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Voice of America, 99-06-24

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO / NATO (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)
  • [02] KOSOVO HELICOPTER (L) BY EVE CONANT (ORLANE, KOSOVO)
  • [03] KOSOVO/HOLBROOKE (L-O) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [04] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [05] OCALAN TRIAL (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (MUDANYA, TURKEY)
  • [06] OCALAN TRIAL (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (MUDANYA, TURKEY)
  • [07] OPINION ROUNDUP: KOSOVO / KASHMIR BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] ORLOV YUGO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [09] TURKEY AFTER KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] U-S / WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)
  • [11] UN/ KOSOVO (L-O) BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

  • [01] KOSOVO / NATO (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251051
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: KOSOVAR ALBANIAN LEADERS AND OFFICIALS OF THE SERBIAN COMMUNITY IN KOSOVO MET THURSDAY WITH NATO AND UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS. TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA SAYS THE UNEXPECTED GATHERING LEFT HIM FEELING "VERY HOPEFUL" ABOUT KOSOVO'S FUTURE.

    MR. SOLANA WAS HERE WITH NATO'S MILITARY COMMANDER, WESLEY CLARK. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL CALLED ON ALL KOSOVARS TO SEIZE WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD A DEMOCRATIC AND MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY.

    MR. SOLANA SAYS HE IS NOT ASKING THE PEOPLE OF KOSOVO TO FORGET THE EVENTS OF THE PAST, BUT SAYS HE THINKS HE SHOULD ASK EVERYBODY TO FORGIVE AND TO LOOK TO THE FUTURE. MEANWHILE, GENERAL CLARK IS PUSHING FOR A MORE RAPID DEPLOYMENT OF THE REMAINDER OF NATO FORCES WHICH HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED TO THE KOSOVO PEACEKEEPING MISSION. ABOUT 30-THOUSAND TROOPS ARE NOW IN KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA. FULL DEPLOYMENT WOULD INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 55-THOUSAND TROOPS.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    WE'VE ASKED MEMBER GOVERNMENTS AND CONTRIBUTING PARTNER GOVERNMENTS TO SPEED THE DEPLOYMENT OF THOSE TROOPS TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT POSSIBLE. SEVERAL GOVERNMENTS HAVE CONVEYED TO NATO THAT THEY WILL ADJUST DEPLOYMENT PLANS AND ACCELERATE THE ARRIVAL OF THESE TROOPS.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL CLARK SAYS HE HAS CONFIRMED THAT A DEPLOYMENT OF 55-THOUSAND TROOPS IS THE RIGHT NUMBER NEEDED FOR THE KOSOVO OPERATION. AND HE SAYS THERE ARE NO PLANS TO INCREASE NATO TROOP STRENGTH HERE BEYOND THAT LEVEL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/JWH
    24-Jun-99 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO HELICOPTER (L) BY EVE CONANT (ORLANE, KOSOVO)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251067
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS ESTIMATES UP TO 600-THOUSAND PEOPLE COULD STILL BE DISPLACED INSIDE KOSOVO, MANY OF THEM IN THE MOUNTAINS OR REMOTE VILLAGES, WITH NO ACCESS TO FOOD. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT EVE CONANT REPORTS AID WORKERS ARE BRINGING FOOD TO REFUGEES -- WARNING THEM TO STAY WHERE THEY ARE UNTIL ACCESS ROUTES ARE CLEARED OF LAND MINES. MORE DETAILS FROM THE VILLAGE OF ORLANE, IN KOSOVO.

    TEXT: A SPOKESWOMAN FOR THE U-N WORLD FOOD PROGRAM, ABI SPRING, SAYS ASIDE FROM BRINGING FOOD TO REMOTE VILLAGES, SHE IS BRINGING A MESSAGE.

    /// SPRING ACT ///

    WE'RE BRINGING THEM HOPE, LETTING THEM KNOW [THAT] FOOD IS ON THE WAY. [THE MESSAGE IS:] "STAY IN YOUR VILLAGE. THE ROADS ARE RISKY. THERE ARE LAND MINES. THERE ARE BOOBY TRAPS. THERE'S TRIP WIRES. PLEASE DON'T CREATE MORE OF A PROBLEM, MORE DISPLACED PEOPLE. STAY WHERE YOU ARE. FOOD IS ON THE WAY."

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ONLY WAY TO REACH REMOTE AREAS SUCH AS THE VILLAGE OF ORLANE IS BY HELICOPTER. IT PASSES OVER MOUNTAINS AND OTHER SMALL VILLAGES, GIVING AN AERIAL VIEW OF MASSIVE DESTRUCTION AND HOUSES ON FIRE.

    /// SFX: HELICOPTER CIRCLING OVER ORLANE VILLAGE ///

    THE HELICOPTER CIRCLES OVERHEAD UNTIL LOCALS AND REFUGEES RUN OUT AND POINT TO A SAFE PLACE TO LAND. U-N WORKERS SAY IF THEY SEE FIELDS WITH DEAD CATTLE, OR IF VILLAGERS MOTION THEM AWAY, IT USUALLY MEANS THE FIELD IS MINED, AND THEY CAN NOT LAND. THIS TIME THEY ARE SAFE. A HANDFUL OF VILLAGERS RUNS OUT TO MEET THE HELICOPTER, INCLUDING SEVERAL YOUNG MEN.

