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Turkish Press Review, 99-12-07

Turkish Press Review Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs <http://www.mfa.gov.tr>

07.12.99

Summary of the political and economic news in the Turkish press this morning


CONTENTS

  • [01] STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (DTP): "TURKEY IS READY FOR THE YEAR 2000"
  • [02] FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS...
  • [03] DEMIREL IN BOSNIA
  • [04] DEMIREL WARNS EU
  • [05] ECEVIT: KURDS ARE NOT MINORITY
  • [06] ONE MORE STEP TO EU
  • [07] THEODORAKIS SUPPORTS TURKEY
  • [08] 'DECISION WILL BE GIVEN IN HELSINKI'
  • [09] HALONEN OPTIMISTIC OVER TURKEY'S EU CANDIDACY
  • [10] "TURKEY'S PLACE IS BECOMING FIRM"
  • [11] "TURKEY CANNOT BE IGNORED ANY MORE"
  • [12] 'STRANGE' DECISION IN THE EUROPEAN ARMY
  • [13] UN SECURITY COUNCIL ADDRESSES CYPRUS ISSUE
  • [14] "CYPRUS CANNOT BE CHECHENYA"
  • [15] KORAY AYDIN IN FRANCE
  • [16] BONEV IN ANKARA FOR THREE-DAY VISIT
  • [17] NATO 'SEA BREEZE' MANOEUVRES
  • [18] NATO MEETING
  • [19] CAKICI'S EXTRADITION REQUEST AUTHORIZED BY FRENCH PREMIER
  • [20] AID LOANS UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE TREASURY
  • [21] FUGITIVES HIJACKED THE BULGARIAN SHIP
  • [22] RAIDS CONTINUE
  • [23] MALTESE OIL TANKER RUNS AGROUND NEAR BOSPHORUS
  • [24] 'PENGUEN MISSILE` CRISIS
  • [25] ECONOMIC COUNCIL CONVENES
  • [26] GOVERNMENT PLEDGES SUPPORT FOR KOBIs
  • [27] GERMAN, FRENCH COMPANIES BID FOR TURKISH NUCLEAR PROJECT
  • [28] FOREIGN LOANS FOR RANT LEASING
  • [29] STOCK EXCHANGE INDEX REACHED TO 10,000 POINTS
  • [30] IS BANK AND KOCBANK RECEIVED FOREIGN LOAN
  • [31] CRISIS CENTRE
  • [32] STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (DTP): "TURKEY IS READY FOR THE YEAR 2000"
  • [33] TURKISH ECONOMY RANKS 16TH IN THE WORLD
  • [34] TRAFFIC AWARD FOR CENAJANS GREY
  • [35] FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS...
  • [36] MINORITY TRAP BY MUMTAZ SOYSAL (HURRIYET)
  • [37] THE SUN IS RISING BY GUNGOR MENGI (SABAH)

  • [01] STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (DTP): "TURKEY IS READY FOR THE YEAR 2000"

    [02] FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS...

    [03] DEMIREL IN BOSNIA

    Turkish President Suleyman Demirel arrived yesterday in Bosnia to meet local officials and discuss the progress of the political and economic situation there, four years after the end of war. During his two-day visit, Demirel is to meet the three members of Bosnia's joint multi-ethnic presidency, Ante Jelavic, Zivko Radisic and Alija Izzetbegovic, as well as other high-ranking Bosnian officials.

    In the central Bosnian town of Zenica, where Turkish peacekeepers have their headquarters, Demirel is to meet with his troops serving in the 31,000-strong, NATO-led peacekeeping force, implementing the peace process which ended the 1992-95 Bosnian war. On Tuesday, the Turkish President is to visit the southern Bosnian town of Mostar, where Turkey is helping to rebuild the 430-year-old single-span bridge built during the Ottoman Empire, which was destroyed in 1993 during the conflict. /All papers/

    [04] DEMIREL WARNS EU

    President Suleyman Demirel warned the EU on Monday that denying candidacy status to Turkey at the Helsinki Summit this weekend could seriously hamper the recent thaw in relations between Athens and Ankara. Demirel said following Sweden's declaration that it would support the drive to name Turkey as a candidate for EU accession, it had become clear that, with the exception of Greece, which has refrained from stating a definite position on the issue, there is a consensus among the EU countries that Turkey should be given candidacy status. Demirel remarked that Turkey was not demanding exceptional treatment from the EU and was aware of the responsibities it would shoulder once declared a candidate, but also warned that Ankara did not want any prejudices against it. Demirel pointed out that Turkey would not accpet a candidacy status with strings attached to it.

