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Voice of America, 99-08-04

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KLA WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [02] KOSOVO / THACI (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)
  • [03] CLARK-NATO-U-S BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] NATO SECRETARY GENERAL (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] NATO SECRETARY GENERAL, UPDATE (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)
  • [06] NATO-ROBERTSON (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [07] ROBERTSON - NEWSMAKER (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)
  • [08] BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [09] CYPRUS INVESTORS (L ONLY) BY CHRIS DRAKE (NICOSIA)
  • [10] DRASKOVIC / ITALY (L-ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (ROME)
  • [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [12] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KLA WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252476
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A prosecutor at the U-N War Crimes Tribunal sent a warning (Wednesday) to the Kosovo Liberation Army -- the K-L-A - saying his office is investigating the murder of 14 Serb farmers to see if it is part of a deadly pattern of ethnic cleansing. From the Tribunal at the Hague, Netherlands, we get details from reporter Lauren Comiteau.

    TEXT: When the 14 Serb farmers were found massacred in July, prosecutors at the War Crimes Tribunal warned they would investigate, saying it would be an outrage if some in Kosovo sought revenge while others were in the process of being brought to justice. Those seeking revenge now are Kosovo Albanians, while those who are in the early stages of being brought to justice are the five top Yugoslav officials indicted by the Tribunal -- including Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic. Deputy prosecutor Graham Blewitt took those earlier warnings one step further.

    ///BLEWITT ACT ///

    We are very alert to the possibility that the K- L-A are, in fact, themselves undertaking an Ethnic-cleansing campaign against the Serbs, under the guise of revenge attacks. So we would be alert to that possibility. And if it is an official policy of the K-L-A, then clearly, this is something that we would say falls within our jurisdiction.

    /// END ACT ///

    Mr. Blewitt says prosecutors are looking into it, and he hopes his warning serves as a deterrent against future war crimes in Kosovo. The Tribunal will not give any estimates of casualties in Kosovo beyond the nearly 350-ethnic Albanians it identified in President Milosevic's indictment. But U-N administrator for Kosovo, Bernard Kouchner, puts that figure at about 11-thousand. More indictments against Serbs for those crimes are expected. But the message from prosecutors is a firm reminder of what they have been saying all along: they will investigate and possibly indict anybody -- Serb or Albanian. (Signed)
    NEB/LC/PCF/RAE 04-Aug-1999 10:54 AM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1454 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] KOSOVO / THACI (L ONLY) BY PHILIP SMUCKER (PRISTINA)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252486
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: The rebel-appointed leader of the Kosovo Albanians, Hasim Thaci, says he is not satisfied with the level of security in Kosovo and blames a rising tide of violence on what he calls "anarchists" intent on upsetting his government. Philip Smucker in Pristina reports Mr. Thaci's comments -- in an interview-- come amid continuing charges that his own Kosovo Liberation Army is involved in the killing of Serbs.

    TEXT: The Kosovo Albanian leader, Hasim Thaci, says he is disturbed that persons he calls "anarchists" are trying to use an institutional vacuum in Kosovo to disrupt the peace. Human rights investigators in Kosovo have blamed elements of Mr. Thaci's Kosovo Liberation Army (K-L-A) for a spate of revenge attacks against some of the 30- thousand Serbs remaining in the province. But the K-L-A has formally denied the charges. And Mr. Thaci blames what he calls "rogue" elements for the attacks. Western officials -- including the chief of the United Nations mission in Kosovo -- have traveled with Mr. Thaci to the scene of some of the crimes against Serbs. In some cases, Albanian witnesses have given evidence to reporters and NATO soldiers implicating young Albanian men in the killing of Serbs and looting of their homes. Prosecutors at the War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague on Wednesday said they are investigating the killing of Serbs in Kosovo to see if it is part of a pattern of ethnic cleansing by the K-L-A. Human Rights Watch -- a U-S based rights organization released a report this week that also blamed NATO peacekeepers for not responding adequately to the attacks. More than 100 Serb civilians have been murdered since the middle of June. The Human Rights Watch report said NATO's own concern for protecting its forces and its lack of experience in civil policing had led to the breakdown of law and order in Kosovo. A United Nations police force of three-thousand officers still has fewer than 500 in the province, with many of them still in training. Mr. Thaci says the difficult security situation is predictable after a bloody war, but he says he is confident the rule of democracy and law will soon come to Kosovo. He suggested he is preparing to run for the post of Prime Minister in internationally-sponsored elections, as soon as they are organized. He cited both his own education in international affairs and his experience in the war as important qualifications for his leadership. Mr. Thaci says some allies of the K-L-A -- including the United States -- had given solid guarantees that Kosovo would be able to have a referendum on independence after a three-year interim period. The United Nations Security Council mandate for Kosovo makes no reference to such a vote. (Signed) NEB/PS/JWH/gm 04-Aug-1999 13:20 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1720 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CLARK-NATO-U-S BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43999
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Near the end of last month, the Pentagon forced U-S General Wesley Clark to retire from his post as NATO supreme allied commander in Europe in April of next year, three months before the end of his official tour of duty. In this report from Washington, National Security Correspondent Andre de Nesnera looks at General Clark's contributions in the Kosovo air campaign and discusses some of the reasons why the Pentagon may have decided to remove him from his senior NATO post.

