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Voice of America, 99-08-20

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] KOSOVO - INTEGRATION (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)
  • [02] BELGRADE RALLY ASSESSED BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] SERBS PROTEST AGAINST MILOSEVIC
  • [04] BOSNIA CORRUPTION BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] TURKEY QUAKE ONITER (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)
  • [06] TURKEY - RESCUE EFFORT (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (IZMIT, TURKEY)
  • [07] TURKEY/EARTHQUAKE LONG BY LAURIE KASSMAN (IZMIT)
  • [08] TURKEY / RELIEF / Q&A BY STEVE CATLIN / U-S AID DISASTER RELIEF TEAM (IZMIT)
  • [09] U-N - TURKEY AID (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)
  • [10] TURKISH QUAKE EXPLAINED BY DAVID MCALARY (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] RUSSIA - DAGESTAN (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [12] RUSSIA / U-S (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [13] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [14] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] KOSOVO - INTEGRATION (L ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252961
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: The United Nations says relations are improving between Serbs and Albanians in the troubled northern Kosovo city of Mitrovica. As Tim Belay reports from Pristina, U-N officials say the reduced tension makes it possible for some Albanians to move back to their homes in what had become the Serbian side of the city.

    TEXT: Mitrovica has been ethnically divided by a bridge and racked by tension and ethnic clashes since the withdrawal of Yugoslavia's armed forces. But now, the United Nations says seven ethnic Albanian families will move back (Friday) to their former homes on the northern side of the city. It is a kind of experiment by international organizations which are desperate to create a climate of peace between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo. NATO-led peacekeeping troops will provide transport and security for the returning Albanians. If all goes well, more Albanian families will return to their homes in the northern part of Mitrovica in the coming days. A spokesman for the NATO-led forces in Kosovo, Rolland Lavoie, says there have been conflicts between Serbian and Albanian residents of Mitrovica every day since the middle of June. And Albanians have moved into apartments formerly occupied by Serbian families, and Serbs have moved into some apartments formerly occupied by Albanians.

    /// LAVOIE ACT ONE ///

    Most of them lost their homes so that was the only available apartment in the region. In relation to that, obviously there have been provocations and protests because basically there's a tension that remains unsolved locally between the two ethnic groups.

    /// END ACT ///

    Despite Mitrovica's troubled past, peacekeepers and international observers say things are getting better. Major Lavoie says relations between Serbian and Albanian residents of Mitrovica have improved to the point that this experiment in moving people back home is now possible. Still, he says, outsiders like NATO and the United Nations will not be able to determine the city's future.

    /// LAVOIE ACT TWO ///

    We have to be realistic. What we can provide here is an overall security environment that could allow each side to be more confident about their security and allow them to start to talk to each other again and try to negotiate a kind of social pact if they want to live beside their neighbor or not.

    /// END ACT ///

    The United Nations says that for now, only Albanian families will be offered the chance to return to their homes in Mitrovica. But it says it hopes to be able to extend the same invitation to Serbians in the future. (Signed) NEB/TB/JWH/kl 20-Aug-1999 11:32 AM EDT (20-Aug-1999 1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BELGRADE RALLY ASSESSED BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-44108
    INTERNET=YES CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: Intro: Yugoslavia's government-controlled media have denounced Thursday's massive rally in central Belgrade as a big failure. But to the majority of the 150 thousand residents who turned out, it was a strong expression of their demand for President Slobodan Milosevic to resign. VOA's Pamela Taylor spoke with one of the protesters: Text: Liljiana Smajlovic is an independent journalist and political analyst who joined the crowd of thousands in front of Belgrade's parliament building. She says she was impressed that so many people turned out on such a sweltering(hot)day.

    // SMAJLOVIC ACT ONE //

    A lot of people in Belgrade are against the regime, there's no question about that because Belgrade has proved this in successive elections, both local and federal, the people want Slobodan Milosevic to go in one way or another.

    // END ACT //

    But Ms. Smajlovic says she disagrees with a comment made recently by opposition leader Vesna Pesic. Ms. Pesic said that if Mr. Milosevic does not voluntarily step down, a fate could await him similar to that which ended the regime of Nicolae Ceausescu in Romania. Both Mr. Ceausescu and his wife were executed after a summary trial. Their bloodstained bodies were later shown on nationwide television. Ms. Smajlovic says people forget that the Ionescu government, which followed Ceaucescu, wasn't much of an improvement for Romania. What's important about the Belgrade rally, according to Ms. Smajlovic is that while there is widespread support for ousting Mr. Milosevic, there is little support for any individual opposition leader to take his place. She says this became apparent when many in the crowd booed Serbian renewal movement leader, Vuk Draskovic, who unexpectly appeared at the rally after saying he would not participate:

    // SMAJLOVIC ACT TWO //

    With Vuk, he does have genuine, strong and hardline supporters. I think he wanted to demonstrate the strength he has, his popular appeal. But Vuk in essence tried to hijack the rally from those who organized it because he took the stand and he said `I'm not really in favor of a transitional government. I've abandoned this idea. It's a stupid idea. What we have to do is ask for elections'.

