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Voice of America, 99-02-19

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ISRAEL/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (JERUSALEM)
  • [02] KURDS PROTEST BY GIL BUTLER (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE IN THE NEWS #366 - Abdullah Ocalan BY Jerilyn Watson (Washington)
  • [04] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [05] KOSOVO TALKS ONITER (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE)
  • [06] KOSOVO TALKS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (RAMBOUILLET)
  • [07] CLINTON / CHIRAC (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [08] CLINTON / CHIRAC (S-WRAP) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [09] KOSOVO-CLINTON,CHIRAC (L) BY GIL BUTLER (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] NATO / KOSOVO / STRIKES BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (PENTAGON)
  • [11] TURKEY RUSSIA TRADE BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [12] EUROPE / FARMERS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [13] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [14] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] EDITORIAL: GERMAN BUSINESSES FACE PAST

  • [01] ISRAEL/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (JERUSALEM)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245712
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE WAKE OF THIS WEEK'S FATAL CLASH BETWEEN ISRAELI SECURITY GUARDS AND KURDISH PROTESTERS IN BERLIN, ISRAEL IS GOING TO EXTRAORDINARY LENGTHS TO DISASSOCIATE ITSELF FROM TURKEY'S CAPTURE OF KURDISH P-K-K REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN. ISRAEL HAS ESTABLISHED CLOSE TIES WITH TURKEY IN RECENT YEARS -- BUT DOES NOT WANT THE KURDS AS AN ENEMY. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM JERUSALEM.

    TEXT: IN AN UNPRECEDENTED STEP, THE HEAD OF ISRAEL'S MOSSAD INTELLIGENCE AGENCY HAS ISSUED A PUBLIC STATEMENT DENYING THAT THE MOSSAD HAD ANY CONNECTION TO TURKEY'S CAPTURE OF P-K-K LEADER OCALAN.

    THE STATEMENT BY MOSSAD CHIEF EPHRIAM HALEVY -- TECHNICALLY -- WAS A MEMO TO STAFF MEMBERS BUT THE DOCUMENT WAS ALSO GIVEN TO ISRAELI NEWSPAPERS AND BROADCASTERS. IN IT, MR. HALEVY SAID THE MOSSAD HAD NOT BEEN PURSUING MR. OCALAN AND HAD NOT BEEN AWARE OF HIS PRESENCE IN KENYA WHERE HE WAS CAPTURED BY TURKISH AGENTS.

    NEWS REPORTS LINKING ISRAEL TO MR. OCALAN'S CAPTURE ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE SPARKED WEDNESDAY'S ASSAULT BY KURDISH PROTESTERS ON ISRAEL'S CONSULATE IN BERLIN, IN WHICH THREE DEMONSTRATORS WERE SHOT DEAD BY ISRAELI SECURITY GUARDS.

    ISRAELI LEADERS, INCLUDING PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU, IMMEDIATELY EXPRESSED REGRET OVER THE DEATHS AND ISSUED STRONG DENIALS OF ANY ISRAELI ROLE IN TRACKING DOWN OF MR. OCALAN.

    SINCE WEDNESDAY, ISRAELI OFFICIALS ARE ALSO REPORTED TO HAVE MADE CONTACTS WITH KURDISH GROUPS TO STATE THAT ISRAEL IS NOT THEIR ENEMY AND DOES NOT WANT TO SEE THE SITUATION ESCALATE.

    THE ISSUE IS AN EXCEPTIONALLY DELICATE ONE FOR ISRAEL, WHICH HAS CULTIVATED CLOSE SECURITY TIES IN RECENT YEARS WITH TURKEY -- IN PART BECAUSE OF THEIR MUTUAL PROBLEMS WITH SYRIA. HOWEVER, A HAIFA UNIVERSITY EXPERT ON ISRAELI-TURKISH AFFAIRS -- PROFESSOR DAVID KUSHNER -- TOLD V-O-A ISRAEL HAS TRIED TO AVOID ANY INVOLVEMENT IN TURKEY'S CONFLICT WITH THE KURDS:

    ///KUSHNER ACT///

    I THINK ISRAEL HAS BEEN VERY CAREFUL TO STRESS THAT IT IS NOT INVOLVED IN THE INTERNAL CONFLICT IN TURKEY. AND I THINK THE TURKS, BY AND LARGE ON THEIR PART, HAVE BEEN QUITE UNDERSTANDING ON THIS ISSUE. I MEAN, AFTER ALL, ISRAEL DID NOT DEMAND OF TURKEY TO INVOLVE HERSELF IN THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT, TO TAKE SIDES IN THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. AND THERE'S BEEN UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN ISRAEL AND TURKEY ON THIS POINT. SO WHY SHOULD ISRAEL INVOLVE HERSELF IN A CONFLICT WHICH IS STRICTLY TURKEY'S?

    ///END ACT///

    PROFESSOR KUSHNER SAID THE SECURITY LINKS WITH WITH TURKEY, WHICH HAVE INCLUDED JOINT MILITARY EXERCISES, ARE OF HIGH STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE TO ISRAEL. BUT HE DOES NOT THINK TURKEY HAS MADE ISRAELI INVOLVEMENT IN THE KURDISH CONFLICT A CONDITION FOR SUCH COOPERATION.

    IN HIS STATEMENT, MOSSAD CHIEF HALEVY ALSO REJECTED AS COMPLETELY FALSE REPORTS THAT THE ARREST OF TWO ISRAELI AGENTS IN CYPRUS LAST YEAR WAS SOMEHOW RELATED TO THE OCALAN AFFAIR.

    OFFICIALS HERE SAY HIS COMMENTS WERE OFFICIALLY DESCRIBED AS A MEMO TO THE STAFF IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO MAINTAIN THE NOTION THAT THE SPY AGENCY DOES NOT ISSUE STATEMENTS TO THE MEDIA -- THEREBY NOT CREATING A PRECEDENT FOR FUTURE COMMENT ON MOSSAD OPERATIONS.

    UNTIL A FEW YEARS AGO, EVEN THE IDENTITY OF THE ISRAELI SPY CHIEF WAS A TIGHTLY KEPT SECRET. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PCF
    19-Feb-99 7:50 AM EST (1250 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KURDS PROTEST BY GIL BUTLER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42652 (CQ)
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// CORRECTS SPELLING OF NAME OF P-K-K SPOKESWOMAN //

    INTRO: ETHNIC KURDS AROUND THE WORLD HAVE BEEN PROTESTING THE ARREST OF ABDULLAH OCALAN BY TURKISH SECURITY FORCES IN KENYA. HE IS THE LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY -- THE P-K-K -- WHICH THE UNITED STATES, AMONG OTHERS, CONSIDERS A TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. IN THIS REPORT, V-O-A'S GIL BUTLER LOOKS AT WHY EVEN KURDS WHO OPPOSE THE VIOLENT ACTS OF THE P-K-K, SEEM TO HAVE JOINED IN CONDEMNING ABDULLAH OCALAN'S ARREST.

    TEXT: A RECENT FRONT PAGE STORY IN THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF EUROPE'S 850-THOUSAND KURDS ARE OUTRAGED BY THE TURKISH ARREST OF THE P-K-K LEADER. THERE WERE PROTESTS IN EUROPE, KURDISH AREAS OF TURKEY AND EVEN A DEMONSTRATION IN FRONT OF THE WHITE HOUSE IN WASHINGTON, D-C. SOME THE PROTESTS TURNED VIOLENT: THREE KURDS WERE KILLED TRYING TO STORM THE ISRAELI CONSULATE IN BERLIN AND GASOLINE BOMBS HAVE BEEN HURLED AT VARIOUS TURKISH OFFICES.

    MICHAEL AMITAY OF WASHINGTON'S KURDISH INSTITUTE SAYS THE PROTESTS OF KURDS FROM TURKEY HAVE BEEN JOINED BY KURDS FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.

    /// AMITAY ACT ///

    I THINK IT IS STRIKING TO SEE THAT THE KURDS DEMONSTRATING ACROSS EUROPE, THE UNITED STATES, CANADA AND ELSEWHERE ARE NOT ONLY FROM TURKEY. IN FACT, THE DEMONSTRATION IN WASHINGTON I WOULD SAY 75 PERCENT OF THE KURDS WERE FROM IRAQ OR IRAN.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS ABDULLAH OCALAN'S ARREST HAS GALVANIZED SUPPORT FOR KURDISH RIGHTS ... THOUGH NOT FOR THE P-K-K ITSELF. THE P-K-K HAS BEEN WAGING A VIOLENT 15 YEAR STRUGGLE IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY FOR A SEPARATE KURDISH HOMELAND.

