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RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 3, No. 168, 99-08-30

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: Newsline Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty <http://www.rferl.org>

RFE/RL NEWSLINE

Vol. 3, No. 168, 30 August 1999


CONTENTS

[A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

  • [01] ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES AUSTERITY MEASURES
  • [02] DATE SET FOR TRIAL OF ARMENIAN FORMER INTERIOR MINISTER
  • [03] ARMENIA SENDS EARTHQUAKE RELIEF TO TURKEY
  • [04] AZERBAIJANI OPPOSITION SLAMS PRESIDENT'S KARABAKH POLICY...
  • [05] ...AS SUPPORT GROWS FOR HUNGER STRIKE
  • [06] GEORGIA DECIDES TO REQUEST EXTENSION OF CIS PEACEKEEPERS'
  • [07] FOUR HOSTAGES RELEASED IN KYRGYZSTAN
  • [08] UZBEK PLANES KILL KYRGYZ VILLAGERS IN BOMBING RAID
  • [09] U.S. WATCHDOG PROTESTS HARASSMENT OF KYRGYZ NEWSPAPER OWNER
  • [10] THREE KILLED IN TAJIK SHOOTOUT

  • [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

  • [11] NORWAY CALLS FOR MACEDONIA TO FREE PEACEKEEPER
  • [12] RED CROSS: SERBS HOLD 2,000 KOSOVARS
  • [13] HOLBROOKE: 'PROGRESS, PROBLEMS' IN KOSOVA
  • [14] EXPLOSION DAMAGES MONUMENT IN PRISHTINA
  • [15] DRASKOVIC DRAWS CLOSER TO MILOSEVIC
  • [16] VEDRINE: SERBIA COULD LOSE CLAIM TO KOSOVA
  • [17] MONTENEGRIN MINISTER WARNS CLANS
  • [18] DJILAS: MONTENEGRO KEY TO CHANGE
  • [19] BILDT: REFORM MUST ACCOMPANY BALKAN RECONSTRUCTION
  • [20] DID BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL RISK ARREST IN VIENNA?
  • [21] CROATIA PREPARING TO EXTRADITE 'TUTA'?
  • [22] MOLDOVAN PREMIER IN ROMANIA
  • [23] MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT RE-WRITES HISTORY
  • [24] DIMITROV MAUSOLEUM DEMOLISHED IN SOFIA
  • [25] BULGARIAN PARTIES BRACE FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS

  • [C] END NOTE

  • [26] BULGARIA'S ECONOMY ANAEMIC UNDER CURRENCY BOARD

  • [A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

    [01] ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES AUSTERITY MEASURES

    Deputies

    voted overwhelmingly on 28 August to endorse the measures

    that Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsian proposed in late July to

    bridge an anticipated 31 billion dram ($58 million) budget

    shortfall, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported. Those measures

    include higher excise duties on gasoline and cigarettes and

    cuts in some infrastructure projects and non-essential

    expenditures in the social and education sectors (see "RFE/RL

    Newsline," 29 July and 19 August 1999). In addition, the

    government needs to divert more than 17 billion drams toward

    paying state enterprises' debts to the energy sector. The IMF

    and World Bank have said that disbursement of some $55

    million in new loans is contingent on that latter step. LF

    [02] DATE SET FOR TRIAL OF ARMENIAN FORMER INTERIOR MINISTER

    The

    trial will begin in a Yerevan district court on 9 September

    of former Yerevan Mayor and Interior Minister Vano

    Siradeghian, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported on 27 August.

    Siradeghian is charged with ordering several contract

    killings in 1994-1996 when he was interior minister. Some 229

    people will be summoned as witnesses in the trial, which the

    presiding judge Samvel Torosian denies is politically

    motivated. The previous Armenian parliament voted in February

    to strip Siradeghian, chairman of the former ruling Armenian

    Pan-National Movement, of his deputy's immunity. The previous

    month, it had failed to raise the majority needed to do so

    (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 26 January and 18 February 1999). LF

    [03] ARMENIA SENDS EARTHQUAKE RELIEF TO TURKEY

    The Armenian

    government dispatched a plane load of emergency supplies,

    including medication and mobile generating stations, to

    Turkey on 27 August for victims of the 17 August earthquake,

    RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported. The Turkish authorities

    failed to respond to the Armenian government's earlier offer

    to send a rescue team (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 18 August

    1999). LF

    [04] AZERBAIJANI OPPOSITION SLAMS PRESIDENT'S KARABAKH POLICY...