    // END ACT //

    Ms. Smajlovic says she too favors early elections if only to show the world that Yugoslavia can deal with its problems democratically. She says the opposition should go along with the Milosevic government's call for elections as early as November:

    // SMAJLOVIC ACT THREE //

    I don't think the regime can win elections, at least if the opposition doesn't boycott them. Or at least they (the regime) are going to be so seriously weakened that a lot of people in the regime are going to jump ship. If they (the regime) steal the elections, there are going to be a lot of protests and they're not going to get away with it. if they win by a very thin margin it's going to be clear this is a ship they should jump off (of).

    // END ACT //

    Liljana Smajlovic, who is originally a Serb from Bosnia, says in calling for early elections, President Milosevic is playing his last hand in a desperate game to stay in power. She says if the opposition leaders have the courage to call his bluff, they will win. (Signed) NEB/PT/ENE/kl 20-Aug-1999 16:32 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] SERBS PROTEST AGAINST MILOSEVIC

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=EDITORIAL
    NUMBER=0-08421
    CONTENT=

    THIS EDITORIAL IS BEING RELEASED FOR immediate use by all language services. Anncr: The Voice of America presents differing points of view on a wide variety of issues. Next, an editorial expressing the policies of the United States Government: Voice: Defying threats of violence by the authorities, an estimated one hundred thousand Serbs took to the streets of Belgrade August 19 in a peaceful demonstration against the regime of Slobodan Milosevic. Similar rallies have been held in many towns and cities in Serbia since last June, when the war in Kosovo ended. That war was provoked by atrocities against Kosovar Muslims that were planned and executed by the government of the Federation of Yugoslavia, which Mr. Milosevic heads. The conflict isolated Serbia internationally and left it in ruins. Though divided on the political future of their country, the anti-Milosevic protesters have left no doubt as to whom they blame for this catastrophe. In his ten-year rule, Milovevic has instigated and lost several wars. As a result of his policies, Yugoslavia has broken up. Even the government of Montenegro, the republic closest to Serbia culturally, indicated last month that a looser federal arrangement is needed. Milosevic came to power on the basis of demagogic claims that he would protect Serb interests throughout Yugoslavia. Outside the ruling clique, there is probably not a single Serb who does not feel his life has been diminished by Milosevic's reign of terror. Hundreds of thousands of people have died in violence across the former Yugoslavia, especially in Croatia and Bosnia. And several top Yugoslav leaders, including Milosevic himself, have been indicted as war criminals by the International Court at The Hague. In these circumstances, it may seem remarkable that the demonstrations like the recent one in Belgrade have been so peaceful and orderly. But in fact, the people of Serbia understand very well that peace and democracy are what they need. And they know the current regime cannot give them either. Once they are rid of the Milosevic regime, the people of Serbia, in a Yugoslav Federation, will begin the long job of reconstituting their country's political institutions. As their neighbors and the rest of the world know, there is no reason why they cannot rebuild their country on the basis of a democratic government and a free economy, and take their rightful place in the concert of nations. Anncr: That was an editorial expressing the policies of the United States Government. If you have a comment, please write to Editorials, V-O-A, Washington, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. You may also comment at www-dot-voa-dot-gov-slash-editorials, or fax us at (202) 619-1043. 20-Aug-1999 17:32 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2132 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA CORRUPTION BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-44110
    INTERNET=YES CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: There are fresh reports this week detailing far-reaching official corruption in Bosnia- Herzegovina. V-O-A's Barry Wood reports the international donor community recognizes the extent of the corruption problem in the Balkans but is not of one mind as to what can be done to combat it.

    TEXT: The allegations of corruption in Bosnia are not new but, the extent of the problem is far greater than had been thought. The New York Times reports this week that private studies by aid organizations allege that as much as one billion dollars may have vanished from aid accounts and the national treasury over the past few years. John Lampe, a Bosnia specialist and historian at the University of Maryland, says the corruption charges are a warning that local politicians need to clean up their operations or face the wrath of citizens.

    //First Lampe Act//

    I think what needs to be driven home to the leadership of all these several parts of Bosnia- Herzegovina is that these current revelations are going to call into question the delivery of another two point three billion dollars of aid and credit projected from the international community for the years 2000 to 2003. And beyond that, the absence of any foreign private investment, and the departure of McDonalds (restaurants) and others who have tried. If that foreign investment doesn't start coming in there after 2000, the economies of all these areas are going to take such a tremendous nosedive in 2002, 2003 that those political leaderships will all be held responsible.

    //End Act//

    There has long been frustration within the aid community over corruption in Bosnia. The paying of bribes has deterred foreign direct investment. Last May one top international official (Robert Barry of the O-S-C-E) in Sarajevo warned that unless the government enforced its own laws, investors would be crazy to invest in the country. The official said the government in Sarajevo was not interested in economic reform. Steve Hanke, the Johns Hopkins University professor who advised Bosnia in establishing its new currency, has a more radical prescription for ending corruption.

    //Hanke Act//

    In the future the only thing they can do to solve the problem is to cut the foreign aid off and shrink the size of the government down to almost zero. In other words, have the government provide only a kind of night- watchman's function in the Balkans. That is the only way you can get rid of corruption. Have no aid, no government officials, minimum state.

    //End Act//

    Mr. Hanke says the monetary system he helped set up is the only non-corrupt institution in Bosnia. And the currency board is not corrupt, he says, because it is run by a foreigner. John Lampe takes a more charitable view of Bosnian officials. He doesn't believe they are more corrupt than their counterparts elsewhere in Southeastern Europe. For Mr. Lampe privatization of state enterprises would alleviate much of the corruption.

