WITH THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARD THE P-K-K, AND THAT WOULD BE THE DETERMINING FACTOR OF OUR FRIENDSHIP WITH COUNTRY A, B, X, Y, BE IT ITALY OR ANY OTHERS. THIS IS AN ISSUE OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE, IT IS A CRUCIAL ISSUE.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    MR. ILKIN SAYS MR. OCALAN'S ARREST HAS THROWN THE P-K-K LEADERSHIP INTO A STATE OF CONFUSION BECAUSE THERE IS NOT ANYONE IN A POSITION TO REPLACE HIM IMMEDIATELY.

    // OPT ILKIN ACT //

    HE DOES NOT ALLOW ANYONE TO REACH A STAGE OR POSITION WITHIN THE P-K-K THAT WOULD CHALLENGE HIS AUTHORITY. SO HE HAS MANAGED TO ELIMINATE -- NOT POLITICALLY, PHYSICALLY -- MOST OF HIS FELLOW -- HOW SHALL I SAY? -- BIRDS OF THE SAME FEATHER ON HIS WAY IN THE LAST 15-YEARS.

    // END ACT & END OPT //

    MR. ILKIN INDICATED SWEDEN MAY WANT TO EXTRADITE THE REBEL LEADER AS WELL.

    ROME HAS ASKED THE EUROPEAN UNION FOR SUPPORT IN RESISTING TURKISH EXTRADITION EFFORTS, BUT THE UNION HAS TRIED TO STAY OUT OF THE DISPUTE. ITS MEMBERS DO NOT AGREE ON WHETHER THE P-K-K IS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. THE AMBASSADOR SAYS TURKISH AND ITALIAN OFFICIALS ARE HOLDING HIGH-LEVEL TALKS ABOUT THE ISSUE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CEM/RAE
    20-Nov-98 9:21 AM EST (1421 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] U-N / TORTURE (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241961
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE SAYS THERE HAS BEEN A SHARP INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS OF ALLEGED TORTURE THAT IT IS RECEIVING. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE COMMITTEE -- WHICH MONITORS COMPLIANCE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY AGAINST TORTURE -- SAYS IT IS PARTICULARLY CONCERNED BY CHARGES FROM HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS ABOUT THE ALLEGED USE OF TORTURE BY POLICE IN YUGOSLAVIA.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAVIA DENIES ITS POLICE OFFICERS HAVE ENGAGED IN TORTURE OR ILL-TREATMENT OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN THE SERBIAN PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. BUT IT SAYS THAT ON OCCASION THE AUTHORITIES HAVE HAD TO TAKE, WHAT IT CALLS, "APPROPRIATE MEASURES" TO SUPPRESS TERRORISM BY ETHNIC ALBANIAN REBELS. HOWEVER, THE U-N COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE SAYS NOTHING CAN JUSTIFY THE USE OF TORTURE, EVEN TERRORIST ACTIONS.

    THE COMMITTEE ALSO SAYS IT IS CONCERNED THAT YUGOSLAVIA APPARENTLY PERMITS TAINTED EVIDENCE -- CONFESSIONS OBTAINED UNDER DURESS -- TO BE USED IN COURT. AND IT DENOUNCES THE PRACTICE OF DETAINING PEOPLE FOR 72 HOURS WITHOUT ACCESS TO AN ATTORNEY OR AN INVESTIGATING JUDGE.

    THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE, CANADIAN JURIST PETER BURNS, SAYS THERE IS A DISCREPANCY BETWEEN YUGOSLAVIA'S STATEMENT THAT IT IS IMPLEMENTING THE TREATY AGAINST TORTURE AND, WHAT HE CALLS, THE APPARENT REALITY OF ABUSE.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    THESE CONCERNS INCLUDE CONCERNS OVER ALLEGATION OF TORTURE AND BRUTALITY BY THE POLICE AND ITS SPECIAL UNITS, PARTICULARLY IN KOSOVO AND SANDJAK, ACTS OF TORTURE THAT WERE ALLEGED INCLUDING BEATINGS BY FISTS AND BEATINGS BY WOODEN OR METALLIC CLUBS RESULTING IN MUTILATIONS AND DEATHS IN SOME CASES.

    /// END ACT ///

    COMMITTEE EXPERTS ALSO HAD HARSH STATEMENTS ABOUT ALLEGATIONS OF TORTURE IN CROATIA. THEY SAY AN AMNESTY LAW ADOPTED BY CROATIA IN 1996 -- WHICH FORGIVES MANY ACTS OF TORTURE -- VIOLATES THE INTERNATIONAL TORTURE TREATY.

    THE COMMITTEE ALSO SAYS CONDITIONS IN NORTHERN IRELAND HAVE IMPROVED SINCE APPROVAL OF THE GOOD FRIDAY PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT, IT SAYS SOME OF BRITAIN'S LAWS STILL CONFLICT WITH THE TREATY. THE EXPERTS EXPRESS CONCERN ABOUT THE CONTINUED USE OF DETENTION CENTERS IN NORTHERN IRELAND, THE CONTINUED USE OF PLASTIC BULLETS AS A MEANS OF RIOT CONTROL, AND THE CONTINUED USE AS EVIDENCE OF CONFESSIONS OBTAINED UNDER WHAT THEY CALL DOUBTFUL CIRCUMSTANCES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    20-Nov-98 2:00 PM EST (1900 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] E-U-SOUTH AFRICA TRADE (L ONLY) - CQ BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241962
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: (EDS: IN 3RD GRAF OF TEXT, PLEASE MAKE IT READ "...SHERRY AND PORT WINE EXPORTS..." INSERTING WORD DROPPED IN PREVIOUSLY-SENT CR 2-241956.)

