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Voice of America, 5 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA/CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)

  • [03] BOSNIA CEASE-FIRE (L) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [04] CLINTON / POPE / BOSNIA (S-O) BY DEBORAH TATE (WASHINGTON, DC)

  • [05] CLINTON-BOSNIA CEASEFIRE(S) BY DAVE BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [06] CLINTON / CUBA / BOSNIA (S&L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [07] HOLBROOKE/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)

  • [08] MACEDONIA: IN THE EYE OF THE STORM BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [09] MACEDONIA BLOCKADE BY BARRY WOOD (VIENNA)

  • [10] NATO / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (WILLIAMSBURG)

  • [11] NATO ONITER (L) BY DAVID SWAN (WILLIAMSBURG)

  • [12] RUSSIA / BOSNIA (S) BY PETER COLLINS (MOSCOW)

  • [13] U-S/RUSSIA/NATO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [14] YUGO SITREP (S) BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/05/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09203
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, OCTOBER 5. //

    INTRO: AS THE NATION RECOVERS FROM THE EMOTIONAL SHOCK OF THE O-J SIMPSON MURDER TRIAL VERDICT, THE SUBJECT CONTINUES TO BE A FOCAL POINT OF MANY U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORIAL COLUMNS. OTHER TOPICS OF NOTE THIS THURSDAY ARE POPE JOHN PAUL'S VISIT TO THE U-S; A PROPOSED NEW U-S POLICY FOR CUBA, AND THE UNITED NATIONS' BUDGET DEFICIT. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FOR A SECOND DAY, THE DOMINANT TOPIC IN THE AMERICAN PRESS IS THE ACQUITTAL OF FORMER FOOTBALL STAR O-J SIMPSON, WHO HAD BEEN ACCUSED OF STABBING TO DEATH HIS EX-WIFE NICOLE AND HER FRIEND RON GOLDMAN MORE THAN A YEAR AGO. IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND, OREGON, OFFERS THESE COMMENTS UNDER THE HEADING -- "SECOND-DAY THOUGHTS ABOUT O-J":

    VOICE: "MANY AMERICANS HAVE SNEERED THAT THE O-J SIMPSON TRIAL TURNED INTO A TELEVISED SOAP OPERA. IT CERTAINLY WAS A SOAP OPERA, BUT THE TRIAL STILL GAVE AMERICANS MUCH MEATY STUFF TO THINK ABOUT REGARDING ONE OF THEIR MOST CHERISHED INSTITUTIONS - - THE JUSTICE SYSTEM. .... THE SIMPSON TRIAL CAMERA OPENED THE COURT TO EVERY AMERICAN WHO WANTED TO SEE THE JUSTICE SYSTEM IN ACTION. IF THE SYSTEM HAS WARTS, [FAULTS] IT'S BEST THAT AMERICANS GET FRONT-ROW SEATS TO SEE THOSE BLEMISHES, OR THEY CAN'T FIX THEM. [OPT]...... DON'T PUT THIS TRIAL DOWN [MINIMIZE IT] THOUGH. AS A SEQUEL TO THE RODNEY KING BEATING AND TRIALS, IT SHOWS HOW WIDE AMERICA'S RACIAL GULF REMAINS AND GIVE HINTS AT HOW MUCH WORK IS NEEDED TO CLOSE IT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ACROSS THE NATION, IN MAINE, "THE PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" SAYS THE SIMPSON TRIAL OUTCOME MAY HAVE DONE LASTING DAMAGE TO SOCIETY'S EFFORTS TO COMBAT SPOUSAL ABUSE.

    VOICE: "FOR THOSE WHO SOUGHT TO USE THE SIMPSON TRIAL TO SHINE A PUBLIC SPOTLIGHT ON AMERICA'S DARK PROBLEM OF BATTERED WOMEN, THE 'NOT GUILTY' VERDICT CAME AS A SHOCKING DISAPPOINTMENT. [OPT] IF [MR.] SIMPSON HAD BEEN CONVICTED OF KILLING HIS EX-WIFE, NICOLE BROWN SIMPSON, AND HER FRIEND, RONALD GOLDMAN, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A POWERFUL WARNING TO BATTERING MEN. [END OPT] ..... IF ABUSIVE MEN FEEL EMBOLDENED BY THE VERDICT, IT IS UP TO THE PUBLIC TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE MISTAKEN."

    TEXT: AND IN FLORIDA, THAT SAME THEME LEADS THE EDITORIAL COLUMN OF THE STATE'S LARGEST DAILY, "THE MIAMI HERALD."

    VOICE: "SINCE NICOLE SIMPSON'S MURDER ... DOMESTIC VIOLENCE COUNSELORS HAVE REPORTED MANY WOMEN BEING THREATENED WITH, 'I'M GONNA [GOING TO] O-J YOU.' HOW CHILLING. SOME WOMEN'S ADVOCATES ARE PREDICTING A DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EPIDEMIC IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SIMPSON ACQUITTAL."

    TEXT: "THE HERALD" CONCLUDES BY URGING POLICE AND CRIMINAL PROSECUTORS TO BE EVEN MORE VIGILANT TO THE PROBLEM, SO THAT DOESN'T HAPPEN.

    [OPT]

    A VERY DIFFERENT CONCERN -- THE ROLES OF POLICE INVESTIGATORS WORKING ON THE SIMPSON CASE -- TROUBLES THE "LOS ANGELES TIMES."

    VOICE: "THE O-J SIMPSON TRIAL PUT THE LOS ANGELES POLICE DEPARTMENT IN A BAD LIGHT. THE GLARE ILLUMINATED THE RACIST RANTINGS AND LIES OF NOW-RETIRED DETECTIVE MARK FUHRMAN ... AND THE MISHANDLING OF BLOOD AND OTHER KEY EVIDENCE BY DETECTIVES AND CRIMINALISTS WHO SHOULD HAVE KNOWN BETTER. ... ACCORDING TO JURORS WHO HAVE SPOKEN OUT, THIS WAS THE FATAL WEAKNESS OF THE PROSECUTION'S CASE... TO PREVENT A REPEAT OF THE EMBARRASSING LACK OF PROFESSIONALISM HIGHLIGHTED IN THE TRIAL, THE L-A-P-D'S CRIME LABS WILL HAVE TO UNDERTAKE A MAJOR OVERHAUL..."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE NATIONAL WEEKDAY PAPER, "USA TODAY", EXPRESSES CONCERN OVER THE AFFECT THE TRIAL HAD ON RACE RELATIONS IN THE NATION.