    //Second Lampe Act//

    This points to the still greater urgency of pushing ahead with a transparent process of really commercial privatization. The delay of that, and probably more of that in the Herzeg Bosna Croat side of the street than anywhere else, is keeping the politically managed enterprises in place that really do not pay taxes for legal activity.

    //End Act//

    Aid agencies worry that the corruption allegations will discourage the flow of aid money not just to Bosnia but to Kosovo and the Balkan region as a whole. It was only last month that leaders of major industrial countries met in Sarajevo to appeal for more aid money for the Balkans. (Signed)
    NEB/BDW/ENE/JO 20-Aug-1999 16:06 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2006 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] TURKEY QUAKE ONITER (S/L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252975
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Tuesday's earthquake in Turkey has claimed more than ten thousand victims and the death toll is rising. Some 35 thousand are still missing and feared dead. Now officials fear the outbreak of disease from contaminated water and poor sanitation. Correspondent Laurie Kassman reports from Istanbul that most survivors in the stricken areas have spent another night outdoors amid fears of another strong tremor.

    TEXT: Survivors are trying to organize their lives with what little they have. Much time is spent waiting for handouts of food and water and for any news of friends and relatives who may still be missing. Foreign rescue teams still search for signs of life in the rubble but hopes are fading fast of finding many more survivors. Turkish authorities have been overwhelmed by the crisis and are asking for more outside help. Health officials have raised the alarm over the potential for epidemics of cholera and typhoid from contaminated drinking water. Foreign governments and aid agencies have dispatched supplies and medical teams to help deal with the looming health disaster.

    //CUT HERE FOR SHORT CR///

    An Israeli team has set up a mobile health clinic in a village near Izmit, hard hit by Tuesday's quake. The U-S government has sent a naval hospital ship and more marines to help clear the wreckage. The fire at Turkey's largest oil refinery continues to burn but authorities say it is under control. And experts have set up floating barriers to limit an oil spill at the refinery's seaside loading dock. Judicial authorities are paving the way to prosecute delinquent contractors whose sub-standard construction contributed to the loss of lives. And, politicians and businessmen now are starting to look at the cost of repairing and rebuilding much of the country's industrial heartland. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JO 20-Aug-1999 18:22 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2222 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] TURKEY - RESCUE EFFORT (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (IZMIT, TURKEY)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252959
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Rescue teams are desperately searching for survivors, three days after an earthquake devastated northwestern Turkey. In Izmit, a U-S squad managed to pull four survivors out from smashed building on Thursday. But on Friday, they were not so lucky. Laurie Kassman reports from Izmit.

    TEXT: The rescue squad used remote cameras, sniffer dogs and listening devices - even their bare hands - to track-down any signs of life as they searched through the wreckage, building-by-building. At one site on Thursday, the signals were positive and the team set about drilling their way toward a young boy trapped, but still alive. Once they reached him, it was up to Evan Lewis to wiggle a bit closer.

    ///LEWIS ACT///

    I'm one of the small - if not smallest people on the team. And, obviously they're making the holes in concrete, the bigger you have to make them, the longer it's going to take. So we got the hole big enough for myself to squeeze in there and I just (got in).

    ///END ACT///

    Evan pulled the boy out, miraculously unhurt. His uncle hovered nearby. Evan says it was a great moment. That was Thursday. On Friday, the work is proving to be much more frustrating. By late afternoon, a reconnaissance team had combed through dozens of sites, but there were no signs of life.

    ///SECOND LEWIS ACT///

    At this point, to spend extricating remains - we need to move on and we need to move quick to maximize that window of opportunity for getting someone we can actually save. It's not pleasant, but it's part of the job.

    /// END ACT //

    Evan says the searing heat can make the work more difficult for the search and rescue teams. But he says for those still trapped inside, it may be less of a problem.

    /// THIRD LEWIS ACT ///

    During the day, the heat is going to make things a little more (worse). However, inside there are things that's fallen down and at least they're shaded and somewhat protected by the elements.

    /// END ACT ///

    Outside the wrecked buildings, an unrelenting heat has health officials worried about the spread of disease from rotting bodies. Doctors also fear an outbreak of typhoid and cholera from contaminated water supplies. Hospitals in Izmit - already overwhelmed by the emergency - are starting to treat cases of severe vomiting and diarrhoea. Foreign governments and international aid groups are rushing in doctors and medical supplies and portable clinics to help Turkey deal with a growing health crisis. (Signed)
    NEB/LMK/PCF/KL 20-Aug-1999 10:23 AM EDT (20-Aug-1999 1423 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] TURKEY/EARTHQUAKE LONG BY LAURIE KASSMAN (IZMIT)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252971
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: The death toll from Tuesday's earthquake in northwestern Turkey is rising by the hour and rescues of survivors from the rubble are few and far between. (update with latest figures of dead and missing) Priority now for those who escaped injury is shelter, food and water and burying the dead. Correspondent Laurie Kassman reports from Izmit.

    TEXT:

    ///SOUND OF DIGGING AND PRAYER AND FADE///
    Prayers are heard on a barren hillside overlooking devastated Izmit as men shovel dirt onto another grave in a cemetery that is expanding every day. A young boy kneels nearby carefully writing on the wooden marker -- Nesrin Efe --1948 to 1999.. It is a tragic sight that is becoming all too familiar in Izmit as rescue teams pull out more bodies and fewer survivors now more than 90 hours since the earthquake reduced the city to ruins. But farther down the hill, life goes on. For those who escaped death and injury, the priority is food, water and shelter.