    TEXT: General Wesley Clark has been NATO's Supreme Allied Commander in Europe since July 1997. In that capacity, he was responsible for conducting the western alliance's successful 78-day air campaign against Serb forces in Kosovo - NATO's only offensive military endeavor in its 50-year history. Retired Colonel David Hackworth - a decorated U-S veteran from the Korean and Vietnam wars - says General Clark has not received the necessary accolades for his Kosovo campaign.

    /// HACKWORTH ACT ///

    He is a winner. He is the first General in U-S military history who fought a war, sustained - as we know - no friendly casualties and at the end of the war didn't get a bunch of medals, didn't get a victory parade down (New York's) Fifth Avenue and ended up getting the sack. (getting fired)

    /// END ACT ///

    Colonel Hackworth - now a military analyst - is referring to U-S Defense Secretary William Cohen's decision to replace General Clark as Supreme NATO Commander in April of next year - three months before his three-year term expires. Colonel Hackworth says Mr. Cohen's decision to replace General Clark can only be interpreted as a slap at him.

    /// SECOND HACKWORTH ACT ///

    From my experience, looking over the past NATO Commanders, the average time that people like (General) Bernard Rogers, General (Lyman) Lemnitzer, General (Lauris) Norstad, was a five- year tour of duty - General (Alexander) Haig. So it wasn't - as it is being put out now by the Pentagon - (seen) as a three-year tour. This guy envisaged staying there until he could move back to the U-S-A and become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    /// END ACT ///

    Many analysts and military experts agree with Colonel Hackworth's assessment. And the question they are asking is why was General Clark fired? One interpretation is that General Clark advocated a much more vigorous military campaign against Serb forces in Kosovo including the introduction of ground forces. Retired Colonel Dan Smith - a West Point classmate of General Clark - says the NATO Commander believes the only way you can achieve success militarily, is to have troops on the ground.

    /// CLARK ACT ///

    He is of the school which in the United States is generally attributed to General Colin Powell: if you are going to fight, you go in with both feet and you go in fast and you go in hard with overwhelming force - and I think that was what Wes was trying to push NATO into.

    /// END ACT ///

    During the 11-week air campaign, there were signs of friction between General Clark and senior Pentagon officials - especially over the use of ground forces. That option was essentially rejected by the Clinton administration, putting General Clark in direct opposition to current US policy. Paul Beaver - senior analyst with the British publication "Jane's Defense Weekly" - says General Clark disagreed with another senior NATO officer about the use of ground troops in the Kosovo campaign.

    /// BEAVER ACT ///

    Certainly he wanted to be more robust in the Kosovo landing operation. He wanted to go and confront the Russians at Pristina airfield. And that was actually a matter of some debate between him and the ground force commander (British General) Sir Mike Jackson in which Sir Mike Jackson won, because in his words it would have started World War Three and we weren't quite ready for that.

