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Voice of America, 99-05-07

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)
  • [02] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (S-ONLY-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)
  • [03] KOSOVO / U-S / REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY CANDACE WILLIAMS (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] KOSOVO AID MISSION (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [05] MACEDONIA / MISSING REFUGEES BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SKOPJE)
  • [06] REFUGEE COMMUNICATIONS BY PETER HEINLEIN (KUKES, ALBANIA)
  • [07] U-N / KOSOVO AID (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (U-N)
  • [08] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [09] U-S / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPT.)
  • [10] NATO / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [11] NATO / OIL (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [12] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)
  • [13] U-N / KOSOVO ENVOYS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [14] SERBS IN AMERICA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [15] PENTAGON-POW'S (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)
  • [16] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [17] EDITORIAL: MILOSEVIC THREATENS MONTENEGRO
  • [18] EDITORIAL: SERB AGGRESSION AFFECTS ITS NEIGHBORS
  • [19] THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [20] TURKEY ISLAM (L/S VER) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [21] SCOTTISH ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY TREVOR GRUNDY (EDINBURGH)
  • [22] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [23] POSSIBLE YUGOSLAV PEACE DEAL? BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)
  • [24] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (S) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249099
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO AND THE PENTAGON ARE INVESTIGATING REPORTS THAT CLUSTER [ANTI-PERSONNEL] BOMBS FELL ON A HOSPITAL AND MARKET IN THE AIR WAR OVER KOSOVO. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES SAY 15 PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND UP TO 70 INJURED.

    TEXT: THE ALLIES SAY THEY ATTACKED AN AIRFIELD AND RADIO RELAY STATION IN THE SOUTHERN YUGOSLAV CITY OF NIS. BUT LOCAL OFFICIALS CHARGE CIVILIAN AREAS WERE HIT. JOURNALISTS ON THE SCENE REPORT SHATTERED WINDOWS, BURNED-OUT CARS, SHRAPNEL HOLES IN WALLS AND BODIES IN THE MARKET.

    PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS NOT ALL THE FACTS ARE KNOWN YET, BUT WHATEVER HAPPENED WAS ACCIDENTAL.

    /// BACON ACT ///

    OUR POLICY IS TO AVOID CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. WE KNOW THAT WE MAKE MISTAKES FROM TIME TO TIME. BUT [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC'S POLICY IS TO INCUR [INFLICT] CIVILIAN CASUALTIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-S OFFICIALS ARE STILL HEARING OF ATROCITIES AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO. MR. BACON SAYS 100-THOUSAND MEN OF MILITARY AGE ARE MISSING, AND THERE ARE NOW TWO CONFIRMED MASS GRAVES. THE SERBS ARE ALSO SAID TO BE MINING ROADS, TO HINDER ANY RETURN OF REFUGEES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/WTW
    07-May-99 4:14 PM EDT (2014 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] PENTAGON / KOSOVO (S-ONLY-UPDATE) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249107
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO CONFIRMS ITS CLUSTER (ANTI-PERSONNEL) BOMBS APPARENTLY FELL ON CIVILIANS IN THE CITY OF NIS DURING A FRIDAY MORNING AIR STRIKE. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS, YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS SAY 15 PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND ABOUT 70 WOUNDED.

    TEXT: IN A BRIEF STATEMENT, NATO SAYS IT IS HIGHLY PROBABLE A BOMB WENT ASTRAY AND STRUCK CIVILIAN BUILDINGS DURING A RAID ON THE NIS AIRFIELD. LOCAL AUTHORITIES SAY A HOSPITAL AND MARKET IN THE SOUTHERN CITY WERE HIT. JOURNALISTS FOUND BODIES, SHATTERED WINDOWS AND SHRAPNEL HOLES IN WALLS.

    THE ALLIES INSIST THEY TAKE EVERY PRECAUTION TO PREVENT SUCH LOSS OF LIFE. AT THE PENTAGON, SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS WHATEVER HAPPENED WAS ACCIDENTAL.

    /// BACON ACT ///

    OUR POLICY IS TO AVOID CIVILIAN CASUALTIES. WE KNOW THAT WE MAKE MISTAKES FROM TIME TO TIME. BUT [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC'S POLICY IS TO INCUR [INFLICT] CIVILIAN CASUALTIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BACON SAYS 100-THOUSAND MEN OF MILITARY AGE ARE NOW MISSING IN, KOSOVO AND THERE ARE TWO CONFIRMED MASS GRAVES. THE SERBS ARE ALSO SAID TO BE MINING ROADS TO HINDER THE EVENTUAL RETURN OF REFUGEES. MEANWHILE, THE AIR CAMPAIGN CONTINUES. REPORTS FROM THE REGION SAY BELGRADE AND MUCH OF MONTENEGRO WERE PLUNGED INTO DARKNESS AS NATO KNOCKED OUT POWER AGAIN (FRIDAY NIGHT). (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/WTW
    07-May-99 6:22 PM EDT (2222 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO / U-S / REFUGEES (L-ONLY) BY CANDACE WILLIAMS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249106
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FIRST KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEES TO ARRIVE IN THE UNITED STATES ARE SETTLING INTO TEMPORARY NEW HOMES AT A MILITARY BASE IN NEW JERSEY. THE 453 REFUGEES LANDED IN THE UNITED STATES WEDNESDAY, AFTER A LONG JOURNEY FROM MACEDONIA. A SENIOR MEMBER OF THE U-S COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES ACCOMPANIED THEM ON THE TRIP AND DISCUSSED THE EXPERIENCE DURING A FORUM IN WASHINGTON FRIDAY. V-O-A'S CANDACE WILLIAMS REPORTS.

    TEXT: ROGER WINTER IS THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE U-S COMMITTEE FOR REFUGEES IN WASHINGTON. HE FLEW TO MACEDONIA SEVERAL DAYS AGO TO ASSESS CONDITIONS FACING THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN CROWDED REFUGEE CAMPS. BUT MR. WINTER LEARNED HE WOULD BE RETURNING TO FORT DIX, NEW JERSEY, WITH THE FIRST GROUP OF SOME 20-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS SCHEDULED TO BE RESETTLED ACROSS THE UNITED STATES IN THE COMING WEEKS.

    MR. WINTER SAYS THE TRIP FROM THE BALKANS WAS AN EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR THE NEWCOMERS, WHO CHEERED UPON LANDING IN THE UNITED STATES.

    //1ST WINTER ACT//

    THEIR PREDOMINANT FEELING WAS RELIEF, RELIEF TO BE OUT OF THE WAR ZONE, RELIEF TO BE OUT OF THOSE CAMPS. AT NIGHT, YOU CAN HEAR THE JETS, THE NATO JETS STREAKING ACROSS THOSE CAMPS INTO KOSOVO AND SERBIA. THEY WERE JUST RELIEVED TO BE OUT OF THERE. THAT'S WHY WHEN THEY LANDED, THEY BROKE OUT INTO CHEERS ABOUT U-S-A, U-S-A, AND CLAPPING AND CARRYING ON LIKE THAT. IT WAS KIND OF NICE TO SEE.

    //END WINTER ACT//

    MR. WINTER SAYS THE REFUGEES HOUSED AT THE CAMPS HAVE BEEN TRYING TO MAKE THE MOST OF THEIR SITUATION BY TAKING PART IN GAMES AND OTHER ORGANIZED ACTIVITIES. BUT HE SAYS CAMP LIFE IF NOT THE IDEAL SETTING FOR THEM TO COME TO TERMS WITH THEIR ORDEAL.

    //2ND WINTER ACT//

    I DIDN'T THINK THE ATTITUDE IN THE CAMPS WAS ALL THAT BAD, PEOPLE UNDERSTOOD WHY IT WAS LIKE IT WAS. BUT IT DOESN'T CHANGE THE FACT THAT THERE'S NO PRIVACY, THAT IT SMELLS, THAT YOU KNOW, ALL OF THOSE KINDS OF THINGS. AND THEN IF YOU HAVE THE COMPLICATED SITUATION THAT EITHER YOU WERE RAPED OR YOU WERE MISSING A FAMILY MEMBER, OR ANYTHING, THERE'S NO REAL ABILITY TO MOURN PROPERLY. AND BESIDES, THESE PEOPLE BY AND LARGE JUST LEFT WITHIN THE LAST FEW WEEKS SO THEY HAVEN'T HAD TIME TO PSYCHOLOGICALLY PROCESS THEIR TRAUMA, AND THAT'S NOT DEALT WITH ADEQUATELY IN A CAMP CONTEXT.

    //END SECOND WINTER ACT//

    A U-S STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL, MARGUERITE HOUZE, SAYS THE RELOCATION EFFORT IS FOCUSING ON MACEDONIA BECAUSE THE LARGE INFLUX OF REFUGEES THERE HAS CREATED A BURDEN FOR THAT BALKAN STATE.

    MS. HOUZE ALSO SAYS THE NEWCOMERS TO THE UNITED STATES WILL BE ELIGIBLE TO APPLY FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCY AFTER ONE YEAR. BUT SHE BELIEVES MANY OF THEM WILL WANT TO GO HOME.

    //HOUZE ACT//

    THE CHARACTERIZATION THAT PEOPLE ARE COMING HERE AND WILL MOVE EASILY INTO A COMFORTABLE EXISTENCE IS PROBABLY NOT RECOGNIZING OR ACKNOWLEDGING THE DIFFICULTY THAT THEY'VE SUFFERED AND THE TIES TO THEIR HOMES. THE OTHER ELEMENT OF THIS, OF COURSE, IS ... WE ARE NOT NEGLECTING OUR PLANS TO RETURN PEOPLE SAFELY, AND THE RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT IN KOSOVO IS ONE THAT THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PLACES HIGH PRIORITY TO. SO THE THOUGHT THAT THEY'LL HAVE NOTHING TO GO BACK TO IS ITSELF A MISCHARACTERIZATION OF WHAT OUR HOPES ARE.

    //END HOUZE ACT//

    BUT MR. WINTER SAYS WHILE MANY OF THE REFUGEES WOULD LIKE TO GO BACK TO KOSOVO, THEIR RETURN MAY BE DELAYED IF THE CRISIS CONTINUES INDEFINITELY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CAW/RRM
    07-May-99 6:34 PM EDT (2234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO AID MISSION (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249083
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: REPRESENTATIVES FROM FIVE UNITED NATIONS AID AGENCIES ARE PREPARING TO FLY TO YUGOSLAVIA -- POSSIBLY SUNDAY -- FOR THEIR VISIT TO EVALUATE THE HUMANITARIAN SITUATION IN KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE MISSION WILL BE LED BY UNICEF -- THE U-N CHILDREN'S FUND. OTHER OFFICIALS ARE FROM THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM, THE OFFICE OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS, AND THE U-N SECURITY OFFICE.

    TEXT: THIS WILL BE THE FIRST TIME U-N AID AGENCIES WILL BE ALLOWED TO GO TO KOSOVO SINCE THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN BEGAN ON MARCH 24TH. THE U-N MISSION -- WHICH WAS APPROVED BY YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC -- ALSO WILL VISIT SITES IN OTHER PARTS OF SERBIA.

    U-N-H-C-R SPOKESMAN KRIS JANOWSKI SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS KNOWS VERY LITTLE ABOUT WHAT IT WILL BE ALLOWED TO DO OR SEE IN KOSOVO.

    /// JANOWSKI ACT ///

    WE DON'T KNOW WHAT THE EXACT SCHEDULE WILL BE. WE KNOW FROM MEDIA REPORTS LIKE YOU DO THAT BELGRADE APPROVED THE MISSION. WE HOPETHAT THE MISSION WILL BE GIVEN WIDE ACCESS AND WILL NOT BE CONSTRAINED IN WHERE THEY WANT TO GO AND WHAT THEY WANT TO SEE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY ESTIMATES MORE THAN 700-THOUSAND KOSOVAR REFUGEES HAVE FLED TO THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO AND TO MACEDONIA, ALBANIA, AND OTHER NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES IN LESS THAN TWO MONTHS. IT BELIEVES MORE THAN ONE-HALF-MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIANS ARE STILL IN KOSOVO. MANY ARE REPORTED TO BE HOMELESS, HIDING OUT IN THE MOUNTAINS AND FORESTS, DEPRIVED OF FOOD AND SHELTER.

    U-N AID AGENCIES SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE FATE OF THESE PEOPLE AND HAVE ASKED REPEATEDLY TO BE ALLOWED BACK INTO KOSOVO TO PROVIDE HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE.

    THE AIM OF THE MISSION IS TO EVALUATE THE HUMANITARIAN SITUATION IN KOSOVO AND TO ASSESS THE NEEDS. AN INFORMED SOURCE SAYS THE U-N AGENCIES ALSO WILL EXPLORE WITH YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES THE POSSIBILITY OF THEIR RETURN TO KOSOVO.