    BUT DR. NAJMALDIN KARIM, PRESIDENT OF THE KURDISH INSTITUTE, DOES CREDIT THE P-K-K WITH GAINING SOME RECOGNITION OF KURDISH PROBLEMS.

    /// KARIM ACT ///

    THERE HAS REALLY NOT BEEN ANY OTHER VENUE FOR THE KURDS TO EXPRESS THEIR OPINION, EXPLAIN THEMSELVES AND TRY TO GAIN THEIR RIGHTS LIKE EQUAL CITIZENS IN TURKEY WITH PRESERVATION OF THEIR KURDISH IDENTITY. SO THE P-K-K HAS BECOME A RALLYING POINT FOR THESE REASONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE SAYS THE HUMILIATING WAY MR. OCALAN WAS ARRESTED HAS ALSO OUTRAGED KURDS. AND DR. KARIM IS NOT OPTIMISTIC THAT THE ARREST AND RESULTANT OUTRAGE WILL MARK THE BEGINNING OF AN IMPROVEMENT IN KURDISH RIGHTS.

    /// KARIM ACT ///

    I AM VERY SKEPTICAL THAT THE TURKS WILL DO THAT BECAUSE IF YOU LOOK AT THEIR REACTION, BASICALLY THEY THINK THAT THEY ARE VICTORIOUS AND CAN DO WHATEVER THEY WANT. THEY HAVE EVEN COME OUT AND SAID THEY WILL NOT ALLOW ANY OBSERVERS OR MONITORS FROM OUTSIDE TO MONITOR THE TRIAL AND WE KNOW WHAT TRIALS HAVE BEEN IN TURKEY BEFORE.

    /// END ACT ///

    TURKEY CALLS THE P-K-K A RUTHLESS TERROR ORGANIZATION THAT HAS MURDERED TENS OF THOUSANDS OF INNOCENT PEOPLE. IT BLAMES ABDULLAH OCALAN'S PARTY FOR THE POVERTY OF THE KURDISH AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY.

    PROMINENT AMERICAN COLUMNIST WILLIAM SAFIRE SAYS TURKEY SHOULD REALIZE THAT IT HAS WON ITS WAR WITH THE P-K-K. HE SAYS ANKARA SHOULD NOW INVEST MONEY TO IMPROVE KURDISH VILLAGES, RELEASE JAILED POLITICIANS AND PERMIT KURDISH LANGUAGE RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS.

    MIZGIN SHEN IS A SPOKESWOMAN FOR THE P-K-K'S KURDISTAN NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT EUROPEAN OFFICE. SHE REJECTS SUGGESTIONS THAT THE P-K-K IS SHATTERED.

    /// MIZGIN SHEN ACT ///

    OCALAN IS THE LEADER OF THE P-K-K AND HE IS THE LEADER OF THE KURDISH PEOPLE AND WILL ALWAYS REMAIN ONE. BUT THE ALLEGATIONS SUGGESTING THAT HIS ARREST BY TURKEY WILL BE SORT OF THE BEGINNING OF THE END FOR THE P-K-K: I COMPLETELY DISAGREE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SHE SAYS IT IS A WELL ESTABLISHED ORGANIZATION THAT HAS THE SUPPORT OF THE MAJORITY OF THE KURDISH PEOPLE. THE 25 TO 35 MILLION KURDS IN THE WORLD HAVE HISTORICALLY BEEN DIVIDED INTO FACTIONS AND, AT TIMES HAVE FOUGHT EACH OTHER. BUT FOR THE MOMENT, THE ARREST OF ABDULLAH OCALAN AND HIS TRANSPORT TO AN ISOLATED PRISON ISLAND HAS GIVEN KURDS AT LEAST ONE THING TO AGREE ON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/JO
    19-Feb-99 2:48 PM EST (1948 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] SPECIAL ENGLISH FEATURE IN THE NEWS #366 - Abdullah Ocalan BY Jerilyn Watson (Washington)

    DATE=2/20/99
    TYPE=Special English Feature
    NUMBER=7-20372
    TELEPHONE=619-2585
    EDITOR=Shelley Gollust
    CONTENT=
    ((THEME)) This is _________________with the V-O-A Special English program, IN THE NEWS. Earlier this week, Turkish agents seized Kurdish guerrilla leader Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya. Mister Ocalan was the leader of the Kurdistan Workers' Party since Nineteen-Seventy-Eight. He led a fourteen-year armed struggle for Kurdish independence from Turkey. Mister Ocalan is in prison in Turkey. He will be tried on charges of treason and terrorism. Turkish officials says he is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people. Details of the guerrilla leader's arrest are unclear. He had been hiding in the Greek embassy in Nairobi, Kenya for almost two weeks. Turkish agents seized him as he travelled by car to the airport in Nairobi. Greece, Israel, Kenya and the United States all denied involvement in the capture of Mister Ocalan. Angry Kurdish protesters demonstrated against his arrest in many cities in Europe and the Middle East this week. Some protesters seized Greek and Kenyan diplomatic offices. In Turkey, police increased measures against Kurdish activists. Kurdish reports say police arrested at least one-thousand of members of a pro-Kurdish political party. Security forces clashed with Kurdish protesters in southeastern Turkey. Police in Istanbul arrested at least one-hundred Kurdish protesters who set fires and attacked stores. Turkish forces also attacked Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq. Planes and helicopters attacked the bases. And several thousand Turkish troops moved into the area. Mister Ocalan and his political party started their separatist war in southeastern Turkey in Nineteen-Eighty-Four. His forces also killed many Kurds who supported the Turkish government. As many as thirty-thousand Turkish soldiers, guerrillas and civilians have been killed in the conflict. By the early Nineteen-Nineties, Mister Ocalan's supporters controlled large areas of southeastern Turkey. The Turkish government reacted by destroying thousands of Kurdish villages. Government forces killed or tortured people suspected of being rebel supporters. Other governments and human rights groups have accused Turkey of denying human rights, civil rights and cultural rights to its ten-million Kurds. Some people believe Abdullah Ocalan is the leader of a movement fighting for the rights of the Turkish Kurds. However, Turkey says he is a terrorist who has used extreme violence. Turkish officials have been trying to arrest the Kurdish rebel leader for more than ten years. He had been living in Syria since Nineteen-Eighty. Syria expelled him in October after Turkey threatened to attack Syria. He fled to Russia, to Italy and finally to Kenya. Mister Ocalan is now being held in a prison on Imrali Island near Istanbul. Turkey has promised a fast and fair trial for the Kurdish rebel leader. This In The News program was written by Jeri Watson. This is _________.
    19-Feb-99 3:11 PM EST (2011 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] TURKEY / KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245729
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH WARPLANES ATTACKED KURDISH REBEL BASES IN NORTHERN IRAQ ON FRIDAY, AS TURKISH TROOPS CONTINUED THEIR HUNT FOR REBEL UNITS HIDING OUT IN THE RUGGED MOUNTAINS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS THE CROSS BORDER OPERATION WAS LAUNCHED AFTER MONDAY'S CAPTURE OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN

    TEXT: TURKEY'S SEMI-OFFICIAL ANATOLIAN NEWS AGENCY REPORTS THAT THE SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K, SUFFERED HEAVY LOSSES DURING THE OFFENSIVE -- WHICH IS BEING CARRIED OUT JOINTLY BY TURKISH FORCES AND FIGHTERS FROM AN IRAQI KURDISH GROUP. THE IRAQI KURDISH FACTION, THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY, OR K-D-P, IS CLOSELY ALLIED WITH TURKEY.

    HUNDREDS OF P-K-K REBELS FLEEING THE TURKISH OFFENSIVE WERE REPORTED TO BE CROSSING INTO IRAN AND IRAQI GOVERNMENT CONTROLLED TERRITORY.

    THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT CALLED ON TURKEY TO "IMMEDIATELY" WITHDRAW FROM IRAQ AND ACCUSED THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT OF "CARRYING OUT GENOCIDE AGAINST ITS KURDISH POPULATION IN ORDER TO PLEASE THE UNITED STATES."