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS IMPROVED ITS OFFER TO SOUTH AFRICA IN AN EFFORT TO NEGOTIATE A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT. BUT AS V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS, SOME OLD ISSUES STILL BLOCK AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE TWO PARTIES.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION HOPES TO HAVE A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WITH SOUTH AFRICA TO PRESENT TO ITS FOREIGN MINISTERS WHEN THEY MEET ON DECEMBER SEVENTH. IN AN EFFORT TO SPEED THE TALKS ALONG, THE EUROPEAN UNION IS OFFERING TO REDUCE TARIFFS ON SOUTH AFRICAN EXPORTS OF DRIED FRUIT, FLOWERS AND CANNED GOODS.

    //OPT//

    EUROPEAN UNION NEGOTIATOR PHILIP LOWE DESCRIBES THE EFFECT A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WOULD HAVE, IF SOUTH AFRICA ACCEPTS THE EUROPEAN UNION OFFER.

    ///LOWE ACT///

    THE EFFECT OF THE E-U'S OFFER ... IS THAT WE WOULD FULLY LIBERALIZE, AFTER 10 YEARS, AROUND 95 PERCENT OF ALL CURRENT TRADE, ALL EXPORTS OF SOUTH AFRICA TO THE EUROPEAN UNION. AND AS FAR AS THE AGRICULTURAL SIDE IS CONCERNED -- AND THIS IS A VERY SIGNIFICANT PROPOSAL COMPARED WITH OTHER E-U AGREEMENTS WITH THIRD COUNTRIES -- SOMETHING LIKE 73 PERCENT OF SOUTH AFRICA'S AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS TO THE EUROPEAN UNION WOULD BE LIBERALIZED.

    ///END ACT/////END OPT//

    HOWEVER, THE NEGOTIATIONS HAVE STALLED BECAUSE SOUTH AFRICA WILL NOT ACCEPT EUROPEAN DEMANDS THAT IT STOP CALLING ITS SHERRY AND PORT WINE EXPORTS BY THOSE NAMES. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL WANT EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS TO USE THOSE PRODUCT NAMES. AT THE SAME TIME, SPAIN AND PORTUGAL WANT BETTER ACCESS TO SOUTH AFRICAN FISHING WATERS. SOUTH AFRICA WANTS TO CONSERVE ITS RESOURCES. TEXTILES REMAINS A SENSITIVE ISSUE FOR BOTH SIDES.

    //OPT//

    SOUTH AFRICA'S NEGOTIATOR, AMBASSADOR ELIAS LINKS, SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT WANTS TO PROTECT ITS TEXTILE INDUSTRY FROM EUROPEAN EXPORTS.

    /// LINKS ACT///

    AS FAR AS TEXTILES IS CONCERNED, WE'VE BEEN ON RECORD AS SENSITIZING THE WORLD OUT THERE AND SHOWING THE EUROPEANS HOW SENSITIVE THIS AREA IS FOR US AND WE IN OUR NEGOTIATIONS HAVE REPEATEDLY PLEADED FOR TREATMENT THAT IS COMMENSURATE WITH THE SENSITIVITY LEVEL OF THIS VERY IMPORTANT SECTOR FOR SOUTH AFRICA.

    ///END ACT/////END OPT//

    WHILE THE TECHNICAL NEGOTIATIONS CONTINUE NEXT WEEK, BOTH SIDES BELIEVE IT WILL TAKE TALKS AT THE HIGHER, MINISTER LEVEL TO GET A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BY THE FIRST WEEK IN DECEMBER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF
    20-Nov-98 1:54 PM EST (1854 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] FRANCE / GREENS (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241940
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: THIS SPOT WILL HOLD THROUGH WEEKEND USE///

    INTRO: FRANCE'S RULING LEFT-WING COALITION IS TROUBLED BY THE RETURN TO THE POLITICAL SCENE OF DANIEL COHN-BENDIT, THE BEST KNOWN LEADER OF THE MAY 1968 STUDENT UNREST THAT NEARLY TOPPLED THEN-PRESIDENT CHARLES DE GAULLE. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: AT 53-YEARS-OLD, DANIEL COHN-BENDIT HAS SHOWN THE FRENCH THAT HE HAS LOST NONE OF THE BOLDNESS AND INSOLENCE THAT MADE HIS FACE FAMOUS ACROSS THE WORLD 30 YEARS AGO. IN 1968, AS FRANCE GROUND TO A HALT BEFORE STUDENTS' AND WORKERS' RIOTS, MR. COHN-BENDIT'S CHEERFUL DEFIANCE OF AUTHORITY MARKED HIM OUT AS A PHOTOGRAPHERS' FAVORITE DURING THOSE WEEKS OF TURMOIL.