    The Movement for Democracy, which is composed of 23

    opposition parties, issued a statement on 27 August

    announcing it will begin protest actions on 10 September

    against what it termed President Heidar Aliev's "defeatist

    policy" aimed at resolving the Karabakh conflict, Turan

    reported. The previous day, the opposition Democratic

    Congress had issued a statement in which it rejected as a

    "violation of national interests" the proposal contained in

    the most recent OSCE Minsk Group Karabakh peace plan whereby

    Azerbaijan and the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

    form a "common state." The statement called for Armenia's

    immediate compliance with four 1993 UN Security Council

    resolutions on Karabakh demanding the withdrawal of Armenian

    forces from occupied Azerbaijani territory. It also argued

    that autonomy for Nagorno-Karabakh should be balanced by

    autonomous status for the estimated 200,000 ethnic

    Azerbaijanis who fled Armenia in 1988. LF

    [05] ...AS SUPPORT GROWS FOR HUNGER STRIKE

    Some 180 members of

    Ashraf Mehtiev's Geyrat Party staged a one-day hunger strike

    on 28 August as a gesture of solidarity with nine members of

    the opposition Coordination Council on Karabakh who began

    fasting on 23 August to demand Armenia's compliance with the

    four UN Security Council resolutions, Turan reported. The

    hunger-strikers have also condemned the 22 August meeting in

    Geneva between President Aliev and his Armenian counterpart,

    Robert Kocharian, and have demanded that Aliev make public

    the content of those talks. Several opposition party leaders,

    editors of several independent and opposition newspapers, and

    the heads of two independent journalists' unions met with the

    hunger-strikers on 27 August. LF

    [06] GEORGIA DECIDES TO REQUEST EXTENSION OF CIS PEACEKEEPERS'

    MANDATE

    Meeting behind closed doors on 29 August, Georgia's

    National Security Council approved extending the mandate of

    the Russian peacekeeping force deployed under a CIS mandate

    along the border between Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia,

    Caucasus Press reported. The force's mandate expired on 31

    July and must be renewed by CIS heads of state at their next

    summit, scheduled for October. Revaz Adamia, chairman of the

    parliamentary committee on defense and security, had argued

    last week that the peacekeepers' withdrawal could precipitate

    a new outbreak of fighting. According to Tamaz Nadareishvili,

    chairman of the Abkhaz parliament in exile, the Security

    Council decision to approve an extension of the peacekeepers'

    mandate is conditional on their redeployment throughout

    Abkhazia's southernmost Gali Raion and the southern part of

    neighboring Ochamchire Raion. CIS heads of state had endorsed

    that deployment in March 1997, but the Abkhaz authorities

    opposed it (see "End Note," "RFE/RL Newsline," 29 April

    1997). LF

    [07] FOUR HOSTAGES RELEASED IN KYRGYZSTAN

    The Islamic militants

    who seized several villages in Kyrgyzstan's Osh Oblast last

    week released four of their hostages late on 28 August. The

    four released hostages confirmed that the Kyrgyz Interior

    Ministry general and the four Japanese geologists taken

    hostage on 22-23 August are still alive. On 27 August, Kyrgyz

    President Askar Akaev issued a decree on mobilizing

    reservists, some 2,000 of whom were sent the following day to

    fight the militants. Meeting with Kyrgyz Foreign Minister

    Muratbek Imanaliev in Osh on 28 August, the defense, foreign,

    and security ministers of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and

    Tajikistan offered assistance, including sending troops to

    neutralize the guerrillas. A Russian Defense Ministry

    spokesman had told ITAR-TASS on 27 August that the CIS

    Collective Security Treaty provides a legal basis for Russian

    participation in such an operation, but as of 28 August

    Moscow had not officially responded to Bishkek's appeal for

    Russian military assistance. LF

    [08] UZBEK PLANES KILL KYRGYZ VILLAGERS IN BOMBING RAID

    President

    Akaev told journalists in Bishkek on 30 August that 12 Kyrgyz

    villagers were killed and 40 homes damaged in a bombing raid

    by Uzbek aircraft on villages in the Chong-Alai district of

    Osh Oblast on 29 August, RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau reported.

