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Athens News Agency: News in Greek, 10-11-06

Athens News Agency: News in ASCII Greek Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Athens News Agency at <http://www.ana.gr/>

PERIEXOMENA
  • [01] "Synexizoyme me allages h pame se peripeteies;"
  • [02] Oi arxontes twn daxtylidiwn...
  • [03] Maqhmata Palaiografias
  • [04] Symfwnia se basikes arxes

    [01] "Synexizoyme me allages h pame se peripeteies;"

    Na steiloyn ena isxyro mhnyma synexishs twn megalwn allagwn kata tis aytodioikhtikes ekloges ths 7hs Noembrioy, zhthse apo toys polites o prwqypoyrgos, milwntas sto kleisto gymnasthrio toy Sportingk, sthn kentrikh proeklogikh omilia toy ypochfioy perifereiarxh G. Sgoyroy kai toy ypochfioy dhmarxoy Aqhnaiwn G. Kaminh.

    O k. Papandreoy tonise gia mia akomh fora oti den htan kai den einai stis proqeseis toy oi prowres ekloges kai gi' ayto zhtei chfo eyqynhs apo kaqe polith, prokeimenoy na doqei mia kalh apanthsh sto dilhmma an synexizoyme mprosta me allages h qa pame pisw se peripeteies.

    Opws tonise o prwqypoyrgos, den qa distasei an synexistei h "antipatriwtikh", opws th xarakthrise, apopeira yponomeyshs ths prospaqeias ths xwras na zhthsei apo ton ellhniko lao na apofanqei gia to pws qa proxwrhsei h xwra sto ejhs.

    Nwritera, o G. Papandreoy, sth "diadiktyakh" syzhthsh poy eixe me neoys ypogrammise oti "h xreokopia ths xwras qa htan kai xreokopia twn dikwn sas oneirwn kai oramatwn"

    Ejalloy, o prwqypoyrgos se synenteyjh toy, sto italiko periodiko "Panorama", tonizei: ``An oi omades symferontwn poy plhjame me tis metarryqmiseis mas, poyne "ftanei, prepei na stamathsoyme tis allages poy einai se ejelijh", tote den moy menei para na apeyqynqw se olo ton ellhniko lao''.

  • * O prwqypoyrgos Giwrgos Papandreoy, qa episkefqei shmera, to Hrakleio ths Krhths.

    O k.Papandreoy qa afixqei sto aerodromio toy Hrakleioy stis 11.00 p.m.

    Sth synexeia, qa episkefqei ta eklogika kentra twn ypochfiwn toy PASOK gia thn Perifereia Krhths, Stayroy Arnaoytakh kai ton Dhmo Hrakleioy, Giannh Koyrakh.

    Amesws meta, o Prwqypoyrgos qa synanthqei me toys ypochfioys poy yposthrizei to PASOK sthn Krhth.

    More details on the subscriber's page of APE-MPE | Subscription request form

    [02] Oi arxontes twn daxtylidiwn...

    Oi sfragidoliqoi, ta mikra ayta kommatia anektimhths ajias ths arxaiothtas, oi opoioi syxna denontan se daxtylidia, exoyn apasxolhsei edw kai dekaeties toys arxaiologoys. Oi logoi einai aploi oso kai shmantikoi: Diaswzontai kata xiliades, enw h monadikh aisqhtikh toys exei anagagei polloys se aristoyrghmata.

    H syzhthsh metajy eidikwn, pantws, synexizetai. Isws epeidh kaqe sfragidoliqos einai monadikos, afoy skopos toy htan h ejasfalish toy aparabiastoy twn antikeimenwn, poy sfragize. Parallhla, polloi apo aytoys foriotan ws kosmhma sto laimo, h sto xeri, h xrhsimeyan ws fylakta, sta opoia apedidan apotreptikes h kai magikes idiothtes.

    Etsi, mia dialejh gia th syllogh twn nhsiwtikwn sfragidoliqwn toy Eqnikoy Arxaiologikoy Moyseioy mporei na fainetai arxika oti apeyqynetai se sygkekrimeno koino, sthn pragmatikothta omws einai ena qema ikano na kentrisei to endiaferon olwn.