    AS A GERMAN NATIONAL, THE MAN KNOWN AS "DANY THE RED" -- A NICKNAME REFLECTING THE COLOR OF HIS HAIR, AND HIS POLITICS -- WAS BANNED FROM VISITING FRANCE THROUGHOUT THE 1970S. ENTERING GERMAN POLITICS AS A MEMBER OF THE ECOLOGIST "GREENS," HE ROSE TO BECOME AN ASSISTANT MAYOR OF THE CITY OF FRANKFURT. NOW, MR. COHN-BENDIT IS BACK IN FRENCH POLITICS. BENEFITING FROM A EUROPEAN UNION LAW THAT ALLOWS CITIZENS OF E-U STATES TO RUN FOR ELECTION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT IN ANY COUNTRY OF THEIR CHOICE, HE HAS BEEN CHOSEN TO HEAD THE FRENCH GREENS' CAMPAIGN FOR THE EUROPEAN ASSEMBLY POLL NEXT JUNE.

    HIS RETURN TO THE FRENCH POLITICAL SCENE HAS BEEN BOISTEROUS ONE. AND HIS FIRST STEPS HAVE ANGERED THE SOCIALIST PRIME MINISTER, LIONEL JOSPIN.

    AT A GREENS' CONGRESS, MR. COHN-BENDIT TOUCHED ON TWO FORBIDDEN THEMES. FIRST, HE SAID HE HOPES MR. JOSPIN WILL BE THE NEXT PRESIDENT OF FRANCE. HE ALSO ADVISED THE PRIME MINISTER TO SETTLE THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS IN FRANCE BY GRANTING LEGAL RESIDENCE PAPERS TO ALL THOSE ALREADY IN THE COUNTRY.

    THE GREENS' LEADER -- FRENCH ENVIRONMENT MINISTER DOMINIQUE VOYNET -- THEN SAID SHE TOO BACKED THE LEGALIZATION OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS.

    MR. JOSPIN LONG AGO TOLD HIS CLOSEST ALLIES NEVER TO TALK ABOUT A PRESIDENTIAL BID. IN PARLIAMENT, MR. JOSPIN SAID THOSE WHO TRIED TO INFLUENCE THE GOVERNMENT'S HANDLING OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION WERE "IRRESPONSIBLE." THE ENVIRONMENT MINISTER, AND THEN MR. COHN-BENDIT, SAID THEY WOULD NOT TAKE LESSONS FROM ANYONE.

    MR. COHN-BENDIT'S DECLARED AIM IS TO MAKE THE FRENCH GREENS' PARTY THE SECOND BIGGEST ON THE FRENCH LEFT, DISPLACING THE COMMUNIST PARTY, WHICH CURRENTLY HAS FOUR MINISTERS IN MR. JOSPIN'S GOVERNMENT. THIS, TOO, IS CREATING TENSIONS WITHIN THE GOVERNMENT COALITION.

    AS MR. COHN-BENDIT SHOWS NO SIGN OF TAKING A BACK SEAT, THE NEXT SEVEN MONTHS OF THE CAMPAIGN FOR THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT -- A SECOND-RANKING POLITICAL EVENT THAT IS USUALLY EXCEEDINGLY DULL ARE SET TO BE UNUSUALLY LIVELY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF/KL
    20-Nov-98 6:45 AM EST (1145 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241970
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE STRONGLY HIGHER FRIDAY, ENDING A VERY POSITIVE WEEK FOR U-S FINANCIAL MARKETS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 91-HUNDRED-59, UP 103 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 240 POINTS, OR ALMOST THREE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 11-HUNDRED-63, UP 11 POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS, ESPECIALLY MUTUAL FUND MANAGERS, WERE BUYING STOCKS IN AN EFFORT TO ENSURE THEY ARE NOT LEFT OUT OF THE CURRENT RALLY. WALL STREET TRADERS HAVE BEEN THAT THE INTEREST RATE CUT BY THE U-S CENTRAL BANK EARLIER THIS WEEK WILL SPARK ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    // OPT //

    MANY ANALYSTS, SUCH AS DON HAYES OF THE WHEAT FIRST UNION INVESTMENT COMPANY, SAY STOCKS SHOULD PERFORM WELL IN THE NEAR FUTURE.

    /// HAYES ACT ///

    THE TREND SHOULD CONTINUE NEXT WEEK. WE HAVE A LOT OF BULLISHNESS AND OPTIMISM. BUT I AM NOT EXPECTING A STRAIGHT UP [SHARPLY HIGHER] MARKET, BECAUSE I THINK THE DOW JONES IS STILL VERY OVERVALUED.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    A SURVEY BY THE U-S CENTRAL BANK SHOWS MANY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE TIGHTENED THEIR LENDING POLICIES IN THE PAST THREE MONTHS. BUT THE SURVEY INDICATES THAT WHILE BANKS ARE WARY ABOUT LENDING TO SOME BUSINESS CUSTOMERS, MOST CONSUMERS STILL HAVE NO TROUBLE OBTAINING CREDIT.

    /// REST OPT ///

    U-S STATE GOVERNMENTS HAVE UNANIMOUSLY AGREED TO ACCEPT 206-BILLION DOLLARS FROM TOBACCO COMPANIES TO SETTLE LEGAL CLAIMS BY THE STATES. THE MONEY WILL HELP COVER THE COSTS OF TREATING SMOKING-RELATED ILLNESSES. THE DEAL ALSO RESTRICTS MARKETING ACTIVITIES SUCH AS THE USE OF T-SHIRTS, CAPS AND OTHER CLOTHING TO PROMOTE CIGARETTE BRANDS.