    Subsequent reports give a lower death toll. Uzbek aircraft

    had mistakenly bombed Kyrgyz territory two weeks earlier in a

    similar attempt to destroy the guerrilla band (see "RFE/RL

    Newsline," 17 and 18 August 1999). Akaev sent Prime Minister

    Amangeldy Muraliev and Presidential Administration Defense

    and Security Department head General Bolot Djanuzakov to Osh

    to assess the situation. In Tokyo, a cabinet spokesman told

    journalists on 30 August that Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi has

    written to the presidents of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

    requesting their assistance in locating and releasing the

    four Japanese hostages, ITAR-TASS reported. LF

    [09] U.S. WATCHDOG PROTESTS HARASSMENT OF KYRGYZ NEWSPAPER OWNER

    The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists has

    written to President Akaev to protest the harassment by the

    Kyrgyz State Tax Police of Aleksandr Kim, owner and chief

    editor of the independent daily "Vechernii Bishkek," RFE/RL's

    Bishkek bureau reported on 28 August, citing the Kyrgyz

    Committee for Human Rights. The State Tax police opened a

    criminal case against Kim last week (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"

    26 August 1999). LF

    [10] THREE KILLED IN TAJIK SHOOTOUT

    Three people were killed and

    nine wounded on 29 August during a 10-minute gun battle in a

    Dushanbe market between Tajik Interior Ministry forces and

    guards to the Commission for National Reconciliation, Reuters

    and Interfax reported. The reason for the clash is not known.

    LF


    [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    [11] NORWAY CALLS FOR MACEDONIA TO FREE PEACEKEEPER

    A vehicle

    driven by two Norwegian KFOR soldiers hit a car carrying

    Macedonian Minister without Portfolio Radovan Stojkovski, his

    wife, and daughter on 28 August southeast of Skopje. The

    Stojkovskis died in the crash. Their driver and the two

    soldiers were injured. The two soldiers, who had been driving

    on the left side of the highway, refused to take a breath

    test. Spokesmen for the Macedonian government and KFOR

    engaged in mutual recriminations over the incident. On 29

    August, Macedonian police arrested the Norwegian driver in

    the hospital. The next day, Norwegian Foreign Minister Knut

    Vollebaek said on Norwegian television that Macedonian

    authorities violated their agreement with KFOR, which

    specifies that peacekeepers must be prosecuted in their home

    countries. Vollebaek demanded the driver's release. The

    second Norwegian has meanwhile arrived in Kosova. PM

    [12] RED CROSS: SERBS HOLD 2,000 KOSOVARS

    A spokeswoman for the

    International Committee for the Red Cross said in Geneva on

    30 August that the Serbian authorities are holding at least

    2,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosova in Serbian prisons. She

    said that the prisoners include those who have been in

    Serbian jails for a long time, those taken to Serbia during

    the recent conflict, and those sent to Serbian jails when

    Serbian forces left Kosova in June. Among those held is

    student leader Albin Kurti (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 August

    1999). On 27 August, several thousand people held a silent

    march through Prishtina to demand the prisoners' release.

    Among those participating was the UN's Bernard Kouchner. PM

    [13] HOLBROOKE: 'PROGRESS, PROBLEMS' IN KOSOVA

    U.S. Ambassador to

    the UN Richard Holbrooke said in Prishtina on 29 August that

    "sometimes forging a peace is more difficult than winning a

    war." He added that "this place has been a mess for a long

    time, but a different kind of mess. The war was messy, the

    decade that preceded the war was messy, the history back to

    1912 was messy...and the [current] task is immense." He

    praised the role of the UN and of KFOR. Holbrooke said after

    meeting with Serbian Orthodox Archbishop Artemije that any

    attack on cultural monuments is a "criminal, vandal act."

