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Athens News Agency: News in Greek, 06-09-07

Athens News Agency: News in ASCII Greek Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Athens News Agency at <http://www.ana.gr/>

PERIEXOMENA
  • [01] H istoria kai h qewria ths dhmokratias sto NYU

    [01] H istoria kai h qewria ths dhmokratias sto NYU

    H dhmokratia einai shmera, anamfibola, mia lejh poly ths modas kai fainetai pws den yparxei xwra, poy na mhn thn exei yioqethsei h - toylaxiston - na isxyrizetai oti efarmozei kapoia morfh dhmokratikhs diakybernhshs. Ayto de shmainei, wstoso, pws yparxei pragmatikh katanohsh h dieqnhs synainesh gia to ti einai h ti qa mporoyse na einai h dhmokratia me thn plhrh ennoia toy oroy. Mia epistrofh stis rizes, sthn istorikh afethria kai th genesh ths dhmokratias sthn arxaia Ellada qa mporoyse pragmati na bohqhsei.

    Ayta tonise, metajy allwn, h proedros ths Boylhs, Anna Mpenakh - Caroyda, thn omilia ths sto Panepisthmio ths Neas Yorkhs (NYU), kata th diarkeia panhgyrikhs ekdhlwshs gia th dhmioyrgia Edras Dhmokratias me ton titlo: "Hellenic Parliament Global Distinguished Professorship".

    ``Ta teleytaia dyo xronia synergasthkame stena me to Panepisthmio ths Neas Yorkhs kai ton kosmhtora, k. Foli, prokeimenoy na broyme tropoys na jekinhsoyme ena eyrytero dialogo sxetika me thn istoria kai th qewria ths dhmokratias kai apofasisame na idrysoyme ena global professorship'', anefere sthn arxh ths omilias ths h kyria Mpenakh, h opoia prosqese:

    ``Gia polloys logoys, to Panepisthmio ths Neas Yorkhs apotelese fysikh epilogh, otan anazhthsame ton katallhlotero xwro gia na sthrijoyme ena tetoio dialogo. H qesh toy einai monadikh sthn kardia ths Neas Yorkhs - ths pio dieqnoys kai dhmokratika pio poikilomorfhs polhs - opoy synedriazoyn ta Hnwmena Eqnh, ena megalo oikonomiko kentro, enas topos, opoy diarkws anaptyssontai nea dianohtika kai kallitexnika kinhmata''.

    H proedros ths Boylhs twn Ellhnwn epeshmane oti "to Panepisthmio ths Neas Yorkhs einai, epishs, ena idryma, to opoio exei katabalei entypwsiakes prospaqeies gia na apokthsei pragmatika oikoymeniko xarakthra, kaqws ejakoloyqei na anaptyssei ajiologa programmata ellhnikwn spoydwn, politikhs kai filosofias, xwris na jexasoyme to neo Kentro Mpradhma gia th meleth toy Kogkresoy".

    Kataxeirokrotoymenh apo to polyplhqes akroathrio, poy apoteleito apo kaqhghtes, foithtes, stelexh ths akadhmaikhs zwhs kai paragontes ths ellhnoamerikanikhs koinothtas, h kyria Mpenakh synexise thn omilia ths, legontas:

    `` Xairetizoyme me idiaiterh ikanopoihsh thn epilogh toy kaqhghth Pol Kartletz ws Global Distinguished Professor ths Boylhs twn Ellhnwn gia th Qewria kai thn Istoria ths Dhmokratias kai eimaste bebaioi oti h paroysia toy sto panepisthmio ths Neas Yorkhs qa prokalesei oysiastikes kai synarpastikes syzhthseis me kaqhghtes kai foithtes, mesa kai ejw apo tis aiqoyses didaskalias, sxetika me th fysh ths dhmokratias, sto parelqon kai sto shmera. Eimaste perhfanoi poy symbaloyme sthn epanenarjh mas toso kritikhs syzhthshs gia th dhmokratia kai exoyme thn pepoiqhsh pws polloi apo emas - poy symmetexoyme energa ston xwro ths politikhs - qa wfelhqoyme apo th syzhthsh ayth''.