    NORTHWEST AIRLINES SAYS IT HAS COMPLETED ITS ACQUISITION OF A MAJORITY VOTING STAKE IN CONTINENTAL AIRLINES. HOWEVER, THE DEAL COULD BE UNDONE BY A U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT COMPLAINT THAT THE DEAL IS ANTI-COMPETITIVE.

    THE MICROSOFT COMPANY SAYS IT WILL OBEY A COURT ORDER WHICH REQUIRES IT TO MAKE SOME CHANGES IN ITS WINDOWS-98 COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM. A JUDGE RULED THAT MICROSOFT APPEARED TO HAVE VIOLATED AN AGREEMENT WITH THE SUN MICROSYSTEMS COMPANY REGARDING USE OF SUN'S JAVA COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. MICROSOFT SAYS THE CHANGES WILL HAVE NO REAL IMPACT ON USERS OF WINDOWS-98. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WTW
    20-Nov-98 5:06 PM EST (2206 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11016
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - S - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: ONE SINGLE STORY DOMINATES THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS IN FRIDAY'S U-S PAPERS, THE LONG-AWAITED TESTIMONY OF SPECIAL PROSECUTOR KENNETH STARR BEFORE THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE, WHICH IS CONSIDERING THE POSSIBLE IMPEACHMENT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON.

    THERE ARE OTHER TOPICS, AND THEY INCLUDE: THE ECONOMIC WOES OF BRAZIL, JAPAN AND THE THREAT OF PROTECTIONISM, AS COUNTRIES TRY TO FIGHT THEIR WAY OUT OF RECESSION. THERE ARE ALSO COMMENTS ON U-S DEALINGS WITH IRAQ; AND THE BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES TRIALS. NOW, HERE WITH A SAMPLING, IS _______________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE MUCH ANTICIPATED TESTIMONY OF KENNETH STARR LASTED ALMOST TWELVE HOURS. DURING THAT TIME, FOR THE MOST PART, THE LAWYERLY MR. STARR, A FORMER U-S SOLICITOR GENERAL, REMAINED CALM, COOL AND COLLECTED, ACCORDING TO MANY ACCOUNTS. REGARDING WHAT HE SAID, THERE IS THIS REACTION FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES," WHICH SUGGESTS THERE WAS "NO NEW EVIDENCE."

    VOICE: ON THE CORE QUESTION OF WHETHER PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MISCONDUCT IN OFFICE MERITS IMPEACHMENT, THE TESTIMONY OF KENNETH STARR BROUGHT MORE CLARITY THAN MOST AMERICANS COULD HAVE EXPECTED. THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL OUTLINED HIS CASE ... BUT HE BROUGHT THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE NO NEW EVIDENCE BEYOND THAT OFFERED IN HIS SEPTEMBER 9 [TH] REFERRAL. .... NOW, AS THEN, THE CORRECT CONCLUSION IS THAT CONDEMNATION THROUGH FORMAL CONGRESSIONAL CENSURE IS THE PROPER PUNISHMENT FOR MR. CLINTON, NOT IMPEACHMENT ..... /// OPT /// MR. STARR HANDLED HIMSELF BETTER THAN DEMOCRATS HAD HOPED IN RESPONDING TO CHARGES OF COLLUSION WITH THE JONES LAWYERS, THE BLUDGEONING OF WITNESSES AND IDEOLOGICAL OBSESSIVENESS. BUT SERIOUS QUESTIONS REMAIN ABOUT HIS PROSECUTORIAL CONDUCT, INCLUDING HIS HANDLING OF LINDA TRIPP AND HER TAPES [OF TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONS WITH MONICA LEWINSKY.] /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: FOR THE NATIONAL DAILY, "USA TODAY" THE HEARING SWEPT AWAY A LOT OF THE TALK ABOUT THE SEXUAL ASPECT OF THE SCANDAL AND REMINDED AMERICA OF THE CORE ISSUES.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// ... THURSDAY'S TELEVISED HOUSE IMPEACHMENT HEARING DID WHAT MONTHS OF PUBLIC ARGUMENT HAD NOT. IT FOCUSED THE IMPEACHMENT PROBE ON THE CORE ISSUE: WHETHER PRESIDENT CLINTON COMMITTED PERJURY, ABUSED HIS OFFICE OR OBSTRUCTED JUSTICE IN A WAY THAT JUSTIFIES REMOVING HIM FROM OFFICE. /// END OPT /// SEX WASN'T EVEN MENTIONED UNTIL THE HEARING WAS MORE THAN FIVE HOURS OLD AND BARELY AT ALL THEREAFTER. ... THERE IS ROOM TO ARGUE WHETHER THE PRESIDENT BROKE THE LAW OR ARTFULLY SKIRTED IT. THERE IS ALSO ROOM TO ARGUE WHETHER HIS ACTS, LEGAL OR NOT, WARRANT IMPEACHMENT. THERE IS, IN FACT, A VITAL NEED FOR THE PUBLIC TO HEAR THAT DISCUSSION.