    Nhsiwtikoi sfragidoliqoi

    Mia omada sfragidoliqwn toy Eqnikoy Arxaiologikoy Moyseioy toy 7oy kai 6oy ai. p. X. paroysiasthke th Deytera, sto plaisio twn dialejewn ths Etaireias twn Filwn toy Eqnikoy Arxaiologikoy Moyseioy. Oi sfragidoliqoi aytoi, gnwstoi ws ``nhsiwtikoi'', ofeiloyn to onoma toys ston logio perihghth kai arxaiologo Loydobiko Ros, o opoios ystera apo ena tajidi sth Mhlo, to 1843, perigrafei sto biblio toy ``Perihghseis sta ellhnika nhsia'' toys sfragidoliqoys poy eide ekei me parastaseis diaforwn zwwn kai apeikonizei merikoys apo aytoys.

    Sthn omilia ths h epitimh eforos arxaiothtwn, Elisabet Stasinopoyloy, ``edwse'' th ``diadromh'' kai toys symbolismoys twn sfragidoliqwn.

    Oi nhsiwtikoi sfragidoliqoi kentrizoyn to endiaferon twn perihghtwn kai ereynhtwn toy 19oy aiwna, se shmeio polloi na dhmioyrghsoyn sylloges poy argotera paradidoyn h pwloyn sta megala moyseia ths Eyrwphs. Topos kataskeyhs toys qewreitai h Mhlos, afoy oi perissoteroi exoyn ws proeleysh thn kapws asafh endeijh ``apo Mhlo''.

    Ta sxhmata kai ta qemata twn nhsiwtikwn sfragidoliqwn qymizoyn poly ekeina ths epoxhs toy Xalkoy, mia omoiothta poy ekane toys prwtoys arxaiologoys na toys qewrhsoyn proistorikoys. Piqanon, h omoiothta ayth na ofeiletai sthn aneyresh proistorikwn sfragidoliqwn kata ton 7o aiwna p. X. apo toys nhsiwtes texnites sth Mhlo h sta gyrw nhsia, opoy yphrxan proistorika kataloipa. Toys sfragidoliqoys aytoys antegracan ws pros to sxhma kai to qema.

    Oi perissoteroi einai amygdalosxhmoi kai fakosxhmoi, xwris na leipoyn kai alla sxhmata, opws oi prismatikes kai oi diskoeideis sfragides, oi skarabaioi ceydoskarabaioi k.lp. Exoyn breqei se diafora xrwmata, opws prasino, kastano, tefro, leyko kai einai smilemenoi se steatith. O malakos aytos liqos epetrepe thn katergasia toy me aples metallikes lepides h kopidia me mytes diaforwn sxhmatwn anti toy troxoy kai toy trypanioy, poy xrhsimopoioysan oi Minwites kai oi Mykhnaioi, alla kai osoi sfragidoglyfes, stoys aiwnes poy akoloyqhsan, doyleyan hmipolytimoys sklhroys liqoys.

    Einai panta diatrhtoi gia na forioyntai, perasmenoi se kordoni, sto laimo h ton karpo h kai gia na deqoyn se daxtylidi. Kaqws kanenas sxedon nhsiwtikos sfragidoliqos den exei breqei me alla eyrhmata, h xronologhsh toys ginetai sygkrinontas ton tropo epejergasias toys, kaqws kai texnotropika stoixeia sth sygxronh toys keramikh kai mikrotexnia.

    To qematologio qymizei kyriws ayto twn proistorikwn kai perilambanei parastaseis zwwn kai teratwn, opws einai ta liontaria, ta aloga (synhqws fterwta), ta elafia, oi aigagroi, oi tayroi, ta delfinia, poylia poy petoyn, oi skorpioi, oi sfigges kai oi ximaires, se ryqmikes synqeseis.

    Epishs, den leipoyn ta myqologika qemata, opws h aytoktonia toy Aianta, o Promhqeas, o Minwtayros kai o Kentayros, poy apeikonizontai se staseis oi opoies deixnoyn synhqws kinhsh, katalambanoyn olh th sfragistikh epifaneia, stoys de prwimoteroys, opoy yparxei keno, xarassontai paraplhrwmatika kosmhmata.

