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Voice of America, 98-11-26

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BRITAIN/IRELAND (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [02] BRITAIN/PINOCHET (S ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [03] E-U / GERMANY (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] E-U CONGO (L-ONLY) (CQ) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] EUROPE STOCK MARKETS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [06] ITALY PONDERS FATE OF KURDISH MARXIST LEADER BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] THURSDAY / THANKSGIVING EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] 24-HOUR BRITAIN (L-ONLY) BY FEDERICO HAURI (LONDON)
  • [09] BRITAIN / ISRAEL (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [10] FRANCE / AFRICA BY WILLIAM EAGLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] FRENCH AFRICA SUMMIT (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

  • [01] BRITAIN/IRELAND (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242179
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR ADDRESSED THE IRISH PARLIAMENT THURSDAY -- THE FIRST BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TO DO SO SINCE IRELAND GAINED ITS INDEPENDENCE IN 1922. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON THAT HIS SPEECH FOCUSSED ON TWO KEY THEMES: PEACE AND COOPERATION.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER BLAIR TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE HISTORIC MOMENT TO APPEAL TO THE IRISH PARLIAMENTARIANS TO HELP PUSH FORWARD NORTHERN IRELAND'S PEACE PROCESS.

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    LET US NOT UNDERESTIMATE HOW FAR WE HAVE COME AND LET US AGREE THAT WE HAVE COME TOO FAR EVER TO GO BACK NOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BLAIR ACKNOWLEDGED THE CURRENT IMPASSE OVER DISARMING REPUBLICAN PARAMILITARIES AND INCLUDING THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY'S POLITICAL WING IN NORTHERN IRELAND'S NEW CABINET. HE SPENT MOST OF WEDNESDAY IN BELFAST MEETING WITH OPPOSING SIDES AND EXPRESSED OPTIMISM THE PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED.

    /// SECOND BLAIR ACT ///

    I AM NOT ASKING ANYONE TO SURRENDER. I AM ASKING EVERYONE TO DECLARE THE VICTORY OF PEACE. IN BELFAST AND DUBLIN, PEOPLE SAY THE SAME THING -- MAKE THE AGREEMENT WORK.

    ///END ACT ///

    BUT MR. BLAIR ALSO APPEALED TO IRISH NATIONALISTS TO UNDERSTAND THE FEARS OF UNIONISTS, WHO PREFER TO REMAIN A PART OF BRITAIN.

    /// THIRD BLAIR ACT ///

    IT IS OF COURSE IN THE END, AS SO MUCH OF POLITICS IS, ABOUT BELONGING. THE WISH OF UNIONISTS TO BELONG TO THE U-K, THE WISH OF NATIONALISTS TO BELONG TO IRELAND. BOTH TRADITIONS ARE REASONABLE. THERE ARE NO ABSOLUTES. AND THE BEGINNING OF UNDERSTANDING IS TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    IRISH AND BRITISH LEADERS ENDED DECADES OF HOSTILITY WITH A HISTORIC AGREEMENT THIS PAST APRIL TO COOPERATE ON NORTHERN IRELAND'S PEACE PROCESS. //OPT// MR. BLAIR TOLD THE IRISH PARLIAMENT HE WANTS TO EXPAND THAT COOPERATION.

    /// FOURTH BLAIR ACT ///

    SO MUCH SHARED HISTORY. SO MUCH SHARED PAIN. AND NOW THE SHARED HOPE OF A NEW BEGINNING.

    /// END ACT // //END OPT//

    TONY BLAIR SAID IRISH PRIME MINISTER BERTIE AHERN HAS AGREED TO HOLD REGULAR MEETINGS TO REVITALIZE BILATERAL TIES AND FORGE CLOSER COOPERATION ON EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL ISSUES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    26-Nov-98 7:47 AM EST (1247 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BRITAIN/PINOCHET (S ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242190
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FORMER CHILEAN DICTATOR AUGUSTO PINOCHET REMAINS UNDER POLICE GUARD AT A PRIVATE LONDON CLINIC A DAY AFTER BRITAIN'S HOUSE OF LORDS RULED HE IS NOT IMMUNE FROM EXTRADITION TO SPAIN. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: THE FINAL DECISION ON SPAIN'S EXTRADITION REQUEST IS UP TO BRITAIN'S HOME SECRETARY -- THE COUNTRY'S JUSTICE MINISTER. CONSERVATIVE POLITICIANS ARE CALLING ON HIM TO RELEASE MR. PINOCHET ON HUMANITARIAN GROUNDS. HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS AND CHILEAN EXILES ARE URGING THE BRITISH MINISTER TO TAKE ACTION ON SPAIN'S REQUEST AND SEND MR. PINOCHET TO MADRID TO FACE CHARGES OF HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES DURING HIS 17-YEAR CHILEAN RULE.

    HOME SECRETARY JACK STRAW WAS DUE TO MAKE THAT DECISION BY NEXT WEDNESDAY. BUT HE HAS ASKED THE BRITISH COURTS FOR ANOTHER WEEK TO MULL OVER THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ISSUE.

    CHILE'S FOREIGN MINISTER IS EXPECTED IN LONDON SHORTLY TO FORMALLY PRESENT HIS GOVERNMENT'S POSITION THAT MR. PINOCHET BE ALLOWED TO GO HOME.

    //REST UNVOICED OPT//

    SO FAR, PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR SAYS ONLY THAT IT IS A LEGAL -- NOT A POLITICAL ISSUE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/PCF
    26-Nov-98 11:51 AM EST (1651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] E-U / GERMANY (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242184
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMANY'S CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER HAS MADE HIS FIRST VISIT TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IN BRUSSELS. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN IN BRUSSELS REPORTS GERMANY PLANS TO PUSH FOR CHANGES IN ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION'S BUDGET WHEN IT TAKES OVER THE SIX MONTH PRESIDENCY OF THE UNION IN JANUARY.

    TEXT: GERMANY, ALONG WITH AUSTRIA, SWEDEN AND THE NETHERLANDS, COMPLAINS THAT ITS SHARE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S BUDGET IS TOO LARGE COMPARED WITH WHAT IT RECEIVES. ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN UNION STATISTICS, GERMANY PAYS MORE THAN FIVE TIMES MORE THAN ANY OTHER MEMBER.

    GERMANY HAS 26 PERCENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT, BUT IT PAYS 28 PER CENT OF THE UNION'S COSTS. IN HIS FIRST VISIT TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION SINCE BECOMING CHANCELLOR IN OCTOBER, GERHARD SCHROEDER -- SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER SAYS A COMPROMISE MUST BE FOUND.

    /// SCHROEDER (INTERPRETER) ACT ///

    THE UNFAIRNESS OF THE NET GERMAN POSITION ESTABLISHED BY THE COMMISSION WILL HAVE TO BE CHANGED. THESE TWO PERSPECTIVES, THE ONE THAT WE WANT TO BE TREATED FAIRLY. WE DON'T WANT TO BEAR SUCH AN IMBALANCE WITH REGARD TO OUR NET POSITION FOR ALL TIME. WE HAVE A PROBLEM THERE THAT THE MEMBER STATES WHO PROFIT FROM THAT CLEARLY ARE RELUCTANT TO GIVE ANYTHING UP AND THAT WILL BE PART AND PARCEL OF THE NEGOTIATIONS TO FIND A COMPROMISE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THOSE RELUCTANT TO GIVE ANYTHING UP ARE THE POORER MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION -- SPAIN, PORTUGAL, AND GREECE -- THE BENEFICIARIES OF THE UNION'S AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUBSIDIES. AS THE EUROPEAN UNION CONSIDERS ENLARGEMENT TO POORER COUNTRIES IN EASTERN EUROPE, GERMANY'S PROBLEM CAN ONLY GROW UNLESS THE SYSTEM OF FINANCING THE UNION IS CHANGED.

    GERMANY WILL BE IN CHARGE OF THE AGENDA WHEN IT TAKES OVER THE PRESIDENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FROM AUSTRIA ON NEW YEAR'S DAY. CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER HOPES TO START WORKING ON A COMPROMISE BY THE TIME EUROPEAN LEADERS GATHER FOR THEIR SUMMIT MEETING IN COLOGNE NEXT MARCH.

    /// REST OPT ///

    CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER REFUSES TO COMMENT ON HOW GERMANY PLANS TO DEAL WITH ANOTHER TOUCHY EUROPEAN ISSUE, THE FUTURE OF KURDISH LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN. GERMANY HAS AN ARREST WARRANT FOR THE ACCUSED TERRORIST BUT HAS NOT ASKED ITALY FOR MR. OCALAN'S EXTRADITION.

    CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER MEETS ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER MASSIMO D'ALEMA (FRIDAY) IN BONN TO TRY WORK OUT A COMPROMISE. MR. OCALAN HAS ASKED ITALY FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM AND THE ITALIAN COURT HAS TURNED DOWN TURKEY'S REQUEST FOR THE KURDISH LEADER'S EXTRADITION.