    /// END ACT ///

    Sources in the U-S and British military say the confrontation between General Clark and British General Mike Jackson happened June 24th - 12 days after Russian troops occupied Kosovo's Pristina airfield, surprising NATO officials. According to the sources, British Prime Minister Tony Blair backed General Jackson, while General Clark did not receive the support from senior Pentagon and White House officials another sign of their eroding confidence in the senior NATO Commander. But U-S officials have dismissed any notion that disagreements with General Clark led to the decision to retire him early. Analysts say another explanation for General Clark's early departure was US Defense Secretary Cohen's desire to place a trusted colleague - Air Force General Joseph Ralston, vice-chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff - into a senior NATO post. Retired Colonel Dan Smith (from the Washington-based Center for Defense Intelligence), says General Ralston could not be re-appointed as vice-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff since he has held that post for two consecutive terms. So the Pentagon had to find him another posting to keep him on active duty - and Colonel Smith says General Clark's European Command was the logical choice.

    /// SECOND SMITH ACT //

    The European Command, which has been (reserved for the) army for many, many, many years. I think you have to go back to the early 1950's to find an Air Force officer (there) (General Lauris Norstad, 56-62). But that is one in which an Air Force officer could logically serve in and I think it came to - well, if we are going to keep General Ralston, the only place he could go to was the European Command - and that means that General Clark was going to have to leave three months before his basic term is up. Of course most EUCOM Commanders are extended into their fourth year. So it looks a little strange.

    /// END ACT ///

    In the final analysis, according to sources, General Clark's premature departure from his senior NATO post was due to a combination of factors: first, the Pentagon's displeasure with his - as one analyst said more bellicose views. And the need to find a suitable position for a well-liked, senior US officer who otherwise would have to leave active duty. So as one analyst put it: "General Clark had to go."(Signed)
    NEB/ADEN/KL 04-Aug-1999 14:37 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1837 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] NATO SECRETARY GENERAL (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252468
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO ambassadors are soon expected to approve the nomination of Britain's Defense Secretary, George Robertson, to succeed Javier Solana as NATO Secretary General. Ron Pemstein reports from Brussels. Text: Just as the military commander of NATO has traditionally been an American, the Secretary General of NATO has traditionally been a European. The civilian leader of NATO has sometimes come from Southern Europe -- like the current secretary general, Spain's Javier Solana. But more often, they have been Northern Europeans. In 1952,the North Atlantic Council decided its military treaty needed regular political consultations. A former British army officer, Lord Ismay, was appointed NATO'S first Secretary General. In his memoirs, Lord Ismay recalled that he asked Prime Minister Winston Churchill if it was his duty to accept the job. It is your duty to accept, Pug -- (ed's: a nickname) was the Prime Minister's immediate reply. Another British Prime Minister may have had a similar conversation 47-years later with Defense Secretary George Robertson. When Germany's Defense Minister declined the position, there were no obvious successors to Mr. Solana. The current Secretary General's term runs out at the end of the year and Mr. Solana has already accepted a position as the European Union's coordinator of Foreign and Defense policies. Mr. Robertson is well known at NATO for his passionate denunciations of Serbian ethnic cleansing during the war in Kosovo. He is also popular in France because he favors development of the separate European defense identity in future non-NATO military actions when the United States does not want to become involved. His nomination as NATO's 10th Secretary General was delayed for a few days, but not because there are other candidates or because of any opposition to Mr. Robertson personally. Prime Minister Tony Blair cleared the nomination with his fellow leaders from the United States, Germany, Italy, Spain, and France when he met them last week in Sarajevo. But the British leader did not bother to consult with NATO's smaller countries, and for that reason some withheld their consensus when NATO ambassadors met informally on the matter Monday.