    VOICE: WITH EACH NEW DAY, IT SEEMS MORE CERTAIN THE LASTING LESSONS OF THE O-J SIMPSON VERDICT WILL BE WRITTEN IN BLACK AND WHITE. [OPT] IN DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES, BLACKS CHEERED THE NEWS: 'THE JUICE [MR. SIMPSON'S NICKNAME] IS LOOSE.' ACROSS TOWN AT DODGER STADIUM, MEANWHILE, WHITE FANS CHANTED: 'GUILTY, GUILTY.' [END OPT] THE RACES SEEM MORE DIVIDED THAN EVER. BUT THEY ARE NOT. THE VERDICT HAS JUST EXPOSED LONG-STANDING DIFFERENCES OF PERCEPTION THAT ARE HARD TO BRIDGE."

    TEXT: AMONG OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS TODAY, SEVERAL PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE FOUR-DAY VISIT OF POPE JOHN PAUL THE SECOND, WHICH BEGAN WEDNESDAY IN NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, WITH A GREETING FROM PRESIDENT CLINTON. "THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "THE LAST TIME POPE JOHN PAUL VISITED THESE SHORES, THERE WAS A GREAT SURGE OF INTEREST IN SPIRITUAL LIFE. NOT JUST AMONG ROMAN CATHOLICS, BUT AMONG PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS -- MANY OF THEM LONG LAPSED FROM RELIGION. THE SAME DEEP THIRST FOR SOMETHING MORE, SOMETHING GREATER THAN ONESELF, MIGHT BE EXPECTED THIS TIME TOO..."

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, WHERE THE POPE ARRIVES ON SUNDAY, "THE SUN" POSES SEVERAL QUESTIONS:

    VOICE: "WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE WORLD'S FASCINATION WITH POPE JOHN PAUL THE SECOND? HIS OWN CHURCH, AFTER ALL, IS BITTERLY DIVIDED -- ON ABORTION, ON CONTRACEPTION, ON THE CELIBATE MALE PRIESTHOOD. YET THE POPE'S GLOBAL INFLUENCE IS AS HIGH AS ANY STATESMAN'S, AND HIGHER THAN ANY POPE'S SINCE THE AGE OF CONQUEST HALF A MILLENNIUM AGO... HE HAS IMAGINATIVELY BROADENED THE VATICAN'S REACH. NO STATESMAN IN HISTORY HAS TRAVELED SO MUCH. BUT THE PONTIFF HAS BEEN MORE THAN A GOODWILL AMBASSADOR... JOHN PAUL INVITES US TO EXAMINE THE MORE BASIC QUESTIONS: WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE HUMAN? HOW SHALL WE LIVE?

    TEXT: AT LEAST TWO PAPERS FEEL THE TIME HAS COME FOR A NEW U-S POLICY TOWARD CUBA. IN LOS ANGELES, "THE TIMES" SAYS "WASHINGTON MUST ENSURE IT HAS INFLUENCE IN HAVANA WHEN THE 69-YEAR-OLD PRESIDENT FIDEL CASTRO IS GONE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "SINCE FIDEL CASTRO CAME TO POWER IN 1959, EIGHT U-S PRESIDENTS HAVE REFUSED TO OPEN A POLITICAL DIALOGUE WITH HIM... [MR.] CASTRO ... SHOWS NO SIGN OF STEPPING ASIDE, BUT, IF HE DOES, HOW MUCH INFLUENCE WILL WASHINGTON HAVE IN HAVANA? ISN'T IT TIME FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON TO MODIFY COURSE AND CONSIDER A NEW POLICY TOWARD CUBA? [OPT] [PRESIDENT] CLINTON COULD BENEFIT FROM HIS TALKS WITH POPE JOHN PAUL ..... THIS POPE, HARDLY A COMMUNIST SYMPATHIZER, HAS HAD A DIPLOMATIC AND POLITICAL EXCHANGE WITH CUBAN AUTHORITIES SINCE 1992. .... THE TIME IS RIPE FOR CHANGE BECAUSE THERE ARE IMPORTANT ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL TRANSITIONS TAKING PLACE IN CUBA NOW." [END OPT]

    TEXT: NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND "NEWSDAY" CRITICIZES A MOVE BY SENATE MAJORITY LEADER BOB DOLE TO DENY FIDEL CASTRO A VISA TO ATTEND THE UNITED NATIONS 50TH BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION IN NEW YORK, AND CONCLUDES:

    VOICE: "[SENATOR] DOLE, IT SEEMS, FEARS THAT [PREMIER] CASTRO WILL USE THE PUBLIC FORUM PRESENTED BY THE VISIT TO RAIL AGAINST THE U-S ECONOMIC EMBARGO OF CUBA ..... WELL, SO WHAT IF HE DOES? IT 'IS' [ITALICS] A SILLY EMBARGO, ONE THAT ACCOMPLISHES NOTHING MUCH BEYOND ENSURING THE MISERY OF ORDINARY CUBANS AND SOOTHING THE POLITICAL PARANOIA OF OLD ANTI-CASTRO FORES IN THE ARCH CONSERVATIVE CUBAN-AMERICAN ENCLAVES OF SOUTH FLORIDA AND NORTHERN NEW JERSEY. [OPT]... MUST THE U-S EMBARGO ON CUBA LIVE ON UNTIL [PREMIER] CASTRO DIES OF OLD AGE ...?" [END OPT]

    TEXT: FINALLY, ON THE UNITED STATES DEBT TO THE UNITED NATIONS, TODAY'S "SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE IS CALLING IT "A NATIONAL DISGRACE".