    CHANCELLOR SCHROEDER DOES AGREE WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION'S WARNING TO TURKEY NOT TO ORGANIZE A TRADE BOYCOTT OF ITALY. GERMANY HAS A POPULATION OF TWO AND A HALF MILLION TURKS AND KURDS AND IS RELUCTANT TO SET OFF DEMONSTRATIONS BY ASKING FOR MR. OCALAN'S EXTRADITION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH/KL
    26-Nov-98 9:23 AM EST (1423 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] E-U CONGO (L-ONLY) (CQ) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/25/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242165
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: RE-ISSUING CR 2-242153 TO CHANGE 7TH PARA TEXT -- MEETING OF LEADERS FROM ALL AFRICAN COUNTRIES, NOT JUST FRANCOPHONES ///

    INTRO: CONGO PRESIDENT LAURENT KABILA LEFT THE BRUSSELS HEADQUARTERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION WEDNESDAY WITH A WARNING THAT THE ALLIANCE WILL NOT RESTORE AID TO HIS GOVERNMENT UNTIL THE CURRENT CIVIL WAR IS ENDED, AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY IS RESTORED IN THE COUNTRY. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: IN WHAT MANY OBSERVERS HAVE SEEN AS A SNUB TO THE AFRICAN VISITOR, PRESIDENT KABILA WAS NOT INVITED TO MEET EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT JACQUES SANTER. THE CONGOLESE LEADER WAS RECEIVED BY THE E-U'S DEVELOPMENT COMMISSIONER, JOAO DE DEUS PINHEIRO. // OPT // MR. KABILA HAS MEETINGS THURSDAY WITH THE BELGIAN KING, ALBERT THE SECOND, AND WITH PRIME MINISTER JEAN-LUC DEHAENE. // END OPT //

    THE MEETING WITH MR. PINHEIRO LASTED OVER AN HOUR LONGER THAN ANTICIPATED, WITH BOTH SIDES KEEN TO GET THEIR VIEWS ACROSS. MR. PINHEIRO CALLED FOR A PEACEFUL SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS OF CONGO, AND WELCOMED THE ANNOUNCEMENT THAT THE KABILA GOVERNMENT IS PLANNING TO HOLD ELECTIONS, TO WHICH EUROPEAN UNION MONITORS ARE BEING INVITED.

    // OPT //

    MR. PINHEIRO SHOOK HANDS WITH THE CONGOLESE LEADER AT THE END OF THE DISCUSSIONS, AND SAID THE EUROPEAN UNION HOPES TO RESUME NORMAL RELATIONS WITH CONGO-KINSHASA AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. HOWEVER, HE STRESSED THAT FIRST THE COUNTRY WILL NEED TO SHOW FULL RESPECT FOR DEMOCRACY, THE RULE OF LAW AND FOR HUMAN RIGHTS.

    // END OPT //

    PRESIDENT KABILA STRESSED THAT HIS COUNTRY NEEDS INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE TO HELP RESTORE ITS DAMAGED ECONOMY, TO HELP WITH THE MOVE TO DEMOCRACY AND ALSO FOR PUBLIC WORKS PROJECTS, SUCH AS ROAD-BUILDING. HOWEVER, HE SAYS THE WAR BETWEEN HIS FORCES AND REBEL TROOPS IS THE FAULT OF WHAT HE CALLS INVADING ARMIES.

    DESPITE SEVERAL QUESTIONS FROM JOURNALISTS ABOUT ALLEGED HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND GENOCIDE IN CONGO, PRESIDENT KABILA REPEATEDLY DENIED THERE ARE ANY SUCH PROBLEMS. HE CLAIMS REPORTS OF HUMAN-RIGHTS ABUSES ARE A FABRICATION, PUT AROUND BY SUPPORTERS OF THE FORMER REGIME OF ZAIREAN PRESIDENT MOBUTU SESE-SEKO.

    THE CONGOLESE LEADER ALSO SAYS THAT WHERE THERE HAVE BEEN MASSACRES, THESE WERE CARRIED OUT BY RWANDAN TROOPS, NOT BY HIS FORCES.

    PRESIDENT KABILA FLIES TO PARIS LATER THURSDAY TO ATTEND A MEETING OF LEADERS FROM THROUGHOUT AFRICA. HE SAYS HE IS KEEN TO PUT OVER HIS POINT OF VIEW -- THAT HIS COUNTRY HAS BEEN ILLEGALLY INVADED BY FOREIGN FORCES, WHILE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DOES NOTHING TO STOP IT.

    /// REST OPT ///

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, A GROUP CALLED THE BELGIAN EMPLOYERS' FEDERATION RELEASED A STATEMENT SUGGESTING THAT IF PRESIDENT KABILA WANTS TO ATTRACT NEW FOREIGN INVESTMENT, HE SHOULD TREAT EXISTING INVESTORS A LOT BETTER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/PCF/WTW
    25-Nov-98 7:39 PM EST (0039 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EUROPE STOCK MARKETS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242191
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF NINE OF EUROPE'S STOCK EXCHANGES WILL MEET FRIDAY IN PARIS TO BEGIN TALKS ON WHAT THEY HOPE WILL EVENTUALLY BE A UNITED EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET. CORRESPONDENT JACK HUIZENGA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: THE MOVE WAS STARTED EARLIER THIS YEAR WHEN THE STOCK EXCHANGES IN LONDON AND FRANKFURT -- THE TWO BIGGEST IN EUROPE -- ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD WORK JOINTLY IN SEVERAL AREAS BEGINNING IN 1999.

    EXPERTS SAY PARIS AND SMALLER MARKETS IN EUROPE REALIZED THEY TOO MUST TAKE PART IN SUCH JOINT OPERATIONS, IF THEY ARE TO SURVIVE IN A TIME OF RAPIDLY CHANGING TECHNOLOGY.

    FRIDAY'S MEETING IN PARIS BRINGS TOGETHER TOP OFFICIALS FROM THE EXCHANGES IN AMSTERDAM, BRUSSELS, FRANKFURT, LONDON, MADRID, ROME, PARIS, STOCKHOLM, AND ZURICH.

    THE OFFICIALS EMPHASIZE THEIR TALKS ARE JUST PRELIMINARY -- THAT THE DAY OF A SINGLE ALL-EUROPE STOCK EXCHANGE TO RIVAL WALL STREET IS STILL A LONG WAY OFF. THEY CITE LEGAL, REGULATORY, TECHNICAL, AND NATIONAL INTEREST PROBLEMS AS JUST SOME OF THE OBSTACLES TO OVERCOME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/PCF
    26-Nov-98 12:39 PM EST (1739 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ITALY PONDERS FATE OF KURDISH MARXIST LEADER BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/25/98
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11024
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ITALY IS STRUGGLING WITH A DIPLOMATIC DILEMMA OF MAJOR PROPORTIONS, AS THE NEW GOVERNMENT ATTEMPTS TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH A KURDISH LEADER FROM TURKEY, CONSIDERED A TERRORIST BY ANKARA.

    ABDULLAH OCALAN, CALLED "APO" BY MANY KURDS, IS LEADER OF THE MILITANT KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, AND WAS INVITED TO SPEAK IN ROME BY LEFT-WING PARLIAMENTARY DEPUTIES. WHEN HE ARRIVED NOVEMBER 12TH, HE WAS ARRESTED ON AN INTERNATIONAL WARRANT FROM TURKEY, CHARGING HIM WITH TERRORISM AND MANY DEATHS. LIKE FORMER CHILEAN DICTATOR AUGUSTO PINOCHET, HE THUS BECOMES THE SECOND LEADER IN WEEKS, TO BE ARRESTED BY ONE COUNTRY AT THE REQUEST OF ANOTHER FOR ALLEGED CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY THAT OCCURRED ELSEWHERE. WEDNESDAY [11/25], MR. OCALAN'S LAWYER IN ROME SAID HIS CLIENT IS READY TO SEEK A PEACEFUL SOLUTION WITH TURKEY OVER KURDISH AMBITIONS FOR AUTONOMY IN THEIR SOUTHEASTERN HOMELAND, AND ALSO SAID THAT MR. OCALAN'S DECISION TO ABANDON HIS ARMED STRUGGLE AGAINST THE TURKISH MILITARY AND PARA-MILITARY POLICE IS IRREVERSIBLE.

    EDITORIAL WRITERS AROUND THE WORLD ARE COMMENTING ABOUT MR. OCALAN'S SITUATION. WE GET A SAMPLE NOW FROM __________________ WHO JOINS US WITH THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: TURKEY CONSIDERS MR. OCALAN A TERRORIST WHO, AS LEADER OF THE MARXIST KURDISH WORKERS PARTY (P-K-K), IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEATHS OF HUNDREDS OF TURKISH TROOPS, POLICE AND CIVILIANS. HOWEVER, MANY KURDS SEE MR. OCALAN AS A HERO WHO HAS LED COUNTERATTACKS TO TURKISH MILITARY AGGRESSION AGAINST THOUSANDS OF KURDS. ALL OF THIS HAS PUT ITALY'S NEW GOVERNMENT IN A DIFFICULT POSITION. IF HE IS BROUGHT TO TRIAL IN TURKEY, MR. OCALAN COULD BE SENTENCED TO DEATH, AND ITALY HAS A POLICY OF NEVER EXTRADITING CRIMINALS TO NATIONS USING THE DEATH PENALTY. WE BEGIN OUR COMMENTS IN ITALY, WITH ROME'S "IL MESSAGGERO" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: DIPLOMACY IS AT WORK TO FIND A SOLUTION TO THE OCALAN CASE ... 'THE AMERICANS ARE CONVINCED THAT THERE IS A BONN OBLIGATION,' FOREIGN AFFAIRS UNDER SECRETARY UMBERTO RANIERI TELLS US, WHO ALSO UNDERLINES THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS EVOLUTION.