    THE U-N TRIP TO KOSOVO AND SERBIA IS EXPECTED TO LAST ABOUT 10 DAYS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH
    07-May-99 9:07 AM EDT (1307 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] MACEDONIA / MISSING REFUGEES BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SKOPJE)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43334
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS IS COORDINATING A MASSIVE PROGRAM TO TRY TO REUNITE ETHNIC-ALBANIAN FAMILIES SEPARATED BY THE KOSOVO CRISIS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM MACEDONIA'S CAPITAL, SKOPJE, ON THE FRUSTRATIONS AND THE SUCCESSES.

    TEXT: SANU ZENUNI LIVES IN FREIBOURG, SWITZERLAND WITH HIS WIFE AND SIX CHILDREN. HE WORKS IN A METAL FACTORY. THE REST OF HIS FAMILY LIVED IN KOSOVO UNTIL SERB PARAMILITARIES CHASED THEM OUT LAST FRIDAY. IN ONE WEEK, HE SAYS, HE LOST HALF HIS FAMILY AND NOW WILL HAVE TO CARE FOR SIX MORE CHILDREN.

    HIS EYES FILL WITH TEARS AS HE RELATES THE STORY.

    /// ZENUNI ACT - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    ON APRIL 17TH, SANU SAYS HE READ A REPORT ON THE INTERNET THAT HIS THREE BROTHERS HAD BEEN SHOT BY SERB PARAMILITARIES IN THE VILLAGE OF DURE, FIVE KILOMETERS FROM THE NORTHERN KOSOVAR TOWN OF KACINIK.

    HIS SISTER-IN-LAW DIED WHEN MASKED MEN THREW A GRENADE INTO THE HOUSE. HER PARENTS MANAGED TO SAVE HER TWO-YEAR-OLD SON WHO WAS SITTING ON HER LAP. THEY TOOK HER TWO OTHER CHILDREN ALONG WITH THE NOW-WIDOWED WIFE OF THEIR SECOND DEAD SON AND HIS THREE CHILDREN AND FLED TO MACEDONIA.

    SANU DID NOT KNOW WHERE THEY HAD GONE. HIS BOSS GAVE HIM THREE WEEKS OFF TO TRY TO FIND THEM. SO SANU CAME MACEDONIA. HE CONTACTED THE RED CROSS AND FRIENDS IN MACEDONIA TO HELP TRACE HIS FAMILY. HE FOUND THEM IN THE CEGRANE CAMP IN WESTERN MACEDONIA AND HOPES TO TAKE THEM ALL TO SWITZERLAND.

    FRANCOIS ZEN RUFFINEN OF THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS SAYS THAT IS ONE OF THE SUCCESS STORIES. HE SAYS ABOUT 135 FAMILIES HAVE BEEN REUNITED IN THE PAST MONTH AND A HALF. BUT HE HAS A LIST OF NEARLY 12-HUNDRED FAMILIES STILL WAITING FOR NEWS AND 400 CHILDREN STILL SEARCHING FOR THEIR PARENTS.

    HE SAYS MOST CHILDREN WERE SEPARATED DURING THE EXPULSION FROM THEIR HOMES OR ALONG THE WAY OUT OF KOSOVO.

    /// RUFFINEN ACT ONE ///

    THE SPECIAL FORCES COME IN, MENACE THEM WITH THEIR WEAPONS. 'YOU HAVE FIVE MINUTES TO GO.' OKAY, IT HAPPENS AT THAT MOMENT THAT TWO CHILDREN WERE PLAYING WITH FRIENDS IN THE NEXT BUILDING, THE NEXT BLOCK -- SEPARATION. ANOTHER CHILD WAS OUT TO GET A LOAF OF BREAD -- SEPARATION. SECOND STAGE OF SEPARATION IS DURING THE TRIP, ESPECIALLY FOR THE ONES WHO WALKED. AFTER THREE DAYS OF WALKING, EVERYONE IS EXHAUSTED -- WALKING, WALKING, WALKING. A CHILD GOES OUT IN THE DITCH TO PLAY AND THE GROUP CONTINUES. THEY ARE LARGE GROUPS -- SEPARATION. AND THE THIRD STAGE HAPPENED AT BLACE BORDER WHEN WE HAD THESE 60-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO IN THE NIGHT 5 TO 6 APRIL GOT PUSHED, FORCED INTO BUSES AND PLANES AND OFF TO TURKEY, TO SWEDEN, ALBANIA -- SEPARATION. SO 90 PERCENT OF THE CASES OF SEPARATION HAPPENED IN THOSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. RUFFINEN TELLS OF THREE CHILDREN WHO WERE VISITING THEIR GRANDMOTHER IN PRISTINA. THEY WERE ALL EXPELLED TO MACEDONIA. BUT THE PARENTS WERE EXPELLED FROM PRIZREN TO ALBANIA. THROUGH AN ELABORATE COMPUTERIZED TRACING SYSTEM, THE FAMILY WAS FINALLY REUNITED EARLIER THIS WEEK AT THE ALBANIAN BORDER.

    THE RED CROSS OFFICIAL SAYS MOST OF THE CHILDREN ARE ABSORBED INTO OTHER FAMILIES WHO REPORT THEIR SITUATION AND TAKE CARE OF THEM UNTIL THEY ARE REUNITED WITH THE PARENTS. FOR MR. RUFFINEN, THE MORE TRAGIC CASES INVOLVE ELDERLY KOSOVAR REFUGEES WHO ARE TOO TIRED AND DEPRESSED TO TRY TO FIND THEIR RELATIVES.

    /// RUFFINEN ACT TWO ///

    WE GO TENT BY TENT AND WE FIND DOZENS OF OLD PEOPLE JUST LAYING ON THE GROUND FOR FOUR DAYS WITHOUT FOOD AND WATER AND DYING BECAUSE THEY WANT TO DIE. THEY ARE DESPERATE. THEY HAVE GIVEN UP WHAT THEY LIVED - THE WALK, THEY ARE EXHAUSTED. THEY DON'T GO FOR FOOD AND WATER. THE SIGN THAT THEY WANT TO DIE, THEY HAVE GIVEN UP IS WHEN WE PROPOSE TO START AN ENQUIRY TO LOOK FOR THEIR SON OR DAUGHTER, THEY ARE NOT INTERESTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    ANOTHER CHALLENGE IS THE DOZENS OF MENTALLY ILL KOSOVARS WHO CANNOT EVEN IDENTIFY THEMSELVES TO AID WORKERS TRYING TO FIND THEIR FAMILIES.

    INTERNATIONAL RADIO NETWORKS AND ALBANIAN LANGUAGE MEDIA NOW OPERATING IN MACEDONIA BROADCAST NAMES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MISSING. BUT MR RUFFINEN ACKNOWLEDGES REUNITING ALL SEPARATED FAMILIES IN THE KOSOVO CONFLICT COULD TAKE A LONG TIME.

    /// RUFFINEN ACT THREE ///

    TRACING, IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW, IS A VERY LONG PROCESS. TO ILLUSTRATE THIS, I'LL TELL YOU THAT 55 YEARS AFTER THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS KEEPS RECEIVING AN AVERAGE OF 120 REQUESTS A DAY CONCERNING WORLD WAR TWO.

    /// END ACT ///

    STIL, MR. RUFFINEN IS OPTIMISTIC. WHY?

    HE HOLDS UP HIS CELL PHONE.

    /// RUFFINEN ACT FOUR ///

    IN 1999 AND ALL THE PREVIOUS CONFLICTS, THE BIG DIFFERENCE IS THIS. THE MOBILE PHONE SYSTEM, YES.

    /// END ACT ///

    EVEN THOUGH SERB POLICE STRIPPED MANY KOSOVAR REFUGEES OF THEIR PASSPORTS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS, MOST MANAGED TO SQUIRREL AWAY A SCRAP OF PAPER WITH THE PHONE NUMBERS OF RELATIVES IN OTHER COUNTRIES.

    MR. RUFFINEN SAYS THOSE RELATIVES NOW ACT AS AN INFORMAL CLEARINGHOUSE OF INFORMATION TO HELP FRIENDS AND FAMILY TRACE THEIR MISSING RELATIVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LMK/JWH
    07-May-99 11:09 AM EDT (1509 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] REFUGEE COMMUNICATIONS BY PETER HEINLEIN (KUKES, ALBANIA)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43337
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EXODUS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS FROM KOSOVO HAS LEFT THOUSANDS OF FAMILIES BROKEN, SCATTERING LOVED ONES IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS. AND REFUGEE AGENCIES ARE BEING DELUGED WITH REQUESTS FOR HELP IN LOCATING LOST FAMILY MEMBERS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM KUKES, NEAR ALBANIA'S BORDER WITH KOSOVO, WHERE PEOPLE ARE STANDING IN LONG LINES -- NOT FOR FOOD BUT FOR A CHANCE TO USE A TELEPHONE.

    TEXT:

    /// SOUNDS OF TELEPHONE BEING DIALED ///

    LIMAN HAMZAJ IS DIALING HIS BROTHER IN SWITZERLAND. HE HAS BEEN WAITING IN A LINE OF FIDGETING PEOPLE FOR NEARLY TWO HOURS FOR THIS CHANCE. HE HAS GOOD NEWS TO PASS ALONG.

    /// ACT OF PHONE CALL - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS, "THEY ARE O-K. THEY ARE IN GOOD SHAPE." THEN HE SAYS HE HAS RECEIVED WORD THAT ANOTHER BROTHER FIGHTING WITH THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY WAS SEEN ALIVE AND WELL A FEW DAYS EARLIER.

    THE CONVERSATION LASTS ONLY A MINUTE AND A HALF. MR. HAMZAJ HASTILY SAYS GOODBYE, EXPLAINING THAT THE PHONE CARD HE IS USING IS ALMOST SPENT, AND HE HAS NO MONEY TO BUY ANOTHER.

    WHEN HE HANGS UP AND TURNS TO WALK AWAY, THE TEARS STREAMING DOWN HIS FACE BECOME VISIBLE.

    /// HAMZAJ ACT ONE - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAYS, "I TOLD MY BROTHER TO TELL THE OTHERS WE ARE O-K HERE, BUT MY OTHER BROTHER IS STILL IN KOSOVO WITH THE K-L-A."

    MR. HAMZAJ SAYS HE WOULD BE FIGHTING, TOO, BUT SOMEONE HAD TO BRING THEIR PARENTS, WIVES, AND CHILDREN TO SAFETY. THEY ARE NOW LIVING IN AN ITALIAN-RUN REFUGEE CAMP NEAR KUKES, ABOUT 15 KILOMETERS FROM THE KOSOVO BORDER.

    ALL AROUND THE KUKES REGION -- WHERE THE POPULATION HAS MUSHROOMED FROM 25-THOUSAND TO 130-THOUSAND IN THE PAST SIX WEEKS PUBLIC TELEPHONES ARE BUSY DAY AND NIGHT. THERE ARE EXACTLY NINE PAY PHONES IN THE TOWN, AND PLACES IN LINE ARE JEALOUSLY GUARDED.

    /// SOUNDS OF ARGUMENT - FADE UNDER ///

    THIS ARGUMENT ABOUT WHO WAS IN LINE FIRST ALMOST TURNED INTO A FIGHT.

    /// OPT ///

    BUT LIMAN HAMZAJ SAYS THE AGONIZING WAIT IS MORE THAN OFFSET BY THE FEW PRECIOUS MOMENTS OF HEARING A LOVED ONE'S VOICE.

    /// OPT // HAMZAJ ACT TWO - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    /// OPT ///

    HE SAYS, "ONE AND A HALF MINUTES ON THE PHONE IS WORTH 10 HOURS OF TALKING, BECAUSE I CAN ASSURE MY PEOPLE THAT WE ARE O-K."

    /// OPT ///

    AMONG PEOPLE WAITING IN LINE, THE CONVERSATION OFTEN TURNS TO EVENTS INSIDE KOSOVO, AND TO THE URGENT NEED FOR QUICK NATO ACTION TO SAVE ETHNIC ALBANIANS STRANDED IN THE MOUNTAINS.

    /// OPT // AVDULI ACT - IN ALBANIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    /// OPT ///

    TWENTY-YEAR-OLD GANIMETE AVDULI SAYS, "I APPEAL TO THE ALLIED NATIONS TO INTERVENE WITH GROUND TROOPS. THIRTY-THOUSAND PEOPLE FROM MY REGION ARE IN THE HILLS, AND THEY ARE SUFFERING A LOT." /// END OPT ///

    BUT AMONG THESE REFUGEES, THERE IS STILL A MOOD OF OPTIMISM. AS LIMAN HAMZAJ EXPLAINED, "WE HOPE IT WILL GET BETTER, BECAUSE FOR KOSOVO, IT CANNOT GET WORSE. WE HOPE ONLY THAT ONE DAY WE CAN GO BACK" (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/GE
    07-May-99 1:20 PM EDT (1720 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-N / KOSOVO AID (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (U-N)

    DATE=5/6/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249072
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA HAS AGREED TO ALLOW A UNITED NATIONS TEAM INTO THE COUNTRY TO ASSESS ITS HUMANITARIAN NEEDS AND DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO PREPARE FOR THE RETURN OF KOSOVO REFUGEES. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: YUGOSLAVIA'S APPROVAL CAME IN RESPONSE TO A REQUEST MADE TUESDAY BY U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN, THAT U-N WORKERS BE ALLOWED UNCONDITIONAL ACCESS TO THE COUNTRY TO ASSESS HUMANITARIAN NEEDS. IN HIS REQUEST MR. ANNAN MADE IT CLEAR THE TEAM WOULD START ITS WORK IN KOSOVO.