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" SAYS MR. STARR "MADE A COMPELLING CASE ... FOR THE SERIOUSNESS OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MISDEEDS."

    /// OPT ///

    IN MAINE,"THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" WANTED TO HEAR EVEN MORE OF WHAT MR. STARR HAD TO SAY.

    VOICE: THE ALLEGATIONS ARE AS SERIOUS TODAY AS WHEN THEY WERE FIRST MADE. /// OPT /// ALSO SERIOUS ARE ALLEGATIONS THAT [MR.] STARR OVERSTEPPED HIS AUTHORITY DURING THE ... INVESTIGATION. YET, REPRESENTATIVE HENRY HYDE ...HAS DECIDED TO PUT THIS MATTER ON A FAST TRACK, LIMITING DISCUSSION OF THE CASE AGAINST THE PRESIDENT.

    /// END OPT ///

    .... THE LIMITS PLACED ON ... TESTIMONY DID THE NATION A DISSERVICE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" WAS UPSET AT THE TACTICS OF THE COMMITTEE'S DEMOCRATS.

    VOICE: IT'S NOT THAT THE DEMOCRATS ON THE HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE WEREN'T ABLE TO UNDERMINE THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED BY MR. STARR - - THEY DIDN'T EVEN TRY,. INSTEAD THEY ENGAGED IN A PERSISTENT CAMPAIGN OF VILIFICATION, EMPLOYING THE HEARINGS IN THE ONGOING EFFORT TO DISCREDIT THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL OFFICES FOR ANY NUMBER OF BOGUS [UNFOUNDED] ALLEGATIONS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL TOPICS, THE WORRY CONTINUES THAT JAPAN IS STILL NOT TAKING STRONG ENOUGH STEPS TO WREST ITSELF OUT OF THE ECONOMIC DOLDRUMS. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WRITES:

    VOICE: JAPAN HAS RECENTLY DONE MUCH BETTER AT ANNOUNCING ECONOMIC REPAIR PLANS THAN PUTTING THEM INTO EFFECT. THE GOVERNMENT'S 195-BILLION DOLLAR ECONOMIC STIMULUS PACKAGE ... GOT A TEPID RECEPTION IN PART BECAUSE OF DOUBTS ABOUT DETAILS AND WHETHER THE GOVERNMENT WILL FOLLOW THROUGH ON ITS PROMISES. EVEN IF IT DOES, MORE IS LIKELY TO BE NEEDED. STRUCTURAL REFORMS MUST BE MADE TO PROMOTE COMPETITION, AND JAPAN'S BANKING MESS MUST BE DEALT WITH.

    TEXT: /// OPT /// "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS ALSO WORRIED ABOUT JAPAN, CONCERNED THAT TOKYO WILL USE PROTECTIONISM TO TRY TO EXPORT ITS WAY BACK TO PROSPERITY.

    VOICE: THE LAST THING THE TOUCHY WORLD ECONOMY NEEDS IS A REPEAT OF THAT. PRESIDENT CLINTON FULLY UNDERSTANDS THE ILLS OF PROTECTIONISM, AND THAT'S A BIG REASON WHY HE IS AGAIN IN TOKYO, PRESSING THE JAPANESE TO CARRY OUT BANKING AND DEREGULATORY REFORMS, OPEN UP MARKETS AND CREATE AN ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH CONSUMERS FEEL CONFIDENT ENOUGH TO SPEND. ... TOKYO NEEDS TO STIMULATE ITS ECONOMY RATHER THAN HUNKER DOWN IN FEAR AND PARALYSIS.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: STILL IN WORLD ECONOMICS, "THE WASHINGTON POST" CASTS A WORRIED EYE TOWARD LATIN AMERICAN GIANT BRAZIL, WHICH THE PAPER SAYS:

    VOICE: ... IS NO LATIN RUSSIA OR INDONESIA. BUT IT NEEDS CAPITAL AND IS VULNERABLE TO THE JANGLY NERVES OF INVESTORS AND SPECULATORS TOUCHED BY A GLOBAL CONTAGION PHENOMENON. HENCE THE PLAN ORGANIZED BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (I-M-F) AND THE UNITED STATES NOT SO MUCH TO RESCUE BRAZIL AS TO PREEMPT A COMING CRISIS WITH A BOLD 41-POINT-FIVE BILLION DOLLAR LOAN PACKAGE. /// OPT /// THE I-M-F'S OWN REPUTATION IS VERY MUCH ON THE LINE. AS AN ORGANIZATION WITH OFTEN-SECRETIVE WAYS .... IT IS ON THE DEFENSIVE TO EXPLAIN ITS STYLE AND 'CULTURE' AND TO JUSTIFY THE ADVICE AND MONEY IT PROVIDES AND THE DISCIPLINE AND SOCIAL COSTS IT INFLICTS. ...THE DEBATE IS WELCOME. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AS REGARDS LAST WEEK'S CONFRONTATION WITH SADDAM HUSSEIN, AND PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ANNOUNCED MOVE TO BOLSTER THE IRAQI OPPOSITION WITH 100-MILLION DOLLARS OF EQUIPMENT, "THE NEW YORK POST" IS HIGHLY SKEPTICAL.