    // OPT //

    The Netherlands said it needed to have a cabinet meeting to discuss Mr. Robertson's nomination. Belgium and Luxembourg appeared more insulted about their lack of consultation. // END OPT // As NATO's civilian leader, Mr. Robertson will be the alliance's principal spokesman to the world, as well as the person who leads the effort among the 19-member nations to build consensus. Speaking just before his nomination, Mr. Robertson said the big challenge is to strengthen European participation within NATO, and he sees his pending job as NATO Secretary General as one of building a safer world. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RDP/PCF/RAE 04-Aug-1999 07:51 AM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1151 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] NATO SECRETARY GENERAL, UPDATE (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252478
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO Ambassadors have approved the nomination of Britain's Defense Secretary, George Robertson, as the successor to Javier Solana as Secretary General. Correspondent Ron Pemstein reports from Brussels on the job of NATO's Secretary General. Text: Just as the military commander of NATO has always been an American, the Secretary General of NATO has traditionally been a European. The civilian leader of NATO has sometimes come from Southern Europe, like the current Secretary General, Spain's Javier Solana. More often, they have been Northern Europeans. The current Secretary General's term runs out at the end of the year, and Mr. Solana has already accepted a new position as the European Union's coordinator of Foreign and Defense policies. No date has been set for the transition from Mr. Solana to Mr. Robertson, but it is widely expected to be in October. In a written statement, Mr. Solana says Mr. Robertson showed firm and principled leadership during the Kosovo crisis, and Mr. Solana looks forward to working with him in his new capacity at the European Union. Mr. Robertson is well known at NATO for his passionate denunciations of Serbian ethnic cleansing during the conflict in Kosovo. He is also popular in France because he favors development of the separate European defense identity in future non-NATO military actions when the United States does not want to become involved. His nomination as NATO's 10th Secretary General was delayed for two days, but not because there were other candidates or because of any opposition to Mr. Robertson personally. Prime Minister Tony Blair cleared the nomination with his fellow leaders from the United States, Germany, Italy, Spain, and France when he met them recently in Sarajevo. The British Prime minister did not bother to consult with NATO's smaller countries and for that reason some withheld their consensus when NATO ambassadors met informally Monday. When they met again (Wednesday), approval of Mr. Robertson's nomination was unanimous As NATO's civilian leader, Mr. Robertson will be the alliance's principal spokesman to the world as well as the person who leads the effort to build consensus among the 19-members. (Signed)
    NEB/RP/GE/RAE 04-Aug-1999 11:16 AM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] NATO-ROBERTSON (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252483
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: British Defense Secretary George Robertson has been named NATO's 10th Secretary General. In London, Correspondent Laurie Kassman reports NATO's new top official says he relishes the challenge.

    TEXT: Defense Secretary Robertson says he is ready to take on what he calls the biggest and toughest jobs in the world. The Scottish politician promises to apply a good dose of pragmatism and plain common sense.

    /// ROBERTSON ACT ///

    My experience as Britain's defense secretary has perhaps suited me for some of the potential and challenges for the future, and the combination of straight talking and plain common sense and a dogged determination to get to where I think is the right place to go perhaps was an attraction.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Robertson gained international prominence earlier this year during the Kosovo crisis for his robust defense of NATO's actions and for his tough stand against Belgrade's campaign of ethnic cleansing. He says there are lessons to be learned from NATO's mission in Kosovo, which he says he intends to apply when he takes up the post of Secretary General later in the year.

    ///SECOND ROBERTSON ACT///

    One of the clear lessons of the Kosovo conflict is the need for Europe to enhance its military capabilities.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Robertson has spearheaded an overhaul of Britain's armed forces to make it more adaptable for NATO's new role as a rapid-reaction force and peacekeeper.

    ///THIRD ROBERTSON ACT///

    The solidarity of all 19-(NATO-member) nations and the strength of our shared commitment to the peace and security of Europe is central to the success of the alliance. My job now is to take the 20th century's most successful security alliance and fit it for the turbulence and troubles of the century ahead of us.

    ///END ACT///

    He says repairing relations with Russia and Ukraine is also a top priority. So is the expansion of NATO membership. But despite the move eastward in membership growth, incoming NATO Secretary General George Robertson says the transatlantic link remains as relevant as ever. (Signed)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/RAE 04-Aug-1999 12:41 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1641 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] ROBERTSON - NEWSMAKER (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (LONDON)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252475
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: British Defense Secretary George Robertson has been named NATO's tenth Secretary General. London Correspondent Laurie Kassman profiles the Scottish politician who asserted Britain's role as a top NATO military power during the Kosovo crisis.

    TEXT: When Defense Secretary George Robertson conducted his ministry's briefings during the Kosovo crisis, he was unrelenting in his defense of NATO's air strikes to stop Belgrade's repression in Kosovo province.

    ///ROBERTSON ACT///

    It was not NATO air strikes on military targets which started the assault on the Albanian population, but only NATO air strikes will stop it.

    ///END ACT///

    /// OPT ///

    Mr Robertson also did not mince words when describing Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic and his campaign against Kosovo's ethnic Albanians.

    ///SECOND ROBERTSON ACT ///OPT ACT///

    These are the very same tactics that (Mr.) Milosevic and his killing machine used in Bosnia because this man is a serial ethnic cleanser.