    VOICE: "THE 50TH SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS' GENERAL ASSEMBLY HAS OPENED ... TO A LOUD AND ANGRY CHORUS OF SHAME OVER THE FACT THAT THE ORGANIZATION, IN ITS GOLDEN ANNIVERSARY SESSION, IS HOBBLED BY THE WORST FINANCIAL CRISIS IN ITS HISTORY -- A BUDGET DEFICIT SO SEVERE THAT EVEN UNIVERSALLY ACCLAIMED INITIATIVES MAY HAVE TO BE ABANDONED. ... THE U-N'S DEADBEAT [IN ARREARS] MEMBERS ARE LEGION, BUT MOST OF THEM PALE IN COMPARISON TO THE HUGE DEBT OWNED BY THE UNITED STATES -- A BOUT ONE-BILLION 400-MILLION DOLLARS. [OPT] AND WITH THE REPUBLICAN CONGRESS THREATENING TO SLASH NEXT YEAR'S U-S CONTRIBUTIONS BY 22 TO 44 PERCENT ..... TODAY'S CRISIS MAY WELL BECOME TOMORROW'S BANKRUPTCY, WITH DIRE IMPLICATIONS FOR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT AND SECURITY.L .... THIS IS A NATIONAL DISGRACE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND ON THAT SELF-CRITICAL NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE SUBJECTS UNDER THE EDITORIAL MICROSCOPE THIS THURSDAY. NEB/ANG/PCH 05-Oct-95 11:32 AM EDT (1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA/CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31300
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NEW AGREEMENT ON A CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA APPEARS TO HAVE A MUCH BETTER CHANCE THAN PREVIOUS TRUCES OF ACTUALLY BEING IMPLEMENTED. AN IMPORTANT REASON FOR THIS IS A MAJOR CHANGE IN THE SITUATION ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA OVER THE PAST MONTH. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT WAS ANNOUNCED A LITTLE SOONER THAN EXPECTED. UNTIL THE ANNOUNCEMENT IN WASHINGTON, AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE HAD INDICATED THERE WERE STILL PROBLEMS TO BE WORKED OUT. HE HAD CONVEYED WHAT HE CALLED A SERIOUS CEASEFIRE OFFER FROM BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE.

    IN THAT OFFER, WHICH MAY HAVE BROKEN A DEADLOCK, THE GOVERNMENT NO LONGER DEMANDED THE DEMILITARIZATION OF THE BOSNIAN-SERBS' LARGEST TOWN, BANJA LUKA, AS A CONDITION FOR A TRUCE.

    THE GOVERNMENT'S OTHER CONDITIONS -- A SIXTY-DAY TRUCE, THE RESTORATION OF UTILITIES TO SARAJEVO AND FREE GOVERNMENT ACCESS TO THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF GORAZDE -- HAVE BEEN OR APPEAR LIKELY TO BE MET.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID HERE IN ZAGREB THAT THE WARRING FORCES WANTED FIVE DAYS TO ELAPSE BEFORE THE CEASEFIRE TAKES EFFECT THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THAT COULD MEAN AN ESCALATION OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA, AS MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT TROOPS OR BOSNIAN-SERB FORCES TRY TO CAPTURE OR RE-CAPTURE MORE TERRITORY IN LAST-MINUTE FIGHTING.

    A SERB COUNTER-OFFENSIVE HAS BEEN UNDERWAY IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. IF THERE IS INCREASED FIGHTING, IT WILL MOST LIKELY BE IN THAT REGION AND IN NORTH-CENTRAL BOSNIA.

    BUT THE NEW CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IS MORE LIKELY TO BE HONORED THAN ITS PREDECESSORS. THE NEW AGREEMENT HAS THE PULL-WEIGHT OF THE UNITED STATES BEHIND IT.

    EQUALLY IMPORTANT, THE TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS IN BOSNIA ARE MUCH CLOSER NOW TO THE PROPOSED PEACE PLAN. UNDER THAT PLAN, THE MUSLIM AND CROAT FEDERATION GETS 51 PERCENT OF THE LAND AND THE BOSNIAN-SERBS GET 49 PERCENT.

    AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFENSIVE IN THE NORTHWEST, THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA IS DIVIDED ABOUT IN HALF BETWEEN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND THE SERB ENTITY.

    THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS SEIZED A HUGE CHUNK OF TERRITORY LAST MONTH, PARTLY BECAUSE SERB DEFENSES WERE WEAKENED BY NATO AIR ATTACKS. THE BOSNIAN-SERBS WERE DISORGANIZED, THEIR COMMUNICATIONS WERE DISRUPTED AND THEIR COMMANDER WAS AWAY FROM THE BATTLEFIELD AT A CRUCIAL TIME.

    THERE ARE STILL SUSPICIONS WITHIN SERB RANKS OF A SECRET DEAL TO LET THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS TAKE TERRITORY NOT REALLY CONSIDERED IMPORTANT BY THE SERB POLITICAL LEADERSHIP. THERE ARE SUSPICIONS THAT THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT (SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC) PLAYED A DECISIVE BEHIND-THE-SCENES ROLE IN THIS ALLEGED DEAL.

    IT HAS ALWAYS BEEN TRUE THAT IF ANY OF THE WARRING FORSES THOUGHT THEY COULD GET MORE BY FIGHTING THAN BY NEGOTIATING, THEY WOULD NATURALLY FIGHT. IT HAS ALSO BEEN TRUE THAT THE WARRING FORCES HAVE USED PREVIOUS TRUCES TO RESUPPLY AND REINFORCE AND TO GET READY FOR STILL MORE FIGHTING.

    BUT THE SITUATION NOW REALLY SEEMS DIFFERENT. ACCORDING TO MR. RICHARD HOLBROOKE, EVERYONE REALLY WANTED A CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA THIS TIME.