    Holbrooke noted that ethnic Albanian leader Hashim Thaci

    assured him that he would do "anything in his power" to make

    Kosova a pluralistic society. The ambassador stressed that

    "the most important thing is that Albanians now can decide

    about their own destiny and that NATO forces are here to

    provide security for everybody." PM

    [14] EXPLOSION DAMAGES MONUMENT IN PRISHTINA

    A blast from an

    explosive charge weakened the foundations of the communist-

    era Brotherhood and Unity Monument in central Prishtina on 28

    August. No one was injured. KFOR peacekeepers subsequently

    removed additional explosive charges from the monument. PM

    [15] DRASKOVIC DRAWS CLOSER TO MILOSEVIC

    Vuk Draskovic's Serbian

    Renewal Movement issued a statement in Belgrade on 29 August

    accusing KFOR and the UN mission in Kosova of being

    "essentially in close cooperation with the [Kosova]

    Liberation Army." KFOR and the UN thereby "help accomplish

    the most monstrous plans of the Albanian terrorists and

    separatists," AP reported. The Serbian authorities made

    similar charges against the U.S. last week (see "RFE/RL

    Newsline," 27 August 1999). In an apparent reference to

    Draskovic, opposition leader Veran Batic said on 30 August

    that one of the foundations of Yugoslav President Slobodan

    Milosevic's rule is the group of opposition leaders who

    cooperate with him. The other sources of Milosevic's power

    are "electoral fraud, media manipulation, and repression,"

    Batic added. PM

    [16] VEDRINE: SERBIA COULD LOSE CLAIM TO KOSOVA

    French Foreign

    Minister Hubert Vedrine told "Le Figaro" of 28 August that

    Serbia must replace Milosevic if it wants to keep Kosova. The

    minister stressed: "If the regime does not change, the

    sovereignty of Yugoslavia...will be increasingly contested.

    Conversely, the installation of a democratic regime boosts

    the chances for a combination of Yugoslav sovereignty and an

    autonomous [Kosova]." In a warning to the ethnic Albanians,

    Vedrine said that "nothing will be possible if security is

    not assured for all. That is a precondition for [the broad-

    ranging self-government that] is to follow." He nonetheless

    rejected the Serbian proposal to set up ethnic Serbian

    "cantons" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 26 August 1999). Vedrine

    argued that "we have to find other methods to ensure security

    and coexistence." PM

    [17] MONTENEGRIN MINISTER WARNS CLANS

    Interior Minister Vukasin

    Maras said in Podgorica on 29 August that the government will

    firmly oppose any attempt by "tribes" to secede from

    Montenegro and attach the territory they inhabit to Serbia,

    RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. He was referring to a

    gathering of the Vasojevic clan in the north the previous

    day. Speakers at that meeting said that they will "defend

    Yugoslavia by all means" and secede from Montenegro should

    that republic withdraw from the Yugoslav federation.

    Observers note that clans form the basis of Montenegrin

    society and play a key role in political life. PM

    [18] DJILAS: MONTENEGRO KEY TO CHANGE

    Sociologist and political

    commentator Aleksa Djilas, who is the son of leading

    communist-era dissident Milovan Djilas, said that the most

    serious threat to Milosevic comes from Montenegrin President

    Milo Djukanovic, the Frankfurt-based Serbian daily "Vesti"

    reported on 30 August. Djilas stressed that the Serbian

    opposition is not sufficiently united to challenge Milosevic

    successfully. Djilas argued that sooner or later Milosevic

    will have to agree to Djukanovic naming a new federal prime

    minister. That will mark the end of Milosevic's grip on

    power, the commentator continued. PM

    [19] BILDT: REFORM MUST ACCOMPANY BALKAN RECONSTRUCTION

    Carl

    Bildt, who is UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan's senior envoy

    to the Balkans, said in New York that southeastern Europe

    needs thorough-going political and economic reforms in

    addition to development assistance. Bildt stressed that old-

    style communist systems remain in place in much of the region

    and that "crony capitalism" predominates in some post-

    communist societies like Croatia and Bosnia, the

    "International Herald Tribune" reported on 30 August. Bildt

    identified Serbia as the core of the problem. "It's such a

    big chunk of land in the middle of the Balkans that if it

    does not reform itself, it will be very difficult to do

    anything substantial with the rest. Serbia is the core nation

    of the region," Bildt concluded. PM

    [20] DID BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL RISK ARREST IN VIENNA?