    ///ACT SOUND OF PEOPLE CLAMORING FOR FOOD AND WATER///

    Food distribution centers are cropping up across the city as the government scrambles to provide the basic necessities. Many of those waiting in line for water and bread say it is too little, too late. Nerves are frayed and patience is running out. A truck pulls into the dirt field with melons and vegetables. The crowd surges forward. They dash to another truck filled with plastic jugs of water. Nobody seems to notice when the earth trembles with another aftershock. Elsewhere, emergency teams parcel out medicines and treat injuries from the quake. Hospitals have been overwhelmed by the disaster. They have been sewing up wounds, fixing broken arms and legs and skull fractures. But health officials and doctors now fear the spread of disease from contaminated water. They are already starting to treat cases of vomiting and diarrhea and are concerned that cholera and typhoid will spread. Foreign governments and aid agencies are pouring in supplies and personnel to help Turkey cope with the crisis. But newspaper headlines are not forgiving. They call the government response a fiasco and blame shoddy construction for the loss of many lives. Turkey's interior minister says delinquent contractors will be identified and liable to lawsuits. Foreign rescue teams continue their search for signs of life under the wreckage. A Hungarian team managed to pull out a three year old girl Friday afternoon. Russian and Swiss teams also found survivors. Later in the day Austrians rescue workers asked an American team for assistance when their sniffer dogs signaled some hope at one of the hundred sites they checked. Silence fell over the crowd as a listening device was lowered into the wreckage. Nothing.

    ///ACT WOMAN CRYING///

    The only sound -- the crying of a desperate relative waiting outside. Another false alarm. It has been more than three days since the earthquake hit and rescue squads say the chances of finding many more survivors are diminishing but they still hope for a miracle. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LK/JO 20-Aug-1999 17:39 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2139 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] TURKEY / RELIEF / Q&A BY STEVE CATLIN / U-S AID DISASTER RELIEF TEAM (IZMIT)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252947
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Friday morning, V-O-A's Kurt Henschen conducted a Q&A with Mr. Catlin on his team's discovery and rescue of four survivors to the Turkish quake..

    TEXT: CATLIN: We were able to rescue four people who were trapped in collapsed structures. We send out survey teams to assess collapsed structures. We take a grid- pattern approach to that. We usually use search-and- rescue dogs. The dogs will know if there is someone inside. They then give us an indication. We use that and other means to determine whether there is someone in the building. Based upon that, we bring in additional search and rescue personnel to explore voids within the collapsed structure to determine if there's actually someone inside. HENSCHEN: Of the rescue you made, were these just ordinary citizens, in the wrong place at the wrong time? C: Yeah. They probably were in bed at the time of the earthquake. They were probably asleep. H: The indications are they had been there since Tuesday. What kind of shape were they in? C: The individuals we managed were in fairly good shape. They were a little dehydrated, but they were fortunate enough to be in places that allowed them to survive and protected them from crumbling concrete masonry. H: What happens after you pull them out of the building? Are there facilities to give people care? C: We work in cooperation with the Turkish government and local authorities. These folks were transferred to local hospitals. H: Then there are hospitals capable of caring for those you bring out? C: Yes, (but they are) somewhat stressed by the large number (of patients). H: Compared with similar disasters you have been involved with, where would you rank the Turkish quake? C: Certainly, it's quite a significant event. H: You are working in a major metropolitan area, not really far from the rest of the world. Does that make things easier or more difficult for the rescuers? C: Well, it's certainly easier in that, when we flew in, we were in close proximity to the disaster, itself. So, we were able to get in rather quickly. NEB/ wd / wd 20-Aug-1999 04:33 AM LOC (20-Aug-1999 0833 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-N - TURKEY AID (L-ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252970
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    //RE-ISSUING TO DELETE, IN FIFTH GRAF OF TEXT, REFERENCE TO ISTANBUL AS CAPITAL //

    INTRO: A top United Nations Disaster Relief Official says international efforts to find survivors of Turkey's devastating earthquake will continue until early next week. The official says there is a good chance that many victims of the disaster may still be alive. Details from Lisa Schlein in Geneva.

    TEXT: The United Nations reports 65 medical teams have reached the disaster site in Turkey. Two- thousand specialists and 120 search dogs are combing the affected areas for survivors. Sergio Piazzi who heads the U-N's Humanitarian Office in Europe says normally after an earthquake strikes, most people are rescued from collapsed buildings in the first 24 to 48 hours. However, he says the situation in Turkey is more hopeful.

    ///PIAZZI ACT///

    There is also a very high chance to find many survivors because of the type of the collapsed building. There is space between the floors or sometimes they crashed only on one side. So, there is this high chance to find survivors.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Piazzi says the search and rescue mission will probably continue until Tuesday.

    //OPT//

    The official death toll from the earthquake in northwestern Turkey is nearly nine-thousand with more than 30-thousand injured. Turkish authorities have informed the U-N that an estimated 35-thousand people are buried under the rubble caused by the quake. Mr. Piazzi says this means that the final death toll could go beyond 40-thousand. //END OPT// The Turkish government and the United Nations are coordinating the massive emergency relief program from Istanbul. Turkey is requesting urgent international assistance to continue search and rescue operations and provide aid to survivors. The United Nations has received requests for items such as tents, field hospitals, medical supplies, water purification equipment . and 10-thousand body bags.