    //END ACT//////END OPT///

    Mr Robertson's tough stand on Kosovo and his quick dispatch of British troops and British commanders to the area helped re-assert Britain's role as a lead NATO military power. The 53-year-old socialist politician from Scotland has served 20 years in Britain's parliament and the last two as Britain's top defense official. He long has promoted a strong European defense identity. He also advocates revamping (renovating) European forces to make them more adaptable as rapid-reaction forces and peacekeepers. Britain's chief of defense staff, General Charles Guthrie, describes Mr Robertson as an able politician and statesman to fill NATO's top post.

    ///GUTHRIE ACT//

    He has masterminded the strategic defense review and been involved in operations in the Middle East and Kosovo so he does know a lot about it.

    ///END ACT///

    A former NATO Secretary General, Lord Carrington, says Mr Robertson can also bridge the gap between Washington and its European partners.

    ///CARRINGTON ACT///

    I think that George Robertson is not only acceptable but also much liked by the Americans, but he's also acceptable and very much liked by the Europeans.

    ///END ACT///

    As NATO's tenth Secretary General, Mr Robertson faces some daunting challenges that include repairing relations with Moscow, expanding NATO's European pillar while strengthening its transatlantic link. (Signed)
    NEB/LMK/GE/KL 04-Aug-1999 10:30 AM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1430 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] BOSNIA WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252489
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A former para-military leader says he is not guilty of raping and enslaving Muslim women in the southern Bosnian town of Foca. Lauren Comiteau reports Radomir Kovac was arrested by NATO peacekeepers Monday and could stand trial as early as January at the Yugoslav War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague.

    TEXT: The initial appearance of Radomir Kovac was swift. Two "not guilty" pleas to charges of crimes against humanity for rape and enslavement. The 38-year-old is one of eight men charged in the Foca indictment, named for the town that was overrun by Bosnian Serbs in 1992. Prosecutors say it was there that Muslim women and girls were gang raped, tortured, and kept as slaves in make-shift brothels by Serb police and paramilitaries. They say Mr. Kovac held a 15-year old girl prisoner in his own apartment for months, frequently raping her before selling her to soldiers. Prosecutors say what happened in Foca was not unique. But was just one gruesome example of what was happening all over Bosnia at the time, namely rape as a weapon of war. Deputy prosecutor Graham Bluett explains.

    ///ACT BLUETT///

    It (rape) was used as a means to terrorize the local population. It was made to degrade and to humiliate. And it was just part of the overall campaign of persecution against the population.

    ///END ACT///

    Of the eight men indicted for the crimes in Foca, one was killed earlier this year by NATO troops who were trying to arrest him. Another is already in custody, making a joint trial likely. Judge Florence Mumba said she hopes the trial can begin as early as January, which is quick by Tribunal standards. Mr. Kovac's defense lawyer said that was welcome news. He said his client is calm and ready to fight the charges in court. (Signed)
    NEB/LC/GE/RAE 04-Aug-1999 13:50 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1750 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] CYPRUS INVESTORS (L ONLY) BY CHRIS DRAKE (NICOSIA)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252484
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Stock-market fever is gripping the Mediterranean island of Cyprus as Greek Cypriots rush to buy shares. Gains since the beginning of the year top 200-percent, giving Cyprus the unexpected title of the world's most meteoric market. To cope with the growing volume of administrative work, the stock exchange will close for a few days next week to give brokers a chance to catch up. Chris Drake reports from the Cyprus capital, Nicosia.

    TEXT: It is not just the financial wizards who are involved. The fast-climbing share values have resulted in families mortgaging homes, young secretaries taking out bank loans and shepherds selling goats to raise enough cash to join in too. Warnings that they could lose vast sums of money are being largely ignored, and the stock market is the main talking point in a community more accustomed to discussing the price of potatoes than the meaning of a blue-chip. Gambling is illegal in Cyprus, but the Greek Cypriots love it nevertheless and spend freely on weekly lotteries. The stock market is just another chance to make easy money. One local television station broadcasts the daily 90-minute trading sessions live - a move which is attracting far more viewers than the soap operas they replace. Behind the interest in the stock market is a re-newed sense of confidence in the island's future. There is still no sign of a settlement with the Turkish Cypriots in the north -- which 30-thousand Turkish troops have occupied since 1974. But the Greek Cypriot application to join the European Union is on course, the economy is in good shape, and there is a deep sense of relief at the decision earlier this year not to buy a Russian missile system. Financial experts insist most share prices have lost touch with company values. And the government-run Central Bank has asked commercial banks to tighten credit facilities for market speculators and gamblers. That has had little impact, and bankers say only a sudden drop in share prices is likely to cure the stock market fever. (Signed)
    NEB/CD/JWH/RAE 04-Aug-1999 12:54 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1654 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] DRASKOVIC / ITALY (L-ONLY) BY SABINA CASTELFRANCO (ROME)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252485
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: The president of the Serbian Renewal Movement, Vuk Draskovic, presented his program for democratic change in Serbia (Wednesday) to Italy's foreign minister. He also urged the international community to help reconstruction efforts in Serbia. Sabina Castelfranco has this report from Rome.