    Unknown

    persons leaked the secret list of war criminals indicted by

    the Hague-based tribunal to the Bosnian Serb authorities

    "weeks ago," Reuters quoted the Dutch daily "De Volkskrant"

    as saying on 30 August. The daily argued that General Momcilo

    Talic knew that he was on the list and risked arrest last

    week in Vienna (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 27 August 1999). The

    newspaper quoted an unnamed former Bosnian Serb military

    official as saying that Talic "was blinded by power and

    status.... He thought that his senior position in the army

    rendered him" immune from arrest. PM

    [21] CROATIA PREPARING TO EXTRADITE 'TUTA'?

    A Zagreb county court

    may soon decide to extradite Mladen "Tuta" Naletilic to The

    Hague, where he is wanted for war crimes in conjunction with

    the 1993-1994 Croatian-Muslim conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina,

    "Novi List" reported on 30 August. Croatia's failure to

    extradite Tuta has led to serious tensions in its relations

    with the tribunal and with Washington (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"

    27 August 1999). AP reported that some Croatian authorities

    are reluctant to extradite Tuta lest he implicate top

    officials in his testimony. PM

    [22] MOLDOVAN PREMIER IN ROMANIA

    Ion Sturza unexpectedly arrived

    in Romania on 27 August on a visit scheduled to begin three

    days later. After meeting with President Emil Constantinescu

    the next day, Sturza said that prospects for improving

    relations "have never been better" because both countries are

    ruled by centrist coalitions. He added that Moldova is

    particularly interested in the development of the

    transportation links between the two countries and in energy

    deliveries. Romania, he said, must become a "main electricity

    supplier" for Moldova. He also said that Romania will assume

    a 51 percent stake in the Moldovan Tirex Petrol Company. With

    regard to the pending basic treaty between the two countries,

    Sturza said the governments must "take over [from experts]

    the finalization" of that document, adding that he hopes it

    will be ready for signing by year's end. On 30 August, Sturza

    is scheduled to meet with Prime Minister Radu Vasile and the

    chairmen of the parliament's two chambers. MS

    [23] MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT RE-WRITES HISTORY

    Speaking at ceremonies

    marking Moldova's Independence Day on 27 August, President

    Petru Lucinschi said the day marks "the common denominator of

    our national history throughout the 640 years that passed

    since [the first declaration of] Moldovan statehood,"

    RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported. For the first time since

    independence was declared in 1991, a military parade took

    place in Chisinau to mark the anniversary. MS

    [24] DIMITROV MAUSOLEUM DEMOLISHED IN SOFIA

    Workers in Sofia on

    28 August completed the dismantling of the mausoleum that

    housed the body of Communist leader Georgi Dimitrov, BTA

    reported. Dimitrov's body was removed from the tomb and

    cremated in 1990 (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 23 August 1999). MS

    [25] BULGARIAN PARTIES BRACE FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS

    The two parties

    representing ethnic Turks--the Movement for Rights and

    Freedoms and the Party of Democratic Changes--have concluded

    an agreement on cooperation in the October local elections,

    BTA reported. leader Also on 28 August, the Liberal

    Democratic Alternative (LDS) and the Euro-Left signed an

    agreement on "pragmatic cooperation." LDS leader and former

    President Zhelyu Zhelev, said the agreement lays the

    foundation for a new liberal centrist formation. MS


    [C] END NOTE

    [26] BULGARIA'S ECONOMY ANAEMIC UNDER CURRENCY BOARD

    By Michael Wyzan

    In July 1997, in the aftermath of a severe economic

    crisis, Bulgaria introduced a currency board arrangement

    (CBA), under which the exchange rate is fixed to the Deutsche

    mark and the only changes in the money supply must arise from

    inflows and outflows of foreign currency.