    Proistorikoi sfragidoliqoi

    Oi sfragidoliqoi, oi poly mikres egxaraktes petres, poy eferan synhqws egglyfes kai spaniotera anaglyfes parastaseis, kataskeyazontan apo polytimoys kai hmipolytimoys liqoys, opws iaspis, axaths, sardio, kornalinh, ameqystos, alla kai sklhra ylika, opws oreia krystallos, kexrimpari, elefantodonto, lapis lazuli, kaqws kai fqhnotera ylika, p.x. ofiths, steatiths kai yalomaza.

    Xrhsimopoioyntan sthn Aigypto, sth Babylwnia kai sthn Assyria apo thn 4h xilietia, kaqws kai sthn proistorikh Ellada kata th minwikh kai mykhnaikh epoxh (2400 p.X. ews arxes 12oy ai. p.X.), opoy kai exoyme ejairetika deigmata sfragidoglyfias.

    Oi krhtikomykhnaikoi sfragidoliqoi emfanizontai se polla diaforetika sxhmata: kwnikoi, kylindrikoi, orqogwnioi, kombioxhmoi, diskoeideis, fakoeides, amygdaloeideis k.a. Synhqws eixan mia diamperh oph wste na mporoyn na anartwntai me nhma sto laimo h ston karpo toy idiokthth toys, enw syxna denontan se daxtylidia.

    Ta qemata poy me maestria xarassontan sthn epifaneia twn liqwn htan poikila kai syxna entypwsiaka: zwa, fantastika kai mh, opws grypes, daimones, liontaria, aigagroi kai tayroi, teletoyrgikes skhnes kai agwnes me anqrwpines morfes (p.x. tayrokaqacia), skhnes palhs, afhrhmena gewmetrika sxedia, iptamena pthna, caria, xtapodia, proswpeia.

    Para th megalh akmh ths kata thn epoxh toy Xalkoy, h texnh ths sfragidoglyfias sxedon ejafanisthke gyrw sta 1200 p.X. me thn katarreysh twn mykhnaikwn kentrwn. Epanekamce sthn kyriws Ellada apo ton 9o ai. p.X. gia na gnwrisei pragmatikh anqish meta ta mesa toy 6oy ai. p.X. Peripoy tote poy emfanisthkan kai oi nhsiwtikoi sfragidoliqoi.

    Texnites kai ergaleia

    Arxika h xarajh twn liqwn ginotan me eleyqero xeri kai ta ergaleia poy xrhsimopoioysan oi texnites htan apla. Xalkina maxairia, lepides ocianoy, prionia, sympagh trypania gia to anoigma ths ophs anarthshs, elafropetres gia to gyalisma twn epifaneiwn arkoysan gia na kataskeyastoyn oi sfragides twn prwtwn minwikwn xronwn, poy htan kyriws ftiagmenes apo steatith, ofeith kai elefantodonto.

    Para ta penixra mesa twn sfragidoglyfwn ths epoxhs, yparxoyn polla ajiologa deigmata sfragidwn, kyriws elefantinwn, opoy kyriarxoyn oi apeikoniseis zwwn, poyliwn kai fytwn. Siga-siga, arxisan oi peiramatismoi kai me pio sklhres petres, opws o xalazias, to skalisma toy opoioy apaitoyse kainoyrgia ergaleia.

    Etsi, arxisan na xrhsimopoioyntai trypania, ta opoia gyrnoysan me th bohqeia sxoinioy h dojarioy. Symfwna me swzomenes anaparastaseis poy deixnoyn ton tropo leitoyrgias twn ergaleiwn aytwn, o texniths xeirizotan to trypani me thn palindromikh kinhsh toy dojarioy, thn idia stigmh poy h sfragida htan kala sterewmenh.

    Dyo akomh ergaleia bohqhsan wste na xaraxtoyn peritexna oi nees epifaneies. O troxos, o opoios se antiqesh me ta trypania skalize kyriws eyqygramma motiba kai o diabhths, poy kaqorize to sxhma twn fakoeidwn kai amygdaloeidwn sfragidwn.