    Answering a question about the death sentence of Abdullah Ocalan, the head of the PKK terrorist organization, Demirel said that although the Court of Appeals had upheld the death sentence for Ocalan, the judicial process was not yet complete, and therefore it would be inappropriate to comment on the issue. /All papers/

    [05] ECEVIT: KURDS ARE NOT MINORITY

    Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit replying to the questions, posed by German Focus magazin, said that in the U.S also there was a National Security Council and the Turkish Army represented a great majority of the Turkish people. The Premier also emphasized that there was not such a Turk-Kurd discrimination in Turkey and added, "Kurds are not a minority but a part of the Turkish nation. /Milliyet/

    [06] ONE MORE STEP TO EU

    EU countries which are endeavouring to overcome the Greek obstacle in the General Affairs Council of the EU are also trying to establish bases for reconciliation. Greece wants Southern Cyprus to be an EU member unilaterally. If a political solution is not achieved in Cyprus while countries such as France, Britain, Italy and Germany are cautious with regard to Cyprus' full EU membership saying that 'We do not want a new political problem within the EU'.According to a by-formula which constitutes a base of reconciliation between the EU and Greece, the EU will request member candidate countries to accept the competence of the Justice Court in The Hague during the Helsinki Summit. In the final declaration to be issued at the Summit, the Copenhagen criteria will also take place.

    Meanwhile, it is reported that the member responsible for the Foreign Relations at the EU Commission, Chris Patten, stated that it was important that there should be an interval following full EU memberships of Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Estonia and Slovenia and added that the EU enlargment should be limited otherwise Japan could be an EU member in the future. /Turkiye/

    [07] THEODORAKIS SUPPORTS TURKEY

    During an interview with 'TaNea` newspaper, famous Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis requested that Greek Prime Minister Kostas Simitis not to reject to Turkey's EU membership. Theodorakis stated that to veto Turkey's membership, would put Greece in a bad situation with the EU and the U.S. /Milliyet/

    [08] 'DECISION WILL BE GIVEN IN HELSINKI'

    Greek Foreign Minister, George Papandreu, said that a decision concerning Turkey was not given and added that the final decision would be taken in Helsinki. Papandreu stated that negotiations for Turkey were on-going and pointed out that the EU had some expectations from Ankara such as the Cyprus and the Aegean issues to be brought to The Hague, human rights and democratic reforms. Meanwhile, Javier Solana, high-level representative responsible for the EU Security and Defence, said that Ankara would be invited to Helsinki and added that he hoped that a positive message would be given to Turkey. /Turkiye/

    [09] HALONEN OPTIMISTIC OVER TURKEY'S EU CANDIDACY

    The Foreign Minister of Finland, the EU Term-President, Tarja Halonen, said at the end of the EU Council meetings that they had discussed the issue of the EU enlargement and Turkey's candidacy and stated that the EU has been in search of finding a solution to Cyprus for a long time. Talonen remarked that Turkey's candidacy would be granted if Turkey abides by the Copenhagen criteria and added that contacts concerning this issue were underway. Meanwhile, Belgian Foreign Minister Louis Michel made a statement to the press following the EU Council meetings and said, "It will be an historic mistake if Turkey's EU candidacy is not officially granted during the Helsinki Summit". /Turkiye/

    [10] "TURKEY'S PLACE IS BECOMING FIRM"

    According to the official from the World Bank, Director Ajay Chibber, Turkey, which is one of the Muslim countries with a strong economy, has an important place with its secular structure, the geographical position, acting like a bridge. Chibber answered the question from the 'Platin' newspaper, which asked: "What are the things that Turkey expect?" and said, "A bright future is waiting for Turkey in the long run. There are many reasons for telling many positive things for Turkey. Turkey is confronting some problems at the moment. First, Turkey has a very strong sector, young, dinamic and a well-educated population; a very good location and clear improvements in education. Therefore Turkey will have a bright place not only in the region, but also in the world in the year 2000." /Aksam/