    INSIDE TURKEY, VIOLENT CLASHES CONTINUED FOR A SECOND DAY BETWEEN PRO-P-K-K DEMONSTRATORS AND TURKISH SECURITY FORCES.

    ONE YOUNG KURDISH MAN WAS REPORTED TO HAVE DIED DURING A DEMONSTRATION IN SUPPORT OF CAPTURED P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN. IN THE MAINLY KURDISH SOUTHEAST REGION, SEVERAL DEMONSTRATORS WERE DETAINED AFTER TRYING TO SPRAY PRO-OCALAN SLOGANS ON A WALL.

    THE CHAIRMAN OF THE TURKISH HUMAN RIGHTS ASSOCIATION, AKIN BIRDAL, SAYS NEARLY 600 KURDISH ACTIVISTS, INCLUDING SEVERAL RIGHTS DEFENDERS, ARE IN POLICE DETENTION. MEANWHILE, TURKISH PRIME MINISTER BULENT ECEVIT ANNOUNCED THAT THE PRISON ISLAND OFF THE COAST OF ISTANBUL, WHERE THE REBEL CHIEF IS BEING HELD, HAD BEEN DECLARED A "FORBIDDEN ZONE" FOR "SECURITY REASONS."

    THE MOVE IS LIKELY TO RAISE FURTHER INTERNATIONAL CONCERNS ABOUT THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THE MAN TURKEY BLAMES FOR THE DEATHS OF 30-THOUSAND OF ITS CITIZENS IS BEING HELD. NEW PICTURES OF THE REBEL CHIEF FOLLOWING HIS CAPTURE IN KENYA MONDAY, SHOWED MR. OCALAN APPARENTLY IN GOOD HEALTH THOUGH EXTREMELY APPREHENSIVE.

    IN A SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT, PRIME MINISTER ECEVIT ORDERED HIS MINISTERS DURING A CABINET MEETING FRIDAY TO DRAW UP AN EMERGENCY INVESTMENT PACKAGE FOR TURKEY'S WAR RAVAGED SOUTHEAST REGION.

    PROMINENT KURDISH BUSINESSMEN HAVE WELCOMED THE MOVE, SAYING IT WILL GENERATE FRESH CONFIDENCE IN THE GOVERNMENT. MEANWHILE, TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL CALLED FOR THE SPEEDY ENACTMENT OF LEGISLATION KNOWN AS THE "REPENTANCE" LAW WHICH WOULD ENABLE P-K-K REBELS, STILL IN COMBAT, TO BE GRANTED A PARTIAL OR FULL PARDON BY THE GOVERNMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH/JO
    19-Feb-99 12:41 PM EST (1741 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] KOSOVO TALKS ONITER (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245737
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NOON DEADLINE (PARIS TIME) IS FAST APPROACHING FOR PEACE TALKS ON YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE -- BUT SERBIAN OFFICIALS AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN SEPARATISTS DO NOT APPEAR CLOSE TO AGREEMENT. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE, THAT A COLLAPSE IN THE PEACE TALKS WILL OPEN THE WAY FOR NATO AIR STRIKES ON SERBIAN TARGETS.

    TEXT: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT ARRIVES IN RAMBOUILLET THIS MORNING FOR LAST MINUTE CONSULTATIONS TO SEE WHAT POSSIBILITIES, IF ANY, MAY REMAIN FOR AN AGREEMENT. BRITAIN'S FOREIGN SECRETARY RETURNED HERE FRIDAY EVENING.

    DESPITE THE LAST-DITCH EFFORTS, THE MOOD HERE IN RAMBOUILLET REMAINS PESSIMISTIC.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY THE DEADLINE WILL NOT BE EXTENDED. AND NATO HAS THREATENED AIR STRIKES WITHIN THE NEXT FEW DAYS IF THE NOON DEADLINE PASSES WITHOUT AN ACCORD.

    SO FAR YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS REFUSED TO BUDGE FROM HIS OPPOSITION TO THE PRESENCE OF NATO GROUND TROOPS IN KOSOVO TO ENFORCE ANY PEACE AGREEMENT. WESTERN LEADERS SAY THERE CAN BE NO AGREEMENT WITHOUT THAT PROVISION.

    ///OPT THE REST FOR LONG CR ///

    WESTERN EMBASSIES IN BELGRADE AND AID AGENCIES IN KOSOVO ARE EVACUATING STAFF AS A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE.

    ON FRIDAY PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON WARNED SERB LEADERS THEY WOULD BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE IF THE PEACE TALKS COLLAPSE. A EUROPEAN MEDIATOR IN RAMBOUILLET SAYS EVERYTHING HAS BEEN DONE TO FIND A SOLUTION, BUT HE WAS NOT SURE THERE WOULD BE A POSITIVE OUTCOME.

    A KEY OBSTACLE TO AN AGREEMENT IS THE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT FOR IMPLEMENTING IT. SERB LEADERS DO NOT WANT NATO TROOPS IN KOSOVO. MEDIATORS ARGUE THE TROOPS WOULD ALSO PROTECT THE SERB MINORITY THERE.

    THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY OBJECTS TO THE PROVISION CALLING FOR HANDING OVER ITS WEAPONS. K-L-A NEGOTIATORS WERE SAID TO BE CONFERRING WITH NATO OFFICIALS ON FRIDAY ABOUT THAT AND OTHER SECURITY ISSUES.

    SOME WESTERN DIPLOMATS SUGGEST THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN NEGOTIATORS MIGHT BE EDGING CLOSER TO ACCEPTING THE FINAL DRAFT OF THE PEACE PLAN, BUT WITHOUT SERB APPROVAL, THERE CAN BE NO DEAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JO
    19-Feb-99 5:10 PM EST (2210 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] KOSOVO TALKS (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (RAMBOUILLET)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245713
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S MEDIATOR IN THE KOSOVO PEACE TALKS, CHRISTOPHER HILL, HAS FLOWN TO BELGRADE IN A LAST BID TO GET YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC TO AGREE TO THE KOSOVO PEACE AGREEMENT. AS V-O-A'S LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM THE PEACE TALKS AT RAMBOUILLET, NEAR PARIS, NATO HAS THREATENED AIR STRIKES IF AGREEMENT IS NOT REACHED ON SATURDAY.

    TEXT: DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE IS INTENSIFYING BOTH IN RAMBOUILLET AND IN BELGRADE TO GET SERB AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN NEGOTIATORS TO APPROVE THE FINAL DRAFT AGREEMENT BY THE SATURDAY DEADLINE. BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK IS EXPECTED BACK AT THE RAMBOUILLET TALKS LATER IN THE DAY.

    FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER HUBERT VEDRINE AND U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT ARE DUE BACK HERE EARLY SATURDAY.

    SERB AND ETHNIC ALBANIAN NEGOTIATORS ARE STUDYING THE FINAL DRAFT OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT, WHICH WAS HANDED TO THEM LATE THURSDAY. BOTH SIDES STILL OBJECT TO VARIOUS POINTS OF THE AGREEMENT.

    AND THE THREAT OF NATO AIR STRIKES HANGS OVER THEIR NEGOTIATIONS. SEVERAL WESTERN EMBASSIES IN BELGRADE ARE ALREADY EVACUATING NON-ESSENTIAL STAFF AS A PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE IN CASE NATO IS FORCED TO CARRY OUT ITS THREAT.

    IN RAMBOUILLET, A SPOKESMAN FOR THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, WHICH IS TAKING PART IN THE TALKS, SAYS THE FINAL DRAFT IS STILL FLAWED, ESPECIALLY ON SECURITY ISSUES. PLEURAT SEDJDIU ALSO COMPLAINS ABOUT THE PROVISIONS IN A NEW CONSTITUTION FOR A JUSTICE SYSTEM AND FULL SELF-RULE FOR THE MOSTLY-ETHNIC ALBANIAN PROVINCE.