    Diashmoi sfragidoliqoi

    H texnh ths xarajhs twn liqwn exei dwsei monadika erga. Ena paradeigma, isws to pio diashmo, einai to sfragistiko daktylidi apo ton ``Qhsayro ths Tirynqas'', poy apokalyfqhke sthn Akropolh to 1915 sta qemelia mykhnaikhs oikias kai to opoio sygkatalegetai sta aristoyrghmata ths mykhnaikhs sfragidoglyfias.

    Anhkei sthn Ysterh Epoxh toy Xalkoy (15os ai. p.X.) kai einai to megalytero deigma ths epoxhs toy, me egglyfh parastash kai anaglyfes diakosmhseis. Sta aristera emfanizetai mia gynaikeia qeothta kaqismenh se qrono h opoia me to deji ths xeri ycwnei kapoio aggeio h kypello, enw pros to meros ths plhsiazoyn tesseris leontokefaloi daimones poy kratoyn aggeia (proxoys) gia spondes.

    O qrhskeytikos xarakthras ths parastashs symplhrwnetai apo ena pthno, piqanotata aeto, enan kionisko me qymiathrio kai ton oyrano poy einai stolismenos me ton troxo toy hlioy kai th selhnh.

    Mia allh sfragida, gnwsth me ton titlo ``Despoths Qhrwn'' (1420-1400 p.X.) kai h opoia breqhke ston eponomazomeno ``Tafo toy Genarxh'' sta Xania, jexwrizei me th dynamh ths qematologias ths. Sthn egglyfh parastash ths despozei h morfh enos orqioy andra o opoios steketai panw apo mia polh me polywrofa ktismata, mia akoma apodeijh ths yparjhs polywrofwn minwikwn ktismatwn.

    Fylakta kai magikoi sfragidoliqoi

    Agnwstes qeothtes, daimones, perierga onomata kai symbola einai merika apo ta qemata poy xarassontan stoys sfragidoliqoys stoys opoioys apedidan magikes idiothtes. Prwtoemfanisthkan ta prwta xronia ths Rwmaikhs Aytokratorias, an kai daxtylidia me xarakthra bfylaktoyb xrhsimopoioyntan hdh apo thn proistorikh epoxh.

    Oi apotreptikes idiothtes twn bmagikwnb fylaktwn den eixan na kanoyn mono me ta qemata poy apeikonizan alla kai me ta ylika. Gia paradeigma, o xrysos, o argyros kai o aimatiths qewroyntan idiaitera magika ylika, kyriws logw ths antistoixias twn xrwmatwn toys me ton hlio o prwtos kai me to aima o argyros (poy kokkinizei otan skoyriazei) kai o aimatiths.

    To molybi, poy qewreitai afqarto yliko, xrhsimopoihqhke gia thn kataskeyh nekrikwn fylaktwn, enw kapoioi liqoi qewroyntan oti qerapeyan plhges, ponoys kai arrwsties. Megaloi giatroi ths ysterhs arxaiothtas, opws o Galhnos kai o Alejandros o Trallianos, xrhsimopoioysan fylakta kai hmipolytimoys liqoys gia na qerapeysoyn orismenes arrwsties. Gia paradeigma, o Galhnos anaferei oti enas sfragidoliqos apo prasino iaspi panw ston opoio eixe smileytei ena fidi me kefali liontarioy poy efere aktinwto stemma qa bohqoyse sth qerapeia ths dyspecias kai toy stomaxoponoy.

    More details on the subscriber's page of APE-MPE | Subscription request form

    [03] Maqhmata Palaiografias

    Perissotera apo 7.500 shmantika xeirografa apo Ellada kai Kypro, alla kai apo ta patriarxeia Alejandreias kai Ierosolymwn exoyn katagrafei ews stigmhs kai fylagontai sto Istoriko kai Palaiografiko Arxeio toy Morfwtikoy Idrymatos ths Eqnikhs Trapezas, opoy kai fetos jekinhsan ta maqhmata palaiografias gia ekeinoys poy epiqymoyn na apokthsoyn peira sthn anagnwsh palaiwn ellhnikwn xeirografwn.

    Ta maqhmata apeyqynontai se oloys osoi qeloyn na erqoyn se amesh epafh me tis graptes phges ths istorias kai ths ellhnikhs politistikhs klhronomias, kaqws periexomeno toys einai h anagnwsh byzantinwn kai metabyzantinwn xeirografwn, stoixeia xronologhshs kai perigrafhs, analysh twn morfwn grafhs, istoria ths paradoshs twn filologikwn keimenwn kai perigrafh kai analysh istorikwn eggrafwn.