    //REST OPT//

    Information Officer for the World Health Organization, Gregory Hartl, says these requests should be honored. However, he says donors should not send unsolicited assistance.

    ///HARTL ACT///

    Often times in natural disasters, it happens again and again that the gifts and contributions from abroad are often unusable or not correct for the circumstances. It is easier if the contributions are in cash, rather than in kind.

    ///END ACT///

    The World Health Organization says the likelihood of epidemics breaking out from unburied cadavers is negligible. But it says care should be taken to provide clean water and sanitation to prevent diseases such as cholera from occurring. (Signed) NEB/LS/PCF/ENE/KL 20-Aug-1999 16:48 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] TURKISH QUAKE EXPLAINED BY DAVID MCALARY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/19/1999
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-44099
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: The earthquake that devastated part of northwestern Turkey was no surprise to geologists. It was the latest in a series of major tremors that have shaken the country in an east-to-west progression for decades. V-O-A science correspondent David McAlary explains.

    TEXT: Earthquakes are not unusual. According to U-S Geological Survey data, the one in northwestern Turkey was only one of 35 significant earthquakes that have occurred around the world so far this year alone. But it was by far the worst. The numbers of Turkish dead and injured surpass that of all the others combined. Geologist Muawia Barazangi [MAU-ee-uh Buh-ruh-ZIN-gee, with a soft "g"] of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, says scientists knew it was coming.

    // BARAZANGI ACT //

    It's not surprising that has happened. People were expecting such a large earthquake. Of course, nobody could predict the timing of it.

    // END ACT //

    Earth's rocky shell is dynamic. It is made up of several independent, slowly moving pieces called plates. The places the crustal plates meet are called fault lines. When the plates rub against each other and move along the faults, the earth quakes. How intense the movement is defines the magnitude of an earthquake. Mr. Barazangi says the Turkish tremor was the result of the movement of a piece of earth's crust called the Arabian plate northward toward other blocks of crust containing Turkey and western Iran. The push shifted the land along the North Anatolian Fault running eastward from Istanbul for about one-thousand kilometers.

    // BARAZANGI ACT //

    In a way, western Turkey is squeezed like a watermelon seed out of the advancing Arabian plate. That relative motion along those faults produced the earthquake. Those crustal blocks are trying to escape away from the advancing Arabia.

    // END ACT //

    Scientists have observed a series of earthquakes in the region for decades. Mr. Barazangi says 60 years ago, a major one struck eastern Turkey along the same fault line and subsequent ones moved along in an unusual progression.

    // BARANZANGI ACT //

    A little over magnitude seven earthquake - around 7.5 - occurred in 1939 in the east and then in subsequent years, there were other large earthquakes progressing toward the west along the fault itself. The last one happened in that sequence in 1967. It was again a little over magnitude seven. The earthquake that happened a few days ago is just to the west of that earthquake [which] happened in 1967. So the 1999 earthquake continued in a way that progression, that sequence of large earthquakes that happened along the total length of the North Anatolian Fault.

    // END ACT //

    Some earthquakes occur when one piece of crust slides under the other. Others happen when the plates move apart. But the awesome shock was what geologists describe as a strike-slip quake. Two pieces of crust slide past each other in a sideways motion.

    // BARANZANGI ACT //

    It's a horizontal relative motion. There is no up and down motion along it. The displacement along this rupture is about two-and-a-half meters. It's quite a bit of displacement of a horizontal way. So this displacement of about two-and-a-half meters occurred in about 30 to 40 seconds, produced the damage that you are hearing about.

    // END ACT //

    Mr. Barazangi says the surface rupture was 70 kilometers long. Now that it has occurred, he warns about a hazard of equal potential along the fault lines of the moving Arabian plate nearby. The plate's western boundary, separating it from east Africa running through the Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, the Dead Sea and beyond, has been active in the past.

    // BARANZANGI ACT //

    That Dead Sea fault system is very capable of producing an earthquake of about the same size as Istanbul. Historically, many large earthquakes occurred along this fault system. So the fact that we don't hear about earthquakes along the Dead Sea fault system doesn't mean there isn't an earthquake hazard in the region.

    // END ACT //

    The Cornell University geologist says countries subject to the whims of this fault are not paying enough attention to its potential. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DEM/TVM/JO 19-Aug-1999 20:38 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 0038 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] RUSSIA - DAGESTAN (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252964
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Russian warplanes have bombed targets inside the breakaway Chechnya region in an attempt to cut off supply lines to Muslim rebels battling government troops in neighboring Dagestan. V-O-A Moscow correspondent Peter Heinlein reports the fighting is being accompanied by an increasingly aggressive propaganda war.

    TEXT: On day 14 of the North Caucasus conflict, a Defense Ministry official said Russian jets were pounding two Chechen villages where Islamic insurgents were preparing to cross into the combat zone in the nearby mountains of Dagestan. The official says air strikes in Chechnya are becoming increasingly frequent, but that Russian ground forces have not yet crossed into the breakaway region. Chechnya has been effectively independent of Moscow's rule since Russian troops withdrew in 1996 after losing a 21-month war against Chechen rebels. But Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said Friday the insurgents in Dagestan must not be allowed to use Chechnya as a safe haven.