    TEXT: IN THE NORTH, MILAN'S "IL SOLE 24-ORE," WATCHING THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS, IS HOPEFUL.

    VOICE: AN 'INSTITUTIONAL' SOLUTION, 'AN AD HOC FORUM' ... THIS IS THE PATH THAT ITALIAN, GERMAN, TURKISH AND U-S DIPLOMATS ARE PURSUING IN ORDER TO SOLVE THE P-K-K LEADER'S CASE .... ACCORDING TO [PRIME MINISTER] D'ALEMA, THERE ARE THREE POSITIVE SIGNS: TURKEY CHANGED ITS POSITION AND PRIME MINISTER YILMAZ BEGINS CONSIDERING THE POSSIBILITY THAT [MR.] OCALAN IS EXTRADITED TO GERMANY OR A THIRD COUNTRY; THE U-S UNDERSTOOD THAT THE ITALIAN POSITION AND ITS FRIENDSHIP WITH AMERICA REMAIN A PILLAR OF OUR FOREIGN POLICY; AND THE E-U EXPRESSED ITS SUPPORT FOR ITALY.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, BACK IN ROME, "L' UNITA" RAN THIS FRONT-PAGE ASSESSMENT TUESDAY [11/24] FROM THE COUNTRY'S FOREIGN AFFAIRS UNDER SECRETARY UMBERTO RANIERI.

    VOICE: THE UNITED STATES, AND WE UNDERSTAND THIS, IS WORRIED ABOUT ANY WEAKENING OF THE TURKISH STATE, SINCE IT PLAYS A DELICATE ROLE IN EASTERN SECURITY AND POST-SOVIET UNION SPACE. WHILE SHARING THIS CONCERN, THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY VIEWS THE SITUATION NOT ONLY FROM A SECURITY PERSPECTIVE, BUT ALSO IN LIGHT OF ITS INTENTION TO INSERT TURKEY ... INTO THE E-U CONTEXT.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TURNING TO TURKEY, ISTANBUL'S MAJOR DAILY "HURRIYET" RAN THIS WEDNESDAY [11/25]:

    VOICE: A RECENT OPINION POLL IN ITALY PROVES THAT A MAJORITY OF ITALIANS THINKS THE SAME WAY WE DO. ACCORDING TO THE POLL ... 64 PERCENT OF ITALIANS BELIEVE THAT APO IS A TERRORIST AND DRUG SMUGGLER AND ONLY 15 PERCENT SUPPORT ITALY'S GRANTING OF POLITICAL ASYLUM .... IF ITALIANS KNEW MORE ABOUT THE MURDERER OF BABIES, I AM SURE THE PERCENTAGE WOULD BE AS HIGH AS IN TURKISH OPINION. ONCE AGAIN, WE SHOULD NOTE ... THAT WE DON'T HAVE A PROBLEM WITH ITALIANS; THE PROBLEM IS THE D'ALEMA GOVERNMENT ITSELF

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER OF TURKEY'S LARGEST DAILIES, "MILLIYET" A COLUMNIST WROTE:

    VOICE: THE SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL ISSUED A DECLARATION WHICH CITED [MR.] OCALAN AS THE 'PRESIDENT OF THE P-K-K.' THIS CLEARLY MEANS THAT [THE] MURDERER OF 30-THOUSAND PEOPLE, ONE OF THE CRUELEST TERRORISTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY, CAN BE CALLED 'PRESIDENT' OF AN ORGANIZATION. THIS GIVES HIM A POLITICAL IDENTITY. ... EUROPE DOES NOT SEE THE KURDISH ISSUE AND TERRORISM TOGETHER. USING EXAMPLES OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN OTHER COUNTRIES, EUROPE TAKES ON THE KURDISH ISSUE AND CALLS FOR A POLITICAL DIALOGUE WITH TURKEY TO HAPPEN FIRST ... /// OPT /// THESE ARE THE SIGNS THAT THE KURDISH ISSUE IS BECOMING AN INTERNATIONAL ONE, AND WE SHOULD THINK ABOUT THAT. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: A PAPER GEARED TOWARD THE INTELLECTUAL READERSHIP, "RADIKAL," IN ISTANBUL, WAS MORE SELF-CRITICAL, SUGGESTING: "WE ARE FOOLING OURSELVES."

    VOICE: WHY IS TURKEY PLAYING WITH WORDS AND DOING NOTHING? IF WE REALLY WANT APO'S EXTRADITION, THEN WE MUST IMMEDIATELY ABOLISH CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. THERE IS NO OTHER WAY, BECAUSE THE ITALIAN CONSTITUTION AND PREVAILING PRACTICES ARE VERY CLEAR ... THOSE WHO CRITICIZE ITALY FOR NOT RETURNING OCALAN TO TURKEY AND, AT THE SAME TIME, OBJECT TO THE ABOLITION OF THE DEATH PENALTY ARE ONLY FOOLING THEMSELVES.

    TEXT: ANOTHER KEY PLAYER IN THIS INTERNATIONAL TURMOIL IS GERMANY, A KEY MEMBER OF NATO, AS IS TURKEY, BUT WITH A LARGE POPULATION OF EXPATRIATE TURKS AND SOME KURDS AS WELL. FROM THE EASTERN SECTION OF GERMANY COMES THIS THOUGHT IN THE "LEIPZIGER VOLKSZEITUNG."

    VOICE: [M.] OCALAN CANNOT BE EXTRADITED TO TURKEY, BECAUSE HE WILL NOT FACE A TRIAL THAT WILL TAKE PLACE ACCORDING TO THE RULE OF LAW. IN VIEW OF [MR.] OCALAN'S TERRORIST CRIMES, IT SHOULD ALSO BE OUT OF THE QUESTION THAT ITALY GRANTS HIM POLITICAL ASYLUM. THIS IS WHY [MR.] OCALAN SHOULD BE TRIED IN GERMANY ON THE BASIS OF THE CRIMES OF WHICH HE IS ACCUSED ... WITHOUT THIS TRIAL, THE POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH QUESTION WOULD BECOME ... MORE DIFFICULT.

    TEXT: ELSEWHERE IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC, "THE FRANKFURTER RUNDSCHAU" SAYS THE SITUATION CAN BE TURNED TO EVERYONE'S ADVANTAGE IF THE EUROPEAN POWERS ARE WILLING.

    VOICE: P-K-K LEADER [MR.] OCALAN DID NOT COME AS A DISGUISED ASYLUM SEEKER TO ROME BUT DELIBERATELY CHOSE THIS DESTINATION. THIS MOVE OFFERS NOT ONLY HIM, BUT ALSO TURKEY AND EUROPE, THE CHANCE TO INITIATE A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KURDISH PROBLEM ... IT WOULD NOW BE EASIER FOR THE ANKARA GOVERNMENT TO ENTER INTO TALKS WITH THE MOST IMPORTANT KURDISH FACTION WITHOUT FEARING A LOSS OF FACE... BUT THE STATE OF THE CURRENT TURKISH GOVERNMENT DOES NOT CREATE HOPES FOR SUCH A DEVELOPMENT .. /// OPT /// TO OFFER TURKEY A RESPECTED PLACE IN THE WAITING ROOM OF THE E-U [EUROPEAN UNION] ... IN RETURN FOR A REJECTION OF THE VIOLENT COURSE AND THE RESPECT OF HUMAN AND MINORITY RIGHTS SEEMS TO BE WORTH ALL EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: FOR AN IDEA OF HOW THE BRITISH VIEW THE SITUATION, WE CHECK THIS EDITORIAL IN "THE TIMES" OF LONDON.

    VOICE: ABDULLAH OCALAN ... IS A BRUTAL TERRORIST, RESPONSIBLE FOR THOUSANDS OF DEATHS, WIDESPREAD INTIMIDATION AND THE POLITICAL DECEPTION OF MILLIONS OF FELLOW KURDS. HIS REPORTED RENUNCIATION OF VIOLENCE IN ROME ... IS A TRANSPARENT ATTEMPT TO EVADE EXTRADITION TO TURKEY ... NONPLUSSED BY THE TURKISH ANGER, [ITALY'S] REACTION HAS BEEN ... NAIVE AND INEPT ... [PRIME MINISTER'] D'ALEMA'S DILEMMA IS THAT HE CAN ILL-AFFORD TO ALIENATE A COUNTRY AS STRATEGICALLY VITAL AS TURKEY - - WHICH ALSO HAPPENS TO BE AN IMPORTANT TRADING PARTNER... BONN IS LOATH TO STIR UP MAYHEM AMONG ITS TWO MILLION TURKS AND KURDS. BUT POLITICAL COURAGE AND ETHICAL CONSISTENCY DEMAND THAT IT HAND AN EXTRADITION REQUEST TO ROME.

    TEXT: IN WESTERN DENMARK, "JYLLANDS-POSTEN," PUBLISHED IN [THE COUNTRY'S SECOND LARGEST CITY] AARHUS, IS FRANK IN ITS ANALYSIS OF HOW THE CRISIS CAME ABOUT.