    IN A MEETING WITH U-N OFFICIALS (THURSDAY) YUGOSLAVIA'S U-N AMBASSADOR WELCOMED THE INITIATIVE AND OFFERED HIS GOVERNMENT'S COOPERATION. THE APPROVAL COULD PROVIDE THE FIRST UNBIASED INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF CONDITIONS IN KOSOVO SINCE THE LATEST CRISIS BEGAN.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY AN ADVANCE TEAM OF FOUR OR FIVE U-N STAFF ARE LEAVING FOR BELGRADE IMMEDIATELY AND ARE EXPECTED TO ARRIVE THERE SUNDAY. THEY WILL ATTEMPT TO WORK OUT PRACTICAL DETAILS, SUCH AS VISAS, TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS AND SECURITY, FOR THE FULL ASSESSMENT TEAM.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY YUGOSLAVIA HAS NOT SET ANY PRECONDITIONS FOR THE HUMANITARIAN ASSESSMENT OPERATION. BUT SOME DIPLOMATS HAVE DOUBTS ABOUT BELGRADE'S WILLINGNESS TO GIVE U-N WORKERS UNIMPEDED ACCESS TO AREAS OF KOSOVO WHERE MASS KILLINGS AND OTHER ABUSES ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE TAKEN PLACE.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR WHETHER NATO WILL ALTER ITS AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA TO IMPROVE SAFETY CONDITIONS FOR THE HUMANITARIAN ASSESSMENT TEAM. MR. ANNAN SAYS HE HAS NOT ASKED FOR A PAUSE OR LULL IN THE NATO STRIKES. HE SAYS GREEK NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE SUCCESSFULLY BEEN WORKING IN KOSOVO ALREADY, AND SEEM TO HAVE DEVELOPED ADEQUATE SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS WITH NATO AND YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/PT
    06-May-99 10:02 PM EDT (0202 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] CONGRESS-KOSOVO (L) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=5/6/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249071
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES HAS OVERWHELMINGLY APPROVED A MASSIVE EMERGENCY FUNDING BILL TO COVER THE COST OF MILITARY AND HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS IN THE BALKANS THROUGH SEPTEMBER. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS FROM CAPITOL HILL.

    TEXT: IT WAS A DAY FILLED WITH IRONY. ONE WEEK AFTER HOUSE MEMBERS FAILED ON A TIE VOTE TO ENDORSE THE AIR CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, THEY AGREED TO SPEND AN EXTRA 13 BILLION DOLLARS ON THE MISSION.

    THAT IS TWICE THE AMOUNT REQUESTED BY THE PRESIDENT. HOUSE REPUBLICANS SAID THE MONEY IS NEEDED TO MAKE UP FOR YEARS OF DEFENSE BUDGET SHORTFALLS UNDER THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    THE REPUBLICAN STRATEGY WAS OBVIOUS FROM THE VERY START OF THE DEBATE. HOUSE SPEAKER DENNIS HASTERT TRIED TO SHIFT THE FOCUS FROM THE PRESIDENT'S BALKAN POLICY, TO THE NEED TO SUPPORT AMERICA'S ARMED FORCES.

    ///////HASTERT ACT//////

    THE MONEY WE SPEND TODAY WILL START THE PROCESS OF GIVING OUR SOLDIERS AND SAILORS AND AIRMEN THE RESOURCES THEY NEED TO DO THEIR JOBS.

    ///////END ACT////////

    HE TRIED TO BE DIPLOMATIC. BUT NOT EVERYONE FOLLOWED HIS LEAD. TOM DELAY OF TEXAS, THE NUMBER THREE REPUBLICAN IN THE HOUSE, OFFERED CAUSTIC COMMENTS.

    ///////DELAY ACT///////

    THE LEADERSHIP IN THIS CONGRESS SUPPORTS OUR TROOPS BUT DOES NOT SUPPORT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S FRIVOLOUS DEPLOYMENT OF THEM AND HAPHAZARD WASTE OF MILITARY RESOURCES.

    ///////END ACT///////

    DEMOCRATS RETURNED THE ATTACKS ON THE PRESIDENT. SOME ACCUSED REPUBLICANS OF LOADING THE EMERGENCY SPENDING BILL WITH PET PROJECTS DESIGNED TO HELP COMPANIES THAT SELL GOODS AND SERVICES TO THE PENTAGON. OHIO CONGRESSMAN TONY HALL SAID SOME OF THESE PROGRAMS CAN WAIT.

    ////HALL ACT/////

    AND A LOT OF THESE ITEMS WHILE IMPORTANT ARE REALLY NOT, IN MY OPINION, HIGH PRIORITY

    /////END ACT//////

    THIS IS NOT THE ONLY EMERGENCY SPENDING BILL NOW PENDING BEFORE CONGRESS. A SEPARATE MEASURE TO HELP HURRICANE VICTIMS IN CENTRAL AMERICA IS LANGUISHING ON CAPITOL HILL. ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT LUIS GUTIERREZ REMINDED LAWMAKERS THE UNITED STATES HAS MORAL OBLIGATIONS NOT ONLY IN THE BALKANS, BUT IN ITS OWN HEMISPHERE.

    /////GUTIERREZ ACT////

    THOSE PEOPLE THERE ARE WAITING FOR US TO RESPOND IN NICARAGUA AND HONDURAS. THEY ARE WAITING FOR US ! AND IF WE DON'T RESPOND, WE ARE SENDING A VERY CLEAR SIGNAL IN THIS HEMISPHERE, AND WE ARE GIVING THEM THE BACK OF OUR HAND (BRUSHING OFF THEIR NEEDS).

    /////END ACT/////

    THERE IS A CHANCE THESE TWO BILLS COULD MERGE. IN THE DAYS AHEAD, NEGOTIATORS FROM BOTH THE HOUSE AND SENATE WILL TRY TO COME UP WITH ONE COMPROMISE PIECE OF LEGISLATION THAT COULD QUICKLY CLEAR CONGRESS AND GET SIGNED INTO LAW BY THE PRESIDENT. (EDITORS: THE SENATE WILL NOT PASS ITS OWN VERSION OF THE BILL BUT WILL USE THE HOUSE VERSION AS THE BASIS FOR NEGOTIATIONS.) (SIGNED)
    NEB/PW/PHW/PT
    06-May-99 8:23 PM EDT (0023 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S / KOSOVO (L-ONLY) BY KYLE KING (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249104
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS SENDING ITS SECOND-RANKING DIPLOMAT TO MOSCOW TO BEGIN WORKING OUT THE DETAILS OF A POSSIBLE KOSOVO PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT, U-S OFFICIALS CAUTION THERE IS STILL A LONG WAY TO GO BEFORE A DEAL CAN BE REACHED. FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: U-S OFFICIALS SAY DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT WILL LEAVE FOR MOSCOW MONDAY AND HOLD TWO DAYS OF TALKS WITH RUSSIAN OFFICIALS.

    IN THE MEANTIME, RUSSIAN ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN IS EXPECTED TO VISIT EUROPEAN CAPITALS AND MAKE ANOTHER STOP IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH SERB LEADERS.

    DURING THURSDAY'S BIG POWER (G-8) MEETING IN GERMANY, RUSSIA PUT ASIDE ITS OBJECTIONS TO AN INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR KOSOVO AND AGREED TO THE FUNDAMENTALS OF A PEACE AGREEMENT.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN JAMES RUBIN SAYS MR. TALBOTT WILL USE HIS MISSION TO MOSCOW TO BEGIN FLESHING OUT THE DETAILS AND PROCEDURES THAT MIGHT BE PART OF AN EVENTUAL ACCORD.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    THAT IS GOING TO BE A DIFFICULT PROCESS; WE AND THE RUSSIANS STILL HAVE A LOT TO TALK ABOUT WITH RESPECT TO THE COMPOSITION OF AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PRESENCE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. RUBIN SAYS RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS MAY SERVE AS A MODEL FOR KOSOVO.

    // RUBIN ACT TWO //

    WE HAVE LONG SAID THAT WE LOOK FORWARD TO PARTICIPATION BY RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND OTHER IMPORTANT COUNTRIES AND ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE ARE GOING TO NOW DISCUSS IN GREATER DETAIL WITH RUSSIA IS THE KIND OF DETAILED COMMAND ARRANGEMENTS THAT WOULD PERMIT RUSSIA TO PARTICIPATE.

    // END ACT //

    U-S OFFICIALS INSIST THAT NATO BE AT THE CORE OF ANY INTERNATIONAL FORCE. THEY ALSO SAY IT SHOULD ALSO BE BIGGER THAN THE 29-THOUSAND-STRONG PEACEKEEPING FORCE ENVISIONED BEFORE THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN BEGAN.

    ALLIANCE LEADERS ARE HOPING THAT RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE WILL BRING UNITED NATIONS BACKING AND BOOST CHANCES OF ITS ACCEPTANCE BY BELGRADE. BUT U-S OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS STILL A LONG WAY TO GO BEFORE ANY AGREEMENT IS ACHIEVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/RRM
    07-May-99 5:35 PM EDT (2135 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] NATO / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249087
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SAYS IT MUST BE IN CHARGE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY FORCE WHICH WILL SUPERVISE THE RETURN OF REFUGEES TO KOSOVO, ONCE A PEACE DEAL HAS BEEN BROKERED. RUSSIA AND YUGOSLAVIA WANT NATO TO HAVE A LIMITED ROLE IN SUCH A FORCE. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS

    TEXT: NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS THE ALLIANCE MUST PLAY A CENTRAL ROLE IN THE SECURITY FORCE WHICH WILL BE REQUIRED TO ENSURE THAT REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO ARE ABLE TO RETURN SAFELY TO THEIR HOMES.

    MR. SHEA SAYS THIS WILL BE A KEY CONDITION WHICH NATO WILL DEMAND WHEN THE UNITED NATION DRAWS UP A MANDATE FOR THE FORCE.

    /// SHEA ACT ///

    THAT FORCE WILL HAVE TO BE BASED ON A NATO CORE. THERE WILL HAVE TO BE EFFECTIVE NATO COMMAND AND CONTROL, THAT'S CLEAR. IT WILL HAVE TO BE ROBUST. IT WILL HAVE TO BE ARMED IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT CAN BE RESPECTED BY EVERYBODY. IT WILL ALSO OBVIOUSLY BE AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE TO WHICH OTHER COUNTRIES -- IN ADDITIONAL TO ALLIES -- WILL BE INVITED TO PARTICIPATE. AND WE WILL TRY TO MAKE THAT PARTICIPATION AS BROAD AS WE CAN WITHIN THE PARAMETERS OF MILITARY EFFECTIVENESS AS WELL. THOSE THINGS ARE CLEAR AND NO ALLY IS GOING TO BACK AWAY FROM THOSE PRINCIPLES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SHEA WELCOMED THE PROGRESS MADE ON THURSDAY IN TALKS BY FOREIGN MINISTERS FROM THE WORLD'S SEVEN LEADING INDUSTRIAL NATIONS AND RUSSIA. THE TALKS -- IN BONN -- NARROWED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST.

    HE SAYS YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAD HOPED THE WILL OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WOULD BREAK. BUT HE SAYS CONCLUSIONS OF THE BONN TALKS SENT A STRONG SIGNAL TO PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC THAT HE IS ON WHAT MR. SHEA CALLS A DEAD END ROAD.

    MR. SHEA EXPRESSED SATISFACTION THAT NATO'S KEY CONDITIONS FOR ENDING THE KOSOVO CONFLICT ARE CLEARLY REFLECTED IN THE PRINCIPLES SET FORTH BY THE FOREIGN MINISTERS. HE SAYS THAT WHILE NATO AND RUSSIA HAVE NOT OVERCOME ALL OF THEIR DIFFERENCES, THEY HAVE NARROWED THEN SIGNIFICANTLY, AND HAVE MADE PROGRESS.

    FOR THE THIRD DAY, BAD WEATHER HAMPERED THE LATEST NATO OPERATIONS OVER KOSOVO, BUT NONETHELESS, NATO SAYS IT HAS SERB FORCES PINNED DOWN IN KOSOVO. MR. SHEA SAYS THE SERB FORCES WERE NOT ABLE TO CONDUCT ANY SIGNIFICANT GROUND OPERATIONS BECAUSE OF THE ALLIANCE AIR STRIKES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    07-May-99 11:17 AM EDT (1517 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] NATO / OIL (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249092
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDERS HAVE LOST THEIR BID TO BE ALLOWED TO USE FORCE TO BLOCK SHIPS FROM DELIVERING OIL TO YUGOSLAVIA. INSTEAD, AS JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS, COUNTRIES WILL BE ASKED TO GIVE PERMISSION TO NATO TO BOARD AND SEARCH THEIR VESSELS -- BUT THE OTHER COUNTRIES WILL BE ABLE TO REFUSE.