    /// PUTIN ACT - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    He says, "if we are challenged by international terrorist groups, we will respond in the interest of national security." When he was appointed prime minister August Ninth, Mr. Putin predicted the uprising in the restive Northern Caucasus would be crushed within two weeks. But after 14 days of punishing air and ground attacks, the rebels remain defiantly in control of almost the entire patch of rugged mountainous territory they have held since the fighting began. And as the conflict enters its third week, the two sides are also locked in a fierce propaganda war. Each claims the other is trying to cover up heavy losses on the battlefield. A senior Interior Ministry official this week said 40 Russian soldiers and more than 500 insurgents had been killed in the fighting. A spokesman for the rebels was quoted Friday as saying only 15 of his fighters had died, as compared to more than 200 dead among government troops and Dagestani volunteers. The government's frustration at its inability to control the flow of information showed this week when the Press Minister publicly scolded all leading television stations for showing footage of rebel leader Shamil Basayev. One state-run channel was singled out for special criticism for carrying a segment showing Mr. Basayev saying Russia's oppressive rule had forced Muslims to take up arms against it. The rebels, holed up in mountain hideouts against the fierce Russian air assault, have resorted to the internet to get their message out. A bulletin posted in the insurgents' web site Friday, said most of the casualties in the combat zone are civilians. Other reports say hospitals in Dagestan and Chechnya are filled to overflowing with the wounded, most of them suffering lost limbs from land mines. Both sides are said to be using mines as a weapon in the conflict. (Signed) Neb/PFH/JWH/ENEkl 20-Aug-1999 11:52 AM EDT (20-Aug-1999 1552 UTC)
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    Source: Voice of America

    [12] RUSSIA / U-S (L ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252967
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: An influential Russian general has accused the United States of dictating terms to Russia on proposed changes in the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty. V- O-A's Peter Heinlein in Moscow reports Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov (pronounced Ee-va- SHWAFF) suggested U- S arrogance could doom a new round of strategic arms talks.

    TEXT: General Ivashov says a just-completed preliminary round of U-S/Russia talks on a START-Three arms control treaty yielded nothing.

    /// IVASHOV ACT ONE - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    He says, "There were no results". General Ivashov -- the director of the Defense Ministry's International Cooperation department -- also told reporters the United States' attempt to modify the A-B-M treaty is threatening to upset the entire arms control process.

    /// IVASHOV ACT TWO - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    He says, "Our approach is that the 1972 treaty is the basis for all subsequent arms agreements. So diluting it means disrupting the whole concept of nuclear deterrence." At a news conference Friday, the Russian general accused the United States of violating the A-B-M accord, then demanding changes through heavy handed and unfair negotiating tactics.

    /// IVASHOV ACT THREE - IN RUSSIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    He says, "First, the decision is made to start work, money is appropriated, contracts are let for research and development, all in violation of the A-B-M treaty. Then Russia is faced with an accomplished fact and invited to agree to modify the agreement." General Ivashov's comments echo those of Grigory Berdennikov, head of Russia's team at this week's preliminary talks. Mr. Berdennikov on Thursday said the request to amend the A-B-M treaty could touch off a new nuclear arms race in space. The accord bans anti-missile systems, but the United States has suggested changes to allow a so-called "limited shield" designed to protect against a small- scale nuclear attack, such as might be launched by a terrorist group or a rogue state. The United States argues such a small system would not affect the balance of forces because it would be worthless against a massive attack, such as Russia is capable of launching. Russian officials at first suggested that they might pull out of the arms negotiating process to protest U- S tactics. But despite the strong rhetoric, a spokesman Friday confirmed that the official level talks will continue next month in Washington. (Signed)
    NEB/PFH/JWH/KL 20-Aug-1999 14:07 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 1807 UTC)
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    Source: Voice of America

    [13] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252972
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Stock prices in the United States were up today (Friday) as traders searched for bargains. V-O-A Business Correspondent Breck Ardery reports from New York.

    TEXT: The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 11- thousand-100 up 136 points, more than one percent. For the week, the Industrial Average gained 127 points. The Standard and Poor's 500 index closed Friday at 13- hundred-36, up 13 points. The NASDAQ index gained one percent. Analysts say there was some bargain-hunting after recent losses. Traders continued to focus on next Tuesday when the governors of the U-S central bank will decide whether to raise short-term interest rates. The consensus on Wall Street is that the central bank will raise short-term rates by 25 basis points, or one-quarter percent.

    //REST OPT//

    Bill Kirby of the Prudential Investment Company says the important question is what the central bank governors say.

    ///Kirby act///

    What is important is what they say along with a rate hike. Any kind of statement about how concerned they are or are not about inflation.