    /// SEJDIU ACT ///

    AFTER THE FINAL LOOK AT THIS CONSTITUTION, IT SEEMS TO US THAT THE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN KOSOVO WOULD BE UNDER THE FULL CONTROL OF SERBIA, NOT AS IT WAS IN THE FIRST DRAFT, MORE INDEPENDENT THAN THE FINAL ONE. THIS SELF RULE IS SUPPOSED TO BE A REAL, TRUE SELF RULE. BUT AS FAR AS I SAW IN THE FINAL DOCUMENT THERE IS NO FULL SELF RULE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS IN KOSOVO IS A KEY STUMBLING BLOCK FOR THE SERB SIDE, WHICH OBJECTS TO THE PRESENCE OF NATO TROOPS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE TO ENFORCE A PEACE AGREEMENT. YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IS ALSO SEEKING THE END OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON HIS COUNTRY IN RETURN FOR THE PEACE DEAL.

    BUT TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR THE NEGOTIATORS AND NATO SAYS IT WILL BOMB SERBIAN TARGETS WITHIN DAYS IF AN AGREEMENT IS NOT REACHED BY NOON ON SATURDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    19-Feb-99 8:15 AM EST (1315 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] CLINTON / CHIRAC (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245724
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON MEETS WITH FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC AT THIS HOUR (EDS.: 11:45 AM EST) FOR TALKS EXPECTED TO FOCUS ON KOSOVO. V-O-A'S DEBORAH TATE REPORTS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: WITH JUST HOURS TO GO BEFORE THE DEADLINE FOR SERBS AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS TO AGREE TO A PEACE ACCORD, MR. CLINTON AND MR. CHIRAC ARE EXPECTED TO WARN THE PARTIES THAT NATO AIRSTRIKES ARE A REAL POSSIBILITY IF AN AGREEMENT IS NOT REACHED.

    THE TWO LEADERS ARE EXPECTED TO ASSESS THE STATUS OF THE PEACE TALKS UNDERWAY IN RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN JOE LOCKHART SAYS THOSE TALKS WILL NOT BE EXTENDED PAST THE SATURDAY NOON DEADLINE.

    HE SAYS - IN HIS WORDS - IT WOULD BE A SERIOUS MISTAKE IF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AND THE SERBS WALK AWAY FROM A PEACE AGREEMENT. HE WARNS THERE WILL BE VERY REAL CONSEQUENCES.

    MR. CLINTON AND MR. CHIRAC ARE ALSO EXPECTED TO DISCUSS IRAQ. FRANCE WOULD LIKE TO SEE A LIFTING OF THE U-N OIL EMBARGO - A MOVE THE UNITED STATES OPPOSES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/ENE/GE
    19-Feb-99 11:17 AM EST (1617 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] CLINTON / CHIRAC (S-WRAP) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245740
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON AND FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC ARE ISSUING ONE LAST WARNING TO THE PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO: REACH A SETTLEMENT BY THE SATURDAY NOON DEADLINE, OR FACE THE PROSPECT OF NATO AIRSTRIKES. THEY SPOKE AT A JOINT NEWS CONFERENCE FOLLOWING TALKS AT THE WHITE HOUSE FRIDAY. V-O-A'S DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: WITH JUST HOURS TO GO BEFORE THE DEADLINE PASSES FOR AN AGREEMENT TO BE REACHED AT THE PEACE TALKS IN RAMBOUILLET, FRANCE, MR. CLINTON SAYS NATO IS PREPARED TO USE FORCE IF THERE IS NO SETTLEMENT.

    // CLINTON ACTUALITY //

    I HAVE ORDERED OUR AIRCRAFT TO BE READY TO ACT AS PART OF A NATO OPERATION.

    // END ACT //

    BUT HE SAYS NATO IS ALSO PREPARED TO DEPLOY A PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN KOSOVO IF THE TALKS RESULT IN AN ACCORD.

    YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OPPOSES HAVING NATO TROOPS ON HIS TERRITORY.

    BUT -- SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR -- FRENCH PRESIDENT CHIRAC URGED MR. MILOSEVIC TO THINK TWICE ABOUT HIS POSITION.

    // CHIRAC ACTUALITY //

    THE TIME HAS COME TO SHOULDER ALL HIS RESPONSIBILITIES AND CHOOSE THE PATH OF WISDOM, NOT THE PATH OF WAR.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLINTON SAYS IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE TO EXTEND THE RAMBOUILLET TALKS BEYOND THE SATURDAY DEADLINE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAT/JO
    19-Feb-99 5:21 PM EST (2221 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] KOSOVO-CLINTON,CHIRAC (L) BY GIL BUTLER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245736
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH THE DEADLINE FOR AGREEMENT ON KOSOVO ONLY HOURS AWAY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC HAVE REITERRATED THEIR WARNING THAT FAILURE TO AGREE WILL BRING MILITARY ACTION. THEIR COMMENTS CAME AT A JOINT WHITE HOUSE NEWS CONFERENCE. VOA'S GIL BUTLER HAS MORE ON THAT STORY.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID EXTENDING THE NOON SATURDAY DEADLINE WOULD BE A MISTAKE AND THAT SERBIAN LEADERS WILL BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE IF PEACE TALKS COLLAPSE AND A NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN IS NEEDED. HE SAID U-S AIRCRAFT HAVE BEEN ORDERED TO BE READY TO ACT AS PART OF A NATO OPERATION.

    NEGOTIATORS AT RAMBOUILLET NEAR PARIS HAVE BEEN TRYING TO GET AGREEMENT BETWEEN KOSOVAR ALBANIANS AND SERB OFFICIALS FOR A THREE YEAR INTERIM AGREEMENT THAT WOULD RETURN AUTONOMY TO KOSOVO. YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC STRIPPED AUTONOMY FROM THE MAJORITY ALBANIAN PROVINCE IN 1989.

    MR. CLINTON REJECTED THE ARGUMENT OF MR. MILOSEVIC THAT TO ACCEPT AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE TO IMPLEMENT A PEACE AGREEMENT IN KOSOVO WOULD MEAN GIVING UP THE PROVINCE.

    /// CLINTON ACT ///

    I DON'T THINK--UNLESS WE DO THIS--THERE IS ANY WAY FOR THE INTEGRITY OF SERBIA ULTIMATELY TO BE PRESERVED BECAUSE OF THE INCREDIBLE HOSTILITY AND THE ANGER THAT IS ALREADY THERE. I'M NOT TRYING, AT LEAST FROM OUR PART-AND I AM SURE PRESIDENT CHIRAC AND ALL THE EUROPEANS FEEL THE SAME WAY--WE ARE TRYING TO GIVE THIS A CHANCE TO WORK. NOT TRYING TO PROVIDE A WEDGE TO UNDO SERBIA..

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CHIRAC SAID HE AND PRESIDENT CLINTON ARE IN UNQUALIFIED AGREEMENT ON THE KOSOVO ISSUE..AND HE SAID IT IS TIME FOR MR. MILOSOEVIC TO SHOULDER HIS RESPONSIBILITY. IT'S THE ONLY WAY, HE SAID, TO PRESERVE THE BORDERS OF KOSOVO WITHIN SERBIA.

    /// CHIRAC ACT ///

    THE ONLY POSSIBILITY FOR MR. MILOSEVIC. THE ONLY WAY HE CAN KEEP KOSOVO WITHIN THE INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED FRONTIERS WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF SUBSTANTIAL AUTONOMY. THE ONLY WAY HE CAN KEEP THAT SITUATION IS TO ACCEPT THE PROPOSALS THAT ARE MADE TODAY. ANY OTHER SOLUTION, I REPEAT WOULD INVOLVE FOR MR. MILOSEVIC, SOME VERY SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE WHITE HOUSE NEWS CONFERENCE CAME SHORTLY AFTER PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAD REFUSED TO MEET U-S AMBASSADOR CHRISTOPHER HILL WHO WAS IN BELGRADE ON A LAST DITCH EFFORT TO GET AGREEMENT ON THE PEACE PLAN BEFORE THE SATURDAY DEADLINE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MGB/PT
    19-Feb-99 4:54 PM EST (2154 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] NATO / KOSOVO / STRIKES BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (PENTAGON)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42657
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO PLANNERS ARE FACING TWO SCENARIOS FOR KOSOVO - A PEACEKEEPING FORCE IF TALKS ON THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE HELD OUTSIDE PARIS SUCCEED OR MILITARY STRIKES AGAINST SERB POSITIONS IF THE NEGOTIATIONS FAIL. IN THIS REPORT FROM THE PENTAGON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE OPTION OF AIR ATTACKS.