    TEXT: The leader of one of Serbia's major opposition parties, Vuk Draskovic, outlined the steps that, in his view, should be taken to move his country towards pluralism and democracy. He said -- first, those who are in power now, including President Slobodan Milosevic, must understand the international community no longer trusts them and therefore should step aside.

    /// ACT DRASKOVIC ///

    The country is isolated because they are isolated. They must be on the side of the Serbian state. It means they must go. They must realize they must go to the political past and open the door to the future of Serbia.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Draskovic said a transitional democratic government needs to be created for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia. He added that the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic should be nominated by the ruling party of Montenegro, and the government should be composed of experts. Mr. Draskovic noted that this government would have three main objectives, including opening a dialogue with the European Union and the United States. He added that the other goals would be resolving -- with the help of the international community -- the situation of Serbs in Kosovo, and also preparing conditions for holding democratic elections in Serbia. In his discussions with Italian Foreign Minister Lamberto Dini, Mr. Draskovic also spoke about what he called the current tragic and shameful position of Serbs in Kosovo. He said there is an exodus of Serbs from the province.

    ///ACT DRASKOVIC///

    Albanian terrorists are not disarmed, and we had a few-weeks ago almost 300-thousand Serbs in Kosovo. Now there are no more than 80-thousand Serbs in Kosovo and they are running away. Everyday, everyday there are victims. They are victims without protection.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Draskovic also painted a bleak picture of the economic situation in Serbia. He made a strong plea for international support, saying the country faces an unemployment rate of more than 50-percent, while four- million citizens are in need of humanitarian aid. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SC/GE/RAE 04-Aug-1999 13:25 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1725 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252493
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Stock prices in the United States were down today (Wednesday) as relentless selling of Internet- related stocks continued. V-O-A Business Correspondent Breck Ardery reports from New York.

    TEXT: The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10 thousand-674, down two points. The Standard and Poor's 500 Index closed at 13-hundred-five, down 17 points. The NASDAQ index lost almost two percent. Since July 16th, the NASDAQ Index has lost 11 percent of its value. Heavy selling of many technology stocks continued and pressure on many internet-related issues was intense. Many analysts say they do not expect to see any quick rebound in the Internet sector, which features a large number of companies with high stock valuations and no profits. The Industrial Average would have fallen much more than it did were it not for the 25-percent rise in the stock of Union Carbide, a component of the 30-stock index. The Dow Chemical Company plans to acquire Union Carbide in a deal worth 11-point-six-billion dollars. The combined firm would be the world's second-largest chemical company, after DuPont.

    /// REST OPT ///

    U-S factory orders rose by seven-tenths of one percent in June, well above expectations. Heavy demand for autos and electronic equipment fueled the increase. Timothy Rogers of the Thompson Investment Company says the surge in factory orders may give the Federal Reserve Board, the U-S central bank, another reason to raise interest rates in an effort to head-off inflation.

    /// ROGERS ACT ///

    Manufacturing is recovering and it has been one of the drags on the economy in the past few years. So the economy is burning on all engines right now, and the "fed" will certainly take that into consideration.