    AID WORKERS SAY IN OTHER VILLAGES THEY HAVE RECENTLY VISITED, THEY FOUND ONLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, ALL OF THEM HUNGRY. SOME HAVE BEEN BOILING GRASS FOR TEA, OR MAKING SOUP OUT OF WHATEVER THEY COULD FIND. FIFTY-YEAR-OLD XHEZIDE HASANI RUNS TO THE HELICOPTER TO HELP UNLOAD. SHE SAYS IT WAS TOO DANGEROUS TO LEAVE THE VILLAGE, AND THAT SHE AND HER FAMILY BARELY SURVIVED THE PAST FEW MONTHS.

    /// HASANI ACT IN ALBANIAN, WITH TRANSLATION ///

    (INTERPRETER) SHE SAYS, "WE HAD NOTHING TO EAT." (REPORTER) WHAT WAS SHE EATING? (INTERPRETER) ONLY BREAD AND SALT.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-N WORKERS TELL THE REFUGEES NOT TO LEAVE ORLANE, NO MATTER HOW MUCH THEY WANT TO GET BACK TO THEIR HOMES. THERE ARE STILL TOO MANY LAND MINES, THEY SAY. TO KEEP THEM HERE THEY UNLOAD FOOD -- THIS TIME, OVER 100 BOXES OF HUMANITARIAN RATIONS.

    /// ACT OF WORKER EXPLAINING WHAT FOOD IS BEING DELIVERED, WITH TRANSLATION INTO ALBANIAN (HELICOPTER IN BACKGROUND) ///

    EACH ONE OF THESE IS ONE MEAL. THEN YOU GOT SHORTBREAD, PEANUT BUTTER, PECANS, BISCUITS, FRUIT PASTRY...

    /// END ACT ///

    MORE AND MORE PEOPLE GATHER AROUND THE FOOD. SOME OF THE REFUGEES HERE HAVE BEEN LIVING IN THE MOUNTAINS FOR MONTHS. OTHER ESCAPED TO NEARBY VILLAGES, BUT WERE THEN TRAPPED THERE. AID WORKERS SAY NOW PEOPLE ARE GETTING THE WORD THAT THERE IS FOOD IN THE LARGER TOWNS, AND THEY ARE TRYING TO LEAVE THE REMOTE AREAS BEFORE IT IS SAFE.

    OVER THE PAST TWO WEEKS IN KOSOVO, THERE HAVE ALREADY BEEN DOZENS OF INJURIES AND SEVERAL DEATHS CAUSED BY LAND-MINE EXPLOSIONS. THE MESSAGE TO THE REFUGEES WHO WANT TO GO HOME IS CLEAR: DO NOT GO ANYWHERE YET. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EC/PHW-T/WTW
    24-Jun-99 6:42 PM EDT (2242 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] KOSOVO/HOLBROOKE (L-O) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251052
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NOMINEE FOR U-N AMBASSADOR SAYS THE ADMINISTRATION WILL NOT REPEAT IN KOSOVO THE MISTAKES IT MADE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. CORRESPONDENT DAVID SWAN REPORTS, RICHARD HOLBROOKE APPEARED BEFORE THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE (THURSDAY) IN HIS LAST CONFIRMATION HEARING FOR THE U-N POST.

    TEXT: THE FORMER BALKAN ENVOY DELIVERED A BLUNT ASSESSMENT OF THE SITUATION IN POSTWAR KOSOVO, WHERE NATO TROOPS ARE NOW CHARGED WITH KEEPING PEACE. HE SAYS NO ONE SHOULD EXPECT A RETURN TO NORMAL LIFE ANYTIME SOON.

    // HOLBROOKE ACT //

    THAT ALBANIANS AND SERBS WILL NOT BE ABLE TO LIVE TOGETHER IN PEACE IN KOSOVO UNTIL THEY HAVE HAD A PERIOD OF TIME WITH INTERNATIONAL SECURITY FORCES TO KEEP THEM FROM TEARING EACH OTHER TO PIECES. THE ANIMOSITY IN KOSOVO, THE ETHNIC HATRED, IS REAL, NOT LIKE BOSNIA WHERE IT WAS MANUFACTURED.

    // END ACT //

    WHILE DEFENDING THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD HE MEDIATED IN DAYTON, OHIO, MR. HOLBROOKE ADDS THE AGREEMENT HAD FLAWS. ONE OF THEM, WHICH HE VOWS WILL NOT HAPPEN IN KOSOVO, WAS A DEADLINE ON THE PENTAGON'S PEACEKEEPING DEPLOYMENT -- A LIMIT THAT HAS SINCE BEEN REMOVED.

    // HOLBROOKE ACT //

    I REGRET DEEPLY THAT THE ADMINISTRATION PUT ARBITRARY TIME LIMITS, TWICE, ON OUR DURATION IN BOSNIA. WHICH MAY HAVE INADVERTENTLY ENCOURAGED THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO THINK THEY COULD OUT WAIT US.