    TEXT: THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS BEEN IN THE FOREFRONT OF EFFORTS TO TURN OFF THE OIL SUPPLY TO YUGOSLAVIA AND HAS ALREADY AGREED ON A BAN ON OIL SHIPMENTS. AND MANY OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE AGREED TO TAKE PART.

    ONCE NATIONS HAVE AGREED TO THE OIL SANCTIONS, NATO WARSHIPS WILL BE ABLE TO STOP AND SEARCH TANKERS FLYING THE FLAGS OF THESE COUNTRIES.

    A SENIOR NATO DIPLOMAT ADMITS THAT WHILE THIS WILL BE EFFECTIVE WITH THOSE COUNTRIES WHICH HAVE SIGNED UP, THE PROBLEM WILL COME IF A GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE OIL EXPORT BAN.

    NATO WARSHIPS -- WHICH WILL POLICE THE OIL EMBARGO -- WILL STILL HAIL VESSELS FROM THE DISSENTING STATES, AND WILL TRY TO PERSUADE THEM TO TURN BACK. BUT NATO POLITICIANS HAVE REFUSED A REQUEST FROM THE MILITARY TO BE ABLE TO USE FORCE. THE POLITICIANS FEAR SUCH ACTION COULD PROVOKE A MAJOR INTERNATIONAL INCIDENT.

    DETAILED PLANS FOR ENFORCING THE OIL EMBARGO HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO NATO AMBASSADORS, AND ARE EXPECTED TO BE FINALIZED IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS.

    IN THE MEANTIME, INTENSIVE DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY TO BRING AS MANY COUNTRIES AS POSSIBLE BEHIND THE VOLUNTARY BAN ON OIL SHIPMENTS TO YUGOSLAVIA. BRITAIN IS TALKING TO THOSE "FLAG OF CONVENIENCE" COUNTRIES, LIKE BERMUDA, WITH WHICH IT HAS STRONG INFLUENCE, AND THE UNITED STATES IS IN TALKS WITH COUNTRIES LIKE PANAMA AND LIBERIA.

    EVEN IF SOME TANKERS REFUSE TO COOPERATE WITH THE PLANNED NATO BLOCKADE AND OIL SUPPLIES GET THROUGH TO SERBIA, NATO IS DETERMINED TO NAME AND SHAME THOSE RESPONSIBLE. OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL APPLY INTENSE DIPLOMATIC PRESSURE TO PERSUADE THE COUNTRIES CONCERNED TO FALL INTO LINE.

    ANOTHER URGENT PRIORITY FOR NATO MILITARY IS THE UPDATING OF PLANS FOR SENDING A PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE INTO KOSOVO, ONCE THE CONFLICT IS OVER. A SIZABLE FORCE HAS ALREADY BEEN DEPLOYED TO MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA. BUT IT IS NOW ACCEPTED THAT THE ORIGINAL FORCE OF 28-THOUSAND WILL NEED TO BE INCREASED.

    IN PARTICULAR, NATO WILL NEED FAR MORE PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL SKILLS, SUCH AS MEDICAL WORKERS, ENGINEERS, BRIDGE BUILDERS, AND EXPERTS WHO CAN RESTORE WATER SUPPLIES.

    NATO DIPLOMATS SAY THERE IS NO POINT IN WINNING THE MILITARY CAMPAIGN, IF THE ALLIANCE IS NOT THEN ABLE TO LEAD A FORCE WHICH CAN HELP THE REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH
    07-May-99 1:49 PM EDT (1749 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] RUSSIA / YUGOSLAVIA BY EVE CONANT (MOSCOW)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43332
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN AND WESTERN LEADERS ARE MOVING CLOSER ON FINDING A COMMON STRATEGY FOR RESOLVING THE KOSOVO CRISIS. AS VOA'S EVE CONANT REPORTS FROM MOSCOW THAT WHILE THURSDAY'S "G-8" MEETING OF FOREIGN MINISTERS IN BONN WAS NOT A BREAKTHROUGH FOR ENDING THE WAR, IT MAY HAVE BEEN A BREAKTHROUGH FOR IMPROVING RUSSIA'S RELATIONS WITH THE WEST.

    TEXT: ONE OF THE CASUALTIES OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA HAS BEEN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST, WITH THE KREMLIN UNLEASHING SOME ITS HARSHEST ANTI-WESTERN RHETORIC SINCE THE COLD WAR ERA. NOW THE TONE OF THE RHETORIC HAS SOFTENED AS RUSSIA TAKES A MORE ACTIVE ROLE NEGOTIATING BETWEEN THE WEST AND ITS TRADITIONAL SLAV AND ORTHODOX CHURCH ALLY -- YUGOSLAVIA.

    ON THURSDAY, THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF LEADING INDUSTRIAL NATIONS AND RUSSIA -- THE SO-CALLED "G-8" -- AGREED TO SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS. IT INCLUDES RUSSIA'S BACKING OF AN INTERNATIONAL SECURITY PRESENCE IN KOSOVO -- A POLICY SHIFT THE UNITED STATES CALLS A "SIGNIFICANT STEP" IN BRINGING WESTERN AND RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY EFFORTS CLOSER.

    POLITICAL ANALYST VIKTOR KREMENYUK SAYS WHILE THE G-8 DRAFT PLAN MAY NOT HAVE STOPPED THE VIOLENCE IN YUGOSLAVIA, IT SHOWS THAT RUSSIA AND THE WEST ARE CAPABLE OF COOPERATING.

    ///KREMENYUK ACT///

    THIS MEETING HAS PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN BRINGING BOTH POLES (POSITIONS) CLOSER AND THUS MAYBE IN OVERCOMING THE POSSIBILITY OF A MAJOR CRISIS IN EUROPE AROUND THE BALKANS.

    ///END ACT///

    BUT DESPITE RUSSIA'S NEW AND SO FAR MILDLY SUCCESSFUL ROLE AS GLOBAL NEGOTIATOR, DIFFERENCES STILL REMAIN. RUSSIA AND NATO STILL HAVE DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS OF WHAT A SECURITY PRESENCE IN KOSOVO WOULD LOOK LIKE. AND RUSSIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV, WHO REPRESENTED RUSSIA AT THE G-8 TALKS, SAYS THE WEST MUST STOP AIR STRIKES BEFORE REAL NEGOTIATIONS CAN GET UNDER WAY. HE SPOKE FRIDAY DURING A WORLD WAR TWO WREATH LAYING CEREMONY.

    ///IVANOV ACT IN RUSSIAN AND FADE UNDER///

    "HAD OUR PARTNERS ACCEPTED OUR PROPOSAL TO HALT THE AIR STRIKES," HE SAYS, "WE MIGHT HAVE BEEN ABLE TO CARRY ON WITH MORE SUBSTANTIAL WORK." BUT, SAYS MR. IVANOV, "UNFORTUNATELY, THE BOMBING CONTINUES."

    THE AIR STRIKES HAVE ALSO DIVIDED RUSSIA INTERNALLY. SEVERAL LAWMAKERS IN RUSSIA'S COMMUNIST-DOMINATED LOWER PARLIAMENT OPPOSE BOTH THE AIR STRIKES AND RUSSIA'S DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS. COMMUNIST LEADER GENNADY ZUGANOV ACCUSES RUSSIA OF BETRAYING YUGOSLAVIA BY SUPPORTING IT WITH WORDS INSTEAD OF MILITARY MIGHT. AND THERE IS ANOTHER POSSIBLE RIFT -- SOME POLITICAL ANALYSTS HERE POINT OUT THAT RUSSIAN DIPLOMACY MAY BE NARROWING THE GAP WITH THE WEST, BUT IT COULD ALSO WIDEN THE GAP BETWEEN RUSSIA AND YUGOSLAVIA. AT PRESENT, RUSSIA IS CONSIDERED THE ONLY WORLD POWER WITH RELIABLE ACCESS TO YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    RUSSIAN LEADERS HAVE SAID THEY WILL NOT BE A "MOUTHPIECE" FOR NATO, BUT IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN JUST HOW MR. MILOSEVIC WILL REACT TO RUSSIA'S IMPROVED RELATIONS WITH THE WEST. THAT MIGHT BE GAUGED SOON. SPECIAL ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN ANNOUNCED FRIDAY HE IS PREPARING FOR A FRESH MISSION TO BELGRADE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/PCF
    07-May-99 8:32 AM EDT (1232 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] U-N / KOSOVO ENVOYS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249090
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN TODAY (FRIDAY) NAMED TWO SPECIAL ENVOYS TO HELP HIM SEARCH FOR A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE KOSOVO CRISIS. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE NEW U-N SPECIAL ENVOYS ARE SLOVAKIAN FOREIGN MINISTER EDUARD KUKAN AND SWEDEN'S FORMER PRIME MINISTER CARL BILDT. THE TWO STATESMEN WILL ACT AS THE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVES IN TALKS WITH YUGOSLAVIA, NATO, RUSSIA, KOSOVO ALBANIAN REPRESENTATIVES AND OTHER PARTIES. THEY WILL HELP MR. ANNAN ATTEMPT TO BUILD A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT THAT WOULD ALLOW THE RETURN OF REFUGEES TO KOSOVO AND BRING AN END TO NATO STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. MR. ANNAN SAYS HE EXPECTS THE TWO MEN TO BEGIN THEIR WORK IMMEDIATELY.

    /// ANNAN ACT ///

    IT IS A BIG, COMPLEX PROBLEM WHICH REQUIRES A STRONG TEAM. BOTH ARE VERY EXPERIENCED AND VERY GOOD NEGOTIATORS. I THINK MR. BILDT, AS YOU KNOW, HAS CONSIDERABLE EXPERIENCE IN THE BALKANS. HE IS A STRONG POLITICAL LEADER AND KUKAN, WHOM SOME OF YOU MAY REMEMBER IN HIS DAYS HERE AS AMBASSADOR IS A VERY GOOD NEGOTIATOR ALSO AND A GOOD INTERNATIONAL LAWYER AND WITH A VERY GOOD UNDERSTANDING OF THE REGION AND THE ISSUES IN THE REGION AND I THINK THE TWO WILL MAKE A WONDERFUL TEAM.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE OF MR. ANNAN'S PRIMARY GOALS IN APPOINTING THE TWO SPECIAL ENVOYS IS TO REPAIR DIVISIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OVER HOW TO DEAL WITH THE KOSOVO CRISIS. IN THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL, DISCUSSIONS ON KOSOVO HAVE BEEN BROUGHT TO STANDSTILL BY DISAGREEMENTS OVER THE NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA, WITH RUSSIA AND CHINA OPPOSING THEM AND BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE UNITED STATES SUPPORTING THEM.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY MR. ANNAN HOPES TO RESOLVE THAT DISAGREEMENT AND GIVE THE SECURITY COUNCIL A LEADERSHIP ROLE IN DETERMINING HOW TO PROCEED WITH THE KOSOVO CRISIS.

    PROGRESS IN THAT DIRECTION WAS MADE EARLIER THIS WEEK, WHEN THE G-7 INDUSTRIAL NATIONS AND RUSSIA REACHED A CONCENSUS ON SENDING AN INTERNATIONAL FORCE TO KOSOVO. THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL IS BEING ASKED TO PREPARE A RESOLUTION SETTING OUT THE TERMS FOR THAT FORCE AS WELL AS THE TERMS ESTABLISHING AN AUTONOMOUS ADMINISTRATION IN KOSOVO ONCE CONDITIONS PERMIT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/UN/MPR/LSF
    07-May-99 12:03 PM EDT (1603 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] SERBS IN AMERICA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43341
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A MAJORITY OF SERBS IN AMERICA HAVE BEEN AS FIERCE IN THEIR CONDEMNATION OF NATO AIR STRIKES AGAINST THEIR COUNTRY AS ARE SERBS IN YUGOSLAVIA. THEY SAY THE WORLD IS MISREPRESENTING THE SERB SIDE OF THE KOSOVO CONFLICT AND THAT THEIR VOICES ARE NOT HEARD IN THE WESTERN MEDIA. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS:

    TEXT: THE VAST MAJORITY OF SERBS IN THE UNITED STATES OPPOSE THE NATO BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA. AND MOST OF THEM CONSIDER THE COVERAGE BY THE WESTERN MEDIA OF THE AIR CAMPAIGN TO BE GENERALLY PRO-NATO AND TANTAMOUNT TO PROPAGANDA. ONLY A FEW QUESTION THE CRIMES COMMITTED IN THEIR NAME.