    VOICE: IN PRINCIPLE, OF COURSE, THERE IS NOTHING WRONG WITH HELPING ARM AND TRAIN DISSIDENT MOVEMENTS WHO AIM TO OVERTHROW EVIL, ANTI-AMERICAN REGIMES. ... BUT ENCOURAGING - - OR SEEMING TO ENCOURAGE - - OTHERS TO UNDERTAKE DANGEROUS AND DIFFICULT MILITARY OPERATIONS TO SERVE U-S POLICY GOALS HAS RESULTED IN SOME OF THE MOST SHAMEFUL EPISODES IN AMERICAN DIPLOMATIC HISTORY. /// OPT /// IN 1956, FOR EXAMPLE, RADIO FREE EUROPE (R-F-E) ENCOURAGED HUNGARIANS TO RISE UP AGAINST THE SOVIET PUPPETS RULING THEIR NATION. THE BROADCASTS LED THE FREEDOM FIGHTERS TO BELIEVE THEY COULD EXPECT U-S MILITARY SUPPORT. ...BUT THE U-S MADE NO MILITARY EFFORT TO ASSIST THE HUNGARIANS - - WHO WERE RUTHLESSLY CRUSHED. ... THE RECORD GIVES AMPLE REASON FOR IRAQIS TO QUESTION AMERICA'S MOTIVES NOW. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" IS PARTIALLY PLEASED WITH THE RESULTS SO FAR OF THE BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES TRIALS IN THE NETHERLANDS, BUT FAULTS THE PROCEEDINGS FOR THE ALMOST COMPLETE LACK OF SERBIAN DEFENDANTS CONVICTED.

    VOICE: AFTER 20 MONTHS OF TRIAL HEARINGS, THE VERDICT OF 'GUILTY' FOR THREE BOSNIAN WAR CAMP OFFICIALS CHARGED WITH MURDER CAME AS ONLY A PARTIAL TRIUMPH OF JUSTICE. .... BUT REMARKABLY ABSENT IN THE CONVICTION LINEUP FOR BOSNIAN WAR CRIMES WERE ANY SERBIAN SUPERIOR OFFICERS. TWO OF THE CONVICTED WERE MUSLIMS, THE OTHER WAS A CROAT. .... SO CONGRATULATIONS, SORT OF, TO THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR GUILTY VERDICTS FOR THREE OF THE BOSNIAN WAR CRIME LORDS. BEFORE EXTENDING THE HEARTIEST HANDSHAKE TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT, THOUGH, REMEMBER THE PEOPLE MOST DRASTICALLY AFFECTED BY THE WAR, AND ASK WHY THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR DEATHS ARE STILL ON THE LOOSE.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    20-Nov-98 11:13 AM EST (1613 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] BRITAIN / IRAQ (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=11/20/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-241954
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN'S FOREIGN OFFICE IS HOSTING A MEETING OF IRAQI OPPOSITION GROUPS TO RE-ENFORCE BRITISH SUPPORT FOR THEIR STRUGGLE TO CHANGE THE GOVERNMENT IN BAGHDAD. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS THIS MEETING HAS TAKEN ON MORE SIGNIFICANCE AFTER PUBLIC STATEMENTS OF SUPPORT FROM BOTH U-S PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON AND BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR.

    TEXT: A SPOKESMAN FOR THE FOREIGN OFFICE SAYS 15 GROUPS HAVE BEEN INVITED TO SEND REPRESENTATIVES TO THE MEETING, WHICH WILL TAKE PLACE MONDAY IN LONDON. BRITAIN HAS HELD SIMILAR MEETINGS DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS.

    BUT NABIL MUSAWI OF THE IRAQI NATIONAL CONGRESS SAYS THIS MEETING TAKES ON ADDED IMPORTANCE IN THE WAKE OF SADDAM HUSSEIN'S LATEST CONFRONTATION WITH THE UNITED NATIONS. MR. MUSAWI WILL REPRESENT THE IRAQI NATIONAL CONFERENCE AT THE MEETING.

    /// MUSAWI ACT ///

    THIS ONE IS DIFFERENT IN LIGHT OF STATEMENT MADE BY PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR IN PARLIAMENT REGARDING THE BRITISH INTENTION OF HELPING, AS HE CALLED IT, THE FORCES OF DEMOCRATIC CHANGE IN IRAQ AND TO DISCUSS WAYS IN WHICH BRITISH GOVERNMENT CAN HELP THE IRAQI OPPOSITION TO ADVANCE ITS CAUSE. PLUS, THE FACT THAT THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT HAS ALREADY STATED ITS POSITION THAT IT INTENDS TO FULLY SUPPORT THE IRAQI NATIONAL CONGRESS POLITICALLY, FINANCIALLY AND MILITARILY TO CARRY OUT CHANGE INSIDE IRAQ.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MUSAWI SAYS THE HIGH-LEVEL U-S AND BRITISH STATEMENTS ARE THE CLEAREST SIGNS OF SUPPORT FOR EFFORTS TO OUST SADDAM HUSSEIN SINCE THE END OF THE GULF WAR. HE POINTS TO THE U-S CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL FOR NEARLY 100-MILLION DOLLARS IN AID AND HOPES FOR PLEDGES OF MORE PRACTICAL ASSISTANCE FROM BRITAIN TOO.