    TEXT: JUST A FEW DAYS AGO, THE UNITED STATES ORDERED THE DEPLOYMENT OF 51 ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT TO BASES IN EUROPE - SUCH AS THE ONE IN AVIANO, ITALY. IT IS FROM THERE AND OTHER EUROPEAN MILITARY BASES THAT NATO AIRCRAFT WILL STRIKE TARGETS IN SERBIA, IF SERBS THWART AND AGREEMENT TO DEPLOY NATO PEACEKEEPERS IN THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REGION OF KOSOVO.

    ETHNIC ALBANIAN REPRESENTATIVES AND SERB OFFICIALS ARE MEETING OUTSIDE PARIS IN AN EFFORT TO REACH A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT OF THE KOSOVO ISSUE BY SATURDAY'S DEADLINE (NOON PARIS TIME, 2-20). BUT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC CONTINUES TO REJECT THE PRESENCE OF NATO PEACEKEEPERS IN KOSOVO. MILITARY OFFICIALS HERE (PENTAGON) SAY IF HIS POSITION DOES NOT CHANGE, NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY INSTALLATIONS ARE INEVITABLE.

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS ARE RELUCTANT TO DIVULGE WHAT SPECIFIC TARGETS WILL BE HIT. BUT PAUL BEAVER - SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH MILITARY PUBLICATION "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY" - SAYS THIS IS NOT THE FIRST TIME THAT NATO HAS CONSIDERED AIR STRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS. SO THE TARGETS ARE WELL KNOWN.

    // BEAVER ACT //

    THESE, OF COURSE, ARE THE FIXED BASE RADAR SITES WHICH ARE SCATTERED AROUND THE MOUNTAINS OF SERBIA. THESE INCLUDE THE COMMAND CENTERS, THE AIR DEFENSE CENTERS, THE RADAR HEADS OF THE SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE SITES, ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN SITES. PROBABLY ALSO PORT FACILITIES IN MONTENEGRO, ANTI-SHIP MISSILE FACILITIES THERE. AIRPORTS - OR AIRFILEDS, RATHER - WHICH HAVE AIR DEFENSE FIGHTERS.

    // END ACT //

    NATO HAS 430 PLANES AT ITS DISPOSAL - 260 OF THEM ARE AMERICAN AIRCRAFT INCLUDING B-52 BOMBERS AND STEALTH FIGHTER JETS. BUT MR. BEAVER EXPECTS THE "TOMAHAWK" CRUISE MISSILE WILL BE USED IN THE FIRST WAVE OF ATTACKS.

    // 2ND BEAVER ACT //

    THESE MISSILES WILL BE FIRED FROM ABOUT EIGHT SHIPS OF THE U-S SIXTH FLEET WHICH ARE EQUIPPED WITH "TOMAHAWKS" AND ARE CURRENTLY IN THE ADRIATIC AND MEDITERRANEAN - AGAINST WHICH THE SERBS HAVE VERY LITTLE AIR DEFENSES OTHER THAN A LARGE NUMBER OF GUNS.

    // END ACT //

    WHILE NOT BEING ABLE TO ADEQUATELY CHALLENGE THE CRUISE MISSILE, MR. BEAVER SAYS SERBIA IS NEVERTHELESS A POTENT MILITARY FORCE WITH VERY GOOD INTEGRATED AIR AND RADAR DEFENSE SYSTEMS.

    // 3RD BEAVER ACT //

    THEY HAVE MADE MODIFICATIONS TO THE RUSSIAN-SUPPLIED MISSILES - THEIR SA-SIXES IN PARTICULAR - WHICH ARE MOBILE, LONG-RANGE : AT LEAST OUT TO 11 KILOMETERS MAYBE AS MANY AS 32 KILOMETERS, WITH A NEW PROXIMITY FUSE ON THEM. I WAS TALKING BACK IN OCTOBER TO ONE OF THE GUYS IN THE DESIGN TEAM IN SERBIA. THEY ARE VERY PROUD OF WHAT THEY HAVE DONE UNDER SANCTIONS TO MODIFY THEIR MISSILES. OBVIOUSLY, HE WOULD NOT TELL ME EXACTLY WHAT THEY HAD DONE - BUT SAID THAT HE FELT THAT NATO WILL FIND THEM "DIFFICULT TO OVERCOME."

    // END ACT //

    WITH ALL THE PREPARATIONS GOING ON FOR POSSIBLE AIR STRIKES IN SERBIA, THERE IS A DISTINCT RELUCTANCE AMONG PENTAGON OFFICIALS HERE TO GO AHEAD WITH THE MILITARY OPTION. THEY WOULD PREFER FOR THE TALKS OUTSIDE PARIS TO SUCCEED, THUS AVOIDING PUNITIVE STRIKES.

    DEFENSE ANALYST BEAVER SAYS THAT SAME RELUCTANCE IS FOUND AMONG MILITARY PLANNERS IN EUROPE.

    // 4TH BEAVER ACT //

    WE HAVE NEVER BEEN TO WAR WITH THE SERBS. THE SERBS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN OUR ALLIES IN THE FIRST AND SECOND WORLD WARS. THEY FOUGHT WITH US AGAINST THE NAZIS AND IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR AGAINST THE KAISER. AND THERE IS A FEELING THAT THEY HAVE BEEN AMONGST OUR BEST ALLIES. IT IS AMAZING HOW THESE THINGS CHANGE OF COURSE.

    // OPT //

    BUT THERE IS A FEELING ALSO THAT THIS IS NOT A FIGHT AGAINST THE SERBIAN PEOPLE OR AGAINST THE KOSOVARS - AND WE DO NOT WANT TO BE SEEN TO BE SIDING WITH THE K-L-A, THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY. WHAT WE WANT TO BE DOING IS BRINGING ABOUT A PEACE AND ALLOWING EVERYONE TO GET ON AND HAVE SELF DETERMINATION IF THAT IS POSSIBLE. // END OPT //

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE THAT RELUCTANCE, PAUL BEAVER FROM "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY" SAYS IF NATO GIVES THE ORDER TO ATTACK, THE BOMBING WILL BE ACCURATE AND ROBUST. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/ENE/PT
    19-Feb-99 3:19 PM EST (2019 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] TURKEY RUSSIA TRADE BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-42659
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// RE-RUNNING W/INSERT THE WORD "OIL" IN NEXT TO THE LAST GRAPH FROM TEXT ///

    INTRO: A CONFERENCE THURSDAY AT THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON FOCUSED ON THE CHANGING STRATEGIC SITUATION OF TURKEY IN GLOBAL AND EUROPEAN AFFAIRS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THERE WAS PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE SURPRISING INCREASE IN ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND ITS NORTHERN NEIGHBOR RUSSIA.

    TEXT: PAUL WOLFOWITZ, A TURKEY SPECIALIST AND FORMER TOP OFFICIAL IN THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION, IDENTIFIES RUSSIA AND TURKEY AS FORMER IMPERIAL POWERS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY AND MARKET ECONOMY. TURKEY'S TRANSITION HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR 75 YEARS, RUSSIA'S FOR LESS THAN EIGHT. NOW THE DEAN OF HOPKINS SCHOOL FOR ADVANCED INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, MR. WOLFOWITZ VIEWS TURKEY AS AN ECONOMIC MODEL FOR THE ENTIRE MOSLEM WORLD. HE BELIEVES THE EUROPEAN UNION IS MAKING A TERRIBLE MISTAKE IN TURNING ASIDE TURKEY'S PERSISTENT REQUESTS FOR MEMBERSHIP.

    SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, RUSSIAN - TURKISH TRADE HAS MORE THAN TRIPLED. DESPITE DIFFERENCES IN RELIGION AND HISTORIC RIVALRY, BI-LATERAL ECONOMIC LINKS ARE GROWING RAPIDLY. TRADE IS HEAVILY IN TURKEY'S FAVOR AS RUSSIANS ARE FLOCKING TO TURKEY'S MEDITERRANEAN BEACHES AND TURKISH COMPANIES HAVE BECOME MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF COMPETITIVELY PRICED CONSUMER GOODS FOR THEIR NORTHERN NEIGHBOR. EVEN WITH LAST AUGUST'S RUSSIAN CURRENCY DEVALUATION, BI-LATERAL TRADE IS HOLDING UP WELL. SOLI OZEL, OF THE TURKISH INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, BELIEVES RUSSIA AND TURKEY ARE ALIKE IN THAT THEY BOTH FEEL REJECTED AS FULL PARTNERS OF WESTERN EUROPE. HE SAYS THE INCREASE IN BI-LATERAL TRADE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN SPONTANEOUS INSTEAD OF FROM GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVE. HE CAUTIONS THAT OVERALL RUSSIAN TURKISH RELATIONS CAN CONTINUE TO EXPAND IF SOME OF THE HISTORIC PROBLEMS THAT HAVE DIVIDED THEM CAN BE RESOLVED. HE POINTS PARTICULARLY TO THE NARROW STRAITS OF BOSPEROUS, NOW AS ALWAYS A VITAL RUSSIAN COMMERCIAL OUTLET TO THE WEST. MR. OZEL WORRIES ABOUT THE IMPACT OF THE DOUBLING OF SHIP PASSAGES THROUGH THE BOSPORUS IN RECENT YEARS.

    //OZEL ACT//

    IN 1985, THE YEAR GORBACHEV CAME TO POWER AND PERESTROIKA WAS ABOUT TO BEGIN AND THE SOVIET UNION WAS BECOMING A MORE IMPORTANT ACTOR ECONOMICALLY, THERE WERE 24 THOUSAND 100 SHIPS THAT PASSED THROUGH THE STRAITS. IN 1997 THERE WERE 50 THOUSAND 942 SHIPS THAT PASSED. AND FOR 1998 THE ESTIMATE IS 55 THOUSAND SHIPS. LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, ANYONE WHO HAS BEEN TO ISTANBUL SHOULD KNOW THAT THIS CAN NOT GO ON.

    //END ACT//

    MR. OZEL EMPHASIZES THAT TEN MILLION PEOPLE LIVE NEAR THE BOSPEROUS AND THAT THE SAFETY RISKS FROM DANGEROUS CARGOES ARE LARGE. HE IS CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC THAT THE PROBLEM IS BEING ADDRESSED AND THAT IT IS NOW LIKELY THAT MOST CASPIAN SEA O-I-L WILL REACH THE MEDITERRANEAN BY PIPELINE RATHER THAN COMING BY TANKER THROUGH THE BLACK SEA AND BOSPOROUS.

    MR. WOLFOWITZ BELIEVES THAT WITH THE COLD WAR OVER TURKEY'S STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE HAS BECOME MORE ECONOMIC THAN SECURITY BASED. HE SAYS TURKEY NEEDS TO RE-ENERGIZE THE MARKET BASED REFORMS THAT HAVE BEEN PUT ASIDE OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PT
    19-Feb-99 5:57 PM EST (2257 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] EUROPE / FARMERS (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245718
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: THIS REPORT COULD BE USED THROUGH THE SUNDAY NIGHT PROGRAM CYCLE ///

    INTRO: MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND FARMERS WILL BE DEMONSTRATING MONDAY IN BRUSSELS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS THE FARMERS WILL BE PROTESTING AS EUROPEAN UNION AGRICULTURE MINISTERS MEET TO TRY TO DECIDE HOW TO CUT THE BIGGEST SINGLED ITEM IN THE E-U BUDGET -- FARM SUBSIDIES.

    TEXT: BELGIAN POLICE HAVE ALREADY DISTRIBUTED MAPS SHOWING WHICH BRUSSELS STREETS WILL BE CLOSED TO ALL TRAFFIC EXCEPT FOR ANGRY FARMERS ON THEIR TRACTORS. THE DEMONSTRATION IS EXPECTED TO CAUSE SUCH TRAFFIC CHAOS THAT EUROPEAN UNION FOREIGN MINISTERS HAVE MOVED THEIR MEETING FROM BRUSSELS TO LUXEMBOURG TO ESCAPE.

    THERE IS NO ESCAPE FOR THE AGRICULTURE MINISTERS. THEY WILL MEET WITH FARMER REPRESENTATIVES AND THEN SPEND THE REST OF THE WEEK DECIDING HOW TO REFORM EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE. THE EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE COMMISSIONER, FRANZ FISCHLER, SAYS, THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, THE FARMERS WILL NOT STOP REFORM.

    //// FISCHLER ACT - W/ INTERPRETER ///

    I BELIEVE THAT THE NEGOTIATIONS HAVE TO BE CONDUCTED SERIOUSLY WITH OR WITHOUT A DEMONSTRATION. BUT THE COMMISSION AND THE MINISTERS WILL NOT BE TAKING THEIR DECISIONS BASED ON PRESSURE BROUGHT TO BEAR FROM WHAT'S HAPPENING ON THE STREETS. I THINK IT WOULD BE ADVISABLE IF WE WERE TO FOLLOW THE SUBSTANCE AND THE NECESSITIES AS THEY PRESENT THEMSELVES IN THE NEGOTIATIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SUBSTANCE INVOLVES HOW TO CUT THE GROWTH IN EUROPEAN FARM SUBSIDIES. AGRICULTURAL SPENDING IS THE BIGGEST SINGLE ITEM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION'S BUDGET. IF THE E-U IS GOING TO EXPAND TO NEW COUNTRIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE, MORE MONEY WILL BE NEEDED TO ASSIST THEM. THE BEST PLACE TO FIND THAT MONEY WILL BE SAVING MONEY IN AGRICULTURE.

    REFORM HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF HELPING THE EUROPEAN UNION CONFORM TO RULES SET BY THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, WHICH DISCOURAGES SUBSIDIES.

    COMMISSIONER FISCHLER WARNS AGAINST HALFWAY MEASURES.

    /// FISCHLER ACT - W/ INTERPRETER ///

    THE WORST THING WOULD BE IF THERE WERE NO REFORM. THE SECOND WORSE OPTION WOULD BE A HALF OF A REFORM. WE NEED A THOROUGH REFORM AND FUNDAMENTALLY ALL OF THE MEMBER STATES HAVE RECOGNIZED THE NEED FOR REAL REFORM.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE 15 MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION MAY HAVE RECOGNIZED THE NEED FOR AGRICULTURE REFORM, BUT THEY ALSO HAVE THEIR SPECIAL INTERESTS.

    FRENCH FARMERS RECEIVE THE BIGGEST SHARE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION'S BIGGEST EXPENSE. AND FRANCE HAS ALREADY SERVED NOTICE IT WILL NOT AGREE TO A PLAN TO REDUCE FARM SUBSIDIES UNTIL IT SEES WHAT SACRIFICES OTHER COUNTRIES ARE PREPARED TO MAKE ON OTHER BUDGET MATTERS.

    A SPECIAL MEETING OF EUROPEAN LEADERS WILL BE HELD IN LATE MARCH IN BERLIN TO DECIDE ABOUT THE EUROPEAN UNION'S BUDGET FOR THE NEXT SIX YEARS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/JWH
    19-Feb-99 9:35 AM EST (1435 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=2/19/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-245738
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (FRIDAY) WITH SOME RECOVERY IN TECHNOLOGY STOCKS. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 93 HUNDRED 39, UP 41 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 65 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 12 HUNDRED 39, UP ALMOST TWO POINTS. AND THE NASDAQ INDEX GAINED ONE PERCENT, REFLECTING RECOVERY IN SOME TECHNOLOGY STOCKS.

    STOCKS WERE VERY STRONG UNTIL THE LAST HOUR OF TRADING WHEN PROFIT-TAKING CAME INTO THE MARKET.

    ///BEGIN OPT///

    BUT JAMES MAGUIRE OF THE HENDERSON BROTHERS INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS MANY TRADERS ARE STILL WARY ABOUT TECHNOLOGY STOCKS.

    ///OPT///MAGUIRE ACT///

    IT HAS BEEN A VERY UNCERTAIN WEEK FOR THE TECHNOLOGY SECTOR. THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF MIXED SIGNALS. A LOT OF THE LARGE INVESTMENT HOUSES HAVE HAD CONFERENCES ON THE TECH SECTOR AND THERE HAVE BEEN SOME SCATTERED EARNINGS REPORTS. I THINK WE HAVE SEEN SOME ROTATION INTO THE BIG CAPITALIZATION STOCKS BECAUSE SOME OF THE PLAYERS (TRADERS) JUST DO NOT KNOW WHICH WAY TO GO RIGHT NOW.