    MICHAEL PAVECIC IS AN AMERICAN OF SERBIAN DESCENT WHO HEADS THE SERBIAN-AMERICAN ALLIANCE OF NEW YORK. HE EXPRESSES THE WIDELY HELD BELIEF AMONG MOST SERBS THAT NOT ENOUGH EFFORT WAS MADE TO NEGOTIATE A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION BEFORE DECIDING TO BOMB YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAYS THE SERBS REJECTED THE RAMBOUILLET PEACE AGREEMENT BECAUSE IT WAS FATALLY FLAWED:

    / ACT ONE / PAVECIC /

    KEEP IN MIND THAT IN THE FIRST EFFORT AT RAMBOUILLET, THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS DID NOT SIGN BECAUSE THEY'VE BEEN COMMITTED TO AN INDEPENDENT KOSOVO. THE POINT ABOUT RAMBOUILLET IS THAT IT REALLY WAS NOT ABOUT DIPLOMACY. YOU CANNOT FORCE A NATION TO SIGN A PEACE AGREEMENT UNDER THE THREAT OF BOMBING.

    // END ACT //

    AND MR. PAVECIC IS NOT ALONE IN HIS BELIEF THAT THE CURRENT FLOOD OF ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES OUT OF KOSOVO HAS BEEN CREATED BY THE NATO BOMBING. HE SAID HE SIMPLY DOES NOT BELIEVE THE WIDESPREAD REPORTS BY WESTERN HUMANITARIAN AND INTELLIGENCE SOURCES THAT THE SERB MILITARY HAD MOUNTED A CAMPAIGN OF BRUTAL ETHNIC CLEANSING AND ATROCITIES LONG BEFORE THE NATO BOMBING BEGAN:

    // ACT TWO PAVECIC // /// OPT ACT ///

    OF COURSE ANY ETHNIC CLEANSING AND ATROCITIES HAVE TO BE TOTALLY STOPPED AND CONDEMNED BUT THE POINT IS THERE WERE MANY MASSACRES. YOU SHOULD LOOK AT GLODJANE WHERE THERE WERE MASSACRES OF 30 TO 40 SERB CIVILIANS LAST SPRING.

    // END ACT // /// END OPT ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    THE INCIDENT AT GLODJANE, WHICH MR. PAVECIC MENTIONED WAS REPORTED IN THE WESTERN PRESS AS A KIDNAPPING OF FIVE SERB POLICEMEN BY THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, IN WHICH AT LEAST TWO OF THE SERBS WERE KILLED. /// END OPT ///

    THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH HAS BEEN CRITICIZED FOR NOT SPEAKING OUT MORE STRONGLY TO CONDEMN ETHNIC CLEANSING AND ATROCITIES. BUT ZORAN HODJERA, PRESIDENT OF ST. LUKE'S SERBIAN CHURCH IN WASHINGTON, SAYS THE CHURCH HAS DENOUNCED THE ATROCITIES:

    // ACT THREE / HODJERA //

    OUR CHURCH IN SERBIA WAS AGAINST ANY ATROCITIES IN KOSOVO, WHICH INCLUDES NOT ONLY ALBANIANS BUT ALSO THE LARGE NUMBER OF SERBS WHO HAD TO FLEE KOSOVO. THE CHURCH NEVER SUPPORTED THE METHODS USED BY THE YUGOSLAV POLICE AND PARA MILITARY FORCES IN KOSOVO. BUT ONE HAS TO HAVE A BALANCED PICTURE AND THAT IS THERE IS FIGHTING ON ALL SIDES AND ATROCITIES ARE COMMITTED ON ALL SIDES.

    // END ACT //

    BUT SONJA BISERKO, A SERB FROM BELGRADE WHO CHAIRS THE SERBIAN HELSINKI COMMITTEE, SAYS THIS IS THE KIND OF MORAL EQUIVALENCY RESPONSE THAT MAKES HER ANGRY. MS. BISERKO, WHO IS CURRENTLY IN NEW YORK, IS ONE OF THE FEW TO CRITICIZE HER FELLOW SERBS FOR FAILING TO SPEAK OUT AGAINST THE CRIMES IN KOSOVO. SHE IS ESPECIALLY CRITICAL OF THE SERBIAN CHURCH:

    // ACT FOUR / BISERKO //

    PATRIARCH PAVLE TWO YEARS AGO INITIATED A DECLARATION ON GENOCIDE, THE GENOCIDE OF SERBS THROUGHOUT HISTORY. HE IDENTIFIED SERBS WITH ARMENIANS, WITH JEWS, BUT NOT OTHER NATIONALITIES IN THE BALKANS, WITHOUT ACKNOWLEDGING WHAT HAPPENED TO CROATS, MUSLIMS AND NOW ALBANIANS.

    // END ACT //

    MS. BISERKO WAS IN WASHINGTON RECENTLY WHEN HUNDREDS OF SERBIAN AMERICANS TOOK PART IN A MASS PROTEST AGAINST THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    // ACT FIVE / BISERKO //

    I'M REALLY SHOCKED BECAUSE I WATCHED THESE PEOPLE WHO HARDLY SPEAK THE SERBIAN LANGUAGE. THEY HARDLY KNEW WHAT THEY HAD COME TO (ATTEND). SOME TOLD US THE CHURCH IN CHICAGO HAD ORGANIZED THEIR BUSES AND PAID FOR EVERYTHING. ESPECIALLY SERBS LIVING ABROAD SHOULD MAKE AN EFFORT TO DISTANCE THEMSELVES FROM THE POLICY OF THE LAST TEN YEARS AND TO UNDERSTAND WHY IT HAPPENED.

    // END ACT //

    INSTEAD OF EXAMINING WHAT IS CURRENTLY HAPPENING, MS. BISERKO SAYS MOST SERBS PREFER TO LOOK BACK AT THE CRIMES THEY SAY WERE COMMITTED AGAINST THEM THROUGHOUT HISTORY:

    // ACT SIX / BISERKO //

    THEY USUALLY GO BACK TO [THE] SECOND [WORLD] WAR, [OR] TO THE BATTLE OF KOSOVO (IN 1389). THEY USE HISTORICAL ARGUMENTS. THEY HAVE SOMEHOW MANAGED TO CREATE THIS SELF PITY OF SERBS AND CREATE THE IMAGE OF SERBS AS VICTIMS. THEY ARE IN SOME SORT OF COLLECTIVE DENIAL.

    // END ACT //

    SONJA BISERKO'S CRITICISM OF THE SERBIAN CHURCH IS ECHOED IN A BOOK ENTITLED, "A BRIDGE BETRAYED: RELIGION AND GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA." IT WAS WRITTEN BY SERBIAN-AMERICAN AUTHOR MICHAEL SELLS, A PROFESSOR OF RELIGION AT HAVERFORD COLLEGE IN PENNSYLVANIA. IN THE PREFACE UPDATING HIS BOOK, PROFESSOR SELLS WRITES THAT THE ONE REDEEMING LIGHT IN YUGOSLAVIA TODAY IS THE WORK OF A YOUNG SERBIAN PRIEST IN KOSOVO. ACCORDING TO MICHAEL SELLS, FATHER SAVA IS KNOWN AS THE CYBER-PRIEST BECAUSE HE WORKS ON THE INTERNET AND SEEMS TO BE ALONE IN TRYING TO INFORM HIS FELLOW SERBS ABOUT WHAT IS REALLY GOING ON IN HIS COUNTRY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM
    07-May-99 4:32 PM EDT (2032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] PENTAGON-POW'S (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249091
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S ARMY SAYS ITS THREE FORMER PRISONERS OF WAR WERE AMBUSHED WELL INSIDE MACEDONIA AND MISTREATED DURING MUCH OF THEIR CAPTIVITY IN SERBIA. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS THE MEN FLEW HOME FROM GERMANY EARLIER TODAY (FRIDAY).

    TEXT: IN A TELEPHONE PRESS CONFERENCE FROM HEIDELBERG, GENERAL DAVID GRANGE OFFERED THE MOST DETAILED ACCOUNT YET OF THE MEN'S CAPTURE AND DETENTION. THE INCIDENT OCCURRED MARCH 31ST AS THE THREE ARMY SCOUTS PATROLLED THE YUGOSLAV-MACEDONIAN BORDER ZONE IN A (HUMVEE) MILITARY VEHICLE.

    GENERAL GRANGE SAYS HE REMAINS CONVINCED THE TROOPS WERE TWO-AND-ONE HALF KILOMETERS INSIDE MACEDONIAN TERRITORY AND WERE THE VICTIMS OF A PLANNED AMBUSH. HE SAYS SOME OF THE SERBS RAN OUT OF HIDING IN HAYSTACKS AND BLOCKED THE AMERICANS' PATH.

    // GRANGE ACT //

    THE VEHICLE WAS HIT BY 40 TO 50 ROUNDS, SOME OF WHICH PENETRATED THE HUMVEE. THE ENGINE, SMOKING FROM FIRE CAUSED BY ROUNDS IMPACTING, FINALLY STOPPED. BETWEEN 15 AND 20 SOLDIERS IN SERB UNIFORMS IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDED THE VEHICLE.

    // END ACT //

    THE U-S GUNNER HAD NO TIME TO ACTIVATE HIS 50-CALIBER WEAPON. THE SERGEANT IN COMMAND, THINKING THE GUNNER WAS WOUNDED AND SEEING HIS MEN WERE OUTNUMBERED, DECIDED TO SURRENDER. EVEN SO, THE GENERAL SAYS, THE THREE WERE KNOCKED TO THE GROUND, KICKED AND BEATEN.

    // GRANGE ACT //

    ONE SOLDIER WAS STRUCK SO HARD IT BROKE THE STOCK OFF THE RIFLE HE WAS HIT WITH.

    // END ACT //

    THE ABUSE CONTINUED IN YUGOSLAV PRISONS. GENERAL GRANGE SAYS THE MEN WERE INTERROGATED FOUR TIMES IN THE FIRST WEEK OF CAPTIVITY.

    // GRANGE ACT //

    ONE EXAMPLE OF AN INTERROGATION QUESTION THAT ONE OF OUR SOLDIERS WAS ASKED IS "WHAT IS YOUR FAMILY ADDRESS IN THE UNITED STATES?" WHEN OUR SOLDIER REFUSED TO ANSWER HE WAS STRUCK IN THE BACK OF THE HEAD WITH A BATON AND LATER CHOKED WITH THAT BATON.

    // END ACT //

    THE MEN DID RECEIVE MEDICAL ATTENTION. THEY SAY THE MISTREATMENT CONTINUED BUT BECAME LESS SEVERE AFTER THEY REACHED BELGRADE. THE SOLDIERS WERE FREED LAST SUNDAY AS THE RESULT OF A MISSION BY AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER JESSE JACKSON.

    THERE HAVE BEEN REPEATED QUESTIONS ABOUT WHY THEY WERE NEAR THE BORDER AT SUCH A TENSE MOMENT AND WHY THEIR MILITARY VEHICLE HAD SPLIT APART FROM TWO OTHERS. GENERAL GRANGE SAYS THE PATROL WAS DONE ACCORDING TO REGULATION -- BUT AFTERWARD, PROCEDURES CHANGED AND THE VEHICLES DID NOT OPERATE ALONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/KL
    07-May-99 1:52 PM EDT (1752 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249075
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN CROAT FORMER CAMP COMMANDER HAS BEEN SET FREE BY JUDGES AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS. ALTHOUGH ZLATKO ALEKSOVSKI WAS FOUND GUILTY OF MISTREATING MUSLIM PRISONERS UNDER HIS CARE IN 1993, JUDGES RULED HE HAS ALREADY SERVED HIS TIME IN PRISON. LAUREN COMITEAU HAS MORE FROM THE HAGUE.

    TEXT: ZLATKO ALEKSOVSKI BURIED HIS HEAD IN HIS HANDS AND CRIED AS JUDGES PRONOUNCED HIM A FREE MAN. PROSECUTORS HAVE SPENT ALMOST A YEAR AND A HALF TRYING TO PROVE THAT AS COMMANDER OF THE KAONIK PRISON CAMP IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, ALEKSOVSKI WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL TORTURE OF MUSLIM CIVILIANS HELD THERE.

    JUDGES AGREED, AND SENTENCED HIM TO TWO-AND-A-HALF YEARS IN PRISON FOR THOSE CRIMES. BUT THEY ACQUITTED ALEKSOVSKI OF THE MORE SERIOUS CHARGES OF GRAVE BREECHES OF THE 1949 GENEVA CONVENTIONS. TO PROVE THAT, PROSECUTORS HAD TO SHOW THERE WAS AN INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICT BETWEEN BOSNIA AND CROATIA -- SOMETHING JUDGES RULES THEY FAILED TO DO.

    THAT DECISION COULD HAVE IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS IN THE TRIALS OF MORE SENIOR BOSNIAN CROAT COMMANDERS -- TWO WHO ARE NOW ON TRIAL HERE.