    Such an arrangement, which has also been adopted by

    transition countries Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, and

    Lithuania, is designed to instill credibility in economic

    policy. It has been universally successful in bringing down

    inflation and interest rates to acceptable levels. A study by

    IMF economists found that countries employing CBAs have lower

    inflation and more rapid economic growth.

    The Bulgarian experience corroborates the results of

    that study as far as inflation is concerned. After

    experiencing 578.6 percent consumer price inflation (December

    to December) in 1997 (242.7 percent in February 1997 alone),

    such inflation was just below 1 percent in 1998 and stood at

    1.7 percent in the 12 months to July 1999. The fall in the

    national bank's annual base interest rate was equally

    dramatic, from a peak of 300 percent in September 1996 to the

    current 4.42 percent.

    Bulgaria's experience with economic growth, however, has

    been less encouraging. While GDP was up by 18.9 percent in

    the first quarter of 1998 over the very depressed first

    quarter of 1997, the recovery quickly ran out of steam. For

    1998 as a whole, the rate of GDP growth was only 3.5 percent,

    and this indicator fell by 0.7 percent in the first quarter

    of 1999, even before the effects of the Kosova crisis began

    to be felt. The official forecast is for GDP to grow by 1.5

    percent this year, although many observers expect a decline.

    Industrial production was down by 16.2 percent in the first

    quarter, compared with the first three months of 1998.

    Wages have recovered to pre-crisis levels under the CBA,

    even if production has yet to do so. The average monthly wage

    in the public sector, which had fallen to $25 in February

    1997, recovered by May 1999 to $124--close to the post-

    communist peak of $128 in September 1993. The unemployment

    rate, at 13.04 percent in May, has moved in no particular

    direction during the CBA era.

    The rapid rise in wages may not have led to higher

    unemployment, but some argue that it has played a role in

    Bulgaria's deteriorating current account balance. From

    January-May, the current account deficit was $433.5 million,

    up from $88.2 million a year earlier. This is a significant

    change for a country that has typically run surpluses or

    small deficits.

    Behind the current account imbalance during the first

    five months stands a trade deficit of $357.4 million (up from

    $48.5 million a year earlier). While growing trade and

    current account imbalances are common after successful

    macroeconomic stabilizations, it is striking that in Bulgaria

    these deficits result from declines in exports, rather than

    increases in imports as the economy expands. Both exports and

    imports were lower during the period January-May, compared

    with the same period in 1998, but exports fell by 22.7

    percent and imports by only 5.6 percent.

    There are a number of factors that contributed to the

    export collapse. Some are related to the crisis in Kosova,

    which cut off trade with Yugoslavia and trade routes to the

    EU through that country (some 50 percent of Bulgarian exports

    were transported through Yugoslavia before the war). Another

    factor is the continuing effect of the Russian crisis, which

    has caused a significant drop in trade with that country.

    Exports to Russia were only $39.7 million from January-March,

    compared with $272 million during that period last year.

    Under the CBA, there is not much scope for growth of the

    money supply when the country is running current account

    deficits and receiving relatively little foreign direct

    investment ($85.2 million in the first four months, down from

    $199.2 million during that period last year).

    Moreover, only a small share of the credit generated has

    gone to enterprises. Banks, which were burned during the pre-

    CBA era by enterprises that never repaid loans, would rather

    lend to the government or foreigners. However, there has been

    improvement on this front. Whereas loans to enterprises

    accounted for 23.7 percent of banks' financial assets at the

    end of 1997, that figure had risen to 32.1 percent by the end

    of 1998.

    Large persistent current account deficits will make the

    CBA difficult to sustain. To avoid such strains, Bulgaria

    will have to do a better job in placing its exports on

    Western markets and/or in attracting foreign investment.

    Estonia, whose economy has performed well under the CBA

    (which was introduced in 1992), has excelled in both

    respects.

    The author is a research scholar at the International

    Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria.

    30-08-99


    Reprinted with permission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
    URL: http://www.rferl.org


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