    [11] "TURKEY CANNOT BE IGNORED ANY MORE"

    The EU's (European Union) Ambassador to Turkey, Karen Fogg, said that the Helsinki Summit would be a bridge in terms of integrating with Europe. Fogg answered the questions of the 'Platin' newspaper and said, "The signals are very good now but it would be right not to be so hopeful as the exact result will known at the Helsinki Summit. We are waiting for some signals from Turkey. However, no one should forget this that whatever the decision will be at the Summit, Turkey cannot be ignored any-more. We know that the light that will be lit at Helsinki, will give confidence in the short and a long run in terms of foreign investments. Turkey is a good partner for the foreign investors in Western Europe." /Aksam/

    [12] 'STRANGE' DECISION IN THE EUROPEAN ARMY

    The Foreign Ministers, who came together in Brussels as part of the EU General Affairs Council, reached the first agreement on Finland's draft report concerning European Security and Defence Identity (AGSK) and confirmed their decree concerning excluding European NATO allies, which are not the members of the EU such as Turkey, from the decision mechanism. In the draft report, the wish to form political and military organizations as part of the AGSK and to play a role in the operations, such as protecting the peace and the crisis administration, as part of a transperant cooperation with NATO was emphasized. In this draft report, also there was an expression that the EU will give a guarantee of cooperation, solidarity and dialogue with the NATO allies, which are not members of the EU and the EU candidates. However, the EU will have a decision mechanism completely within its structural framework. In the project, it is planned that a European Army of 50-60 people will be established by the year 2003. /Aksam/

    [13] UN SECURITY COUNCIL ADDRESSES CYPRUS ISSUE

    Addressing the Cyprus issue this week, the UN Security Council is expected to determine a policy on Cyprus at its advisory meeting and to extend the mandate of the UN peacekeeping force in Cyprus until June 15, 2000. The UN Security Council adopted a draft resolution in June stipulating that 'single sovereignty, single international personality, single citizenship, two politically equal communities, a federation of two zones and two communities' would be the parameters for a solution to the Cyprus issue. /All papers/

    [14] "CYPRUS CANNOT BE CHECHENYA"

    The President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), Rauf Denktas, said that he would not sign the agreement which does not guarantee anything for Turkey and which does not depend on the principle of two states. Denktas, who delivered a speech during the meeting, held in his honour, at the Cyprus Turks Association in America, said, "We won this matter in 1974. The works that were made after 1974 are for granting better days for the TRNC and the Cyprus Turks. We are in New York for our wish to have a cooperation in peace. Much Turkish blood was shed and there were many massacres due to Greek-Cypriots' and the Greeks' dream of Enosis. Cyprus will not be a new Chechenya, we will not allow it. Turkey entered Cyprus 26 years ago and stopped this blood shed." /Aksam/

    [15] KORAY AYDIN IN FRANCE

    Koray Aydin, the Minister of Housing and Public Works, travelled to France on Monday to attend a fomal meeting about tackling the problems of traffic in big cities, particularly Istanbul, the Anatolia News Agency reports. The meeting will give Aydin the opportunity to hear the opinions of a number of experts on transportation and city planning.

    [16] BONEV IN ANKARA FOR THREE-DAY VISIT

    Bulgarian Interior Minister Bogomil Bonev arrived in Ankara yesterday for a three-day official visit at the invitation of Interior Minister Saadettin Tantan. According to a statement from the Turkish Interior Ministry, the two Ministers will come together today and then participate in meetings as members of the delegations from their respective countries. The two sets of meetings are expected to cover not only bilateral relations but also various regional issues. The two Ministers are also expected to deal with the issues of the fight against organized crime, black money and smuggling between the two countries. /All papers/