    BECAUSE ALEKSOVSKI HAS BEEN IN JAIL FOR ALMOST THREE YEARS, JUDGES ORDERED HIS IMMEDIATE RELEASE FOR TIME ALREADY SERVED. BUT PRESIDING JUDGE ALMIRO RODRIGUES, SPEAKING THROUGH A TRANSLATOR, WENT OUT OF HIS WAY TO REMIND ALEKSOVSKI HE WAS A CONDEMNED MAN.

    /// TRANSLATOR OF JUDGE ACT ///

    FIRST OF ALL, THE ACTS THAT YOU WERE CHARGED WITH ARE GRAVE. THEY ARE CRIMES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. FOR SOME PEOPLE, YOU HAVE BEEN ACQUITTED. FOR OTHERS, YOU ARE TODAY CONDEMNED.

    /// END ACT///

    THERE ARE TWO SIDES TO EVERY REALITY, SAID JUDGE RODRIGUES, AND HE HOPES FRIDAY'S SENTENCE STRIKES A BALANCE BETWEEN ALEKSOVSKI'S LIMITED ROLE IN THE LARGER WAR, AND VICTIMS' NEED FOR JUSTICE. THE JUDGE SAID HE ALSO HOPES THE SENTENCE SENDS A CLEAR SIGNAL TO OTHERS WHO MAY BE COMMITTING WAR CRIMES.

    ALEKSOVSKI THEN HAD HIS TURN TO ADDRESS THE COURT. HE SPOKE THROUGH A TRANSLATOR:

    ///TRANSLATOR OF ALEKSOVSKI ACT ///

    I WISH TO TELL YOU AND THE WHOLE WORLD THAT NEVER HAVE I HATED ANYONE, THAT NEVER HAVE I WANTED TO PLAY A PART IN INFLICTING ANYTHING BAD ON ANYONE -- NOR WILL I EVER DO THAT. I WILL USE YOUR WORDS: I WAS AND AM AND WISH TO REMAIN A CITIZEN OF MANKIND. THANK YOU.

    ///END ACT///

    WITH THAT, ALEKSOVSKI WAS PRONOUNCED A FREE MAN. JUDGE RODRIGUES TOLD HIM HE HOPES HE MAKES THE BEST OF THAT FREEDOM. ALEKSOVSKI'S WIFE SAID SHE'S HAPPY HE'LL FINALLY BE COMING HOME ALTHOUGH PROSECUTORS SAY THEY'LL APPEAL THE VERDICT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LCF/PCF
    07-May-99 6:58 AM EDT (1058 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [17] EDITORIAL: MILOSEVIC THREATENS MONTENEGRO

    DATE= 05/09/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08290
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    05/09/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IS USING THE WAR IN KOSOVO TO TRY TO UNDERMINE THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO. MILO DJUKANOVIC, THE PRESIDENT OF SERBIA'S SISTER REPUBLIC, HAS BROUGHT ECONOMIC REFORM AND ETHNIC TOLERANCE TO HIS PART OF YUGOSLAVIA AND CALLS THE ETHNIC CLEANSING IN KOSOVO "INSANE." SO FAR, MR. DJUKANOVIC'S POPULARITY HAS PREVENTED MR. MILOSEVIC FROM USING HIS ARMY STATIONED IN MONTENEGRO TO ATTEMPT A COUP. INSTEAD HE IS TRYING TO DESTABILIZE MR. DJUKANOVIC'S GOVERNMENT BY CREATING ETHNIC INSTABILITY AND INTENSIFYING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS BROUGHT ON BY THE WAR.

    SERBIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE ALREADY DRIVEN SEVENTY-THOUSAND KOSOVAR ALBANIANS INTO MONTENEGRO, WHERE SOME ARE SUFFERING ABUSE AT THE HANDS OF THE YUGOSLAV ARMY. ACCORDING TO AID WORKERS, YUGOSLAV SOLDIERS UNDER THE CONTROL OF BELGRADE HAVE SHOT AT REFUGEES, AND ADULT MALE REFUGEES HAVE BEEN BEATEN. POLICE IN MONTENEGRO ARE LOYAL TO THE DJUKANOVIC GOVERNMENT AND ARE PROTECTING REFUGEES AS BEST THEY CAN AGAINST SUCH ATTACKS. AS THE DANGER MOUNTS, EVEN SOME OF MONTENEGRO'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND SLAVIC MUSLIMS ARE LEAVING FOR THIRD COUNTRIES.

    IN FURTHER EFFORTS TO DESTABILIZE THE REPUBLIC, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS TRIED TO MAKE MONTENEGRO A NATO TARGET BY SHOOTING AT ALLIANCE PLANES FROM THERE. MR. MILOSEVIC HAS ALSO TRIED TO USE THE ARMY AND NAVY TO TAKE OVER MONTENEGRO'S BORDER POSTS, TELEVISION TRANSMITTER, AND MAIN PORT -- YUGOSLAVIA'S ONLY OUTLET TO THE SEA. HE HAS REPLACED COMMANDERS WITH HIS OWN FOLLOWERS AND BROUGHT IN TROOPS FROM SERBIA.

    THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES HAVE NOT ABANDONED MONTENEGRO. IN FACT, THE U.S. HAS PLEDGED THAT SHIPS CARRYING OIL BOUND FOR MONTENEGRO WILL BE EXEMPT FROM THE PLANNED EMBARGO ON SERBIA. THE U.S. HAS ALSO SENT MONTENEGRO TEN-MILLION DOLLARS TO HELP PAY PENSIONS AND SALARIES THIS MONTH. FURTHER ASSISTANCE IS PLANNED.

    REFORMERS IN MONTENEGRO UNDERSTAND THAT FUTURE PROSPERITY AND PEACE ARE DIRECTLY LINKED TO DEMOCRACY. THAT IS WHY THEY ARE STANDING THEIR GROUND AGAINST PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC'S EFFORTS TO UNDERMINE THEIR FREEDOMS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    07-May-99 1:48 PM EDT (1748 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [18] EDITORIAL: SERB AGGRESSION AFFECTS ITS NEIGHBORS

    DATE= 05/08/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08289
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    05/08/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S WAR ON KOSOVAR ALBANIANS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN -- AND FOR THE FACT THAT THE PEOPLE OF SERBIA ARE SUFFERING GREAT HARDSHIP. BUT THEY ARE NOT ALONE IN THEIR SUFFERING. NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES LIKE MACEDONIA AND ALBANIA HAVE BEEN ESPECIALLY HARD HIT. THERE, THE HUGE INFLUX OF KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEES HAS CREATED SERIOUS SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL STRAINS. FOR BULGARIA, THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO IS PUTTING PRESSURE ON THE COUNTRY'S NEWLY LAID FOUNDATION FOR A MARKET ECONOMY.

    ECONOMICALLY, BULGARIA HAS MADE A REMARKABLE TURNAROUND. THE INFLATION RATE IS DOWN TO SINGLE DIGITS FROM ITS TRIPLE-DIGIT LEVEL OF JUST A FEW YEARS AGO. LAST YEAR, THE COUNTRY ACHIEVED A BUDGET SURPLUS AND A FOUR PERCENT GROWTH RATE. NEW LEGISLATION GUARANTEES MINORITY SHAREHOLDERS' RIGHTS AND ALLOWS FOREIGNERS FULL LAND OWNERSHIP.

    MOREOVER, BULGARIA, UNLIKE SERBIA, HAS REJECTED OLD ETHNIC HATREDS. THE GOVERNMENT REPUDIATED THE ANTI-TURKISH SENTIMENTS OF THE FORMER COMMUNIST REGIME AND WELCOMED BACK THREE-HUNDRED FIFTY-THOUSAND ETHNIC TURKS WHO WERE PERSECUTED AND EXPELLED IN THE 1980S.

    IN ADDITION, THE BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT HAS STARTED REGULAR PAN-BALKAN MEETINGS OF DEFENSE MINISTERS AND OVERSEEN THE FORMATION OF A PAN-BALKAN PEACEKEEPING UNIT. BULGARIA IS SEEKING ADMISSION TO NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION, AND HAS ESTABLISHED GOOD RELATIONS WITH ITS NEIGHBORS, PARTICULARLY TURKEY AND MACEDONIA.

    SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES LIKE BULGARIA -- AND ROMANIA, TOO -- ARE CONVINCED THAT THEIR FUTURE LIES IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE DEMOCRATIC WEST. BOTH COUNTRIES HAVE RESPONDED FAVORABLY TO NATO REQUESTS FOR OVERFLIGHT RIGHTS. IT IS RIGHT FOR THE U.S. AND ITS NATO ALLIES TO HELP INTEGRATE SOUTHEAST EUROPEAN NATIONS INTO EURO-ATLANTIC INSTITUTIONS. LEADERS LIKE BULGARIAN PRESIDENT PETAR STOYANOV BELIEVE THE BALKANS CAN TURN A NEW PAGE IN HISTORY. PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC SHOULD NOT BE ALLOWED TO THREATEN THE REGION'S PROGRESS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    07-May-99 10:24 AM EDT (1424 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [19] THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43342
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRODUCTION: U-S AMBASSADORS TO THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA SAY THERE IS PLENTY OF MONEY TO BE MADE IN THOSE REGIONS, BUT THEY ADVISE AMERICAN BUSINESS EXECUTIVES TO PROCEED WITH CAUTION, PERSISTENCE, IMAGINATION AND AN EYE OUT FOR CORRUPTION. THEY MADE THESE REMARKS AT THE ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON U-S / TURKISH RELATIONS THAT WAS HELD IN WASHINGTON (MAY 5 - 8). V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS ON THEIR OPTIMISTIC YET CANDID OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE COUNTRIES WHERE THEY SERVE.

    TEXT: THERE IS PROMISE. THERE IS POTENTIAL BUT WHEN WILL IT BE REALIZED?

    THAT IS THE QUESTION U-S AMBASSADORS TO THE CAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA ASK THEMSELVES AND OTHERS ABOUT THEIR REGION, WHICH IS RICH IN RESOURCES AND TALENT BUT IS STILL STRUGGLING TO MAKE THE TRANSITION FROM COMMUNISM TO FREE MARKETS.

    THE AMBASSADORS EXPRESSED THEIR HOPES AND CONCERNS TO AN AUDIENCE OF AMERICAN AND TURKISH BUSINESS EXECUTIVES WHO MAY WANT TO INVEST IN THE AREA. ALL KINDS OF BUSINESSES ARE POSSIBLE, THE AMBASSADORS SAY.

    KENNETH YALOWITZ, AMBASSADOR TO GEORGIA, SAYS THE CAUCASUS IS FINALLY EMERGING FROM THE POLITICAL CONFLICTS THAT HAVE STYMIED PROGRESS:

    // YALOWITZ ACT //

    FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, THE REGION HAS REGAINED ITS MORE HISTORIC POSITION AS A BUSY CROSSROADS WHERE ANCENT TRADE ROUTES MERGE. BOTH CASPIAN OIL AND WESTERN GOODS ARE FLOWING THROUGH GEORGIA IN EVER-INCREASING VOLUMES. THIS, OF COURSE, HAS PLACED A TREMENDOUS STRAIN ON THE TRANSPORTATION INFRATRUCTURE WHICH WAS NOT DESIGNED FOR SUCH USE.

    // END ACT //

    SO GEORGIA NEEDS FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN TRANSPORTATION, AMBASSADOR YALOWITZ SAYS. HE SEES IT AS A MAJOR OPPORTUNITY, ESPECIALLY IN VIEW OF GEORGIA'S LARGE POOL OF UNEMPLOYED LABOR. BUT BEWARE CORRUPTION, HE WARNS. THAT CAN BE COSTLY.

    TURKMENISTAN HAS THE FOURTH LARGEST NATURAL GAS RESERVES OF ANY COUNTRY IN WORLD, AMBASSADOR STEVEN MANN SAYS. THE PROBLEM IS GETTING IT OUT. THE ECONOMY WAS BADLY HURT WHEN A DISPUTE CUT OFF GAS EXPORTS TO RUSSIA:

    // MANN ACT //

    ECONOMIC REFORM OR NOT, THE GOVERNMENT ABSOLUTELY MUST GET ITS RESOURCE EXPORT PICTURE BACK ON TRACK. TURKMENISTAN HAS LONG WANTED MULTIPLE PIPELINE OPTIONS: TRANS-AFGHAN, TRANS-IRANIAN, TRANS-CASPIAN, EVEN INTO CHINA, BUT UNTIL NOW, HAS NEVER BEEN ABLE TO MOVE CONCRETELY ON ANY ONE ROUTE.

    // END ACT //

    PART OF THE PROBLEM, SAYS AMBASSADOR MANN, IS THE SOVIET LEGACY OF CENTRALIZED CONTROL OF THE ECONOMY. TOO MUCH IS DECIDED AT THE TOP, WHICH MEANS TOO LITTLE GETS DONE.