    /// MUSAWI SECOND ACT ///

    WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT THE ALLIES GETTING IN A MILITARY ENGAGEMENT WITH THE IRAQI REGIME. THIS IS OUR DUTY TO GET RID OF SADDAM HUSSEIN. WE NEED SUPPORT FROM BEHIND. WE NEED THE GENTLE PUSH IN THE SENSE OF DIPLOMATIC SUPPORT. WE NEED SUPPORT FROM BRITAIN AND UNITED STATES TO DELEGITIMATIZE THE SADDAM HUSSEIN REGIME AND TO HELP THE OPPOSITION GAIN INTERNATIONAL CREDIBILITY AND TO GAIN STRENGTH TO WORK INSIDE IRAQ

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MUSAWI DISMISSES CRITICISM OF THE OPPOSITION AS A FRACTURED MOVEMENT THAT LACKS COORDINATION, ORGANIZATION AND CLEAR AIMS.

    /// OPT // MUSAWI THIRD ACT ///

    THE IRAQI OPPOSITION IS DEFINITELY UNITED IN ITS ULTIMATE AIM WHICH IS TO GET RID OF SADDAM HUSSEIN, TO ESTABLISH A DEMOCRATIC REGIME IN IRAQ, TO HOLD ELECTIONS, TO EASE SUFFERING OF THE IRAQI PEOPLE. AS FAR AS DIFFERENCES IN IDEOLOGY IS CONCERNED, IT HAS ALWAYS EXISTED BETWEEN IRAQI POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE OPPOSITION, THE SAME WAY IT DOES BETWEEN DEMOCRATS AND REPUBLICANS AND LABOR AND CONSERVATIVE PARTIES IN BRITAIN.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE IRAQI DISSIDENT SAYS THE DIFFERENT KURDISH, SHIITE AND SUNNI MUSLIM OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS WILL BE REPRESENTED AT THE MEETING ON MONDAY.(SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/KL
    20-Nov-98 11:24 AM EST (1624 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO - CHICAGO BY MICHAEL LELAND (CHICAGO)

    DATE=11/19/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41921
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DURING THE BOSNIAN WAR, THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO REMAINED OPEN, ALTHOUGH ITS ENROLLMENT FELL FROM 30-THOUSAND TO AROUND NINE-THOUSAND, AND HALF OF ITS FACULTY WAS EITHER KILLED, WOUNDED OR FORCED TO FLEE THE CITY. OF THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES WHO CAME TO THE UNITED STATES, 14-THOUSAND OF THEM MADE THE MIDWEST CITY OF CHICAGO THEIR HOME. A NEW PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN LOYOLA UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO AND THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO WILL HELP SOME REFUGEES COMPLETE THEIR UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, WHILE GIVING OTHERS A LINK TO THEIR HOMELAND. V-O-A'S MICHAEL LELAND REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE PARTNERSHIP IS THE FIRST OF ITS KIND BETWEEN AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY AND THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO. THE MOST NOTICEABLE ASPECT WILL BE A BOSNIAN REFUGEE STUDENT CENTER ON THE LOYOLA CAMPUS, WHICH WILL HELP REFUGEES EARN A DEGREE OR CERTIFICATE SIMULTANEOUSLY FROM LOYOLA AND THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO. THE CENTER WILL ALSO PROVIDE ACADEMIC AND CAREER COUNSELING, A COMPUTING CENTER, A BOSNIAN-LANGUAGE LIBRARY AND SPECIAL WORKSHOPS. THE LOYOLA PRESIDENT, FATHER JOHN PIDERIT, CONSIDERS THE CENTER PART OF THE MISSION OF A CATHOLIC INSTITUTION TO HELP THOSE WHO HAVE SUFFERED.

    /// PIDERIT ACT ///

    IT IS TRUE THAT TERRIBLE THINGS HAPPEN IN PEOPLE'S LIVES. THINGS THAT THEY DID NOT CAUSE, THERE WAS NO NEGLIGENCE ON THEIR PART, YET THEIR WHOLE LIVES ARE CHANGED BECAUSE OF WAR, BECAUSE OF AN ACCIDENT, BECAUSE OF HATE WHICH THEY DID NOT GENERATE.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    AT A CEREMONY ANNOUNCING THE PARTNERSHIP, THE RECTOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO, NEDZAD MULABEGOVIC, PRESENTED LOYOLA UNIVERSITY WITH A SMALL GIFT: THE REMAINS OF A BOOK FROM THE BURNED-OUT NATIONAL LIBRARY IN SARAJEVO.

    /// MULABEGOVIC ACT ///

    HISTORY HAS SHOWN AND SARAJEVO, UNFORTUNATELY, HAS CONFIRMED, THAT THOSE WHO BURN LIBRARIES AND BOOKS WILL LATER ON KILL PEOPLE. IT WAS THE FACT AND THE REALITY.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    THE STUDENT CENTER WILL ALSO SERVE AS THE NEW HOME OF THE BOSNIAN-HERZOGOVINIAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY CENTER, WHICH OFFERS A VARIETY OF SOCIAL SERVICES TO BOSNIAN REFUGEES. ZUMRETA KUNOSIC IS THE CENTER'S DIRECTOR.