    [17] NATO 'SEA BREEZE' MANOEUVRES

    NATO joint manoeuvres, dubbed 'Sea Breeze-99', are to take place in the Black Sea off Ukraine's Odessa and Sevastopol regions between December 8-15.The manoeuvres will be carried out by NATO members the US, Britain, Turkey, France, Italy, Germany, Holland and Greece. Partnership for Peace (PfP) members Bulgaria, Georgia, the Russian Federation and Ukraine will also actively participate, while Poland will take part as an observer. According to a statement from the General Secretariat of the Turkish Chief of General Staff, the manoeuvres are intended to increase between NATO and the PfP countries' sea forces. In related news, the Turkish Navy's East Mediterrenean 99 manoeuvres ended on Monday after Turkish and allied warships arrived at Aksaz naval base near Marmaris. /All papers/

    [18] NATO MEETING

    Izmit and Duzce earthquakes have been taken up at NATO meetings in Brussels. Turkish scientists and NATO experts have been discussing whether or not to dispatch a NATO research ship in order to carry out researchs on fault lines in the Marmara Sea. The final verdict will be given by NATO's military officals. /Milliyet/

    [19] CAKICI'S EXTRADITION REQUEST AUTHORIZED BY FRENCH PREMIER

    The request for the extradition of Alaattin Cakici, a Turkish criminal figure being held in a French prison, has reportedly been signed. The prosecutor of the Aix-En-Provence court, Jean Francois Pascal, told reporters the paper for Cakici's extradition have been signed by French Premier Lionel Jospin. Pascal said there would be another hearing for Cakici's release, as requested by his lawyers, pending trial on December 16. Aix-En-Provence's court of appeals responded positively to Turkey's request for Cakici's extradition after receiving Ankara's assurance that Cakici would not be executed. For his five convictions, Cakici received three capital sentences. /All papers/

    [20] AID LOANS UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE TREASURY

    It was stated that the "Earthquake Emergency Aid Loan" that was received by the World Bank, amounting to a total of 757.5 million dollars, will be controlled by the Undersecretariat of the Treasury's Council of Treasury Controllers. In a statement issued by the Association of Treasury Controllers, it is the Treasury Controllers' duty to control the project loans that is used by Turkey through the World Bank and the Controllers perform this duty under the title of "Independent Controller" in the name of the World Bank. /Aksam/

    [21] FUGITIVES HIJACKED THE BULGARIAN SHIP

    It was stated that a cargo-ship called "Volodoley-1", belonging to a Bulgarian firm and carrying vegetables from Turkey to Greece, was hijacked by illegal immigrants. The Bulgarian official news agency BTA, stated that the immigrants, who forced the captain of the ship to cast anchor at a Greek harbour, took the ship's crew of 8 people, captive and threatened that they would set the ship on fire if they did not cast anchor. It was stated that any Greek offices allowing the ship to cast anchor at any of the Greek harbours and that this ship is in Lebsos Island which is an open sea area in the Aegean Sea of Greece. /Aksam/

    [22] RAIDS CONTINUE

    Turkish security forces continue their raids against members of the PKK terrorist organization in south-eastern region. Nearly 15,000 Turkish soldiers are participating in operations which aim at sweeping the region of PKK terrorists. Cobra and Skorsky helicopters are also supporting the operations. Two terrorists were captured in the rural area of the Genc district of Bingol yesterday. Chief of General Staff, Gen.Huseyin Kivrikoglu, went to the region and made a tour of observations in Erzincan, Elazig and Van. /Turkiye/

    [23] MALTESE OIL TANKER RUNS AGROUND NEAR BOSPHORUS

    A Maltese-registered tanker carrying 45,753 tons of oil ran aground yesterday at the mouth of the Bosphorus Strait. There was no immediate danger of an oil spill, the coast guard said. The 242 meter-long tanker, Histria Seatide, got stuck in the Sea of Marmara just as it navigated passed the narrow Bosphorus Strait, the dividing line for both the city of Istanbul and for Europe and Asia. The tanker, sailing from Russa to Italy, did not immediately request any help, the coast guard said. In a bid to stop more tanker traffic flowing through its already crowded straits, Turkey has pushed for a US-backed project to build a pipeline to carry oil from the Caspian region to its Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. /Milliyet/

    [24] 'PENGUEN MISSILE` CRISIS

    A 'Penguen Crisis` has experienced between Turkey and Norway. At the end of August, an agreement concerning of buying of 30 Penguen Missiles, each 1.1 million dollars, was signed. However, the Norweigian Parliament has not approved the accord, under the pretext of Human Rights issues and Turco-Greek relations. Regarding this situation, Navy Forces Commandership asked for a decisive reply from the Norweigan manufacturer and by the end of December. The missiles will be used in Sea Hawk sea helicopters which will be bought from the U.S. /Sabah/