    JOSEPH PRESEL, AMBASSADOR TO UZBEKISTAN, SAYS THE ECONOMY IS IN BAD SHAPE AND REFORM IS LAGGING. BUT HE BELIEVES UZBEKISTAN WILL ULTIMATELY PROSPER:

    // PRESEL ACT //

    BECAUSE IT IS A SOCIETY THAT KNOWS WHO IT IS. THAT IS ONE OF THE REASONS IT IS FAIRLY STABLE. THEY HAVE A GREAT CONCERN FOR AUTHORITY, A RESPECT FOR AUTHORITY. THEY HAVE A GREAT CONCERN FOR CONTROL. I LIKE TO SAY UZBEKISTAN IS A COUNTRY OF 25 MILLION PEOPLE, 25 MILLION OF WHOM ARE CONTROL FREAKS. THIS MAKES IT RATHER DIFFICULT TO GET THE KIND OF FLEXIBILITY THAT BUSINESSES NEED. AND THAT IS A PROBLEM.

    // END ACT //

    AMBASSADOR PRESEL SAYS SOME BUSINESSES SHOULD NOT INVEST IN UZBEKISTAN, BUT OTHERS MAY BE MORE SUITED:

    // PRESEL ACT //

    BUSINESSES WHO CAN CONVINCE THE UZBEKS THEY CAN GROW OLD WITH THEM, WHO ARE COMING IN FOR 50 YEARS, WHO INTEND TO INVEST AND SET UP LONG-TERM RELATIONS. THIS IS A SOCIETY IN WHICH PERSONAL RELATIONS STILL MATTER. THIS IS A SOCIETY IN WHICH LOYALTIES MATTER IN BOTH DIRECTIONS.

    // END ACT //

    INVESTMENT STILL REQUIRES DEEP POCKETS, SAYS THE AMBASSADOR -- AND A BOARD OF DIRECTORS WITH STRONG NERVES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/RRM
    07-May-99 5:07 PM EDT (2107 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [20] TURKEY ISLAM (L/S VER) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249076
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// CUT OPT SECTIONS TO MAKE A SHORT CR ///

    INTRO: TURKEY'S CHIEF PROSECUTOR -- VURAL SAVAS -- HAS LAUNCHED A LEGAL CHALLENGE AGAINST THE COUNTRY'S LARGEST ISLAMIST GROUP, THE "VIRTUE" PARTY, ON CHARGES THE PARTY SEEKS TO OVERTURN THE SECULAR PRINCIPLES OF THE TURKISH STATE. DETAILS FROM ANKARA AND REPORTER AMBERIN ZAMAN.

    TEXT: IN HIS INDICTMENT, PROSECUTOR VURAL SAVAS ACCUSES VIRTUE OF BEING NOTHING MORE THAN THE CONTINUATION OF "WELFARE" -- THE ISLAMIST PARTY THAT WAS BANNED ON CHARGES IT SOUGHT TO INTRODUCE ISLAMIC LAW DURING ITS TURBULENT YEAR IN OFFICE IN 1997. //OPT// WELFARE PARTY LEADER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN WAS BARRED FROM POLITICS FOR FIVE YEARS ON SIMILAR CHARGES. //END OPT//

    THE ISLAMISTS REGROUPED UNDER THE "VIRTUE" PARTY LABEL IN DECEMBER 1997. THEY TRIED TO PROJECT A MORE MODERATE IMAGE IN THE RUN-UP TO NATIONWIDE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS LAST MONTH. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THE EFFORT BACKFIRED WHEN THE PARTY RAN A FEMALE CANDIDATE WEARING THE ISLAMIC HEAD SCARF.

    //OPT//

    ALLEGATIONS THAT THE PARTY WAS JUST AS MILITANTLY PRO-ISLAMIC AS ITS PREDECESSOR CAME TO A HEAD LAST SUNDAY WHEN ISLAMIST LAWMAKER MERVE KAVAKCI SOUGHT TO TAKE THE OATH OF OFFICE WEARING HER HEAD COVERED. HER APPEARANCE AT THE INAUGURAL SESSION OF THE PARLIAMENT SPARKED A NOISY PROTEST, LED BY TURKEY'S LEFTIST PRIME MINISTER, BULENT ECEVIT. MS KAVAKCI WAS FORCED TO LEAVE WITHOUT BEING SWORN IN.

    TENSIONS BETWEEN TURKEY'S MILITARY-BACKED, PRO-SECULAR ESTABLISHMENT AND THE ISLAMISTS CONTINUED TO MOUNT AS MS KAVAKCI REPEATEDLY VOICED HER INTENTIONS TO REAPPEAR AT THE TURKISH LEGISLATURE WHEN IT RECONVENES NEXT WEEK.

    TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL SAID THE TURKISH STATE HAD WHAT HE TERMED SOLID EVIDENCE THAT MS KAVAKCI HAD "FOREIGN CONNECTIONS." IT LATER EMERGED THAT THE ISLAMIST LAWMAKER HAD HARSHLY CRITICIZED THE TURKISH MILITARY AND THE SECULAR STATE DURING SPEECHES SHE MADE BEFORE MILITANT ISLAMIC GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    THERE ARE MANY WHO BLAME THE FORMER WELFARE PARTY LEADER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, FOR THE CURRENT SITUATION. ANALYSTS SAY HE IS WIDELY BELIEVED TO WIELD CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE OVER THE VIRTUE PARTY, AND IS SAID TO HAVE PUSHED FOR MS KAVACKI'S CANDIDACY -- KNOWING FULL WELL, VIRTUE PARTY OFFICIALS SAY, THAT HER APPEARANCE IN PARLIAMENT WITH A HEAD SCARF WOULD PROVOKE CONTROVERSY.

    THE PARTY'S CONTINUED STANDOFF WITH THE GENERALLY POPULAR TURKISH ARMED FORCES, SAY ANALYSTS, IS ONE OF THE CHIEF REASONS THAT VIRTUE LOST ONE-THIRD OF ITS PARLIAMENTARY SEATS IN LAST MONTH'S ELECTIONS. //END OPT//

    MOST ANALYSTS PREDICT THAT VIRTUE -- LIKE ITS PREDECESSOR, WELFARE -- WILL FACE A LEGAL ORDER TO DISBAND. PARTY DIVISIONS ARE ALREADY EMERGING, WITH A LEADING MEMBER RESIGNING OVER THE HEAD SCARF ISSUE ON THURSDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    07-May-99 7:05 AM EDT (1105 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [21] SCOTTISH ELECTIONS (L ONLY) BY TREVOR GRUNDY (EDINBURGH)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249088
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN'S RULING LABOUR PARTY HAS WON THE MOST SEATS IN SCOTLAND'S FIRST PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN ALMOST 300 YEARS. TREVOR GRUNDY REPORTS FROM EDINBURGH.

    TEXT: POLITICAL EXPERTS SAY THE ELECTION OUTCOME IN SCOTLAND VINDICATED THE PLAN BY BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR TO GIVE LIMITED HOME RULE TO THE REGIONS TO QUELL GROWING INDEPENDENCE SENTIMENT.

    THE NEW SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE CONTROL OF SUCH AREAS AS EDUCATION, HEALTH, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND IT WILL HAVE SOME POWER TO LEVY TAXES. HOWEVER, OTHER AREAS -- FOREIGN AFFAIRS, DEFENSE, FINANCE, AND RELATIONS WITH THE REST OF EUROPE -- WILL REMAIN WITH THE CENTRAL BRITISH PARLIAMENT IN LONDON.

    MR. BLAIR'S LABOUR PARTY WON THE MOST SEATS IN THE NEW SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT -- BUT IS SHORT OF THE MAJORITY. IT NOW WILL HAVE TO FORM A COALITION -- PROBABLY WITH THE LIBERAL DEMOCRATS -- TO SET UP THE NEW SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT.

    THE SCOTTISH SECRETARY IN THE BRITISH CABINET -- DONALD DEWER -- IS EXPECTED TO BECOME SCOTLAND'S FIRST PRIME MINISTER. MR. DEWAR HEARD THE RESULTS AT THE LABOUR PARTY'S GLASGOW HEADQUARTERS. HE TURNED TO SUPPORTERS, LAUGHED AND WIPED HIS BROW OF IMAGINARY SWEAT, AND DECLARED THAT SCOTTISH POLITICS WOULD BE CHANGED FOREVER.

    MR. DEWAR AND THE LIBERAL DEMOCRAT LEADER IN SCOTLAND, JIM WALLANCE, WILL MEET IN THE NEXT FEW DAYS TO BEGIN TALKS ON FORMING A COALITION.

    THE PRO-INDEPENDENCE SCOTTISH NATIONAL PARTY (S-N-P) FINISHED SECOND IN THE VOTING ON THURSDAY, BUT FELL SHORT OF WHAT HAD BEEN EXPECTED.

    /// OPT ///

    THE S-N-P'S LEADER, ALEX SALMOND, FACES A BARRAGE OF CRITICISM ABOUT THE WAY HE HANDLED THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN. TOWARDS THE END OF THE CAMPAIGN -- ANGRY ABOUT OPINION POLLS AND WEARY OF PREDICTIONS OF DEFEAT -- HE ABANDONED NEWS CONFERENCES AND IN A TELEVISION SPEECH ATTACKED BRITAIN'S HANDLING OF THE BOMBING OF YUGOSLAVIA.

    THIS WAS THE FIRST ELECTION IN SCOTLAND TO USE A SYSTEM OF PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. AND THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY SEEMS TO HAVE BENEFITED THE MOST. THE CONSERVATIVES FAILED TO WIN ANY DIRECTLY ELECTED SEATS. BUT THE CONSERVATIVES PICKED UP AT LEAST 16 PARLIAMENTARY SEATS APPORTIONED UNDER PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION.

    THE LABOUR PARTY ALSO WON THE MOST SEATS IN ELECTIONS FOR A NEW WALES ASSEMBLY -- BUT APPARENTLY ALSO WILL BE SHORT OF A MAJORITY IN WALES. THE WALES ASSEMBLY WILL HAVE CONSIDERABLY LESS POWER THAN THE NEW SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT.

    IN ENGLAND, THE CONSERVATIVES SCORED MAJOR GAINS IN LOCAL COUNCIL ELECTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TG/JWH
    07-May-99 11:19 AM EDT (1519 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [22] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=5/7/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-249102
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (FRIDAY), WITH THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSING AT A RECORD HIGH FOR THE SECOND TIME THIS WEEK. VOA BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 11-THOUSAND-31, UP 84 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 242 POINTS OR MORE THAN TWO PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT 13-HUNDRED-45, UP 13 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX GAINED MORE THAN ONE PERCENT

    WALL STREET WAS GENERALLY HAPPY WITH THE LATEST U-S EMPLOYMENT REPORT. IT SHOWS A STRONG INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF NEW JOBS IN APRIL. BUT, AT THE SAME TIME, THERE WAS A SLIGHT INCREASE IN THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE BECAUSE OF NEW JOB SEEKERS. ANALYSTS SAY THE FIGURES DO NOT INDICATE ANY WAGE-DRIVEN INFLATIONARY PRESSURES.

    ///REST OPT///

    HOWEVER, THERE ARE STILL SOME LINGERING CONCERNS ABOUT INFLATION AND POSSIBLE HIGHER INTEREST RATES. THE FALLING BOND MARKET HAS ALREADY RAISED LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES AND SOME ANALYSTS SAY A STOCK MARKET CORRECTION IS AHEAD.

    BUT SOME ANALYSTS, SUCH AS JIM MEYER OF THE JANNEY MONTGOMERY SCOTT INVESTMENT COMPANY, SAY A DOWNWARD CORRECTION IN STOCK PRICES WOULD NOT NECESSARILY MEAN AN END TO THE "BULL" OR UP MARKET.

    ///MEYER ACT///

    AT ANY POINT WE COULD HAVE A CORRECTION ON THE ORDER OF SIX TO EIGHT PERCENT OR SO, MAYBE A LITTLE BIT MORE. BUT I WOULD CATEGORIZE THAT AS A NORMAL, IF NOT MODEST, CORRECTION WITHIN A BULL MARKET TREND.

    ///END ACT///

    IN BUSINESS NEWS, LITTON INDUSTRIES, THE GIANT U-S DEFENSE CONTRACTOR, IS OFFERING TO BUY TWO SHIPBUILDING COMPANIES FOR A TOTAL OF ALMOST TWO-AND-ONE-HALF-BILLION DOLLARS. LITTON IS MAKING BIDS FOR THE NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING COMPANY AND AVONDALE INDUSTRIES, BOTH OF WHICH SAY THEY WILL REVIEW LITTON'S OFFERS.

    THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT HAS GIVEN APPROVAL TO BELL ATLANTIC'S 53-BILLION-DOLLAR TAKEOVER OF THE G-T-E CORPORATION. HOWEVER, THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT SAYS THAT APPROVAL IS CONDITIONED ON A PROMISE BY THE TWO U-S TELEPHONE COMPANIES TO DIVEST OVERLAPPING WIRELESS TELEPHONE SYSTEMS.