    VOICE: WESTERN EUROPE, WHICH IS PRIMARILY LED BY GREEN COMMUNISTS ... AND OLD SOCIAL DEMOCRATS, NOW PROVES TO BE THE ... PLACE WHERE YOU CAN HAMMER YOUR FIST AND GET AWAY WITH IT. [MR.] OCALAN ONLY REPRESENTS A SMALL MINORITY OF THE TURKISH KURDS AND IS DESPISED BY KURDS IN IRAN AND IRAQ. HE IS NEITHER A HERO NOR A PATRIOT, BUT A MIDDLE-EAST GANGSTER, WHO, SUPPORTED BY THE SYRIANS, DECLARED WAR ON A STRATEGICALLY EXTREMELY IMPORTANT NATO COUNTRY, WHICH MUST BEGIN TO ASK ITSELF WHAT IT STANDS TO GAIN FROM ITS ORIENTATION TOWARD THE WEST... THE WESTERN WORLD MIGHT WANT TO CONSIDER THE CONSEQUENCES OF A CHANGE IN TURKISH LEADERSHIP. AFTER ALL, TURKEY DOES NOT HAVE TO ACCEPT BEING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE HEAP IN EUROPE. IT CAN ALSO CHOOSE TO BE THE LEADING NATION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD.

    TEXT: FINALLY, A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE SUB-CONTINENT, AS INDIA'S "HINDU," FROM MADRAS, RUNS A COLUMNIST SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: THE CHASM BETWEEN TURKEY AND ITALY IS WIDENING .... THE ITALIAN AUTHORITIES ARE IN A DILEMMA -- ON THE ONE HAND, GRANTING ASYLUM TO [MR.] OCALAN WOULD EVOKE THE WRATH OF TURKEY, AND ON THE OTHER, SENDING HIM BACK TO TURKEY WOULD UNLEASH A WAVE OF TERRORIST VIOLENCE BY RESIDENT KURDISH COMMUNITIES, PARTICULARLY IN GERMANY ... EITHER WAY, ITALY HAS A SERIOUS PROBLEM. AS A EUROPEAN DIPLOMAT PUT IT: ITALY HAS A CHOICE [BETWEEN] CHOLERA AND PLAGUE.

    TEXT: WITH THAT MEDICAL ANALOGY, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF WORLD PRESS COMMENT ON THE CASE OF ABDULLAH OCALAN, LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY (P-K-K) OF TURKEY.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    26-Nov-98 10:23 AM EST (1523 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] THURSDAY / THANKSGIVING EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11025
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// ED'S: OUTDATED AFTER 10 P-M EST /////

    INTRO: THIS IS THE GREAT UNITED STATES HARVEST FESTIVAL OF THANKSGIVING, CELEBRATING THE FIRST FEAST OF THANKSGIVING BETWEEN THE PILGRIMS IN MASSACHUSETTS AND THEIR HELPFUL NATIVE-AMERICAN NEIGHBORS IN 1621. IT IS A DAY FOR FEASTING AND FAMILY GATHERINGS.

    AMONG TODAY'S EDITORIALS ARE COMMENTS ON THE DETENTION OF KURDISH LEADER ABDULLA OCALAN IN ITALY; THE RULING BY BRITAIN'S HOUSE OF LORDS REGARDING THE IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION OF CHILE'S FORMER LEADER AUGUSTO PINOCHET; THE COURAGEOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF THE U-N WEAPONS INSPECTION TEAM IN IRAQ; AND SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE BEGINNING OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION. NOW, HERE WITH THIS HOLIDAY EDITION OF OUR EDITORIAL DIGEST, IS _____________________.

    TEXT: THE DIPLOMATIC DISPUTE REGARDING THE DETENTION IN ROME OF KURDISH WORKERS PARTY (P-K-K) LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN, CONTINUES TO DRAW ATTENTION IN THE AMERICAN PRESS. "THE WASHINGTON POST" SAYS HIS ARREST HAS EVOLVED INTO A POSSIBLE DISCUSSION INTO THE ISSUE OF WHAT TO DO ABOUT A KURDISH STATE.

    VOICE: IN A SHORT TIME, THE CASE OF THE TURKISH KURDISH LEADER ARRESTED IN ROME HAS BEEN TRANSFORMED FROM A TRICKY VISA-AND-EXTRADITION ISSUE INTO A TENTATIVE OPENING OF THE LARGER KURDISH QUESTION TO A NEW BURST OF INTERNATIONAL INQUIRY. IT IS A MOMENT THAT SHOULD NOT BE LOST ON ANGER AND FUMBLING. PERHAPS SOMETHING BETTER FOR TURKS AS WELL AS KURDS CAN COME OF IT. AT THE MOMENT, IT IS ALL GOING TOO FAST AND FAR FOR THE TURKS. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AND MANY TURKISH PEOPLE ARE OUTRAGED BY ANY DEALING THAT SEEMS TO LEGITIMIZE WHAT THEY REGARD AS A TERRORIST SEPARATIST GROUP -- THE P-K-K ... WHOSE LEADER, ABDULLAH OCALAN, CREATED THE CRISIS BY LANDING IN ROME. .... YET IS IS CLEAR THAT TURKEY'S OWN RESPONSE TO THE KURDS OVER THE YEARS HAS FAILED TO SATISFY THE INTERESTS OF EITHER SIDE. HIS [OCALAN'S] UNEXPECTED ARRIVAL HAS KINDLED THOUGHTS IN PARTS OF THE ITALIAN AND GERMAN GOVERNMENTS OF TRANSFORMING THE KURDISH ISSUE FROM AN ARMED STRUGGLE INTO SOME SORT OF A NEGOTIATION. THE IDEA WOULD BE TO COMBAT TERRORISM ON ONE LEVEL, TO STRENGTHEN KURDISH RIGHTS ON A SECOND [,] AND TO FACILITATE TURKEY'S NOW-STALLED ENTRY INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION ON A THIRD.

    TEXT: ALSO UNDER EDITORIAL SCRUTINY IS TURKEY'S NEIGHBOR, IRAQ, AND THE ON-GOING STRUGGLE BY UNITED NATIONS INSPECTORS TO FIND AND KEEP TRACK OF SADDAM HUSSEIN'S WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION, "THE DENVER POST" SUGGESTS IT TAKES A SPECIAL KIND OF PERSON FOR THAT JOB.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// TENACIOUS AS PIT BULLS [DOGS]. BUSY AS BEAVERS. BRAVE AS A SHE-BEAR DEFENDING HER CUBS. AND MILD-MANNERED AS...WELL, A BUNCH OF U-N DIPLOMATS. THESE DESCRIPTIONS DO NOT EXPLAIN SOME NEWLY DISCOVERED WILDLIFE SPECIES, BUT INSTEAD FIT THE U-N TECHNICAL INSPECTORS -- THE SOULS ON WHOM THE WORLD DEPENDS TO FIND AND REPORT ON IRAQ'S ILLEGAL WEAPONS PROGRAMS. /// END OPT /// ALTHOUGH OFTEN MENTIONED IN THE HEADLINES, THE REAL HUMAN BEINGS WHO COMPOSE THESE CRUCIAL INSPECTION TEAMS ARE NOT USUALLY GIVEN THE KUDOS THEY DESERVE. ...THE U-N TEAMS CONSIST OF ABOUT 130 PEOPLE REPRESENTING 30 COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, CHILE, BRAZIL, MEXICO, LEBANON, FINLAND, SWITZERLAND, DENMARK, BELGIUM, HUNGARY, POLAND, SUDAN AND JORDAN. ...PUBLICLY, THE U-N BRASS WILL NOT SAY WHETHER THE INSPECTORS' SAFETY HAS EVER BEEN AT RISK, OR WHAT SECURITY PRECAUTIONS THE UNITED NATIONS TAKES ON THEIR BEHALF. CLEARLY, THOUGH, THEIR WORK IS DANGEROUS. /// OPT /// THE INSPECTORS OFTEN NEED TO ENTER PLACES THAT MAY CONTAIN SOME OF THE MOST HIDEOUS AND DEADLY MATERIALS EVER INVENTED -- BUT THEY MAY NOT KNOW PRECISELY WHAT THEY ARE UP AGAINST ON ANY GIVEN MISSION.

    /// END OPT ///

    ... IT HAS BEEN THROUGH THEIR PERSISTENCE, HARD WORK, AND QUIET COURAGE THAT THE SECURITY COUNCIL KNOWS HOW BADLY SADDAM HUSSEIN HAS BEEN LYING THROUGH HIS TEETH. THEY SHOULD, AT THE VERY LEAST, GET SOME GRATITUDE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ON WHOSE BEHALF THEY HAVE LABORED.

    TEXT: THE OTHER MAJOR INTERNATIONAL STORY DRAWING COMMENT IS THE RULING BY BRITAIN'S HOUSE OF LORDS REGARDING FORMER CHILEAN LEADER AUGUSTO PINOCHET, WHO HAS BEEN DETAINED NEAR LONDON AFTER MEDICAL TREATMENT, ON AN ARREST WARRANT FROM SPAIN. FLORIDA'S "MIAMI HERALD" WONDERS WHETHER THIS MEANS THE END OF IMMUNITY FOR GUILTY WORLD LEADERS.