    THE TRUCE THAT SHOULD TAKE EFFECT ON OCTOBER 10TH WILL SHOW WHETHER THE LOGIC OF PEACE, AS FORMER FRENCH PRESIDENT FRANCOIS MITTERAND CALLED IT, HAS FINALLY REPLACED THE LOGIC OF WAR. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/KK-T/PT 05-Oct-95 6:16 PM EDT (2216 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA CEASE-FIRE (L) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186394
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ANNOUNCED A U-S BROKERED CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA. IT WOULD GO INTO EFFECT OCTOBER 10TH, AND BE FOLLOWED BY PEACE TALKS. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA HAS THE LATEST.

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT USED ALL THE EXPECTED LANGUAGE TO PRAISE THE CEASE-FIRE NEGOTIATED BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND SIGNED BY THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA. THE PRESIDENT SAID IT WAS, IN HIS WORDS, "AN IMPORTANT MOMENT," AND "A SOLID STEP IN THE HARD BUT HOPEFUL ROAD" TO PEACE IN BOSNIA.

    BUT BEYOND THE RHETORIC, THE REALITY IS THERE HAVE BEEN CEASE-FIRES THERE BEFORE. THIS TIME, THE PRESIDENT IS HOPING PEACE TALKS THAT FOLLOW WILL PROVIDE THE PARTIES THE REAL OPPORTUNITY, THE NEEDED INCENTIVE, TO MAKE A LASTING PEACE.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    WHAT MATTERS IS WHAT THE PARTIES DO -- NOT SIMPLY WHAT THEY SAY. THERE REMAIN DEEP DIVISIONS TO OVERCOME. WE ARE NOW ON THE RIGHT ROAD BUT WE HAVE BY NO MEANS REACHED OUR DESTINATION -- WHICH IS A SERIOUS AND LASTING PEACE IN BOSNIA. THIS CEASE-FIRE, HOWEVER, GREATLY INCREASES OUR CHANCES TO END THE WAR AND TO ACHIEVE A PEACE. THE UNITED STATES, TOGETHER WITH OUR EUROPEAN AND OUR RUSSIAN PARTNERS, INTENDS TO USE ALL OF OUR INFLUENCE AND EVERY OUNCE (PORTION) OF OUR ENERGY TO SEIZE THIS HISTORIC OPPORTUNITY.

    // END ACT //

    THE CEASE-FIRE WOULD GO INTO EFFECT OCTOBER 10TH, CONTINGENT UPON THE RESTORATION OF GAS AND ELECTRIC POWER TO SARAJEVO, AND THE ASSURANCE OF FREE PASSAGE FROM SARAJEVO TO GORAZDE. IT WOULD LAST 60 DAYS, OR UNTIL A PEACE AGREEMENT IS REACHED. THE CEASE-FIRE WOULD BE ENFORCED BY UNITED NATIONS FORCES IN THE REGION. A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE, INCLUDING U-S TROOPS, WOULD TAKE OVER TO ENFORCE ANY PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    ACCORDING TO A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL BRIEFING REPORTERS, ALL PRISONERS WILL BE EXCHANGED AFTER THE CEASE-FIRE GOES INTO EFFECT.

    AFTER THE CEASE-FIRE GOES INTO EFFECT, THE WARRING PARTIES WOULD TAKE PART IN TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES, AROUND OCTOBER 25TH, TO BE HELD IN WHAT THE SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL CALLED A SECLUDED LOCATION OUTSIDE WASHINGTON. THEN INTERNATIONAL TALKS WOULD FOLLOW IN PARIS.

    U-S OFFICIALS UNDERSTAND THE UNPREDICTABLE NATURE OF THIS WAR, AND WANT TO BE, AS THE PRESIDENT PUT IT, "CLEAR-EYED" ABOUT THE ROAD AHEAD. THE SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL WHO SPOKE WITH REPORTERS SAID HE HOPES ALL MILITARY OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA WILL WIND DOWN NOW. BUT HE QUICKLY ADDED -- "WE CANNOT SAY FOR SURE." (SIGNED)

    NEB/BORG/CF
    05-Oct-95 12:18 PM EDT (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] CLINTON / POPE / BOSNIA (S-O) BY DEBORAH TATE (WASHINGTON, DC)

    DATE=10/4/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186359
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: POPE JOHN PAUL ADDRESSES THE UNITED NATIONS LATER TODAY (THURSDAY) AS HE CONTINUES HIS FIVE-DAY VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES. THE PONTIFF BEGAN HIS TRIP WEDNESDAY IN THE NORTHEASTERN U-S CITY OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, AND WAS MET BY PRESIDENT CLINTON. THE TWO MEN HAD PRIVATE TALKS THAT FOCUSED ON THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, AS WE HEAR IN THIS REPORT FROM V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE.

    TEXT: WHITE HOUSE OFFICIALS SAY EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO BOSNIA WAS THE FOCUS OF THE 30-MINUTE MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON AND POPE JOHN PAUL.

    A JOINT STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE PRESS SECRETARIES OF BOTH MEN SAYS MR. CLINTON DISCUSSED U-S EFFORTS TO HELP BRING ABOUT A NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA AND END THE SUFFERING IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE STATEMENT SAYS THE PONTIFF TOLD THE PRESIDENT HE HAS INVITED ALL THE BISHOPS OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA TO MEET IN ROME ON OCTOBER 17TH.

    WHILE NOT ADDRESSING SPECIFIC SOLUTIONS, BOTH MEN DISCUSSED GENERAL WAYS IN WHICH THE HOLY SEE AND THE UNITED STATES COULD AGREE IN SEEKING THE RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS.