    H proedros ths boylhs anaferqhke sth neoterh empeiria ths Elladas stoys dhmokratikoys qesmoys kai sth dokimasia, thn opoia ypesth me thn eftaxronh diktatoria, anaferontas ta ejhs:

    ``H Ellada giortase perysi thn triakosth epeteio toy prwtoy Syntagmatos ths meta thn apokatastash ths dhmokratias, to 1974. Polloi polites ths xwras mas, metajy twn opoiwn kai foithtes panepisthmioy, oi opoioi prwtagwnisthsan, eixan antitaxqei sto diktatoriko kaqestws, agwnizomenoi gia th dhmokratia kai tis ajies ths. To neo Syntagma toy 1975, poy qewreitai ws ena apo ta pio proodeytika sthn Eyrwph, einai phgh yperhfaneias gia th xwra mas, epeidh apodeiknyei oti h Ellada katafere na jeperasei epta odynhra xronia antidhmokratikoy kai aytarxikoy kaqestwtos. Shmera, to koinoboyleytiko mas systhma exei apokatasthsei tis qemeliwdeis dhmokratikes ajies, xarakthrizetai apo polymereia kai eyreia politikh ekproswphsh, ekfrazontas tis apoceis olwn twn pleyrwn toy politikoy fasmatos''.

    Sth synexeia, h kyria Mpenakh tonise pws "kaqws analogizomaste ti shmainan gia mas aytes oi treis dekaeties epanodoy ths dhmokratias, qelhsame na doyme pws qa mporoysame na prowqhsoyme mia eyryterh kritikh syzhthsh gia ta idia ta qemelia ths dhmokratias. Anamfibola, h dhmokratia einai shmera mia lejh poly ths modas kai fainetai pws den yparxei xwra, poy na mhn thn exei yioqethsei h - toylaxiston - na isxyrizetai oti efarmozei kapoia morfh dhmokratikhs diakybernhshs. Ayto de shmainei, wstoso, pws yparxei pragmatikh katanohsh h dieqnhs synainesh gia to ti einai h qa mporoyse na einai h dhmokratia, me thn plhrh ennoia toy oroy".

    Opws eipe,"sto shmeio ayto mia epistrofh stis rizes, sthn istorikh afethria kai th genesh ths dhmokratias sthn arxaia Ellada qa mporoyse pragmati na bohqhsei", gia na prosqesei:

    `` Asfalws, oyte kai etsi qa broyme eykola apanthseis. Oi istorikes diadikasies, oi opoies odhghsan, arxika, stis prwtes morfes dhmokratikoy politikoy bioy kai katopin se ayto, poy qewreitai synhqws ws h pio ejeligmenh morfh dhmokratias, dhladh h aqhnaikh h attikh dhmokratia toy Perikleoys, sta telh toy 5oy aiwna p. X., einai arketa periplokes, opws allwste kai to synqeto systhma, to opoio diamorfwqhke, prokeimenoy na diafylaxqoyn ayta, poy qewroyntai ws ta pio oysiastika stoixeia ths, dhladh h diafaneia twn politikwn apofasewn kai h symmetoxh toy polith''.

    H proedros ths boylhs yposthrije oti "h poreia pros th dhmokratia - sthn arxaia ths morfh - den htan kaqoloy eykolh oyte oikoymenika apodekth. Oyte htan eykolo na orisqei h aqhnaikh dhmokratia, ston kolofwna ths dynamhs kai ths dojas ths. Otan o Periklhs, to 431 p.X., ston perifhmo Epitafio, opws ton kategrace h to apedwse o istorikos ths epoxhs, o Qoykydidhs, milaei gia th dhmokratia - ws th "dikh mas morfh politikhs organwshs (politeia)"- thn orizei ws mia morfh politeymatos, opoy ta dhmosia pragmata den ta diaxeirizontai "oi oligoi" - mia eklekth, isws aristokratikh omada andrwn - alla "oi polloi", "h pleionothta" twn koinwn anqrwpwn h akribestera twn eleyqerwn enhlikwn arrenwn politwn. ("Xrwmeqa gar politeia - leei o Periklhs - "onoma men dia to mh eis oligoys all' eis pleionas oikei dhmokratia keklhtai").