    VOICE: IN A POLITICALLY UNEXPECTED, BUT HISTORIC RULING, BRITAIN'S HIGHEST COURT YESTERDAY UPHELD HIS ARREST AND ORDERED HIM HELD PENDING A HEARING ON SPAIN'S EXTRADITION REQUEST. IN SPAIN, HE FACES CHARGES OF GENOCIDE, TERRORISM, AND TORTURE STEMMING FROM HIS 17-YEAR, IRON-FISTED RULE. ... NOW BRITISH LAW EMPOWERS HOME SECRETARY JACK STRAW TO DECIDE WHETHER TO RELEASE THE GENERAL, ON HUMANITARIAN OR OTHER GROUNDS. ...SO IT REMAINS FAR FROM CERTAIN THAT MR. PINOCHET WILL EVER BE TRIED. YET CLEARLY THESE WATERSHED RULINGS ON THE EVE OF THE DECEMBER 10TH 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DRAW A NEW LINE OF JUSTICE. WHERE IT LEADS IS BY NO MEANS CLEAR. ... IT IS HEARTENING ... THAT ... THERE IS GROWING WORLD SUPPORT FOR ENFORCING THOSE [U-N DECLARATION] RIGHTS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" ALSO TAKES NOTE OF THE DECISION, SUGGESTING IT:

    VOICE: ... SETTLES THE MOST IMPORTANT LEGAL ISSUE INVOLVED IN SPAIN'S EXTRADITION REQUEST. BRITAIN ALMOST ALWAYS COMPLIES WITH REQUESTS FROM EUROPEAN NATIONS AND REQUIRES LITTLE EXAMINATION OF THE FACTUAL EVIDENCE OF THE CASE. MR. STRAW MUST NOT HEED THE FALSE ARGUMENT THAT TRYING MR. PINOCHET WOULD IMPERIL CHILE'S DEMOCRACY. HIS EXTREMIST SUPPORTERS ARE NOISY BUT FEW. CHILE'S MILITARY AND BUSINESS LEADERS KNOW THAT THE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND RESPECT THEY ENJOY WOULD VANISH IF DEMOCRACY FELL. MR. STRAW SHOULD LET BRITISH JUSTICE, AND THEN POSSIBLY SPANISH JUSTICE, TAKE ITS COURSE.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, "THE SUN" GIVES THANKS ON THIS HOLIDAY, FOR THE BEGINNING OF A NEW FRONTIER OF EXPLORATION, WITH THE INAUGURAL LAUNCH OF THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.

    VOICE: FIFTEEN-YEARS AFTER IT WAS FIRST PROPOSED BY THEN-PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN, THE SPACE STATION'S CONSTRUCTION BEGAN FRIDAY WITH RUSSIA'S LAUNCH OF ITS FIRST COMPONENT, DUBBED ZARYA OR 'DAWN.' ASSEMBLY IN SPACE IS EXPECTED TO TAKE ABOUT FIVE YEARS. /// OPT /// THE FIRST COMPONENT, A FUEL STORAGE AND PROPULSION UNIT, WILL BE JOINED IN DECEMBER BY A NODE CALLED UNITY, WHICH THE UNITED STATES WILL LAUNCH. /// END OPT /// ... THE SPACE STATION'S MISSION IS TO CONDUCT A NUMBER OF LONG-TERM EXPERIMENTS, BUT SCIENTISTS DO NOT AGREE ON THE POTENTIAL VALUE. SOME SAY ROBOTS COULD PERFORM THE SAME TASKS AT A MUCH LOWER COST. OTHERS SAY THE STATION'S WEIGHTLESS ENVIRONMENT WILL PROVIDE INVALUABLE RESEARCH BENEFITS. TO APPRECIATE THE SPACE STATION, YOU HAVE TO VIEW IT IN THE SAME CONTEXT AS ANY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. EACH NEW STEP IN PROBING SPACE HAS PROVIDED KNOWLEDGE THAT ADVANCED MAN'S ABILITY TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES HERE ON EARTH. ... IT IS IMPORTANT ONLY IF OTHER STEPS FOLLOW.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" HAS THOUGHTS ON ATTORNEY GENERAL JANET RENO'S DECISION NOT TO NAME AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE COMMITTED ILLEGAL ACTS DURING HIS PRESIDENTIAL FUND RAISING ACTIVITIES IN 1996. "THE POST" POINTS OUT THAT WHILE THE ACTIONS FOR WHICH MR. GORE WAS BEING PROBED WERE "DUMB" AND THE CASE AGAINST HIM WEAK, IT WAS STILL A DIFFICULT POLITICAL DECISION FOR THE ATTORNEY GENERAL.

    VOICE: THIS IS NOT AN OVBVIOUS CHOICE -- AND IT WILL NO DOUBT BE CRITICIZED AS AN EXERCISE OF DISCRETION BY MS. RENO THAT THE LAW DOES NOT GIVE HER. INDEED, SOME OF MS. RENO'S TOP AIDES APPARENTLY DISAGREED WITH HER JUDGMENT. STILL, IT IS UNCLEAR JUST HOW MINIMAL THE EVIDENCE HAS TO BE BEFORE THE ATTORNEY GENERAL CAN PROPERLY DETERMINE THAT REASONABLE GROUNDS FOR FURTHER INQUIRY DO NOT EXIST. AND UNLIKE OTHER FALSE-STATEMENTS CASES IN WHICH MS. RENO ULTIMATELY SOUGHT AN INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, NO WITNESS IN THE GORE CASE HAS ALLEGED THAT THE VICE PRESIDENT WAS LYING. UNDER THESE CIRCUMSTANCES, IT SEEMS REASONABLE FOR MS. RENO TO DECIDE THAT SINCE NO FEDERAL PROSECUTOR WOULD BRING THE CASE AGAINST MR. GORE, NO INDEPENDENT COUNSEL SHOULD ... EITHER.

    TEXT: REFLECTING ON THE DEATH OF LEADING RUSSIAN WOMAN DEMOCRAT GALINA STAROVOITOVA, SUSAN EISENHOWER OF THE CENTER FOR POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES IN WASHINGTON, HAS A DISQUIETING THEORY IN THIS "LOS ANGELES TIMES" COMMENTARY.

    VOICE: [MS.] STAROVOITOVA IS NOW AT PEACE, BUT THE RUSSIANS AND WE ARE NOT. [MS.] STAROVOITOVA'S DEATH BEGS THE QUESTION OF WHETHER THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTED RUSSIA'S TRUE DEMOCRATS, OR WHETHER WE LEFT THEM DEFENSELESS BY UNDERMINING THEIR CASE AS WE EXPANDED NATO AND IMPOSED TRADE RESTRICTIONS. DID WE HELP [MS.] STAROVOITOVA'S ENEMIES EQUATE HER PRO-WESTERNISM WITH TREASON? THE RUSSIANS HAVE EVEN TOUGHER QUESTIONS TO ASK THEMSELVES: HAVE THEY TRIED HARD ENOUGH OR FOUGHT LONG ENOUGH FOR RUSSIA'S NEW FUTURE? AND WHO WOULD WANT TO KILL THIS MODEST WOMAN WHO LIVED FRUGALLY WITHOUT ANY EMBELLISHMENT AT ALL, A WOMAN WHO SPOKE QUIETLY YET FIRMLY BUT NEVER DISPLAYED ARROGANCE OR SELFRIGHTEOUSNESS? UNLIKE SO MANY OTHERS, [MS.] STAROVOITOVA SPOKE AS SHE LIVED WITH HONESTY AND COURAGE. A LIGHT HAS INDEED GONE OUT FOR US ALL.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, SOME THOUGHTS ON THE THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY, FROM "THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS.

    VOICE: THANKSGIVING DOES NOT MARK A WAR OR A BATTLE -- IN FACT, THE MOST BLOODY THING ABOUT IT INVOLVES A SACRIFICED TURKEY. ... THANKSGIVING IS THE MOST AMERICAN OF HOLIDAYS, AND YET, AMAZINGLY, THE LEAST COMMERCIALIZED. AND IT IS CELEBRATED BY NEARLY ALL WHO ARE HERE, REGARDLESS OF RELIGION OR ETHNICITY OR RACE OR ANY OF THE OTHER FAULT LINES THAT SEEM TO DIVIDE THE NATION INTO EVER SMALLER FACTIONS. IN MASSACHUSETTS, THE BIRTHPLACE OF THANKSGIVING, THE PILGRIMS' FIRST FEAST WITH THE INDIANS CELEBRATED THE PLENTY OF THE LAND. ... THESE DAYS, THANK GOD, WE CAN MEASURE OUR PROSPERITY IN COUNTLESS WAYS, FURTHER PROOF THAT OUR FOREFATHERS' DREAM OF A LAND OF PLENTY IS A BLESSED REALITY FOR MOST AMERICANS. /// OPT /// THAT MIRACLE IS SO ASSURED THAT MOST OF US TAKE IT FOR GRANTED. BUT THIS DAY, AT LEAST, LET US PAUSE TO REMEMBER THE VISION AND THE VALUES THAT MAKE THIS BOUNTY POSSIBLE. AND REMEMBER TO GIVE THANKS FOR EVERYTHING YOUR FAMILY ENJOYS. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENTS FROM TODAY'S U-S DAILY PAPERS ON THIS THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    26-Nov-98 11:47 AM EST (1647 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] 24-HOUR BRITAIN (L-ONLY) BY FEDERICO HAURI (LONDON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242189
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: POSSIBLE USE AS BUSINESS FEATURE -- SPOT VOICED IN ENGLISH BY CHRISTINE FURNELL ///

    INTRO: ANOTHER AMERICAN TREND APPEARS TO BE TAKING HOLD IN CITIES ACROSS BRITAIN --THE CONVENIENCE OF 24-HOUR SHOPPING. WHILE SOME ARE PLEASED WITH THE CHANGE, OTHERS EXPRESS SKEPTICISM OVER POSSIBLE SIDEEFFECTS CAUSED BY EXTENDED OPENING HOURS OF SHOPS, SUPERMARKETS, AND ENTERTAINMENT VENUES. CHRISTINE FURNELL HAS MORE IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: // ACT OF LONDON STREET SOUNDS -- ESTABLISH AND UNDER //

    THE DAYTIME SOUNDS OF A BUSY STREET IN LONDON. AT NIGHT, THESE HECTIC SOUNDS HAVE TYPICALLY GONE QUIET. BUT THAT COULD CHANGE AS THE APPARENT 24-HOUR SHOPPING AND ENTERTAINMENT TREND SWEEPS ACROSS THE BRITISH NATION. A LONDON-BASED INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANIZATION, CALLED THE "FUTURE FOUNDATION," HAS BEEN SURVEYING THIS TREND. MELANIE HOWARD IS A SPOKESPERSON FOR THE GROUP.