    ///END ACT///END OPT///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS INFLATION IS STILL NO THREAT TO THE U-S ECONOMY. THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX WAS UP ONLY ONE-TENTH OF ONE PERCENT IN JANUARY.

    THE U-S TRADE DEFICIT DROPPED UNEXPECTEDLY IN DECEMBER BUT, FOR ALL OF 1998, THE U-S TRADE GAP HIT A RECORD 168 BILLION DOLLARS. ANALYSTS SAY THEY EXPECT THE TRADE DEFICIT WILL EXPAND THIS YEAR BECAUSE OF CONTINUED WEAKNESS IN ASIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES WHICH INHIBITS THE VOLUME OF U-S EXPORTS.

    ///REST OPT///

    THE STOCK OF THE NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING COMPANY ROSE ALMOST 20 PERCENT AFTER DEFENSE CONTRACTOR GENERAL DYNAMICS MADE A TWO BILLION DOLLAR TAKEOVER OFFER. NEWPORT NEWS BUILDS AIRCRAFT CARRIERS AND SUBMARINES FOR THE U-S NAVY.

    THE STOCK OF AMERICA WEST AIRLINES ROSE 10 PERCENT ON AN UNCONFIRMED REPORT OF A TAKEOVER MOVE. THE "WALL STREET JOURNAL" SAYS UNITED AIRLINES IS READY TO MAKE AN ALL-CASH BID FOR AMERICA WEST. NEITHER AIRLINE WOULD COMMENT ON THE REPORT.

    THE STOCKS OF LONG-DEPRESSED GAMBLING CASINO COMPANIES WERE UP STRONGLY. INVESTORS HAVE WORRIED ABOUT OVERCAPACITY IN THE INDUSTRY BUT ANALYSTS SAY THE RECENT OPENINGS OF LUXURY CASINO-HOTELS IN LAS VEGAS APPEAR TO BE CREATING NEW DEMAND.

    COCA-COLA SAYS IT WILL SOON LAUNCH A BOTTLED WATER PRODUCT NAMED "DESANI" IN THE UNITED STATES MARKET. THE MOVE IS A CHALLENGE TO RIVAL SOFT DRINK MAKER PEPSICO WHOSE "AQUAFINA" BRAND CURRENTLY HAS A DOMINANT POSITION IN THE U-S MARKET FOR PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER.

    MERRILL LYNCH, THE LARGEST FINANCIAL BROKERAGE FIRM IN THE UNITED STATES, SAYS IT WILL BUY THE INTERNET TECHNOLOGY ASSETS OF THE D-E SHAW INVESTMENT FIRM. UNTIL RECENTLY, MERRILL LYNCH HAS RESISTED OFFERING INTERNET TRADING SERVICES TO ITS ALMOST FIVE MILLION CUSTOMERS. BUT NOW, THE COMPANY SAYS SOME LIMITED ON-LINE TRADING CAPABILITY WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE AT THE END OF MARCH.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    19-Feb-99 5:27 PM EST (2227 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/19/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11155
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E - S - T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: THE SHOWDOWN WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OVER KOSOVO PROVINCE IS PROVIDING U-S NEWSPAPERS WITH PLENTY TO DISCUSS IN FRIDAY'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE BORDER WAR BETWEEN ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA; JUSTICE FOR THE VICTIMS OF THE LOCKERBIE PAN AM CRASH; OIL DRILLING IN THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST AND WORRIES OVER THE FORTHCOMING CENSUS. NOW, HERE IS ________________WITH SOME EXCERPTS AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: NATO IS GIVING MR. MILOSEVIC A SATURDAY DEADLINE FOR AGREEING TO THE PEACE PLAN FOR KOSOVO PROVINCE IN ORDER TO SAFEGUARD THE RIGHTS OF THE MAJORITY ETHNIC ALBANIANS LIVING THERE. AT THIS WRITING, HE IS RESISTING THE IDEA OF A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE WITHIN THE SOVEREIGN BOUNDARIES OF PRESENT-DAY YUGOSLAVIA. THE U-S PRESS HAS LITTLE SYMPATHY FOR HIS POSITION, AS WE READ IN TODAY'S "ATLANTA CONSTITUTION."

    VOICE: IF THE UNITED STATES AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES MUST LAUNCH AIR STRIKES AGAINST SERB MILITARY TARGETS AS PUNISHMENT FOR DEFYING NATO'S ULTIMATUM ON KOSOVO, SO BE IT. FORCE SEEMS THE ONLY FORM OF PERSUASION THAT WILL BUDGE ... PRESIDENT ... MILOSEVIC. HE MUST BE CONVINCED, ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, THAT NATO MEANS BUSINESS.

    TEXT: '"THE WASHINGTON TIMES" EXPRESSES ITSELF WITH THIS LEAD EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "MR. MILOSEVIC MUST GO." AND IN "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" WE READ A SIMILAR SENTIMENT:

    VOICE: IF SERBIAN LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, DEFIANT IN THE FACE OF OVERWHELMING NATO ARMS, IS EXPECTING THE ALLIANCE TO BLINK, [SLANG: TO DECIDE AGAINST ATTACKING AT THE LAST MINUTE] HE HAS MADE A SUICIDAL MISTAKE. /// OPT /// THE PLANES ARE ARMED AND READY, THE TARGETS CHOSEN AND THE H-HOUR SET. IF THERE IS NO AGREEMENT BY NOON SATURDAY TO SETTLE THE KOSOVO CRISIS BY DIPLOMACY, HIS MILITARY BASES WILL BE ATTACKED. /// END OPT /// [HOWEVER] ... IT'S FAIR, WE THINK, TO AGAIN ASK WHY AND FOR HOW LONG NATO TROOPS WILL BE CLEANING UP THE MESSES OF YUGOSLAVIA. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN DIPLOMATS SHOULD BE APPLAUDED FOR THEIR EFFORTS IN PURSUIT OF AGREEMENT, MANY AT THE RISK OF THEIR LIVES. BUT THE PROBLEM IS CLEAR. HIS NAME IS MILOSEVIC AND HE RUNS A SMALL GANG. THE MANY SERBS WHO HOPE FOR DEMOCRACY, AND HAVE DEMONSTRATED THAT HOPE IN THE STREETS, DESERVE FAR BETTER.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD, THE BORDER BETWEEN ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA DRAWS THIS COMMENT FROM "THE BOSTON GLOBE."

    VOICE: THE CONFLICT IS SUPPOSEDLY ABOUT A PATCH OF LAND LEFT IN POLITICAL LIMBO BY BADLY DRAWN COLONIAL MAPS, BUT THE REAL ISSUE IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. ETHIOPIA HAS NOT YET RECONCILED ITSELF TO ERITREAN INDEPENDENCE, AND THE ... ERITREAN GOVERNMENT IS INTENT ON ASSERTING ITSELF IN THE HORN OF AFRICA. .. ERITREA, LIKE ISRAEL, CAN DEFEAT BUT NOT CONQUER ITS LARGER NEIGHBORS. THE [ORGANIZATION FOR AFRICAN UNITY PEACE] PLAN OFFERS AN HONORABLE WAY TO END THE WAR WHILE ERITREA AND ETHIOPIA FIGURE OUT HOW TO LIVE WITH EACH OTHER.

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE GROWING PROSPECT OF A TRIAL FOR THE LIBYAN SECURITY AGENTS SUSPECTED OF BOMBING A PAN AM JETLINER WHICH CRASHED AT LOCKERBIE, SCOTLAND, A DECADE AGO, "THE WASHINGTON POST" OPINES:

    VOICE: THE TWO [LIBYAN AGENTS] WOULD BE TRIED IN THE NETHERLANDS UNDER SCOTTISH LAW AND, IF CONVICTED, WOULD SERVE THEIR SENTENCES IN SCOTLAND. ONE, IF NOT THE PRINCIPAL, DISPUTE NOW HOLDING THINGS UP IS SAID TO ARISE FROM MOAMMAR GADHAFI'S INSISTENCE THAT THE TRIAL BE LIMITED TO THE ACTS OF THE SUSPECTS AND NOT BE ALLOWED TO MOVE INTO ANY OFFICIAL LIBYAN INVOLVEMENT. ... BUT IF THE TWO [AGENTS] ARE SIMPLY THE SCAPEGOATS MOAMMAR GADHAFI IS OFFERING UP TO BUY RELIEF FROM SANCTIONS, THEN THE UNITED STATES CANNOT LEND ITSELF TO AN EFFORT TO SHIELD HIM FROM INQUIRY INTO ANY RESPONSIBILITY HE MAY HAVE AS THE AUTHOR OF THE MURDER OF 270 INNOCENT PEOPLE.