    ``O Qoykydidhs, pantws, kaqista safes'', synexise h kyria Mpenakh, ``oti ayth h morfh diakybernhshs, apo ton dhmo einai periorismenh kai ejisorropeitai, ws ek toytoy, apo alloys paragontes, to "nomo" prwtistws, o opoios eggyatai isothta metaxeirishs se oloys toys polites ws pros tis idiwtikes toys diafores, enw kaqe poliths mporei na analabei dhmosio ajiwma, oxi epeidh anhkei se kapoia koinwnikh tajh, alla me gnwmona tis proswpikes toy ikanothtes. Etsi, loipon, kapoios, poy einai ftwxos de mporei na apokleisqei apo th dhmosia qhteia, an exei tis ikanothtes na yphrethsei thn polh.

    Synepws, oi arxes poy apoteloyn thn pemptoysia twn sygxronwn dhmokratikwn, dhladh h arxh ths pleiochfias, to kratos dikaioy kai h isothta, diatypwqhkan kai efarmosthkan apo thn Aqhnaikh Dhmokratia.

    O Qoykydidhs fainetai na qewrei ton Periklh - ton opoio apokalei ton prwto andra - ws kapoion, o opoios htan se qesh na eggyhqei thn poly eyaisqhth isorropia toy dhmokratikoy systhmatos ths Aqhnas, kata thn teleytaia periodo ths Aqhnaikhs kyriarxias sthn arxaia Ellada''.

    ``Einai profanes oti h epistrofh stis rizes, poy egkainiazoyme apoce, de qa dwsei eykoles apanthseis. Eimai, wstoso, bebaih oti ajizei pragmati ton kopo na entryfhsoyme sth makra kai synqeth diadikasia ths anadyshs ths ellhnikhs dhmokratias, na melethsoyme ta qemata, poy sxetizontai me thn idiothta toy polith kai th symmetoxh sta koina, thn enswmatwsh kai ton apokleismo, thn eswterikh tajh kai thn ejwterikh isxy kai ta polla zhthmata kai problhmata, poy eprepe na antimetwpisei h dhmokratia sthn arxaia Ellada. Kai eimai pepeismenh oti mia tetoia meleth qa mas prosferei gnwseis gia thn katastash kai tis pragmatikes dynatothtes ths dhmokratias kai shmera'', eipe - xarakthristika - sthn omilia ths, h proedros ths boylhs.

    Amesws meta, o kaqhghths Ellhnikhs Istorias sth Sxolh Klasikwn Spoydwn toy Panepisthmioy toy Keimpritz, Pol Kartletz, o opoios twra qa didaskei to maqhma gia th Dhmokratia sto neoyorkeziko panepisthmio (NYU), milhse gia thn "Epanejetash ths Dhmokratias kai tis monternes metaboles sto arxaio ellhniko qema", dinontas mia analytikh eikona gia thn Aqhnaikh Dhmokratia, h opoia - opws anefere - htan "oysiastikh, pio baqia kai rizospastikh".

    Epipleon, o k. Kartletz tonise pws "sthn Aqhna mporoyse o kaqenas na milhsei sthn Ekklhsia toy Dhmoy", analyontas ton tropo askhshs ths ejoysias kai thn hqikh pleyra ths politeias.

    Idiaiterh emfash edwse sta tria merh ths Apologias toy Swkrath, " toy anqrwpoy kai filosofoy, poy apotelei mia spaniotath kai monadikh fysiognwmia, afoy pragmati apotelei istoriko fainomeno gia to pws ezhse, didaje kai sto telos pws peqane, ws enas xarakthras timios, nomotaghs kai hqikos", opws tonise xarakthristika.

    Sthn ekdhlwsh milhsan kai oi kaqhghtes toy Panepisthmioy ths Neas Yorkhs, Ritsarnt Foli kai Filip Mhtshs, enw paresthsan o arxiepiskopos Amerikhs Dhmhtrios, o prwhn proedros toy NYU, Tzon Mpradhmas, h boyleyths Sofia Kalantzakoy, o monimos antiproswpos ths Kypriakhs Dhmokratias ston OHE, presbhs Andreas Mayrogiannhs kai oi genikes projenoi ths Elladas kai ths Kyproy sth Nea Yorkh, Aikaterinh Mpoyra kai Marqa Mayrommath, antistoixa.


    Athens News Agency: News in ASCII Greek Directory - Previous Article - Next Article
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