    // END ACT //

    MR. HOLBROOKE STANDS BEHIND HIS HISTORY OF NEGOTIATING WITH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, WHICH SOME REPUBLICANS CRITICIZE. HE NOTES THEIR MEETINGS TOOK PLACE BEFORE MR. MILOSEVIC WAS INDICTED AS A WAR CRIMINAL. MR. HOLBROOKE ALSO VOICED DISMAY OVER DIVISIONS IN THE YUGOSLAV OPPOSITION, SAYING IT LACKS A STRONG LEADER LIKE THOSE WHO EMERGED IN THE PHILIPPINES, BURMA, AND ELSEWHERE

    // HOLBROOKE ACT //

    WHERE IS THE CORY AQUINO? WHERE IS THE AUNG SAN SUU KYI? WHERE IS THE DALAI LAMA? WHERE IS THE KIM DAE JUNG FIGURE WHO BECOMES THE OBVIOUS RALLYING POINT FOR THE FORCES OF DEMOCRACY?

    // END ACT //

    THE SENATE NOW SEEMS CERTAIN TO CONFIRM MR. HOLBROOKE TO THE U-N JOB. THE PROCESS WAS DELAYED FOR A YEAR BY INQUIRIES INTO HIS ETHICS. BUT A FINAL, AND POSITIVE, VOTE IS EXPECTED IN THE COMING WEEKS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/RAE
    24-Jun-99 1:27 PM EDT (1727 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251063
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) AS INTEREST RATE CONCERNS CONTINUED. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 10-THOUSAND-534, DOWN 132 POINTS, ABOUT ONE AND ONE QUARTER PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 13-HUNDRED-16, DOWN 17 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX LOST ALMOST TWO PERCENT.

    AS IT HAS BEEN FOR SEVERAL WEEKS, INTEREST RATES WERE THE MAIN FOCUS ON WALL STREET. WORRY THAT THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD -- THE U-S CENTRAL BANK -- WILL BEGIN A SERIES OF INTEREST RATE HIKES NEXT WEEK DRAGGED BOTH THE STOCK AND BOND MARKETS LOWER.

    A NEW SIGN THAT THE U-S ECONOMY MAY BE OVERHEATING CAME IN THE LATEST REPORT ON ORDERS FOR EXPENSIVE MANUFACTURED GOODS. THEY ROSE ONE-POINT-FOUR PERCENT LAST MONTH, WELL BEYOND EXPECTATIONS.

    /// REST OPT ///

    AN ECONOMIST AT THE AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY, DAN LAUTHENBERG, SAYS THE DURABLE GOODS ORDERS WILL CERTAINLY BE SCRUTINIZED BY MEMBERS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD.

    /// LAUTHENBERG ACT ///

    IT IS GROWING AT A PACE WHICH IS QUITE REMARKABLE FOR AN ECONOMY WHICH IS IN ITS NINTH YEAR OF EXPANSION. IT IS SOMETHING THAT THE "FED" IS CLEARLY AWARE OF AND WILL BE WATCHING VERY CLOSELY.

    /// END ACT ///

    EVEN ONE OF WALL STREET'S MOST OPTIMISTIC ANALYSTS CONCEDES THAT INTEREST RATE INCREASES WOULD PROBABLY CAUSE TEMPORARY TURMOIL IN THE FINANCIAL MARKETS. BUT ABBY JOSEPH COHEN OF THE GOLDMAN SACHS INVESTMENT COMPANY SAYS RATE HIKES SHOULD BE VIEWED AS FLU SHOTS, WHICH CAUSE TEMPORARY DISCOMFORT BUT ARE A GOOD IDEA.

    BANK ONE CORPORATION HAS BECOME THE FIRST MAJOR U-S BANK TO ESTABLISH A SEPARATE INTERNET-BASED BANK. IT WILL COMPETE WITH SEVERAL INTERNET-ONLY BANKS WHICH HAVE RECENTLY OPENED FOR BUSINESS.

    THE STOCK OF THE MICRON TECHNOLOGY COMPANY FELL FIVE PERCENT AFTER THE COMPANY REPORTED A QUARTERLY LOSS. WALL STREET ANALYSTS HAD EXPECTED MICRON TO BREAK EVEN OR REPORT A SMALL PROFIT.

    THE GOODYEAR TIRE AND RUBBER COMPANY SAYS ITS SECOND-QUARTER EARNINGS WILL BE AS MUCH AS 50 PERCENT BELOW WALL STREET EXPECTATIONS. GOODYEAR CITES THE SLOW ECONOMIC RECOVERY IN LATIN AMERICA AND PARTS OF EASTERN EUROPE.

    MORGAN STANLEY DEAN WITTER, A LEADING U-S INVESTMENT BANKING AND BROKERAGE FIRM, REPORTED A RECORD QUARTERLY PROFIT OF ONE-POINT-ONE-BILLION DOLLARS, LARGELY FUELED BY A 77 PERCENT JUMP IN STOCK AND BOND TRADING REVENUES.

    THE OGDEN CORPORATION WILL PAY 343 MILLION DOLLARS TO ACQUIRE VOLUME SERVICES OF AMERICA. THE COMBINED COMPANY WILL BE THE LARGEST U-S PROVIDER OF FOOD SERVICES TO SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT FACILITIES.