    ///end act ////

    The consolidation movement in the world aluminum industry may be followed by copper producers. Phelps Dodge is offering two point six billion dollars for Cyprus Amax Minerals and the Asarco Corporation, two firms which had been planning their own merger. A three-way merger has been agreed to in Japan where three banks are consolidating to create the world's first trillion dollar financial institution. The Chicago Stock Exchange, the nation's third- largest, says it will extend its trading hours by ninety minutes effective October first. The Chicago exchange will trade up to 200 of the most popular New York Exchange and NASDAQ-listed stocks during the after-hours session. It was a sweet stock market debut for the Agile Software Corporation. In its first day of trading, Agile's stock gained almost 140 percent A federal judge has ordered the Denny's restaurant chain to pay 27 hundred dollars in damages for refusing to serve a racially mixed group. When the group of six blacks and three whites arrived at a Denny's in Miami, they were told the restaurant had just run out of food. Denny's has been under a U-S government monitoring program since 1994 as a result of repeated cases of racial discrimination against customers.(Signed) NEB/NY/BA/JC/JO 20-Aug-1999 17:48 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 2148 UTC)
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    Source: Voice of America

    [14] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=8/20/1999
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11432
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: As the death toll from this week's earthquake in Turkey continues to mount, so do the editorials in the U-S press exhorting the public to help, and expressing sympathy for the victims and survivors. Other topics include the rumors of cocaine use by presidential candidate George W. Bush; the change in premiers in the Kremlin; wasting Bosnian aid money; ending the Starr investigation of President and Mrs. Clinton, and the latest advance from the field of genetic engineering. Now, here with a closer look and some excerpts is ______________ and today's Editorial Digest.

    TEXT: In Bergen County, New Jersey, The Record, which serves one of the largest populations of Turkish- Americans in the nation, comments:

    VOICE: At this point, almost seven-thousand people are believed to have died in the earthquake ... and thousands more are missing or believed ... trapped inside collapsed buildings. The international rescue effort is moving forward, although rescuers say they are confused because much of the action is uncoordinated. As workers try frantically to save anyone buried under rubble, relief agencies are beginning the enormous effort to help the injured and those who lost family members, homes, and belongings. Untold thousands of people need shelter, food, and medical care.

    TEXT: The paper then lists several relief agencies which are taking donations. In Texas, The Dallas Morning News is upset by the geo-political damage it feels the quake has done, in addition to the physical destruction.

    VOICE: The devastating earthquake in northwest Turkey strikes a damaging blow to a nation at economic and ideological crossroads. . Tragically, this disaster occurs as the leaders of Turkey's state-controlled economy finally seem willing to offer more than tacit lip service to free-market ideas and Western notions of property rights. . The enormous cost of rebuilding an earthquake-shocked nation adds another foreign investment uncertainty to a grab bag of uncertainties. Though a loyal North Atlantic Treaty Organization partner, Turkey has both a less-than-stellar record on human rights and a strong dissident Kurdish enclave in its southeast. .. Turkey's test will be its lasting commitment to a budding democratic movement and investment-friendly reforms at a time when earthquake damage will shift the focus of the world and the Turkish government to the sad and expensive rebuilding task.

    TEXT: An assessment of the lasting effects the quake will have from the The Dallas Morning News.

    ///OPT ///

    From a city devastated by earthquake and fire in 1906 comes this comment from The San Francisco Chronicle.

    VOICE: Despite a history of earthquakes in the region and years of warnings by scientists, Turkey was ill- prepared for the monster quake . The nation has been overwhelmed by the devastation and Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit has conceded the government's response has been inadequate. . Rescue teams from the United States, Britain, Japan, Russia, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, Greece, Iran and Bulgaria rushed to help, but their efforts have been frustrated by the Turkish government's failure to organize rescue operations. Turkey's calamity - and our own harmless Bolinas [California] shaker [minor earthquake] on Monday evening-are reminders that we share the dangers of living on unstable ground and that we, too , must be prepared for the "Big One." We have been warned, again.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: The most popular domestic topic is the response by presidential candidate George W. Bush to questions about his possible use of the illegal drug cocaine during his youth. Today's Philadelphia Inquirer is displeased by the news media's behavior on the question.

    VOICE: If George W. Bush did indeed sample cocaine at some point in his life, that by itself would not disqualify him from being president. For that reason, the journalistic horde following his campaign should not extend the recent verbal jousting over that rumor into a campaign trail obsession. . But making that point is not the same as agreeing with Governor Bush that having issued a cagey, clintonesque denial, he can unilaterally declare a zone of privacy where this topic is off limits. . it ill behooves him to wax too indignant about scandal-mongering. It's hypocritical.

    TEXT: Today's New York Times sums up its view of Mr. Bush's disclosures and what they say of his character, this way:

    VOICE: Mr. Bush cannot have it both ways on his personal life. He voluntarily proclaimed his marital fidelity, which is surely the most private of subjects. That only adds to the impression that he is hiding something about other aspects of his life. The best course for him is to be honest, and to let the country take his measure. In his campaign, the Governor has emphasized the importance of assuming responsibility for one's own actions. He should be thinking now about how to set a good example.

    TEXT: Turning to international affairs, The Providence [Rhode Island] Journal laments the revolving door of Russian politics which struck again last week.

    VOICE: Boris Yeltsin has been hiring and firing prime ministers with abandon. On Monday, Russia's parliament voted 233 to 84 to confirm his latest choice, Vladimir Putin. The big margin simply indicated that Moscow's political classes didn't want the distraction of a clash over the premiership while they had weightier matters on their minds-namely, December's parliamentary election and next summer's presidential balloting. . perhaps Mr. Putin's biggest problem will be to avoid being overshadowed by Yevgeny Primakov, 69, one of Mr. Yeltsin's numerous ex-prime ministers . Widely considered Russia's most popular politician, Mr. Primakov announced on Tuesday . that he will assume leadership of a newly formed "Fatherland-All Russia" alliance in December's parliamentary election. A good showing then will help his likely candidacy in next year's presidential election. So the maneuvering to shape post-Yeltsin Russia has already begun.