    //HOWARD ACT//

    I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS THAT HAS BEEN HAPPENING IS A FOCUS ON WHAT PEOPLE CALL "WORK/LIFE" BALANCE, THINKING OF WAYS IN WHICH EMPLOYERS AND CORPORATIONS CAN HELP THEIR EMPLOYEES AND THE PEOPLE IN THEIR SUPPLY CHAINS ACTUALLY BALANCE THE DEMANDS OF THEIR COMPETITIVE WORKPLACE WITH THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES AS FAMILY PEOPLE AND THEIR ENJOYMENT AS SOCIAL BEINGS.

    //END ACT//

    MORE AND MORE BRITONS ARE WORKING LONGER HOURS THESE DAYS -- BUT UNTIL RECENTLY, MANY SHOPS KEPT TRADITIONAL DAYTIME HOURS. THAT'S CHANGING. RETAILERS, ESPECIALLY IN LARGER CITIES, ARE KEEPING DOORS OPEN WELL INTO THE NIGHT AND EXTENDING OPENING TIMES AS WELL DURING THE WEEKEND DAYS OF SATURDAY AND SUNDAY. THEY'VE ALMOST HAD TO. TODAY'S MARRIED COUPLE IN BRITAIN TYPICALLY SEES BOTH PEOPLE WORKING. THE OLD PATTERN OF ONE SPOUSE -- TYPICALLY THE WIFE -- DOING THE SHOPPING DURING THE DAY IS BECOMING LESS AND LESS THE CASE.

    //OPT//

    BRITAIN'S LARGEST SUPERMARKET CHAIN -- TESCO -- IS A PIONEER IN THIS NEW TREND. IT EXPERIMENTED WITH 24-HOUR SHOPPING DURING THE CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY SEASON LAST YEAR. RUSSELL CRAIG IS A SPOKESMAN FOR TESCO.

    //CRAIG ACT//

    WE DID IT BECAUSE OUR CUSTOMERS WERE ASKING US TO DO IT. WE STARTED 24 HOUR TRADING BACK IN CHRISTMAS LAST YEAR. WE (TRIED) IT IN FOUR OF OUR STORES. IT WAS VERY SUCCESSFUL. THE STORES WERE PACKED ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT.

    //END ACT// //END OPT//

    BRITAIN TRADITIONALLY HAS NOT BEEN KNOWN FOR LATE SHOPPING HOURS. MOST STORES STILL CLOSE BY SEVEN EACH EVENING, AND PUBS AND BARS USUALLY SHUT THEIR DOORS BY 11 P-M. //OPT// WHILE MOST BRITONS ARE NOT USED TO SHOPPING AT MIDNIGHT, MR. CRAIG SAYS CHANGING WORK PATTERNS ARE BRINGING MORE LATE SHOPPERS INTO STORES.

    ///SECOND CRAIG ACT//

    WE FOUND THAT IN THE U-K (UNITED KINGDOM) AT THE MOMENT THERE ARE THREE MILLION PEOPLE WORKING UNTIL 11 O'CLOCK AT NIGHT AND THEN BETWEEN TWO AND FIVE IN THE MORNING, THERE ARE ANOTHER QUARTER MILLION PEOPLE AT WORK. SO IT WOULD BE VERY INCONVENIENT FOR THEM TO BE SHOPPING IN CONVENTIONAL HOURS.

    //END ACT// //END OPT//

    BUT DO MOST BRITONS PREFER THE CONVENIENCE OF 24-HOUR SHOPPING, AND EXTENDED OPENING HOURS FOR PUBS AND SHOPS? MELANIE HOWARD OF THE FUTURE FOUNDATION SAYS THE VERDICT IS MIXED.

    //SECOND HOWARD ACT//

    ESSENTIALLY, WHAT WE FOUND IN THE SURVEY IS THAT PEOPLES' ATTITUDES WERE VERY PARADOXICAL TOWARDS THE WHOLE PHENOMENON. WHILE AS CONSUMERS WE REALLY LIKE THE IDEA OF EVERYTHING BEING OPEN TO US 24-HOURS A DAY BEING ABLE TO ACCESS GOODS AND SERVICES WHEN WE WANT TO, THERE'S ALSO A LOT OF CONCERN ABOUT LIFE BEING TOO FAST AND NOT HAVING ENOUGH TIME FOR THE FAMILY, PEOPLE WANTING TO PROTECT THEIR OWN PRIVATE SPACE AND NOT HAVING THIS ENCROACHED UPON AS THE 24 HOUR SOCIETY GROWS.

    //END ACT//

    WITH A MORE FLEXIBLE CONSUMER MARKET HAS COME A LARGER MORE DYNAMIC ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY IN BRITAIN. THAT'S PROMPTED LAWMAKERS TO CONSIDER EXTENDING CLOSING HOUR LAWS FOR PUBS AND BARS. BUT MANY ARE CONCERNED THAT EXTENDED HOURS WILL BRING WITH IT MORE DISTURBANCES, AS MORE ALCOHOL IS CONSUMED LATER INTO THE NIGHT. RUSSELL PIERRE AGREES. HE OWNS A PUB IN CENTRAL LONDON.

    //PIERRE ACT//

    IF YOU KEEP BARS OPEN LATE, YOU'LL JUST GET MORE DRUNKS ABOUT, AND MORE TROUBLE. YOU DON'T REALLY WANT PEOPLE COMING IN LATE. YOU WANT TO GET THEM HERE AND CHUCK THEM OUT AT NIGHT, YOU DON'T WANT THEM COMING IN AT ELEVEN O'CLOCK.

    //END ACT//

    MR. PIERRE SAYS DEALING WITH MORE POTENTIALLY ROWDY LATE-NIGHT GUESTS IS NOT WORTH THE EXTRA MONEY THAT EXTENDED HOURS COULD BRING HIM. SOME DISAGREE, SAYING BRITAIN'S CURRENT DRINKING LAWS ENCOURAGE MANY TO OVERINDULGE JUST BEFORE THE PRESENT CLOSING TIMES. THEY BELIEVE LATER HOURS WILL MEAN LESS ROWDINESS. THE QUESTION MAY BE ANSWERED IN THE NEXT YEAR OR SO IF NEW LAWS ALLOW PUBS TO STAY OPEN LATER, AND BRITAIN BECOMES MORE AND MORE A COUNTRY THAT NEVER SLEEPS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FH/PCF/KL
    26-Nov-98 10:45 AM EST (1545 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] BRITAIN / ISRAEL (L ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242188
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU WAS IN LONDON THURSDAY FOR CONSULTATIONS ABOUT THE FRAGILE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN LONDON REPORTS BRITAIN RENEWS ITS COMMITMENT TO THE PEACE PROCESS.

    TEXT: BRITAIN'S FOREIGN SECRETARY, ROBIN COOK, SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT WILL OFFER 150-M,ILLION DOLLARS IN ADDITIONAL AID TO PALESTINIANS AND THE U-N AGENCY WORKING WITH THEM TO HELP PUSH THE PEACE PROCESS FORWARD.

    /// COOK ACT ///

    IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT WE DEMONSTRATE TO THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE ON THE BACK STREETS OF GAZA OR IN THE VILLAGES OF THE WEST BANK THAT THEY HAVE A STAKE IN PEACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE ANNOUNCED THE GESTURE AFTER TALKS WITH ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER NETANYAHU. FOR HIS PART, MR NETANYAHU SAYS HE IS CONFIDENT HE CAN DELIVER A LASTING PEACE.

    /// NETANYAHU ACT ///

    THE ONLY WAY, THE ONE AND ONLY WAY TO ACHIEVE A SOLUTION, IS THROUGH NEGOTIATION

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT THE ISRAELI LEADER WARNS THAT NEGOTIATIONS FOR A FINAL PEACE SETTLEMENT WILL SUFFER IF THE PALESTINIANS GO AHEAD WITH THEIR PROMISE TO UNILATERALLY DECLARE STATEHOOD NEXT MAY. PALESTINIAN LEADERS, FRUSTRATED WITH THE SLOW PROGRESS OF THE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS, HAVE BEEN LOBBYING EUROPEAN ALLIES FOR SUPPORT OF THEIR POSITION.