    THE LARGEST COMPUTER RETAILER IN THE UNITED STATES, COMP-USA, WILL CLOSE UP TO 15 PERCENT OF ITS 211 STORES AND ELIMINATE ABOUT 15-HUNDRED JOBS. ANALYSTS SAY THE COMPANY HAS BEEN HURT BY THE RISE IN DIRECT-FROM-THE-MANUFACTURER AND INTERNET-BASED SALES OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS AND SOFTWARE. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/GM
    24-Jun-99 5:11 PM EDT (2111 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] OCALAN TRIAL (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (MUDANYA, TURKEY)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251037
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE LAWYERS PRESENTED CLOSING ARGUMENTS THURSDAY IN THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN. THE LEADER OF THE P-K-K -- THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY -- IS BEING TRIED BY TURKEY ON CHARGES OF TREASON AND FACES THE DEATH PENALTY, IF CONVICTED. AMBERIN ZAMAN IS IN MUDANYA, THE PORT CITY CLOSEST TO THE PRISON ISLAND, AND HAS MORE ON THE LAST DAY OF ARGUMENTS.

    TEXT: MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS HAVE FACED AN UPHILL STRUGGLE FROM THE VERY START IN DEFENDING THE MAN TURKEY BLAMES FOR THE DEATHS OF MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND OF ITS CITIZENS. IN A 350-PAGE DEFENSE STATEMENT, MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS ACCUSE THE TURKISH AUTHORITIES OF FAILING TO GIVE THE P-K-K LEADER A FREE AND FAIR TRIAL AND HAVE DENOUNCED TURKEY AS AUTHORITARIAN AND MILITARIST IN ITS POLICIES.

    THE LAWYERS REPEATED THEIR ARGUMENTS THURSDAY THAT MR OCALAN'S TRIAL COULD NOT BE TREATED AS A CRIMINAL CASE, AND THAT IS WAS PURELY POLITICAL IN NATURE.

    PROSECUTORS ARE SEEKING THE DEATH SENTENCE FOR MR. OCALAN FOR FOUNDING AND LEADING THE OUTLAWED KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY AND SEEKING TO ESTABLISH AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE.

    SPEAKING IN HIS OWN DEFENSE WEDNESDAY, THE P-K-K LEADER INSISTED THAT HE WAS AGAINST AN INDEPENDENT KURDISTAN. FEDERALISM AND AUTONOMY WERE NOT WHAT HE TERMED "PRACTICAL OBJECTIVES" FOR TURKEY'S ESTIMATED 12-MILLION KURDS EITHER. MR. OCALAN SAID CULTURAL RIGHTS IN THE FORM OF FREEDOM TO BROADCAST, PUBLISH AND EDUCATE IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE WOULD BE ENOUGH TO MEET THE KURDS' DEMANDS FOR GREATER RIGHTS.

    THAT THEME WAS ECHOED BY MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS IN COURT THURSDAY. MUCH OF THEIR CLOSING STATEMENT IS A LONG LIST OF WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS INJUSTICES INFLICTED ON THE KURDISH PEOPLE AND THE LACK OF DEMOCRACY IN TURKEY OVERALL.

    THE P-K-K LEADER HAS WARNED OF FURTHER VIOLENCE, IF HIS LIFE IS NOT SPARED. TURKISH OFFICIALS DESCRIBE THE THREATS AS BLACKMAIL AND SAY THEY WILL NEVER BARGAIN WITH WHAT THEY TERM A TERRORIST.

    PROSECUTORS ARE WIDELY EXPECTED TO REJECT DEFENSE DEMANDS THAT MR. OCALAN'S BE SENTENCED TO LIFE UPON CONVICTION, RATHER THAN BE HANGED. THERE IS STRONG PUBLIC PRESSURE ON THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT TO APPROVE THE DEATH SENTENCE FOR THE REBEL CHIEF. A VERDICT IS EXPECTED BY EARLY NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/KL
    24-Jun-99 6:48 AM EDT (1048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] OCALAN TRIAL (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (MUDANYA, TURKEY)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251037
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE LAWYERS PRESENTED CLOSING ARGUMENTS THURSDAY IN THE TRIAL OF KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN. THE LEADER OF THE P-K-K -- THE KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY -- IS BEING TRIED BY TURKEY ON CHARGES OF TREASON AND FACES THE DEATH PENALTY, IF CONVICTED. AMBERIN ZAMAN IS IN MUDANYA, THE PORT CITY CLOSEST TO THE PRISON ISLAND, AND HAS MORE ON THE LAST DAY OF ARGUMENTS.

    TEXT: MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS HAVE FACED AN UPHILL STRUGGLE FROM THE VERY START IN DEFENDING THE MAN TURKEY BLAMES FOR THE DEATHS OF MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND OF ITS CITIZENS. IN A 350-PAGE DEFENSE STATEMENT, MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS ACCUSE THE TURKISH AUTHORITIES OF FAILING TO GIVE THE P-K-K LEADER A FREE AND FAIR TRIAL AND HAVE DENOUNCED TURKEY AS AUTHORITARIAN AND MILITARIST IN ITS POLICIES.

    THE LAWYERS REPEATED THEIR ARGUMENTS THURSDAY THAT MR OCALAN'S TRIAL COULD NOT BE TREATED AS A CRIMINAL CASE, AND THAT IS WAS PURELY POLITICAL IN NATURE.