    /// FIRST KUNOSIC ACT ///

    AMERICA IS A LAND WE CAME TO BY DEFAULT, NOT BY CHOICE. IT IS A LAND THAT CHALLENGED US, WELCOMED US, FRIGHTENED US, GAVE US AN OPPORTUNITY TO EDUCATE OUR CHILDREN, HEAL OUR MANY WOUNDS AND BEGIN TO REDESIGN A FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE HEAD OF LOYOLA'S OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, RICHARD MURRAY, SAYS THE PARTNERSHIP WAS A NATURAL UNDERTAKING FOR THE UNIVERSITY, BECAUSE MOST OF THE BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN CHICAGO LIVE WITHIN WALKING DISTANCE OF CAMPUS, AND ABOUT 30 REFUGEES ARE ALREADY ENROLLED AS LOYOLA STUDENTS.

    /// FIRST MURRAY ACT ///

    WE NEEDED TO DEVELOP SOME LINKAGE FOR THEM, TO THEIR HOMELAND, WHETHER THEY PLANNED TO RETURN OR NOT. I THINK MOST ANYONE IN THEIR SITUATION WOULD FEEL THE SAME WAY: THIS IS A CULTURAL SHOCK FOR ANYONE TO COME TO THE UNITED STATES. SOME OF THESE PEOPLE DID NOT KNOW WHERE THEY WERE UNTIL THEY WERE TOLD WHILE STEPPING OFF THE PLANE AT [CHICAGO] O'HARE AIRPORT.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    SANIMIR BABIC WAS A UNIVERSITY STUDENT WHEN HE LEFT BOSNIA IN 1995. HE IS TAKING COMPUTER-SCIENCE AND ENGLISH CLASSES AT LOYOLA, AND HOPES THE NEW CENTER WILL HELP OTHER REFUGEES EARN A UNIVERSITY DEGREE.

    /// BABIC ACT ///

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR US WHO ARE GRADUATED STUDENTS FROM OUR COUNTRY TO DO SOMETHING FOR OURSELVES. ALSO, OPPORTUNITY FOR OUR CHILDREN TO GET AN ASSOCIATE DEGREE, BACHELOR'S DEGREE, ETC.

    /// END ACT ////// END OPT ///

    MR. MURRAY OF LOYOLA SAYS ONE GROUP OF REFUGEES WHO COULD MAKE GOOD USE OF THE CENTER ARE THOSE WHO WERE PROFESSIONALS IN BOSNIA, BUT HAVE SEEN THEIR CAREERS STALL SINCE LEAVING.

    /// SECOND MURRAY ACT ///

    BUT THEY ARE TERRIBLY UNDER-EMPLOYED HERE IN CHICAGO. THEY NEED MORE ENGLISH SKILLS. THEY ARE NOT CERTIFIED IN THEIR FIELD (IN THE UNITED STATES). SAY THEY ARE NURSES, SCHOOL TEACHERS, LAWYERS. THEY NEED TO GO BACK AND GET CERTIFICATION, OR MAKE A CHANGE IN THEIR CAREERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    AMONG THOSE PROFESSIONALS IS ZUMRETA KUNOSIC OF THE BOSNIAN-HERZOGOVINIAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY CENTER. SHE WAS AN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER IN HER HOME COUNTRY AND WHILE SHE IS TAKING A FEW CLASSES AT LOYOLA, FEELS THE WORK SHE IS DOING NOW IS MORE IMPORTANT.

    /// SECOND KUNOSIC ACT ///

    I FEEL AS A MOTHER, A REFUGEE, AS SOMEONE WHO CHANGED HER LIFE COMPLETELY, I DO NOT FEEL IT IS VERY HELPFUL TO GO BACK TO MY OLD PROFESSION. MY PEOPLE, MY CHILDREN AND OTHER CHILDREN AND MY COMMUNITY NEED MORE. THIS IS MY JOB [-- COORDINATING THE BOSNIAN REFUGEE COMMUNITY CENTER]. THIS IS MY WORK, MORE IMPORTANT THAN BEING AN ELECTRICAL ENGINEER AT HOME.

    /// END ACT ///

    MS. KUNOSIC HAS LIVED IN CHICAGO FOR FOUR YEARS AND PLANS TO STAY FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. SHE HAS TWO CHILDREN, AGES 12 AND 16, AND SAYS THE OLDER ONE IS PLANNING TO ATTEND AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY AND MAYBE RETURN HOME ONE DAY.

    /// REST OPT ///

    /// THIRD KUNOSIC ACT ///

    MY 16-YEAR-OLD BOY IS A VERY GOOD STUDENT. EVERY MOTHER WILL SAY THAT. HE WANTS TO FINISH COLLEGE HERE, BECAUSE HIS PASSION IS COMPUTERS, AND THIS IS DEFINITELY A COUNTRY FOR COMPUTERS. THE OTHER PART IS, HE HAS A LOT OF FRIENDS IN SARAJEVO, AND HE SAYS, "IF I GO BACK I WANT TO HELP THEM, TOO."

    /// END ACT ///

    THE 14-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN CHICAGO MAKE IT THE LARGEST GROUP OF DISPLACED BOSNIANS IN THE UNITED STATES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJL/WDC/WTW
    19-Nov-98 9:39 PM EST (0239 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
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