    MR. CLINTON ASKED THE POPE TO CONTINUE HIS PRAYERS FOR PEACE AND HIS EFFORTS TO ENCOURAGE ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS RECONCILIATION. THE PONTIFF IS EXPECTED TO RENEW HIS APPEAL FOR SUCH RECONCILIATION DURING HIS SPEECH TO THE UNITED NATIONS ON THURSDAY. (SIGNED)

    NEB / DAT / BD / GPT
    04-Oct-95 11:32 PM EDT (0332 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] CLINTON-BOSNIA CEASEFIRE(S) BY DAVE BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186389
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ANNOUNCED A U-S BROKERED CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA. U-S OFFICIALS ARE HOPEFUL THIS CEASE-FIRE, TO TAKE EFFECT OCTOBER 10TH, WILL LEAD TO FURTHER PEACE TALKS AND A LASTING PEACE SETTLEMENT. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: CALLING THE CEASE-FIRE "A SOLID STEP ON THE HARD BUT HOPEFUL ROAD TO PEACE IN BOSNIA," PRESIDENT CLINTON URGED THE PARTIES TO FOLLOW-UP WITH ACTION:

    // CLINTON ACT //

    THIS IS AN IMPORTANT MOMENT IN THE PAINFUL HISTORY OF BOSNIA, FOR TODAY, THE PARTIES HAVE AGREED TO PUT DOWN THEIR ARMS, ROLL UP THEIR SLEEVES AND WORK FOR PEACE. WE NEED TO BE CLEAR-EYED ABOUT THIS. WHAT MATTERS IS WHAT THE PARTIES DO, NOT SIMPLY WHAT THEY SAY.

    // END ACT //

    THE CEASE-FIRE WOULD LAST FOR 60 DAYS OR UNTIL A PEACE SETTLEMENT IS ACTUALLY ANNOUNCED. THE CEASE-FIRE WOULD BE EFFECTIVE ON OCTOBER 10TH, CONTINGENT UPON THE RESTORATION OF FULL GAS AND ELECTRIC POWER IN SARAJEVO, AND THE ASSURANCE OF FREE PASSAGE FROM SARAJEVO TO GORAZDE. IT IS TO BE ENFORCED BY UNITED NATIONS FORCES. A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE, WITH U-S FORCES INCLUDED, WOULD TAKE OVER ONCE A PEACE SETTLEMENT IS REACHED.

    AFTER THE CEASE-FIRE GOES INTO EFFECT, PEACE TALKS WOULD BE HELD AROUND OCTOBER 25TH AT WHAT A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL CALLED A SECLUDED LOCATION JUST OUTSIDE WASHINGTON. PEACE TALKS WOULD THEN CONTINUE IN PARIS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BORG/CF
    05-Oct-95 11:47 AM EDT (1547 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] CLINTON / CUBA / BOSNIA (S&L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186416
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON DELIVERS A FOREIGN POLICY SPEECH IN WASHINGTON LATER TODAY (FRIDAY) IN WHICH HE IS TO ANNOUNCE A SERIES OF STEPS OPENING THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION WITH THE CUBAN PEOPLE. ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THE MEASURES ARE AIMED AT -- AS THEY PUT IT -- STRENGTHENING THE FORCES THAT WILL LEAD TO THE PEACEFUL TRANSITION TO A STABLE DEMOCRACY IN CUBA. V-O-A'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE HAS MORE ON WHAT MR. CLINTON IS EXPECTED TO SAY IN HIS SPEECH, TO BE DELIVERED TO A CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY FREEDOM HOUSE -- A HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATION IN WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: AMONG THE STEPS PRESIDENT CLINTON IS TO ANNOUNCE FRIDAY IS ONE ALLOWING U-S NEWS ORGANIZATIONS TO ESTABLISH BUREAUS IN CUBA AND CUBAN NEWS OUTLETS TO SET UP OFFICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

    A SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIAL, SPEAKING ON CONDITION OF ANONYMITY, SAYS THE PRESIDENT WILL ALSO ANNOUNCE THAT GREATER TRAVEL WILL BE ALLOWED BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES FOR SCIENTIFIC, SCHOLARLY, CULTURAL, AND RELIGIOUS PURPOSES.

    THE OFFICIAL SAYS THE NEW STEPS WILL INCLUDE ALLOWING U-S NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS TO SELL COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING FAX MACHINES AND COMPUTERS, TO THEIR CUBAN COUNTERPARTS.

    IN ADDITION, THE OFFICIAL SAYS, THE PRESIDENT IS TO ANNOUNCE THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL ALLOW CUBAN AMERICANS ONE VISIT A YEAR TO CUBA FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES.

    THE SENIOR OFFICIAL SAYS THE EXPECTED ANNOUNCEMENT IS NOT IN RESPONSE TO ANY CHANGE IN THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT, AND THAT THERE ARE NO PLANS TO LIFT THE EMBARGO ON CUBA UNTIL, AS HE PUT IT, THERE IS SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS THERE.

    // REST OPT FOR LONG //

    IN HIS FOREIGN POLICY SPEECH, MR. CLINTON IS ALSO EXPECTED TO MAKE THE CASE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE FOR THE NEED TO SEND U-S TROOPS TO BOSNIA TO TAKE PART IN A NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO MONITOR A FUTURE SETTLEMENT.

    ON THURSDAY, THE PRESIDENT ANNOUNCED THAT A CEASE-FIRE HAD BEEN REACHED AMONG THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA

    MR. CLINTON -- AWARE THAT HE DEFEATED FORMER PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH IN 1992 WITH A PROMISE TO FOCUS ON DOMESTIC ISSUES -- HOPES TO ARGUE THAT WHAT IS HAPPENING ABROAD IS IN THE SECURITY AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF ALL AMERICANS.

    IT IS A POINT MADE BY WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY THURSDAY.

    // MCCURRY ACTUALITY //

    WHEN THEY SIT AROUND THE KITCHEN TABLE AT NIGHT, WORRY ABOUT HOW THEY ARE GOING TO PAY THEIR BILLS, IT MATTERS THAT WE HAVE INTERNATIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS THAT ARE KEEPING PEOPLE IN GOOD, PRODUCTIVE PAYING JOBS HERE IN THE UNITED STATES. WHEN THEY SIT AROUND AND CONTEMPLATE WHAT TYPE OF WORLD WE LIVE IN, IT MATTERS THAT THERE ARE NO LONGER RUSSIAN NUCLEAR MISSILES POINTED AT THE PEOPLE OF AMERICA.