    PROSECUTORS ARE SEEKING THE DEATH SENTENCE FOR MR. OCALAN FOR FOUNDING AND LEADING THE OUTLAWED KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY AND SEEKING TO ESTABLISH AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE.

    SPEAKING IN HIS OWN DEFENSE WEDNESDAY, THE P-K-K LEADER INSISTED THAT HE WAS AGAINST AN INDEPENDENT KURDISTAN. FEDERALISM AND AUTONOMY WERE NOT WHAT HE TERMED "PRACTICAL OBJECTIVES" FOR TURKEY'S ESTIMATED 12-MILLION KURDS EITHER. MR. OCALAN SAID CULTURAL RIGHTS IN THE FORM OF FREEDOM TO BROADCAST, PUBLISH AND EDUCATE IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE WOULD BE ENOUGH TO MEET THE KURDS' DEMANDS FOR GREATER RIGHTS.

    THAT THEME WAS ECHOED BY MR. OCALAN'S LAWYERS IN COURT THURSDAY. MUCH OF THEIR CLOSING STATEMENT IS A LONG LIST OF WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS INJUSTICES INFLICTED ON THE KURDISH PEOPLE AND THE LACK OF DEMOCRACY IN TURKEY OVERALL.

    THE P-K-K LEADER HAS WARNED OF FURTHER VIOLENCE, IF HIS LIFE IS NOT SPARED. TURKISH OFFICIALS DESCRIBE THE THREATS AS BLACKMAIL AND SAY THEY WILL NEVER BARGAIN WITH WHAT THEY TERM A TERRORIST.

    PROSECUTORS ARE WIDELY EXPECTED TO REJECT DEFENSE DEMANDS THAT MR. OCALAN'S BE SENTENCED TO LIFE UPON CONVICTION, RATHER THAN BE HANGED. THERE IS STRONG PUBLIC PRESSURE ON THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT TO APPROVE THE DEATH SENTENCE FOR THE REBEL CHIEF. A VERDICT IS EXPECTED BY EARLY NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/KL
    24-Jun-99 6:48 AM EDT (1048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] OPINION ROUNDUP: KOSOVO / KASHMIR BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/24/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11350
    TELEPHONE=619-2702
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T. /////

    INTRO: CONFLICT OVERSEAS, FROM THE CHALLENGE OF ENDING WAR IN KOSOVO TO PREVENTING A NEW ONE BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN, IS THE LEADING SUBJECT OF EDITORIALS IN MANY U-S NEWSPAPERS THURSDAY. HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS __________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE AMERICAN COMMANDER OF NATO IS CALLING FOR NATO COUNTRIES TO HURRY UP AND GET MORE TROOPS TO KOSOVO, WHERE HIS FORCES ARE HAVING TROUBLE KEEPING PEACE BETWEEN RETURNING ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND FLEEING SERBS. THERE HAVE BEEN SCATTERED FIREFIGHTS IN RECENT DAYS. NEWSPAPERS SUCH AS THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ARE WONDERING WHETHER NATO IS BEGINNING TO SEE THAT IS IS ABOUT TO HAVE MORE PROBLEMS KEEPING PEACE THAN WINNING WARS.

    VOICE: SPREAD THIN, NATO'S SOLDIERS HAVE BEEN UNABLE OR IN SOME SECTORS UNWILLING TO HALT THE VIOLENCE BETWEEN ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND SERBS OR TO PREVENT LOOTING AND ARSON. GENERAL WESLEY CLARK, THE AMERICAN SUPREME COMMANDER OF NATO, WANTS THE BUILDUP ACCELERATED. BUT SO FAR, EVEN THE UNITED STATES, PLEDGING SOME SEVEN THOUSAND TROOPS, HAS MANAGED TO SEND IN ONLY HALF THE NUMBERS PROMISED.

    TEXT: AND THE TIMES SAYS THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY COULD BE ALLOWED TO RE-ARM IN THE FUTURE WILL LIKELY MEAN THAT NATO WILL HAVE GREATER PROBLEMS DOWN THE ROAD.

    VOICE: BEFORE THE KOSOVO WAR, THE STATE DEPARTMENT IDENTIFIED SOME ELEMENTS OF THE K-L-A AS TERRORISTS. MANY OF NATO'S EUROPEAN MEMBERS, WITH LONG HISTORICAL MEMORIES NOT SHARED BY AMERICANS, WORRY THAT THE K-L-A, UNLESS IT IS RAPIDLY DISBANDED AND DISARMED, COULD EVOLVE INTO A RADICAL AND DESTABILIZING ISLAMIC MOVEMENT IN THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: WEDNESDAY'S FIREFIGHT BETWEEN AMERICAN MARINES AND SERB GUNMEN IN CIVILIAN CLOTHING HIGHLIGHTS THE IRONY OF HOW DANGEROUS KOSOVO MAY HAVE BECOME EVEN THOUGH NATO HAS ENDED THE WAR. OR, AS THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE WRITES:

    VOICE: NATO AND K-L-A LEADERS REACHED AN AGREEMENT MONDAY FOR THE K-L-A TO GIVE UP HEAVY WEAPONRY WITHIN A MONTH, AND IN RETURN NATO WOULD CONSIDER ALLOWING IT TO FUNCTION AS THE EQUIVALENT OF A NATIONAL GUARD. IT MAY BE DIFFICULT, HOWEVER, FOR EITHER NATO OR THE K-L-A LEADERSHIP TO CONTROL THE REBELS' ROGUE ELEMENTS. IT WILL TAKE A WIDER NATO PRESENCE TO PREVENT THOSE REBELS FROM TRYING TO PARTITION OFF AREAS TO CONTROL.