    [25] ECONOMIC COUNCIL CONVENES

    Chairmen of the Economic and Social Council's seven establishments, are gathering today in Ankara. During the meeting, the country's issues will be discussed. /Sabah/

    [26] GOVERNMENT PLEDGES SUPPORT FOR KOBIs

    A 'Nasdaq Model' system should be installed in Turkey for small and medium-scale enterprises (KOBIs) who want a higher share from capital markets, Union of Turkish Chambers and Commodity Exchanges (TOBB) President Fuat Miras said at the KOBI Summit which started in Ankara yesterday. The summit is jointly organized by TOBB, the Association of Self-Employed People (TOSYOV) and the business and finance daily 'Dunya'. At the opening, TOSYOV's President Isin Celebi said that globalization had increased cooperation in trade and that cooperation increased the importance of KOBIs. He stressed that healthy financing conditionsd were the basic preconditions for KOBIs becoming more competitive. Celebi added that efficient KOBIs were esential to Turkey's sustainable growth in the 21st century. /Turkiye/

    [27] GERMAN, FRENCH COMPANIES BID FOR TURKISH NUCLEAR PROJECT

    German company Siemens and French company Fratatome are currently bidding under an international consortium for an estimated $3 billion project for the construction of Turkey's first nuclear power plant. The consortium also includes the following companies: Germany's NPI and KWU, France's Berdrand and Hoctief, and Turkish-owned Garanti-Koza and Simko-STFA-Tekfen. The consortium is bidding against two other groups of companies intent on winning the contract. /All papers/

    [28] FOREIGN LOANS FOR RANT LEASING

    Rant Leasing has received $3 million in loans via the US Eximbank. General Director of Rant Leasing, Sen Akduman, said that the loans would be used to finance investment products of American origin and the leasing transactions for maximum five-year term. /Hurriyet/

    [29] STOCK EXCHANGE INDEX REACHED TO 10,000 POINTS

    Yesterday, the Istanbul Stock Exchange (IMKB) National-100 Index reached 10,000 points with the applause of brokers in the Transaction Hall. The index climbed to 10,037 and the closing point was 9,861. The trading volume, on this historical day was, 472 trillion TL. In the mean time bond interest rates decreased to 53%. /Sabah/

    [30] IS BANK AND KOCBANK RECEIVED FOREIGN LOAN

    The agreement concerning the loan, which was received by the Turkish Is Bank through syndication from financial markets, amounting to 275 million dollars, will be signed in London today. Furthermore, Kocbank received a syndication loan amounting to 120 million dollars from international financial market. The agreement concerning the loan which was joined by 21 banks, was signed in London. /Aksam/

    [31] CRISIS CENTRE

    The government is going to establish a 'Crisis Management Centre` in order to tackle with the 'problem of the year 2000` , which has become a nightmare. The centre will try to solve problems which may emerge in the evening of Dec. 31th. In addition to that, the State Planning Organization (SPO) has prepared a 'National Unexpected Situation Plan`. The organizations which serve critical services will be followed up and co-ordination between various establishments will be ensured. In a report prepared by the SPO, and presented to the TGNA's Council, the situation of the state establishments had been evaluated. According to that, in the finance sector all of the 83 banks are ready to tackle with the problem. /Sabah/

    [32] STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (DTP): "TURKEY IS READY FOR THE YEAR 2000"

    Possible problems with computers may occur on entering the year 2000, is expected to influence mostly the "production" sector in Turkey. In the 'Our Country's Preperation For The Year 2000' report, prepared by the DPT, there are the rates of the readinesses of some important sectors. In the report, it was stated that much distances were covered after the effort was made since November, 1998. In addition, in the report, it was written, "Most of the institutions know their situation as from last June. The news concered will not be any problem regarding the banking services, communication and energy supply speeded up the works of other institutions. /Aksam/