    // END ACT //

    MR. CLINTON'S SPEECH COMES AS HE ENJOYS A NUMBER OF RECENT FOREIGN POLICY SUCCESSES -- INCLUDING THE PROGRESS TOWARD PEACE IN BOSNIA. LAST WEEK, THE PRESIDENT HOSTED A CEREMONY FOR THE SIGNING OF A WEST BANK SELF RULE ACCORD BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE P-L-O. AND THURSDAY, HE ANNOUNCED THAT MEXICO HAS BEGUN TO REPAY A LOAN IT BORROWED FROM THE UNITED STATES TO HELP COUNTER AN ECONOMIC CRISIS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAT/CB/PT
    05-Oct-95 7:23 PM EDT (2323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] HOLBROOKE/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186405
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THERE IS NOT YET PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, BUT HE SAYS THE NEW CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IS A BIG STEP FORWARD. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN ZAGREB, MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT WAS REACHED AFTER LONG AND VERY INTENSE DISCUSSIONS WITH THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT IN BELGRADE AND THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT IN SARAJEVO.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS HE IS OBVIOUSLY PLEASED WITH THE TRUCE AGREEMENT, BUT HE SAYS JUST RESTORING ELECTRICITY TO SARAJEVO -- ONE OF THE CONDITIONS OF THE CEASEFIRE -- IS A MAJOR TECHNICAL PROBLEM.

    HE ALSO CAUTIONS THE NEGOTIATIONS ON A FINAL PEACE SETTLEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL BE VERY, VERY DIFFICULT.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    I AM SURE THERE ARE GOING TO BE UPS AND DOWNS. I WOULD BE SURPRISED IF WE DID NOT HAVE A FEW CRISES ALONG THE WAY. BUT WE ARE HEADED TOWARDS THE MOMENT WHEN PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, AND A JOINT YUGOSLAV-BOSNIAN-SERB NEGOTIATING TEAM AND PRESIDENT TUDJMAN AND HIS DELEGATION WILL SIT DOWN IN THE SAME AREA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE CONTACT GROUP AND START TALKING ABOUT HOW TO END THIS TERRIBLE TRAGEDY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-S ENVOY SAYS ALMOST EVERY ISSUE THAT HAS BEEN OR WILL BE DISCUSSED IS AN OBSTACLE, INCLUDING A PROPOSED MAP OF BOSNIA, THE FUTURE OF SARAJEVO AND A STRATEGIC SERB CORRIDOR IN NORTHERN BOSNIA.

    HE ADDS THE MUSLIMS AND SERBS HAVE ARGUED ABOUT HOW TO FORM A COMMISSION ON NATIONAL HISTORICAL MONUMENTS.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT 2 ///

    ANY OF YOU WHO THINK THESE ISSUES ARE IRRATIONAL OR MINOR MUST REMEMBER THAT THE WHOLE WAR IS, FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF MOST OF US, IRRATIONAL. WE ARE GOING TO HAVE TO PLOW THROUGH THESE ISSUES ONE AT A TIME.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE WILL RETURN TO WASHINGTON AFTER HE GOES TO ROME AND BRIEFS THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA AND OTHER COUNTRIES ON THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT. (SIGNED) NEB/WC/KK-T/RAE 05-Oct-95 3:01 PM EDT (1901 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] MACEDONIA: IN THE EYE OF THE STORM BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08635
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: TUESDAY'S ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION THE PRESIDENT OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, KIRO GLIGOROV [KIR-OH GLEE-GO-ROVE], HAS SET OFF ALARM BELLS THROUGHOUT THE REGION. MR. GLIGOROV WAS INJURED BY A CAR BOMB AS HE WAS BEING DRIVEN TO HIS OFFICE IN THE CAPITAL, SKOPJE [SCOPE-YEH]. HIS DRIVER WAS KILLED AND SEVERAL OTHER PEOPLE INJURED. AN INTERIM PRESIDENT WAS NAMED ON WEDNESDAY, SPEAKER OF PARLIAMENT, STOJAN ANDOV [STOY-AHN AHN-DOVE]. POLICE HAVE SEVERAL SUSPECTS IN CUSTODY BUT THERE HAS BEEN NO WORD ON WHO IS RESPONSIBLE

    FOR THE ATTACK OR WHY. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH

    SOME BALKAN ANALYSTS WHO FOLLOW MACEDONIAN AFFAIRS CLOSELY ABOUT THE POSSIBLE MOTIVES FOR SUCH AN ATTACK AND THE LIKELY REPERCUSSIONS FOR THE REGION.