    Opws ejhgei sto APE-MPE o kaqhghths Ag. Tselikas, opoios paradidei ta maqhmata stoys endiaferomenoys, h palaiografia einai enas idiaiteros episthmonikos klados, bohqhtikos ths filologias kai ths istorias, poy meleta thn istorikh ejelijh ths grafhs kai asxoleitai me thn anagnwsh kai xronologhsh palaiwn xeirografwn.

    ``Ayth h prwtoboylia jekinhse to 1974, otan genikos grammateas toy Morfwtikoy Idrymatos ths Eqnikhs Trapezhs htan o akadhmaikos L. Poliths kai stoxos htan na sygkentrwqoyn, na katagrafoyn kai na diafylaxqoyn ellhnika xeirografa se olh th xwra, kai parallhla na enhmerwqoyn oi anqrwpoi, poy ta eixan sta xeria toys'', leei o k. Tselikas. Diatypwnei, de, thn pepoiqhsh oti ta maqhmata apoteloyn poly shmantikh prwtoboylia, afoy to maqhma ths Palaiografias edw kai xronia den didasketai eparkws sta ellhnika panepisthmia.

    Sta 26 xronia leitoyrgias toy programmatos apo ta ``edrana'' toy Arxeioy exoyn perasei ekatontades maqhtes, ek twn opoiwn polloi epanalambanoyn to trito etos, kaqws ta maqhmata se ayto exoyn panta diaforetiko qema, enw oi ekpaideyomenoi apoteloyn eteroklhto koino. Kapoioi exoyn sxesh me ton eyrytero xwro tis filologias kai kapoioi alloi den exoyn kamia sxesh me ayton.

    O P. Pylarinos, apofoitos Biblioqhkonomias kai Arxeionomias, dhlwnei sto APE-MPE pws jekinhse na parakoloyqei ta maqhmata Biblioqhkonomias epeidh ektos toy aptontai toy episthmonikoy kai epaggelmatikoy toy antikeimenoy, einai apo mona toys ejairetika endiaferonta kai qa mporoysan na apotelesoyn gia kapoion, poy agapa th glwssa idiaitera eyxaristo xompi.

    Ta maqhmata parexontai dwrean kai ginontai kaqe Pempth sthn aiqoysa toy Istorikoy kai Palaiografikoy Arxeioy ths Eqnikhs Trapezhs sthn odo P. Skoyze 3, sthn Plateia Agias Eirhnhs, apo tis 17.00 ews tis 21.00.

    More details on the subscriber's page of APE-MPE | Subscription request form

    [04] Symfwnia se basikes arxes

    Se tesseris basikes arxes symfwnhsan oi empeirognwmones gia qemata asfaleias aerometaforwn poy synedriasan stis Bryjelles. Se genikes grammes, oi empeirognwmones proteinoyn eniaia proseggish twn metrwn asfaleias sthn EE kai beltiwsh toy syntonismoy anamesa sta krath melh gia thn apotelesmatikoterh prostasia twn eyrwpaiwn politwn.

    Oi empeirognwmones symfwnhsan stis ejhs tesseris arxes :

    1. Oi elegxoi asfaleias stis metafores emporeymatwn kai allhlografias qa prepei na basizontai se analysh kindynoy kai na lambanoyn ypoch toys mia seira apo paragontes, opws gia paradeigma h fysh toy antikeimenoy, h xwra proeleyshs, kaqws kai o typos ths pthshs (epibatikos h emporeymatikos).

    2. Ta demata kai h allhlografia poy eiserxontai sthn EE prepei na plhroyn ola ta krithria asfaleias.

    3. H EE kai ta krath melh ths qa enteinoyn tis prospaqeies toys me stoxo na epityxoyn thn plhrh efarmogh twn newn kanonwn poy aforoyn th metafora twn emporeymatwn .

    4. Xreiazetai na epitaxynqei h anaptyjh apotelesmatikoterwn morfwn elegxoy kai nees texnologies.

    More details on the subscriber's page of APE-MPE | Subscription request form


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