    TEXT: FOR SIX WEEKS, INDIA AND PAKISTAN HAVE BEEN NEAR WAR AS A RESULT OF THE ON-GOING TUG OF WAR OVER MUSLIM KASHMIR, A DISPUTE THAT HAS BEEN LARGELY OVERSHADOWED BY EVENTS IN THE BALKANS. BUT THE BOSTON GLOBE WRITES THE UNITED STATES SHOULD NOW TURN ITS ATTENTION TO SETTLING THIS DISPUTE BEFORE THE WORLD SEES TENSIONS BETWEEN TWO NUCLEAR-ARMED COUNTRIES ESCALATE FURTHER.

    VOICE: INDIA HAS SHOWN RESTRAINT SO FAR AND U-S POLICY SHOULD BE TO LEAN HARD ON AMERICA'S OLD FRIEND PAKISTAN TO PULL ITS INFILTRATORS BACK AND RESTORE THE STATUS QUO ANTE. INDIA HAS ACTED HARSHLY AGAINST ITS KASHMIRI MUSLIMS, BUT RUBBING SALT IN AN OPEN WOUND SUCH AS KASHMIR IS NO WAY FOR PAKISTAN TO RESOLVE TENSIONS ON THE SUBCONTINENT, MUCH LESS ADVANCE ITS OWN CAUSE.

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF AMERICA'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NJS/KL
    24-Jun-99 12:01 PM EDT (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] ORLOV YUGO (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251043
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A PROMINENT HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST URGES WESTERN COUNTRIES NOT TO WITHHOLD RECONSTRUCTION AID TO WAR-TORN SERBIA, EVEN THOUGH YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC REMAINS IN POWER. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH VOA IN GENEVA, FORMER SOVIET DISSIDENT YURI ORLOV TELLS REPORTER LISA SCHLEIN THAT INNOCENT SERBIAN PEOPLE SHOULD NOT BE PUNISHED FOR THE CRIMES OF THEIR LEADER.

    TEXT: YURI ORLOV SPENT MANY YEARS IN A SOVIET PRISON FOR HIS BELIEFS. HE SAYS PUNISHING PEOPLE FOR THEIR OPINIONS IS NOT ONLY UNDEMOCRATIC -- BUT ENDS UP BEING COUNTERPRODUCTIVE. HE SAYS IT IS "STUPID," TO USE HIS WORD, FOR THE WEST TO WITHHOLD AID FOR REBUILDING TO SERBIA. MR. ORLOV SAYS THIS WILL ONLY HARDEN THE ALREADY HOSTILE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE WEST AND CONTINUE THE CYCLE OF REVENGE WHICH HAS GRIPPED THE BALKAN REGION FOR CENTURIES. THE FORMER SOVIET DISSIDENT SAYS PUNISHING THE SERBS FOR THE ACTIONS OF THEIR LEADER WILL ONLY CREATE A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR FUTURE VIOLENCE.

    ///ORLOV ACT///

    IF YOU WILL HELP THE SERBIAN PEOPLE, IT WILL RECONSTRUCT, IN PART, TRUST TO WESTERN COUNTRIES. OTHERWISE, THERE WILL BE NO TRUST ... LET'S DO POSITIVE THINGS, NOT NEGATIVE THINGS. AND, IT WILL WORK.

    ///END ACT///

    //OPT//

    MR. ORLOV SAYS THE WEST MUST NOT DEMONIZE THE SERBIAN PEOPLE BECAUSE OF THE WAR CRIMES PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MAY HAVE COMMITTED. HE SAYS SERBS MUST BE THOUGHT OF AND TREATED SEPARATELY FROM MR. MILOSEVIC. //END OPT//

    MR. ORLOV BELIEVES WESTERN COUNTRIES SHOULD MAKE A SPECIAL EFFORT TO HELP THE ONE HALF MILLION SERB REFUGEES IN SERBIA. HE SAYS THESE SERBS ARE ALSO VICTIMS OF ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS CARRIED OUT IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA. HE SAYS THEIR NEEDS AND SUFFERING ARE ALMOST TOTALLY IGNORED BY THE REST OF THE WORLD. MR. ORLOV SAYS IT IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL THAT NATO PROTECT THE SERBIAN POPULATION IN KOSOVO. OTHERWISE, HE WARNS, WAR WILL BREAK OUT AGAIN, ONCE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCES LEAVE.

    ///SECOND ORLOV ACT///

    IT IS NOT 100 PERCENT RECIPE FOR FUTURE WAR. BUT, PROBABILITY OF FUTURE WAR WILL BE VERY BIG IF KOSOVO WILL BE CLEANSED OF SERBS.