    TEXT: KIRO GLIGOROV, WHO WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT REPUBLIC IN 1990, HAS EARNED THE RESPECT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR THUS FAR KEEPING HIS COUNTRY FREE OF THE ETHNIC VIOLENCE THAT HAS ENGULFED MUCH OF THE BALKANS. THIS, DESPITE TENSIONS WITH A LARGE ETHNIC MINORITY AND SIMMERING HISTORIC RIVALRIES WITH NEIGHBORING SERBIA, ALBANIA, GREECE AND BULGARIA. UNDER MR. GLIGOROV'S LEADERSHIP, MACEDONIA SIGNED AN AGREEMENT LAST MONTH NORMALIZING RELATIONS WITH GREECE. ACCORDING TO THE AGREEMENT, GREECE WILL LIFT ITS YEAR OLD ECONOMIC EMBARGO AGAINST LAND-LOCKED MACEDONIA. IN RETURN, THE GOVERNMENT IN SKOPJE AGREED TO BEGIN THE PROCESS OF CHANGING THE COUNTRY'S FLAG, CONSTITUTION AND NAME. THE MACEDONIAN PARLIAMENT VOTED THURSDAY (10/5) TO CHANGE THE FLAG WHICH WILL RETAIN THE SAME COLORS -- YELLOW AND RED BUT REPLACE THE CONTROVERSIAL 16 POINT STAR WITH A SUN. THESE MOVES WERE DESIGNED TO ALLAY GREECE'S FEARS ABOUT WHAT IT PERCEIVES AS MACEDONIA'S TERRITORIAL DESIGNS ON THE NORTHERN GREEK PROVINCE OF THE SAME NAME. MARSHALL FREEMAN HARRIS, A FORMER STATE DEPARTMENT BALKAN AFFAIRS SPECIALIST, SAYS PRESIDENT GLIGOROV'S INCAPACITATION, CAUSED BY SERIOUS HEAD INJURIES, COULD CREATE A SERIOUS POLITICAL VACUUM:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 HARRIS RUNS [:22] "A REAL COMPLICATING FACTOR HERE IS THE SHEER IMPORTANCE OF PRESIDENT GLIGOROV TO THE COUNTRY. HE'S A NATIONALIST IN THE BEST SENSE OF THAT WORD, OR PATRIOT AND THERE'S NO HEIR APPARENT. THERE'S NO ONE WHO COMES TO MIND WHO COULD FILL HIS SHOES AND KEEP THESE DISPARATE GROUPS TOGETHER."

    TEXT: MR. HARRIS, NOW DIRECTOR OF THE COUNCIL FOR PEACE IN THE BALKANS, GIVES AN IDEA ABOUT JUST HOW MANY OF THESE DISPARATE GROUPS THERE ARE, INCLUDING SEVERAL WHO ARE NOT AT ALL HAPPY ABOUT THE AGREEMENT WITH ATHENS:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 HARRIS RUNS [:34] "THE ETHNIC MACEDONIAN NATIONALISTS ARE CERTAINLY UNHAPPY ABOUT THIS BECAUSE MACEDONIA IS HAVING TO CHANGE ITS FLAG AS PART OF THIS AGREEMENT. IT COULD BE THAT SERBIAN NATIONALISTS ARE UPSET AS WELL BUT ANYONE COULD BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT. IT COULD BE JUST A DISGRUNTLED INDIVIDUAL. IT COULD BE ETHNIC ALBANIAN EXTREMISTS, IT COULD BE ETHNIC MACEDONIAN EXTREMISTS OR ETHNIC SERB EXTREMISTS.

    TEXT: ANOTHER BALKAN EXPERT, JANUSZ BUGAJSKY [YAHN-OOSH BOO-GUY-SKI], A SPECIALIST IN ETHNIC CONFLICT AT THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (CSIS) IN WASHINGTON, AGREES, AND ADDS TWO MORE POSSIBLE SUSPECTS TO THE LIST -- GREEK AND BULGARIAN EXTREMIST GROUPS. BOTH GROUPS OPPOSE MACEDONIAN INDEPENDENCE. BUT MR. BUGAJSKY THINKS THE MOST LIKELY CANDIDATE IS SOMEONE REPRESENTING SERBIAN NATIONALIST INTERESTS:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 BUGAJSKY RUNS [:18] "IT MAY BE A SERB NATIONALIST GROUP WHICH ISN'T DIRECTLY LINKED WITH (PRESIDENT SLOBODAN) MILOSEVIC, ALTHOUGH AN ORGANIZATION LIKE THE SERBIAN RADICAL PARTY MAY INDEED BE PENETRATED BY THE YUGOSLAV SECURITY SERVICES. IN OTHER WORDS, THOSE WHO OPPOSE MILOSEVIC'S MOVES TOWARD RECOGNIZING MACEDONIA."

    TEXT: EARLIER THIS WEEK, PRESIDENT GLIGOROV MET WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE, THEIR FIRST OFFICIAL MEETING SINCE THE BREAKUP OF THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION IN 1991. MR. MILOSEVIC INDICATED THE RESOLUTION OF THE DISPUTE BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND GREECE COULD LEAD TO A NORMALIZATION OF TIES BETWEEN BELGRADE AND SKOPJE. MR. BUGAJSKY THINKS THAT UNLESS IT IS REVEALED THAT OUTSIDE FORCES WERE INVOLVED IN THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT, THERE IS LITTLE CHANCE IT WILL PRECIPITATE AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS. HOWEVER, HE SAYS, ALL THAT MAY CHANGE IF MR. GLIGOROV IS UNABLE TO RESUME HIS DUTIES, AS MANY FEAR:

    TAPE: CUT # 4 BUGAJSKY RUNS [:46] "I THINK THERE WILL BE A POLITICAL CRISIS LEADING TO FRESH ELECTIONS, A VYING FOR POWER BY VARIOUS GROUPS, INCLUDING SOME OF THE EXTREMISTS GROUPS. IT WOULD CERTAINLY PUT ON HOLD SOME OF THE AGREEMENTS MACEDONIA HAS INITIALED WITH GREECE AND PARTICULARLY SERBIA-YUGOSLAVIA IN THE PAST WEEKS. THAT IN ITSELF WOULD SET BACK THE PROCESS OF STABILIZING THE COUNTRY. IT WOULD BE PRIMARILY AN INTERNAL STRUGGLE WHICH WOULD PRECIPITATE SOME KIND OF CRISIS WHICH WOULD LEAD TO VIOLENCE RATHER THAN A BLATANT OUTSIDE INTERVENTION AS WAS THE CASE IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA. THE DANGER IS IF THIS SPIRALS OUT OF CONTROL IT COULD INVOLVE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES INCLUDING SERBIA."