    THE HEAD OF THE U-S AGENCY WHICH OVERSEES THE COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY SAYS THE PROPOSED TAKEOVER OF THE MEDIA-ONE CABLE TELEVISION COMPANY BY THE A-T AND T- TELECOMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION WILL REQUIRE EXTENSIVE REVIEW. WILLIAM KENNARD OF THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION SAYS THE PLANNED DEAL IS EXTREMELY COMPLEX AND RAISES NEW POLICY ISSUES.

    NEW YORK CITY OIL TYCOON LEON HESS DIED FRIDAY OF AN UNSPECIFIED BLOOD DISEASE. THE SON OF LITHUANIAN IMMIGRANTS, MR. HESS BUILT A ONE-TRUCK OIL DELIVERY SERVICE INTO AMERADA HESS, A MULTI-BILLION-DOLLAR GLOBAL CORPORATION. HOWEVER, FRIENDS SAY MR. HESS'S GREATEST ENTHUSIASM WAS FOR THE NEW YORK JETS FOOTBALL TEAM WHICH HE OWNED FOR MORE THAN 30 YEARS. LEON HESS WAS 85 YEARS OLD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    07-May-99 5:11 PM EDT (2111 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [23] POSSIBLE YUGOSLAV PEACE DEAL? BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/07/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11278
    TELEPHONE=619-3940
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: REPORTS THAT RUSSIA'S SPECIAL BALKAN ENVOY VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN WILL TRAVEL SOON TO BELGRADE TO DISCUSS THURSDAY'S AGREEMENT ON A STRATEGY FOR ENDING THE KOSOVO CONFLICT IS THE TOPIC OF EDITORIALS IN THE AMERICAN PRESS. WE GET A SAMPLING OF THE COMMENTS NOW FROM ____________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENT REACHED IN BONN CALLS FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF YUGOSLAV FORCES FROM KOSOVO AND THE INTRODUCTION OF A U-N-ENDORSED, INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AND SECURITY FORCE. "NEWSDAY" (LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK) CALLS THE STRATEGY A "HOPEFUL SIGN."

    VOICE: THE SEVEN-POINT PLAN ENDORSED BY THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE GROUP OF EIGHT -- THE TOP INDUSTRIAL NATIONS AND RUSSIA -- MERITS CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM. IT DOESN'T QUITE ERASE THE DIFFERENCES ON KOSOVO BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA, WHICH MUST ULTIMATELY SELL THE IDEA TO ITS ALLY, SERBIAN LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, BUT IT'S AN ENCOURAGING STEP FORWARD. /// OPT /// THE PLAN, HOWEVER, LACKS A KEY INGREDIENT: A CLEAR SIGN THAT [MR.] MILOSEVIC WILL AGREE TO ACCEPT ANY OF ITS PROVISIONS. ... STILL, THIS IS ANOTHER HOPEFUL SIGN THAT NATO IS EDGING TOWARD A NEGOTIATED RESOLUTION OF THE KOSOVO CRISIS, EVEN AS IT INTENSIFIES THE BOMBING. [MR.] MILOSEVIC, MEANWHILE, HAS GIVEN OUT AMBIGUOUS SIGNALS THAT HE MAY BE READY TO NEGOTIATE. IT'S TOO EARLY TO CHEER, BUT NOT TOO EARLY TO HOPE. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "USA TODAY," HOWEVER, IS NOT SO HOPEFUL, CALLING IT A "WEAK PEACE." THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THE PLAN IS "DESPERATE AND DANGEROUS."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// WITH THE AIR WAR FAILING TO STOP SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC'S CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC TERROR AND NATO UNWILLING TO USE GROUND TROOPS TO ENFORCE ITS WILL, NEGOTIATIONS ARE INEVITABLE AND THE RUSSIANS CRITICAL TO THEIR SUCCESS. THE FURTHER RUSSIA EDGES TOWARD THE NATO POSITION, THE LESS HOPE [MR.] MILOSEVIC HAS OF HOLDING OUT. /// END OPT /// ... AT THE MOMENT, THE WEST LOOKS MORE EAGER TO END THE EMBARRASSMENT OF ITS OWN INDECISIVE POLICY THAN TO END THE HUMAN TRAGEDY INFLICTED BY THE SERBS.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SEES WHAT IT CALLS THE "ELEMENTS OF A PEACE DEAL" IN THURSDAY'S AGREEMENT.

    VOICE: YESTERDAY'S (THURDAY'S) ACTION CAN TIP THE BALKAN WAR TOWARD RESOLUTION, BUT ONLY IF MR. MILOSEVIC IS READY TO ACCEPT SOME OF THE TERMS THAT HE REJECTED TWO MONTHS AGO, BEFORE THE NATO AIR WAR BEGAN. PRESIDENT CLINTON, FOR HIS PART, WILL HAVE TO INSURE THAT THE DETAILS OF ANY ACCORD HOLD FAST TO THE PRINCIPLES HE AND OTHER NATO LEADERS HAVE ENUNCIATED. /// OPT /// ... THERE IS NOT YET SUFFICIENT REASON TO SUSPEND THE BOMBING, AND THERE WILL NOT BE UNTIL MR. MILOSEVIC CALLS OFF HIS MURDEROUS ASSAULT ON KOSOVO, STARTS WITHDRAWING HIS TROOPS AND COMMITS HIMSELF TO THE BONN PRINCIPLES. ONLY THEN CAN SERIOUS NEGOTIATIONS COMMENCE. BUT FOR NOW, AT LEAST, IT IS A HOPEFUL SIGN THAT RUSSIA HAS RECONSIDERED ITS REFLEXIVE SUPPORT FOR MR. MILOSEVIC AND SEEMS DETERMINED NOT TO LET THE WAR IN KOSOVO SHATTER ITS TIES WITH THE WEST. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" IS SKEPTICAL OF THE PLAN, WRITING "THIS ALL HAS A FAMILIAR RING (I.E. SOUND)."

    VOICE: ONCE AGAIN THE NATO ALLIES ARE PROPOSING TO LET SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OFF THE HOOK. THE MAN [VICE PRESIDENT AL] GORE LIKENED TO [NAZI LEADER ADOLPH] HITLER WILL AGAIN BE SPARED JUST WHEN HE IS IN A DEEP JAM. /// OPT /// HE WILL BE DELIVERED FROM THE HARSH PUNISHMENT OF NATO AND CONSIGNED TO A KINDER, GENTLER MENTOR, THE UNITED NATION NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL..../// END OPT /// ... IF THE INITIATIVE LAUNCHED AT BONN PROCEEDS ALONG PREDICTABLE LINES, THE PROBLEM OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC COULD BE WITH US FOR QUITE AWHILE LONGER AND THE FUTURE OF ALL THOSE TRAGIC AND HOMELESS KOSOVARS WILL REMAIN IN DOUBT.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT.
    NEB/GE/KL
    07-May-99 12:20 PM EDT (1620 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [24] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY GARY EDQUIST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/07/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11277
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M EST ////

    INTRO: NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL WRITERS ARE LOOKING AT WHAT MAY BE THE ELEMENTS OF A KOSOVO PEACE DEAL; THE SEEMINGLY UNENDING WAR IN SUDAN; AND ADVICE FOR AMERICANS TO PREPARE FOR A MAJOR POLITICAL BATTLE OVER GUN CONTROL. NOW, HERE WITH SOME EXCERPTS ON THESE AND OTHER COMMENTARIES FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS IS _________________ AND THE EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "WELCOME TO FORT DIX" BEGINS AN EDITORIAL IN "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER." A FIRST PLANE LOAD OF KOSOVAR ALBANIAN REFUGEES ARRIVED AT FORT DIX, NEW JERSEY THIS WEEK. THE "INQUIRER" SAYS MORE MUST BE DONE FOR OTHER REFUGEES.

    VOICE: THE PERSECUTED REFUGEES NOW BEING SHELTERED AT FORT DIX ARE GETTING WHAT THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS STILL NEAR KOSOVO DESERVE: DECENT LIVING CONDITIONS. THE WORLD COMMUNITY MUST DO MORE TO MAKE SUCH CONDITIONS THE RULE, NOT THE EXCEPTION. BUT WILL ANY OF THE ONE-MILLION DISPLACED KOSOVARS GET WHAT THEY DESERVE IN THE END? ONLY IF NATO GOVERNMENTS HOLD FIRM TO THAT GOAL AS EUROPEAN DIPLOMATS DO THEIR STUFF.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S SPECIAL BALKAN ENVOY, VIKTOR CHERNOMYRDIN, SAYS HE WILL TRAVEL SOON TO BELGRADE TO DISCUSS THURSDAY'S AGREEMENT ON A STRATEGY FOR ENDING THE KOSOVO CONFLICT. THE AGREEMENT CALLS FOR THE WITHDRAWAL OF YUGOSLAV FORCES FROM KOSOVO AND THE INTRODUCTION OF A U-N-ENDORSED, INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AND SECURITY FORCE. "USA TODAY" CALLS THE PLAN, "A WEAK AGREEMENT."

    VOICE: THE NEW KOSOVO PEACEKEEPING PLAN ENDORSED BY WESTERN NATIONS AND RUSSIA THURSDAY CAN BE SUMMED UP IN TWO WORDS: DESPERATE AND DANGEROUS. AND PERHAPS ONE MORE: UNAVOIDABLE, GIVEN NATO'S HALF-HEARTED COMMITMENT TO ITS GOALS.

    TEXT: IN ITS COMMENT ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF A BALKANS PEACE EFFORT, "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" LABELS IT "A GOOD DEAL FOR [YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN] MILOSEVIC."

    VOICE: AMERICANS HAVE BORNE THE HEAVIEST COSTS AND RISKS OF WAGING WAR ON SERBIA FOR ITS MASSIVE ATROCITY AGAINST TWO-MILLION KOSOVARS. NOW, IT APPEARS, THE GERMANS AND RUSSIANS WILL DICTATE THE TERMS OF A PEACE. BILL CLINTON'S GENEROSITY WITH AMERICAN AUTHORITY APPARENTLY KNOWS NO BOUNDS.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" DISAGREES, WRITING THAT IT SEES THE ELEMENTS OF A PEACE DEAL.

    VOICE: MUCH DIPLOMATIC WORK REMAINS, BUT THE FRAMEWORK FOR A REASONABLE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IN KOSOVO MAY BE FALLING INTO PLACE, THANKS IN PART TO RUSSIA'S CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE AS A PEACEMAKER.

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" WRITES ABOUT WHAT IT CALLS "REASONABLE STEPS ON GUNS" FOLLOWING THE KILLINGS OF STUDENTS AND A TEACHER IN LITTLETON, COLORADO.

    VOICE: AMERICANS SHOULD GET READY FOR A MAJOR POLITICAL CONTEST OVER GUN CONTROL. THE LITTLETON, COLORADO SCHOOL KILLINGS HAVE ALTERED THE LANDSCAPE, GIVING BETTER POLITICAL GROUND TO THE USUALLY OUTMANEUVERED ADVOCATES OF STRONGER CONTROLS. ... /// OPT /// THE BATTLE LINES WERE DRAWN BY PRESIDENT CLINTON WHEN HE PROPOSED A NEW SET OF GUN LAWS. MOST OF THESE MAKE EMINENT GOOD SENSE.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" WRITES THAT "FEW PLACES IN THE WORLD, IF ANY, CAN RIVAL SUDAN FOR MISERY." THE "POST" SAYS SUDAN IS ONE OF AFRICA'S MOST WAR-TORN COUNTRIES.

    VOICE: /// OPT /// CIVIL CONFLICT HAS GRIPPED SUDAN FOR MOST OF THE PAST 16 YEARS AND 32 OF THE PAST 43. THE TOLL, FROM WAR AND WAR-INDUCED FAMINE, HAS BEEN STAGGERING: IN A POPULATION OF 30-MILLION, NEARLY 2-MILLION DEAD AND ANOTHER 4-MILLION FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES.... ... THIS UGLY AND COMPLICATED CONFLICT PITS THE KHARTOUM-BASED GOVERNMENT AGAINST REBEL GROUPS IN THE SOUTH. /// END OPT /// IT HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS RACIAL -- ARABS IN THE NORTH AGAINST BLACKS IN THE SOUTH -- OR RELIGIOUS -- MUSLIMS IN THE NORTH AGAINST CHRISTIAN AND ANIMISTS IN THE SOUTH. ... ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CONFLICT THE GREAT MAJORITY OF PEOPLE ARE UNWILLING VICTIMS AND HOSTAGES. THE GREATEST OFFENDER HERE IS THE GOVERNMENT, WHICH BOMBS CIVILIANS, WITHHOLDS FOOD AND COUNTENANCES THE ABDUCTION AND SALE OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN. BUT REBEL FORCES IN THE SOUTH ARE GUILTY OF ATROCITIES TOO.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/GE/KL
    07-May-99 10:24 AM EDT (1424 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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