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" EXAMINES A DEAL BETWEEN U-S OIL COMPANY TEXACO AND ECUADOR FOR OIL DRILLING IN THE AMAZON, THAT HAS RUN INTO OPPOSITION, NOTING:

    VOICE: .A GROUP OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN THE RAIN FOREST ARE SUING TEXACO OVER ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE, WHICH THEY SAY HAS CONTAMINATED THEIR WATER, KILLED THEIR FOOD SUPPLY AND CAUSED DISEASE. THE QUESTION BEFORE [THE JUDGE] ... IS WHETHER HE SHOULD HEED THE PLAINTIFFS AND HEAR THE CASE IN MANHATTAN ... OR SEND IT TO ECUADOR, AS TEXACO PREFERS. ... HE SHOULD ALLOW THE CASE TO BE HEARD IN THE ONLY FORUM THAT CAN PROVIDE A FAIR TRIAL AND ENFORCE PENALTIES, AN AMERICAN COURT. /// OPT /// ECUADOR'S COURTS CANNOT HANDLE THE CASE OR ENFORCE A JUDGMENT. ECUADOR DOES NOT ADMIT CLASS-ACTION SUITS, HAS NO EXPERIENCE WITH CASES LIKE THIS ONE AND RELEGATES ALL ENVIRONMENTAL DISPUTES TO AN ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL, WHERE THE LARGEST FINE HAS BEEN A FEW THOUSAND DOLLARS. THIS CASE BELONGS IN AN AMERICAN COURT, WHERE THE CONTESTING CLAIMS CAN BE FAIRLY WEIGHED. /// END OPT

    ///

    TEXT: EVERY TEN YEARS, THE U-S CONSTITUTION SAYS THE GOVERNMENT MUST COUNT EVERYBODY LIVING HERE IN A CENSUS. BUT THERE IS A BIG ARGUMENT OVER HOW TO CONDUCT THE NEXT ONE. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WANTS TO USE SAMPLING, A SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN WHICH YOU COUNT SOME PEOPLE, THEN ESTIMATE FROM THE SAMPLE, HOW MANY OTHERS THERE ARE. REPUBLICANS OPPOSE IT, DEMANDING AN ACTUAL COUNT, AS THE CONSTITUTION REQUIRES. "THE WASHINGTON POST COMMENTS:

    VOICE: THE ADMINISTRATION IS RIGHT ON THIS ONE. CONGRESS SHOULD GIVE THE GROUND AND PERMIT THE SAMPLING. THE OPPONENTS WHO FEAR MANIPULATION ARE ENGAGING IN A FORM OF MANIPULATION OF THEIR OWN IF THEY COMPEL THE UNDERCOUNT THAT THEY WELL KNOW WILL OTHERWISE OCCUR.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: THE U-S MILITARY, LONG AN ALL-VOLUNTEER FORCE, IS HAVING TROUBLE FINDING ENOUGH RECRUITS TO FILL THE RANKS. "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" HAS THIS COMMENT.

    VOICE: THE ARMY'S DIFFICULTIES WITH RECRUITMENT TOUCH ON A MUCH LARGER ISSUE, HOWEVER. SINCE THE SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ENDED A QUARTER-CENTURY AGO, ENLISTEES HAVE BEEN DRAWN DISPROPORTIONALLY FROM THE RANKS OF THE POORER AND LESS EDUCATED, THOSE LEAST LIKELY TO FIND GOOD OPPORTUNITIES IN THE CIVILIAN ECONOMY. THE POST-COLD WAR CONTRACTION OF THE MILITARY HAS HELPED DISGUISE THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM. BUT IT'S SOMETHING THAT SHOULD CONCERN AMERICANS BECAUSE IT MEANS ... THE ARMED FORCES ARE NOT REPRESENTATIVE OF SOCIETY AS A WHOLE.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS BEEN ACQUITTED IN THE IMPEACHMENT TRIAL, HIS LEGAL TROUBLES ARE NOT OVER. FEDERAL JUDGE SUSAN WEBER WRIGHT IS THINKING OF HOLDING HIM IN CONTEMPT OF COURT IN THE PAULA JONES LAWSUIT BECAUSE HE LIED UNDER OATH. SAYS "THE NEW YORK TIMES:"

    VOICE: A CITATION FOR CIVIL CONTEMPT AND A FINE WOULD BE AN APPROPRIATE PUNISHMENT. ... A CITATION BY JUDGE WRIGHT WOULD [ALSO] PROVIDE A LEGAL REPRIMAND FOR FALSE TESTIMONY WITHOUT PLUNGING A WEARY NATION INTO A NEEDLESS CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROVERSY OVER THE INDICTMENT OF A SITTING PRESIDENT OR A FORMER ONE.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL CONTENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    19-Feb-99 11:20 AM EST (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] EDITORIAL: GERMAN BUSINESSES FACE PAST

    DATE= 02/21/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08202
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE SECOND EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    02/21/99. (THE FIRST ONE, "CHINESE POLICIES IN TIBET," IS A REPEAT FROM 02/11/99.)

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    FEW COUNTRIES ARE EAGER TO MAKE A FULL ACCOUNTING FOR REPRESSIVE PERIODS IN THEIR HISTORY. BUT OVER THE YEARS, GERMANY HAS TAKEN A NUMBER OF STEPS TO TRY TO MAKE AMENDS FOR THE GHASTLY CRIMES COMMITTED BY THE NAZI REGIME OF THE 1930S AND 1940S. THESE CRIMES INCLUDED THE SYSTEMATIC KILLING OF ABOUT SIX MILLION JEWS, A HALF MILLION GYPSIES, OR ROMA, AND MANY OTHER PEOPLE.

    SINCE THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT HAS PAID OUT BETWEEN SIXTY AND EIGHTY BILLION DOLLARS, MOST OF IT TO JEWS WHO SURVIVED THE DEATH CAMPS OR MANAGED TO FLEE THE NAZIS. THIS MONTH, THE GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED THAT TWELVE OF GERMANY'S LARGEST BANKS AND BUSINESSES WILL CONTRIBUTE MONEY TO A NEW FUND FOR VICTIMS OF FORCED AND SLAVE LABOR.

    ACCORDING TO HISTORIANS, PERHAPS MILLIONS OF POLES, CZECHS, RUSSIANS AND UKRAINIANS WERE REQUIRED BY THE NAZIS TO PERFORM FORCED LABOR. LUMP SUM PAYMENTS WERE MADE TO POLAND AND OTHER EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES DURING THE 1970S AND 1980S, BUT MOST OF THE MONEY ENDED UP IN THE HANDS OF COMMUNIST GOVERNMENTS -- NOT THE VICTIMS.

    GERMAN CHANCELLOR GERHARD SCHROEDER SAID THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED "REMEMBRANCE, RESPONSIBILITY AND THE FUTURE" FUND IS BEING SET UP TO ANSWER THE "MORAL RESPONSIBILITY OF GERMAN FIRMS WITH REGARD TO SUCH ISSUES AS FORCED LABORERS, ARYANIZATION AND OTHER INJUSTICE DURING THE NAZI REGIME." ARYANIZATION REFERS TO THE TAKE-OVER OF JEWISH PROPERTY IN GERMANY, OFTEN WITH TOKEN PAYMENTS OR NONE AT ALL. MR. SCHROEDER STRESSED THAT PAYMENTS NEED TO BE MADE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE ADVANCED AGE OF THE VICTIMS.

    BY OFFERING ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION FOR SLAVE AND FORCED LABOR, GERMAN INDUSTRIES ARE DEMONSTRATING A WILLINGNESS TO CONFRONT THE PAST. OTHER COUNTRIES WITH A RECENT HISTORY OF REPRESSION WOULD DO WELL TO FOLLOW THIS EXAMPLE.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    19-Feb-99 4:29 PM EST (2129 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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