    TEXT: The Washington Times joins a growing number of papers complaining bitterly about waste and corruption in the Bosnian peacekeeping effort as exposed in a recent report.

    VOICE: Just weeks after the United States approved a total of 500-million dollars in humanitarian aid and another 700-million to boost trade in Kosovo, the New York Times reported . that Bosnian nationalist leaders stole up to one billion dollars from public funds or international aid projects. Whether the money has been stolen from the local Bosnian taxpayers, the United States, or other international donors, the ever-ready American benefactor has sufficient cause to be wary. . As the United States prepares to aid an ethnically divided Kosovo, it should also be wary of "victims" out for their own political gain. Corruption can only spread as far as the ignorance and apathy that hide it.

    TEXT: Today's Chicago Tribune remarks on a fateful anniversary, as it demands the surrender of the world's most-wanted terrorist to U-S authorities.

    VOICE: A year ago Friday, U-S forces struck at suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. Their principal target: Osama bin Laden, the accused mastermind of attacks on U-S embassies in East Africa. Despite the air strikes, [Mr.] bin laden is apparently still living in Afghanistan under the protection of the Taleban movement, the Islamic extremist group that controls the country. The Taleban, if it ever wishes to change Afghanistan's status as a lawless pariah state, should hand over bin Laden to justice. The time to do so is long past. /// OPT /// ... the notion that a follower of Islam cannot receive justice in an "infidel" court is beneath contempt, and deserves the harshest condemnation from other nations. Afghanistan must know, with dead certainty, that it cannot continue its present course of giving shelter to suspected terrorists under the pretense of defending the faith. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: Here at home, several papers are calling for independent Whitewater Counsel Kenneth Starr to conclude, quickly, his more than five year investigation of President and Mrs. Clinton and complete his final report. A three-judge federal panel has just extended his tenure for several more months, prompting this response from Ohio's Akron Beacon Journal.

    VOICE: So two Republican-appointed federal . judges believe that Ken Starr's investigation of President Clinton's personal and professional business has been "unusually productive?" And on what exactly do [they] . base their conclusion? Must be on quantify . Couldn't be on quality. The independent counsel whose performance dealt a death blow to the independent counsel law has one series of courtroom convictions . and a couple of guilty pleas . to show for five years and more than 40-million dollars.

    TEXT: However in Baltimore, The Sun wants Mr. Starr to remain in office long enough to supervise writing his final report, and n o t to resign as he has proposed.

    VOICE: Kenneth Starr should personally write or supervise the final report that his Office of Independent Counsel is required to produce before it shuts down. For five years, one of its obvious targets has been Hillary Rodham Clinton, against whom it has brought no charges. Whatever it does or says about her -or refrains from doing or saying-will figure in the two-thousand Senate race in New York. . Mr. Starr cannot honorably go this far and then hand it over to a caretaker or successor, whatever his personal or professional desires.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: Today's Pittsburgh Post-Gazette is raising the issue of genital mutilation, and the case of a young Togolese woman who has finally won the right to stay in this country because she feared such an operation in her homeland.

    VOICE: Three years ago the Immigration and naturalization Service granted asylum to a young woman from Togo on the grounds that she was fleeing the persecution known as female genital mutilation. It was a groundbreaking decision. The woman, Fauziya Kasinga, spent a year and a half in U-S detention waiting for the ruling, which came from the U-S Board of Immigration Appeals only after an I-N-S judge had rejected her claim. This week, a woman from Ghana became the second refugee granted asylum on the same grounds. Unfortunately, Adelaide Abankwah, too, was forced to spend two years in detention after her initial petition was denied. . Every woman fleeing this form of persecution should not be subject to a different form of persecution in this country. The precedent for granting asylum has been set (twice now) but immigration judges are not required to follow that logic through.

    TEXT: A comment from today's Pittsburgh [Pennsylvania] Post-Gazette.

    ///END OPT ///

    TEXT: Lastly, some concern, from the San Francisco Chronicle, about the latest news in genetic- engineering.

    VOICE: First there was the cloning of Dolly the sheep. That experiment led to all sorts of anxiety among ethicists and legislators who pondered the chilling prospect that the technology might lead to the cloning of humans. Now comes a report out of Atlanta's Emory University about genetic tinkering with mice to alter their social behavior. In the experiment, the researchers took part of a gene called a vasopressin receptor from prairie voles [Editors: a small, mouse-like animal] and inserted it into mice. . the prairie voles are known to be monogamous partners and devoted parents. The mice are, well, known to play around a lot [Editors: slang for promiscuous behavior.] . However, the genetically altered mice seemed to shed their promiscuous ways and spent a whole lot more time grooming, sniffing and cuddling their mates. This research is being hailed as holding great promise in the search for new treatments for certain brain disorders that are characterized by isolation and difficulty in forming personal attachments. .

    TEXT: On that scientific note, we conclude this sampling of comment from Friday's U-S press.
    NEB/ANG/KL 20-Aug-1999 12:33 PM EDT (20-Aug-1999 1633 UTC)
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    Source: Voice of America


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