    WHEN ASKED BY REPORTERS ABOUT THE VIOLENCE IN ISRAEL'S SELF-STYLED SECURITY ZONE INSIDE SOUTHERN LEBANON, MR NETANYAHU SAID A REVIEW OF THE SITUATION IS UNDERWAY. BUT HE SAID ISRAEL WOULD NOT WITHDRAW ITS SOLDIERS UNTIL THERE ARE GUARANTEES THAT RESIDENTS OF NORTHERN ISRAEL WOULD BE PROTECTED FROM GUERILLA ATTACKS ACROSS THE BORDER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    26-Nov-98 10:21 AM EST (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] FRANCE / AFRICA BY WILLIAM EAGLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-41984
    EDITOR=
    CONTENT=
    NOT VOICED:

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES OF 49 OF AFRICA'S 53 NATIONS ARE IN PARIS FOR THE TWENTIETH FRANCO-AFRICAN SUMMIT. IT OFFICIALLY TAKES PLACE FRIDAY AND SATURDAY (11/27-28). AMONG THOSE ATTENDING ARE 35 HEADS OF STATE, THREE VICE PRESIDENTS, THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE HEAD OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY. ANALYSTS SAY THE IMPRESSIVE LINE-UP IS EITHER A SHOW OF FRENCH INFLUENCE -- OR A PUBLIC RELATIONS EXERCISE FOR A FORMER COLONIAL POWER WITH WANING INFLUENCE IN AFRICA. FROM WASHINGTON, WILLIAM EAGLE REPORTS.

    TEXT: OBSERVERS SAY IF EVER A CONTINENT NEEDED AN IMPARTIAL MEDIATOR TO HELP RESOLVE CONFLICT, IT'S AFRICA. AMONG ITS PROBLEMS: A REBEL WAR IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN NATION OF CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE THAT'S PULLING IN SOUTHERN AND EASTERN AFRICAN NEIGHBORS. AND A TENSE TRUCE IN A BORDER DISPUTE BETWEEN ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA IN AFRICA'S HORN.

    BUT SOME QUESTION IF THE FRANCO-AFRICAN SUMMIT WILL OFFER SOLUTIONS, OR JUST BE A TALK-SHOP.

    ACHILLE MBEMBE [PRON. AH'SHEEL' EM-BEHM'-BAY] IS THE DIRECTOR OF A DAKAR [SENEGAL] BASED THINK TANK, THE COUNSEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESEARCH IN AFRICA [CODESRIA]. HE SAYS EUROPEAN INTEGRATION IS FORCING FRANCE TO TURN ITS POLITICAL FOCUS -- AND FINANCES -- AWAY FROM ITS FORMER AFRICAN COLONIES. HE SAYS A RESULT THESE FRANCO-AFRICAN SUMMITS HAVE LESS SIGNIFICANCE.

    // MBEMBE ACT //

    THE MORE THAT IS THE REALITY, THE MORE FLAMBOYANT YOU WILL SEE THE [FRANCO-AFRICAN] SUMMITS BECOMING, BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT REALLY [PLACES] WHERE MAJOR POLITICAL DECISIONS ARE MADE. IT'S A NON-EVENT IN TERMS OF [INFLUENCING] WHAT IS GOING ON NOW [IN AFRICA]. [BUT] IT'S A MAJOR EVENT IN TERMS OF THE PAGEANTRY AND THEATRE [SURROUNDING] IT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. MBEMBE SAYS FRANCE'S IMAGE IS TARNISHED AMONG MANY TRADITIONAL AFRICAN ALLIES. ONE REASON IS ITS TIES TO A FORMER GOVERNMENT IN RWANDA ACCUSED OF GENOCIDE -- AND TO ITS LONG BACKING OF THE FORMER LONG-TIME RULER OF CONGO-KINSHASA [FORMERLY ZAIRE], MOBUTU SESE SEKO. ALSO, OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS, PARIS HAS TRIED TO RESTRICT IMMIGRATION, AND SOMETIMES EXPELLED AFRICANS FROM FRANCE TO THEIR COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN.

    // MEMBE ACT //

    IN TERMS OF CULTURE, IT IS CLEAR THE IMMIGRATION POLICIES OF FRANCE DURING PAST 10 YEARS HAVE BEEN DETRIMENTAL TO THE CIRCULATION OF INTERNATIONAL ELITES -- ARTISTS AND INTELLECTUALS -- BETWEEN AFRICA AND FRANCE. MORE AND MORE STUDENTS ARE BEING REGISTERED IN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES. WHEN ONE ADDS TO THAT THE POWER OF THE AMERICAN MEDIA AND THE POWERFUL ATTRACTION OF GLOBAL AMERICAN CULTURE LIKE MUSIC, ENTERTAINMENT AND SPORTS -- ONE SEES THAT FRANCE IS AT A DISADVANTAGE.

    // END ACT //

    GLOBAL ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CHANGES HAVE ALSO CHALLENGED FRANCE'S INFLUENCE IN AFRICA.

    MR. MBEMBE SAYS MANY AFRICANS ARE NOT ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT FREE MARKET REFORMS -- WHICH OFTEN LEAD TO CUTTING SOCIAL SERVICES AND MINIMIZING STATE CONTROL OF BUSINESS. HE SAYS FRANCE MISSED A LEADERSHIP OPPORTUNITY WHEN IT FAILED TO PRESENT AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE FREE-MARKET MODEL.

    // OPT //

    IN FACT, FRANCE HAS OFTEN ENCOURAGED ITS AFRICAN ALLIES TO ADOPT THE FREE MARKET REFORMS AND TO ENTER INTO DIALOGUE WITH THEIR LEADING PROPONENT, THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. IN DOING SO, MANY AFRICAN COUNTRIES HAVE PRIVATIZED GOVERNMENT RUN ENTERPRISES -- AND OPENED THEIR ECONOMIES TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT. IN THE NEW ATMOSPHERE OF GLOBAL COMPETITION, FRENCH BUSINESSES HAVE HAD TO COMPETE IN AFRICA WITH AMERICAN, BRITISH AND EVEN SOUTH AFRICAN INVESTORS. AS A RESULT, FRANCE HAS LOST SOME OF ITS TRADITIONAL CLOUT IN AFRICA'S WATER SUPPLY, ELECTRICITY AND MINING SECTORS. IN ONE SIGN OF CHANGE, BRITAIN HAS BECOME THE SECOND BIGGEST INVESTOR IN ONE OF FRANCE'S STRONGEST WEST AFRICAN ALLIES, IVORY COAST. // END OPT //

    MR. MBEMBE SAYS FREE-MARKET REFORMS HAVE ALSO LED TO THE DEVALUATION OF THE COMMON CURRENCY AMONG FRENCH SPEAKING WEST AFRICAN STATES, THE C-F-A FRANC. ITS VALUE IS PEGGED TO THE FRENCH FRANC. MR. MBEMEBE SAYS MANY AFRICAN STATES ARE CONCERNED ABOUT HOW THEIR OWN ECONOMIES WILL BE AFFECTED WHEN FRANCE'S OWN CURRENCY IS TIED TO THE NEW EUROPEAN CURRENCY, THE EURO.

    // MBEMBE ACT //

    THE BIG WORRY IS THERE MIGHT BE A DEVALUATION OF THE C-F-A FRANC.. AND THE THREAT IS THAT IF THERE IS ANOTHER DEVALUATION, SOME [COUNTRIES IN THE FRANC ZONE] MAY WANT TO GO IT ALONE. SOME WOULD WANT TO CREATE THEIR OWN CURRENCIES. THE WORRY IS [IF THERE IS] A DISSOLUTION OF THE C-F-A ZONE IN FAVOR OF NATIONAL CURRENCIES, WHETHER [THERE WILL BE] POLITICAL WILL ..... [TO BUILD A REGIONAL MONETARY ZONE].

    // END ACT //

    NOT EVERYONE IS TAKING SUCH A DIM VIEW OF FRENCH INFLUENCE IN AFRICA.

    ANDREW MANLEY IS THE EDITOR OF THE OXFORD ANALYTICA CONSULTANCY IN OXFORD, ENGLAND.

    // MANLEY ACT //

    FRANCE IS STILL HAS THE LARGEST, MOST CONSISTENT AND BEST INFORMED DIPLOMATIC PRESENCE OF ANY OUTSIDE POWER IN AFRICA. IT CERTAINLY HAS A POOL OF DIPLOMATIC KNOWLEDGE THAT IS DEEPER THAN THE U-S AND UNITED KINGDOM -- WHICH HAS BEEN GRADUALLY PULLING OUT OF AFRICA FOR A COUPLE OF DECADES NOW.

    // END ACT //

    MR. MANLEY SAYS FRENCH FOREIGN POLICY MAY BE CHANGING -- BUT IT REMAINS PRAGMATIC. IN RECENT YEARS, FRANCE HAS COURTED ENGLISH SPEAKING SOUTH AFRICA, NIGERIA AND KENYA, AND PORTUGUESE-SPEAKING MOZAMBIQUE AND ANGOLA. REPRESENTATIVES FROM THOSE COUNTRIES ARE EXPECTED TO ATTEND THE SUMMIT.