    /// END ACT ///

    Oil prices rose about 50-cents a barrel as a result of a decision by Russia to curtail exports of refined products and a report that gasoline stockpiles in the United States are falling. U-S Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers says the government is considering a plan to buy-back billions of dollars of its own debt. The move would be unprecedented in the United States. Analysts say it could have the effect of lowering long-term interest rates by making more investment funds available for non-government debt. U-S Tobacco companies have filed a formal request that the Florida judge who is presiding over a smoking liability suit remove himself from the case. The companies claim that Judge Robert Kaye, a former smoker, is himself suffering from a smoking-related illness and therefore would not be objective in supervising damage awards.(signed) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/gm 04-Aug-1999 17:00 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 2100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [12] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/4/1999
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11408
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: President Clinton's character and a variety of issues concerning China dominate the editorial columns of U-S papers this Wednesday. Other topics include: the deteriorating situation in Kosovo province; congressional opposition to a test ban treaty; and the latest controversy over pesticides. Now, here is ___________ with some excerpts and a closer look in today's Editorial Digest.

    TEXT: President Clinton's sexual indiscretions are back in the news after Hillary Rodham Clinton gave a frank magazine interview claiming her husband's character weaknesses were caused by a troubled childhood. The latest revelations cause the "Arkansas Democrat-Gazette" to exclaim:

    VOICE: . She said . her husband was "barely four when he was scarred by abuse. There was a terrible conflict between his mother and grandmother.' What really overwhelms, what fatigues, what causes even the casual observer and consistent commentator to throw up his arms in surrender at this point is .the sense that this time we've gone too far. .There is something about this particular revelation that goes beyond the .accepted bounds of bad taste among our fashion-setters ... Mrs. Clinton just had to talk about her husband's emotionally abused childhood. Fine. In that case, why did not she go to her analyst and talk about it there? Why did she have to lay out this theory in public? . It is not our business. It is not anybody's business.

    TEXT: In Oklahoma, "The Tulsa World" is also surprised at the comments, but feels some sympathy for Mr. Clinton.

    VOICE: As much fun as it is for everyone to giggle at President Bill's misadventures with women and laugh off . claims that all of his episodes grow out of a troubled childhood, who can deny that the way we are treated as very young children does indeed have a lifelong effect? Scientists are now in the process of verifying .[that] What happens to children as their brains and emotional wiring are being developed probably determines the entire course of their lives. Text: In North Dakota, "The Grand Forks Herald" points out that only some of the president's actions can be so easily apologized away.

    VOICE: . Bill Clinton did not get impeached by the House and stand trial in the Senate because he had an affair. He put himself in the dock by committing perjury and obstructing justice. That is crucial to remember.

    TEXT: Turning to Asia, Chinese topics are the popular foreign affairs subject of the day. China's actions toward Taiwan are worrying "The Washington Post" which cites a series of recent provocative acts including the firing of a new ballistic missile, and jet fighter flights over the Taiwan strait, before noting:

    VOICE: The Clinton administration response to all this has been, for the most part, to chide Taiwan and make soothing noises toward China. . The danger . is that China, rather than Taiwan, will misjudge U-S steadfastness. In the long run, there will be more chance of deterring war, securing peace and even fostering good relations with China if the United States opts for clarity, not ambiguity, in showing support for its true friends in the region.

    TEXT: Considerably closer to the action, Hawaii's "Honolulu Star-Bulletin" adds:

    VOICE: In the wake of Taiwan President Lee Teng-hui's redefinition of his government's status in its dealings with Beijing as `state to state,' the U-S commitment to defend Taiwan has been questioned. .unidentified Clinton administration officials were quoted as warning Taiwan that the United States is not committed by treaty to its defense. ..[However] The Taiwan Relations Act of 1979 plainly spells out a U-S determination that the future of Taiwan must be decided `by [peaceful means' and that the use of other means would be `of grave concern' to the United States. . Our view: The U-S is committed by the . Act to the island's defense.

    TEXT: "The Detroit News" says the U-S policy toward China appears to be sending mixed messages, which the paper calls dangerous.

    VOICE: China test-fired a long-range missile earlier this week -- meting a decisive blow to the Clinton administration's strategy of `protecting' Taiwan by appeasing Beijing. Indeed, coming in the wake of Washinton's decisions to suspend arms sales to Taiwan and cancel a high-level visit to the island, China's move is a direct slap in Washington's face. . the administration now proclaims that it will take `very seriously' any attempt by China to use force against Taiwan. . by harboring a contradictory China policy, the Clinton administration is inviting a dangerous miscalculation by Beijing.

    TEXT: We turn to the Yugoslavian province of Kosovo, where ethnic strife, now mainly against Serbians, in reprisal for the ethnic cleansing of Albanians during the war, is causing a new exodus of refugees. Bill Maxwell in the "St. Petersburg Times" has another concern, the apparent killing campaign against the province's' leading intellectuals, mainly in the city of Djakovica, which the United Nations calls a "world heritage' site.