    [33] TURKISH ECONOMY RANKS 16TH IN THE WORLD

    As in 1997 and in 1998, the Turkish economy ranked 16th in the world, with its $405 billion national income in purchasing power parity. According to the 'World Development Report 1999_2000' of the World Bank, the US ranked first with $7.9 trillion, while China came second with $4 trillion worth of national income and Japan third, with $2.9 trillion. In the list, Australia, Argentine, Thailand and Holland follow Turkey. /Turkiye/

    [34] TRAFFIC AWARD FOR CENAJANS GREY

    The campaign, which was prepared by Cenajans Grey and which consists of two films in order to obtain the traffic security, received award at the London International Advertising Awards. The campaign that was prepared because of the traffic week, left behind the works of many countries in the "Public Service Campaign" category. The tone of the films does not 'frighten' but depicts the issues such as driving on the wrong side and driving under the influence of alcohol. /Aksam/

    [35] FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS... FROM THE COLUMNS...

    [36] MINORITY TRAP BY MUMTAZ SOYSAL (HURRIYET)

    Columnist Mumtaz Soysal writes on the concept of minorities an non-muslims in Turkey. A summary of his column is as follows:

    "In a statement at the Bundestag, German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said that membership perspective which will be given to Turkey is not a blank cheque. That it to say, he repeated what was already known. Is there anyone who does not know that being a member to the EU means to comply with the Copenhagen criteria? Within the framework of these criteria is Turkey in agreement with the present members of the EU on the meaning of the 'protection of minorities'? As there is no such agreement, is it wise to accept the candidacy blindfolded, granted as if it was a favour ? It is the duty of every citizen to request explanation on the subject before accepting the candidacy.

    This is a republic which does not have a minority concept in its Constitution and recognizes this status to only non-muslims as a condition in the Lausanne treaty. However, this is not what Europe means by minority concept. According to Europe every society which belongs to a different sect, or speaks a different language, or is different in ethnic or racial origin is considered a 'minority' and therefore, deserves to be protected. This is an issue for States which have had to shelter different national minorities within their borders following the Second World War.

    The concept of Republic which the founders of the Turkish State took from the French concept does not even want to recognize such differences let alone make a discrimination in status among its citizens. Leaving aside its faults, in theory, all citizens are equal and enjoy the same rights and freedoms.

    Such a concept requires more beyond this theory and to adapt itself to modern human rights issue. That is, all citizens should be able to enjoy freedoms which is the requirement of an ethnic identity. From Europe's point of view this could mean that every Turkish citizen of Kurdish descent has the freedom to speak and write his or her own mother tongue and develop his or her own culture . If he desires he may open up a course, put up an institute, publish a newspaper and even open up a television station and broadcast programmes. However all of these should be done on the condition that they will not wage a propaganda for separation. A Republic, whose main duty is to teach the language of the State and provide education in that language can recognize such a freedom. The State, cannot accept regional or cultural autonomy.

    If this issue is not clearly discussed with Europe the pressures on 'minorities' will increase with every passing day. Candidacy cannot mean being trapped."

    [37] THE SUN IS RISING BY GUNGOR MENGI (SABAH)

    Columnist Gungor Mengi writes on the expectations of Turkey in the year 2000. A summary of his column is as follows:

    "The Sun promised to Turkey by the horizons of the year 2000 has started to shine in the stock market which is the barometre of the economy. We shall enter the new year as a country whose democracy is guaranteed by the EU and the economy by the IMF. There is a government in Ankara determined to fight inflation.

    Turkey has been included into the G-20 due to its leadership role and potential in the region. In the new year large amounts of foreign sources are expected to flow into the country. The rates of interest are falling. The economy which has decreased at the rate of 4.5% has hit rock bottom.

    All these circumstances do not show that the economy is in distress but, rather, getting ready for a leap up. It is not a coincidence that the stock market is forcing the limits to 10,000.

    In four days time,, when Turkey's candidacy is accepted and the stand-by agreement with IMF is signed, the economy will rocket. Foreign banks have received instructions to increase the capacity of their branches in Turkey. However, success will be achieved only when the economic programme is accepted by the whole nation, and the Government has to convey these expectations, hopes and enthusiasm. We have to turn this programme into an "Economic War of Independence" supported by the people. The hopeless state of the people should be changed."


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