    SO ARE REPRESENTATIVES OF COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN THE WAR IN CONGO-KINSHASA, INCLUDING THE PRESIDENTS OF RWANDA, UGANDA, ZIMBABWE AND NAMBIA. ANGOLA'S DEFENCE MINSTER AND CHAD'S FOREIGN MINISTER ARE ALSO EXPECTED TO ATTEND. A REBEL DELEGATION FROM CONGO-BRAZZAVILLE HAS ALSO ARRIVED IN PARIS. MR. MANLEY WONDERS IF THEY WILL MAKE CONTACT WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE CONGOLESE GOVERNMENT OF LAURENT KABILA.

    // MANLEY ACT //

    WHERE I THINK THE PARIS SUMMIT COULD BE SIGNIFICANT IS YOU HAVE MOST OF THE MAJOR PROTAGONISTS IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN CRISIS TOGETHER UNDER ONE ROOF, AND IT WOULD BE ASTONISHING IF FRANCE DOES NOT TRY TO ARRANGE SOME KIND OF BROKERING DURING THE COURSE OF THE SUMMIT, POSSIBLY RESULTING IN THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF A PROVISIONAL CEASEFIRE AND FURTHER MEETINGS.

    // OPT //

    BOTH [THE PRESIDENT OF UGANDA] YOWERI MUSEVENI OF UGANDA AND [PRESIDENT] PASTEUR BIZUMUNGU OF RWANDA HAVE BEEN INVITED AS HAS PRESIDENT JOSE DOS SANTOS OF ANGOLA. THEY WILL ALMOST CERTAINLY BE THERE -- HOW MUCH CONTACT THERE IS BETWEEN THEM IS NOT PREDICTABLE. THERE IS ANOTHER SUMMIT ON THE CRISIS COMING UP IN AFRICA IN EARLY DECEMBER, AND IT COULD BE THAT SOME OF THEM WOULD LIKE TO WAIT FOR THAT. WHETHER THE FRENCH TRY TO BROKER A FACE-TO-FACE MEETING BETWEEN KABILA AND MUSEVENI IS SLIGHTLY MORE DOUBTFUL -- AS IS ANY MEETING BETWEEN KABILA AND THE RWANDA DELEGATION. // END OPT //

    // END ACT //

    // OPT ///

    ALSO LIKELY TO BE DISCUSSED AT THE SUMMIT IS FRANCE'S PEACE-KEEPING ROLE IN AFRICA.

    //OPT: MANLEY ACT //

    WHERE BOOSTING AFRICAN PEACE KEEPING CAPACITY IS CONCERNED -- FRANCE HAS A REASONBLY CLEAR POSITION: IT WILL NO LONGER USE ITS OWN TROOPS TO SETTLE OTHERS' DOMESTIC DISPUTES. ALTHOUGH IT WILL SEND THEM IN TO EVACUATE EUROPEAN CITIZENS. OTHER THAN THAT, THE MAIN THRUST OF FRANCE'S INITIATIVES IN PEACE KEEPING IS AN INITIATIVE WHEREBY AFRICAN UNITS FROM VARIOUS COUNTRIES ARE TRAINED AND EQUIPPED FOR PEACE KEEPING DUTIES SO THEY ARE READY TO GO SHOULD THE NEED ARISE.

    THERE IS A GREAT DEAL OF CONFUSION BETWEEN THE FRENCH INITIATIVE AND THE U-S AND U-K BACKED INITIATIVE THE AFRICAN CRISIS REPONSE INITIATIVE. MANY PEOPLE ARE BAFFLED IF THEY ARE ONE AND THE SAME THING -- SINCE THEY [APPEAR TO SOME TO BE] IN CONFLICT WITH EACH OTHER.

    // END ACT // // END OPT //

    ACCORDING TO REUTERS NEWS AGENCY, THREE AFRICAN COUNTRIES WERE NOT INVITED TO THE SUMMIT: LIBYA, SUDAN AND SOMALIA. ALGERIA DECLINED AN INVITATION. AND SO DID LONG-TIME FRENCH ALLY GABON. ITS PRESIDENT OMAR BONGO IS SAID TO BE PROTESTING THE PRESENCE AT THE SUMMIT OF SOME ENGLISH SPEAKING MEMBERS OF THE BRITISH-LED COMMONWEALTH. HE IS QUOTED AS ACCUSING THE NON-FRANCOPHONE ATTENDANTS OF "EATING OUT OF TWO TROUGHS." AND SAYING HE WAS "SICK AND TIRED OF HAVING TO READ DOCUMENTS IN ENGLISH AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES."

    SUMMIT SUPPPORTERS, HOWEVER, ARE OPTIMISTIC. THEY SAY IT'S BETTER TO GET TO HAVE AFRICAN LEADERS COME TOGETHER TO TALK -- EVEN FORMALLY -- IN PARIS, THAN TO FIGHT ON THE BATTLE FIELD. AND THE FRENCH SAY NO WESTERN POWER IS BETTER PLACED THAN FRANCE TO BROKER THE EFFORT.
    NEB/WE/KL
    26-Nov-98 11:45 AM EST (1645 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] FRENCH AFRICA SUMMIT (L-ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=11/26/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-242195
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES OF 49 AFRICAN STATES HAVE GATHERED IN PARIS FOR THE 20TH BI-ANNUAL "FRENCH-AFRICAN SUMMIT". JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS THE CLIMAX OF THE MEETING IS LIKELY TO COME SATURDAY WHEN FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC RECEIVES PRESIDENT LAURENT KABILA OF CONGO-KINSHASA..

    TEXT: OFFICIALLY, THE AGENDA FOR THIS 20TH FRANCO-AFRICAN SUMMIT SIDESTEPS DISCUSSION OF WARFARE OR CONFLICT. INSTEAD, FRANCE SAYS IT HOPES TO DRAW UP GENERAL GUIDELINES THAT WOULD ESTABLISH WAYS OF GUARANTEEING SECURITY ON THE CONTINENT.

    AMONG THESE ARE PLANS FOR AN "INTER-AFRICAN" SECURITY FORCE THAT WOULD CONDUCT PEACE-KEEPING OPERATIONS ON THE CONTINENT.

    NONETHELESS, IT IS PLAIN THAT THE SITUATION IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION OF AFRICA, PITTING FRIENDS AND FOES OF PRESIDENT LAURENT KABILA OF CONGO-KINSHASA AGAINST EACH OTHER, WILL DOMINATE THE PARIS MEETING.

    IN FRANCE AND BELGIUM, LEGAL COMPLAINTS HAVE BEEN LODGED ON HUMAN RIGHTS GROUNDS AGAINST MR. KABILA, WHO TOOK POWER IN THE COUNTRY FORMERLY KNOWN AS ZAIRE LAST YEAR.

    THE PARIS PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE HAS ACKNOWLEDGED THAT IT IS STUDYING A HUMAN RIGHTS CASE AGAINST MR. KABILA. HOWEVER, GIVEN THAT PRESIDENT KABILA IS VISITING PARIS AS A KNOWN HEAD OF STATE, THIS IS UNLIKELY TO TROUBLE HIS VISIT TO FRANCE.

    RWANDA'S PRESIDENT, PASTEUR BIZIMUNGU, WHOSE ARMY BACKS REBELS FIGHTING MR. KABILA, SAYS HE IS WILLING TO MEET WITH PRESIDENT KABILA IN PARIS, IF THIS WILL HELP END THE CONFLICT. BUT BEFORE LEAVING RWANDA FOR FRANCE, PRESIDENT BIZIMUNGU REPEATED ACCUSATIONS OF GENOCIDE AGAINST PRESIDENT KABILA.

    IN AN INTERVIEW WITH RADIO FRANCE INTERNATIONAL, PRESIDENT KABILA SAID THE REBELS FIGHTING HIM ARE PUPPETS OF BOTH RWANDA AND UGANDA. HE SAID HE IS WILLING TO MEET LEADERS OF BOTH COUNTRIES TO DISCUSS THE WITHDRAWAL OF WHAT HE CALLS -- THE INVADERS.

    UGANDA AND RWANDA ACCUSE PRESIDENT KABILA'S ADMINISTRATION OF PERSECUTING AND KILLING ETHNIC TUTSIS. BOTH UGANDA AND RWANDA EARLIER SUPPORTED PRESIDENT KABILA WHEN HE LED THE OPPOSITION AGAINST THE LATE MOBUTU SESE SEKO OF ZAIRE.

    WHATEVER THE OUTCOME OF THIS FRENCH-AFRICAN SUMMIT, FRANCE CAN DRAW COMFORT FROM THE NUMBERS ATTENDING. AT THE FIRST SUMMIT IN 1973, ONLY 11 AFRICAN COUNTRIES TURNED UP. THIS YEAR, THERE ARE 49.

    FRANCE'S COOPERATION MINISTER, CHARLES JOSSELIN, WHO HANDLES RELATIONS WITH AFRICA, TOLD THE FRENCH DAILY "LE FIGARO" THE PARIS SUMMIT ATTENDANCE SHOWS AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS BELIEVE FRANCE IS ONE OF THE FEW INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES COMMITTED TO THE CONTINENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/PCF
    26-Nov-98 12:57 PM EST (1757 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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