    VOICE: As residents bemoan the physical devastation of NATO's 78-day bombing campaign that enveloped their beautiful town, they are worrying about an even more serious crisis: the disappearance of `11-hundred of their men -- many of them the best minds in the nation. . The world is learning that [Mr.] Milosevic had a dark blueprint for Kosovo, a long-term scheme to destroy any chance of a viable future for ethnic Albanians. [Mr.] Milosevic knows that the future of any nation depends on those who impart skills and knowledge. `It appears that intellects were targeted in the towns, but we do not have a full picture' Amnesty International researcher Paul Miller . told the "Chronicle [of Higher Education".] . A major reason that [Mr.] Milosevic targeted Djakovica is that until this week, it was home to a thriving underground university, which opened in 1991, after all ethnic-Albanian professors were fired from the University of Pristina.

    TEXT: A very different view comes from "The Arkansas Democrat Gazette", which talks of some good - - not - bad news from Kosovo.

    VOICE: The Kosovars' guerrilla army is actually laying down its arms just as it promised, relying on NATO's word and guns to protect the security of all in Kosovo, whether Albanians or Serb or Gypsy or, God willing, just plain human beings. Not only is the guerrillas' political leader, Hasim Thraci, controlling his troops but his more moderate rival, Ibrahim Rugova, has returned to Kosovo. . Meanwhile, back in Serbia, the natives grow restive under their dictator's disastrous rule, and may yet get open and fair elections themselves.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: On Long Island, New York's "Newsday" is upset at the way the Clinton administration sacked General Wesley Clark, who oversaw the winning war for Kosovo.

    VOICE: [General] Clark was imaginative and aggressive and remarkably successful. For that he got a slap in the face. What sort of signal does that send future military leaders?

    /// END OPTS ///

    TEXT: As regards the faltering peace process in Northern Ireland, "The Sun" in Baltimore notes with sadness:

    VOICE: Two recent crimes have raised the specter of resumed I-R-A terrorism. They can only strengthen the resolve of Unionist Party leader, David Trimble, to deny Sinn Fein seats in a Northern Ireland executive Cabinet until the I-R-A has begun disarmament. . No one should expect Mr. Trimble to take Sinn Fein into partnership before a start of genuine `decommissioning' of arms. .Peace in Northern Ireland also requires an end to terrorism over the minority community by its self-appointed soldiers. American friends of the Irish peace process should be trying to persuade Sinn Fein of both these inescapable truths.

    TEXT: Today's "Dallas Morning News" is upset at the Senate inaction on the nuclear-test-ban treaty awaiting ratification, because of one senator's obstruction.

    VOICE: .one obstinate lawmaker, Jesse Helms, blocks a Senate vote on a treaty that would make the world safer by forever banning nuclear-arms tests. Without Senate ratification, the treaty takes effect in no country. One person should not be able to wield such injurious power, [including] . the powerful committee chairman who refuses to allow even a public hearing on the proposed nuclear test ban. . If Mr. Helms continues to refuse to allow hearings and a vote in his Foreign Relations Committee, then Majority Leader Trent Lott should bypass the committee and present the treaty for a vote by the full Senate. Text: And lastly, a heated debate over the latest Environmental Protection Agency move to ban two common farm pesticides. Says the "Chicago Tribune":

    VOICE: Despite its reputation for hard-driving zealotry, the U-S Environmental Protection Agency works like a car with just two gears -- `Dead Slow' and `Park.' On Tuesday, the E-P-A belatedly banned some uses of two types of organophosphates, a large and notorious family of chemicals that kill insects by disrupting their nervous systems -- and which have long been known to have the same effect on humans. .If there is any comfort at all in the E-P-A's regulatory torpor, it is that yesterday's belated action was the first specifically directed to protect children's health.

    TEXT: In Texas, "The Houston Chronicle" concurs:

    VOICE: . banning potentially dangerous agricultural chemicals -- even if only two out of hundreds -- is a small step in the right direction.

    TEXT: That concludes this sampling of editorial comment from Wednesday's U-S press.
    NEB/ANG/RAE 04-Aug-1999 12:09 PM EDT (04-Aug-1999 1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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