    ///END ACT///

    YURI ORLOV SAYS AS SOON AS NATO TROOPS LEAVE KOSOVO, THE SERBS WILL SEEK VENGEANCE AND TRY TO RECAPTURE THE PROVINCE. HE SAYS NATO SHOULD CAPITALIZE ON ITS MILITARY SUCCESS AND TRY TO RESTORE A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/PCF
    24-Jun-99 10:46 AM EDT (1446 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TURKEY AFTER KOSOVO BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43719
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS HIS TRIAL RESUMED IN TURKEY, KURDISH REBEL LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN ONCE AGAIN SAID IF HIS LIFE IS SPARED, HE WOULD MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO END THE LONG CONFLICT BETWEEN HIS P-K-K MOVEMENT AND THE TURKISH STATE. WHILE TURKISH PUBLIC OPINION SEEMS FIRMLY IN FAVOR OF THE DEATH SENTENCE, PROTESTS HAVE BEEN RISING IN EUROPE AGAINST THE TRIAL AND THE TREATMENT OF TURKEY'S KURDS. IN WASHINGTON, THE TURKISH AMBASSADOR EXPLAINED HIS COUNTRY'S POSITION ON THE OCALAN TRIAL AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO NATO'S WAR IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: TURKEY WAS A VITAL ALLY IN THE COLD WAR, SAYS MAJOR GENERAL EDWARD ATKESON, A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE INSTITUTE OF LAND WARFARE. TODAY, TURKEY, WHILE LESS CRITICAL, REMAINS A KEY FACTOR IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND BEYOND.

    THAT SAME POINT WAS MADE BY TURKEY'S AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES, BAKI ILKIN, IN A RECENT PRESS BRIEFING (WED., JUNE 23). HE NOTED TURKEY'S ASSISTANCE TO SOME 46-THOUSAND REFUGEES FROM KOSOVO AND ITS MILITARY CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAR:

    /// FIRST ILKIN ACT ///

    WE PARTICIPATED FULLY IN THE NATO OPERATIONS. WE ALLOCATED AIRCRAFT. WE ALLOCATED A FRIGATE WHICH MONITORED THE OIL EMBARGO IN THE ADRIATIC. ALSO AT A LATER STAGE, WHEN WE WERE ASKED BY NATO, WE MADE AVAILABLE CERTAIN FACILITIES IN TURKEY FOR AIR OPERATIONS. I THINK THAT TURKEY'S RECORD, AS FAR AS CONTRIBUTING TO THE NATO OPERATIONS, IS IMPECCABLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    JOHN VOLL, PROFESSOR OF ISLAMIC HISTORY AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, SAYS THERE ARE SOME SERIOUS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEY, BUT THERE IS CLEAR APPRECIATION OF TURKEY'S ROLE IN THE KOSOVO WAR:

    /// FIRST VOLL ACT ///

    I THINK IN GENERAL TERMS, TURKEY STARTS FROM A RESIDUAL VERY POSITIVE IMAGE IN THE UNITED STATES, AND THAT MEANS IN THE POST-KOSOVO ERA, I THINK MOST AMERICANS AND PARTICULARLY AMERICAN POLICY-MAKERS WOULD BE QUITE OPEN TO RECOGNIZING THAT THERE NEEDS TO BE SOME RECOGNITION OF TURKISH INTERESTS IN THE SOUTHERN BALKANS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THOSE INTERESTS ARE IN KEEPING WITH THE KOSOVARS, SAYS GENERAL ATKESON. HE BELIEVES FACTIONS WITHIN TURKEY ARE URGING A PARTITION OF THE PROVINCE THAT WOULD PLACE MOST OF IT IN KOSOVAR HANDS.

    WHILE ENJOYING THE ACCLAIM FOR ITS WARTIME ROLE, TURKEY FACES INCREASING CRITICISM OVER ITS POLICY TOWARD ITS KURDISH MINORITY, WHICH MAY GROW MORE INTENSE WITH THE TRIAL OF P-K-K LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN.

    REFLECTING TURKISH PUBLIC OPINION, AMBASSADOR ILKIN SCOFFED AT MR. OCALAN'S PROMISE TO HELP END THE KURDISH REBELLION IF HE IS NOT SENTENCEED TO DEATH:

    /// SECOND ILKIN ACT ///

    THIS MAN IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LOSS OF 30-THOUSAND LIVES. HE IS BEING TRIED IN AN INDEPENDENT COURT. HE HAS ADMITTED HIS GUILT. SO WHAT DO YOU WANT US TO DO? IT IS LIKE ASKING AN AMERICAN WHETHER YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO COOPERATE WITH [ACCUSED TERRORIST OSAMA] BIN LADEN IF HE REPENTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROFESSOR VOLL SAYS TURKEY SHOULD NOT BE SO QUICK TO DISMISS MR. OCALAN'S OFFER OF HELP. HE BELIEVES IT MIGHT WORK, AS HAS HAPPENED IN THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT:

    /// SECOND VOLL ACT ///

    THE FACT IS THAT YASSER ARAFAT, WHO MOST PEOPLE THOUGHT OF AS BEING UNALTERABLY, RADICALLY OPPOSED TO ISRAEL, SAT DOWN AND SIGNED A PEACE AGREEMENT WITH THEM, AND THE WORLD IS NOW IN THE PROCESS OF ENGAGING IN A RESOLUTION TO WHAT WAS SEEMINGLY AN INTRACTABLE PROBLEM. I THINK THERE IS A DANGER IN REJECTING THE OCALAN INITIATIVE JUST SIMPLY OUT OF HAND WITHOUT AT LEAST GIVING IT A CHANCE TO FLY. I THINK THERE ARE SAFE WAYS OF DOING THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHATEVER THE OUTCOME OF THE TRIAL, GENERAL ATKESON THINKS U-S-TURKISH RELATIONS WILL REMAIN FIRM:

    /// ATKESON ACT ///

    A LOT DEPENDS ON THE POLITICAL WINDS IN WASHINGTON. THIS ADMINISTRATION HAS CHOSEN TO PLACE HUMAN-RIGHTS ISSUES VERY HIGH ON OUR NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OR INTERNATIONAL OBJECTIVES LIST. ANOTHER ADMINISTRATION MAY BE SOMEWHAT MORE ORIENTED TOWARD NATIONAL INTERESTS AND DOWNPLAY THOSE THINGS.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT GENERAL ATKESON SAYS IT IS CRUCIAL FOR THE TURKISH MILITARY TO GIVE WAY TO CIVILIAN AUTHORITY THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY'S POLITICAL AND JUDICIAL STRUCTURE. (SIGNED)
    24-Jun-99 2:04 PM EDT (1804 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-S / WAR CRIMES (S ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251040
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TOP U-S OFFICIAL ON WAR CRIMES IS IN KOSOVO. TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: THE U-S AMBASSADOR AT LARGE FOR WAR CRIMES ISSUES, DAVID SHEFFER, WENT TO DJAKOVICA IN WESTERN KOSOVO TO STRESS THE NEED FOR THE QUICK ESTABLISHMENT OF A CREDIBLE CRIMINAL COURT SYSTEM TO DEAL WITH CRIMES COMMITTED BY SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS.

    MR. SHEFFER SAYS TEAMS FROM ORGANIZATIONS INCLUDING THE U-S FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION ARE USING THE SAME KIND OF DETAILED FORENSIC WORK THEY RELY ON WHILE INVESTIGATING CRIMES IN THEIR HOME COUNTRIES TO SUPPORT INDICTMENTS DRAWN UP BY THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    MR. SHEFFER SAYS THE CONDUCT OF YUGOSLAV ARMED FORCES IS A PERFECT MODEL OF HOW NOT TO CONDUCT WARFARE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/JWH/KL
    24-Jun-99 7:51 AM EDT (1151 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] UN/ KOSOVO (L-O) BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/24/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251059
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT THE UNITED NATIONS TODAY (THURSDAY), THE U-N SPECIAL ENVOY FOR THE BALKANS, CARL BILDT, SAID THE UNITED NATIONS IS STARTING FROM GROUND ZERO IN ITS EFFORTS TO BUILD POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND RESTART THE ECONOMY IN KOSOVO. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. BILDT CAME TO NEW YORK DIRECTLY FROM PRISTINA WHERE HE IS ASSESSING THE UNITED NATIONS' INTERIM ADMINISTRATION MISSION -- THE TEMPORARY CIVILIAN POWER IN KOSOVO.

    MR. BILDT SAYS HIS CONCERNS OVER SECURITY AND POWER VACUUMS IN KOSOVO ARE LESSENING AS MILITARY DEPLOYMENT CONTINUES AND AS THE UNITED NATIONS BEGINS TO ASSUME POLITICAL FUNCTIONS. HIS MAJOR WORRY NOW, MR. BILDT SAYS, IS THE ECONOMIC VOID LEFT BY THE CONFLICT.

    //// BILDT ACT ////

    I THINK ATTENTION WILL FOCUS ON WHAT I CALL THE ECONOMIC VACUUM OF KOSOVO, THE FACT THAT THERE IS VIRTUALLY NO FUNCTIONING ECONOMY. THAT HAS A LOT OF IMPLICATIONS. FOCUS IS NOW VERY MUCH ON REFUGEE RETURN. THAT IS GOING FAST. THERE IS A NEED FOR FOOD. THERE IS A NEED FOR JOBS. THERE IS A NEED FOR SOME SORT OF REGULATION OF ECONOMIC LIFE IN ORDER TO PREVENT DIFFERENT SORTS OF ACTIVITIES FROM DEVELOPING THAT WE ARE NOT PARTICULARLY KEEN ON. SO THE ECONOMIC VACUUM REALLY POINTS AT THE NEED TO ESTABLISH THAT PART OF COOPERATION FAIRLY FAST DURING THE COMING DAYS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BILDT SAYS ONE OF THE CHIEF JOBS OF THE U-N ADMINISTRATION IS TO BRING KOSOVO'S DIFFERENT POLITICAL GROUPS TOGETHER IN A CONSTRUCTIVE DIALOGUE SO THAT THEY CAN BEGIN ORGANIZING BASIC NEEDS SUCH AS GARBAGE COLLECTION AND WATER.

    MR. BILDT SAYS MUCH HAS BEEN LEARNED FROM THE EXPERIENCE IN BOSNIA AND, CONSEQUENTLY, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN GIVEN A FAR WIDER-RANGING MANDATE IN KOSOVO. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BJS/LSF/PT
    24-Jun-99 3:54 PM EDT (1954 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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