    TEXT: MR. BUGJASKY SAYS THAT MOST MACEDONIANS ARE ACUTELY AWARE OF THE POSSIBILITY MACEDONIA COULD BECOME ANOTHER BOSNIA. THIS SCENARIO WAS ELOQUENTLY PORTRAYED IN THE AWARD-WINNING MACEDONIAN FILM 'BEFORE THE RAIN'. MR. BUGJASKY CALLS IT A 'BALANCE OF THREAT' WHICH HAS SO FAR KEPT THE LID ON AND ALLOWED PRESIDENT GLIGOROV TO MAINTAIN INTERNAL STABILITY DESPITE THE ETHNIC CONFLICTS WITHIN AND WITHOUT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PAM/PCH
    05-Oct-95 4:08 PM EDT (2008 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] MACEDONIA BLOCKADE BY BARRY WOOD (VIENNA)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31294
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE MACEDONIAN PARLIAMENT HAS APPROVED CHANGES TO THE COUNTRY'S FLAG, A MOVE THAT OPENS THE WAY FOR NEIGHBORING GREECE TO END THE CRIPPLING ECONOMIC BLOCKADE IMPOSED ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC 18-MONTHS AGO. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS IMPOVERISHED MACEDONIA BADLY NEEDS AN IMPROVEMENT IN ITS ECONOMIC FORTUNES.

    TEXT: ONLY TWO DAYS AFTER THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON THE COUNTRY'S PRESIDENT, THE MACEDONIAN PARLIAMENT VOTED 110 TO ONE TO APPROVE A NEW FLAG THAT IS ACCEPTABLE TO GREECE. THE YELLOW AND RED COLORS ARE RETAINED, BUT THE 16-POINTED STAR THAT GREECE CLAIMS AS ITS OWN SYMBOL HAS BEEN REMOVED. THE NEW BANNER HAS A STYLIZED EIGHT-RAY SUN THAT SPREADS OVER THE LENGTH OF THE FLAG.

    THE PARLIAMENTARY ACTION IS IN LINE WITH THE SEPTEMBER 13TH AGREEMENT IN NEW YORK AIMED AT NORMALIZING RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. UNDER THE U-S BROKERED ACCORD, SIGNED BY THE TWO FOREIGN MINISTERS, GREECE AND MACEDONIA AGREED TO NORMALIZE RELATIONS WITHIN 30-DAYS. GREECE AGREED TO LIFT THE ECONOMIC BLOCKADE WHILE MACEDONIA SAID IT WOULD CHANGE ITS FLAG AND CONSTITUTION TO REMOVE ANY HINT OF A TERRITORIAL CLAIM ON GREECE'S NORTHERN MACEDONIA PROVINCE.

    THE FIRST ROUND OF BI-LATERAL GREEK-MACEDONIAN TALKS ENDED AMICABLY LATE WEDNESDAY IN ATHENS. GREECE CONTINUES TO OBJECT TO THE NAME MACEDONIA, BUT THAT ISSUE IS TO BE RESOLVED LATER.

    LANDLOCKED MACEDONIA, WITH TWO-MILLION INHABITANTS, WAS THE POOREST REPUBLIC IN THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION. ALONE AMONG THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS MACEDONIA ACHIEVED ITS INDEPENDENCE PEACEFULLY. IT SEPARATED IN 1991. IT HAS SOUGHT TO RETAIN GOOD RELATIONS WITH ALL THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS.

    BUT MACEDONIA HAS SUFFERED ECONOMICALLY FROM BOTH THE U-N SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO AND THE GREEK BLOCKADE. THE FRAGILE MACEDONIAN ECONOMY HAS BEEN CRIPPLED, BILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF OUTPUT AND TRANSIT INCOME HAS BEEN LOST, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION HAS PLUMMETED, NORTH-SOUTH TRANSIT LINKS, BETWEEN GREECE AND SERBIA WERE CUT, AND LIVING STANDARDS HAVE FALLEN STEEPLY FROM AN ALREADY LOW LEVEL.

    MACEDONIAN OFFICIALS SAY ONLY OPENING THE GREEK BORDER CAN OFFER THE PROMISE OF AN ECONOMIC TURNAROUND. WITH AN END TO THE EMBARGO IN SIGHT, THERE MAY BE PROSPECTS FOR IMPROVEMENT. BUT THE ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT ON THE PRESIDENT AND THE POLITICAL TURMOIL IT HAS CAUSED TEMPERS THAT OPTIMISM. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    05-Oct-95 12:27 PM EDT (1627 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] NATO / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID SWAN (WILLIAMSBURG)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186405
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL SAYS NATO HAS TO MOVE QUICKLY TO FINISH A PEACEKEEPING PLAN FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, NOW THE FACTIONS HAVE AGREED TO A CEASEFIRE AND NEW NEGOTIATIONS. ALLIED DEFENSE MINISTERS ARE DISCUSSING THE PLAN AT A MEETING IN (THE MID-ATLANTIC CITY OF) WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE WALT SLOCOMBE SAYS NATO PEACEKEEPERS WILL NOT GO INTO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA UNTIL, AND UNLESS, THE WARRING PARTIES REACH A FORMAL SETTLEMENT. BUT HE SAYS THE ALLIANCE HAS TO MOVE FORWARD SMARTLY 9QUICKLT) TO BE READY WHEN THAT TIME COMES, WHICH COULD BE WITHIN WEEKS.

    // SLOCOMBE ACT //

    WE WILL NOT LET A SITUATION ARISE IN WHICH THERE IS A PEACE AGREEMENT AND WE CAN NOT HAVE A PEACE AGREEMENT BECAUSE WE HAVE NOT GOT AN IMPLEMENTATION FORCE READY. THAT IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY WE HAVE TO MOVE QUICKLY ON THE PLANNING.

    // END ACT //

    THE ALLIES HAVE ALREADY PICKED SOME OF THE TROOPS FOR WHAT WOULD BE NATO'S BIGGEST, MOST DANGEROUS MISSION. BRITISH OFFICIALS SAY A HEAVILY-BRITISH RAPID REACTION FORCE ALREADY IN BOSNIA WOULD FORM THE COMMAND AND CONTROL UNIT FOR THE NEW PEACEKEEPING ARMY.

    WHILE TENS-OF-THOUSANDS MORE SOLDIERS ARE LIKELY TO BE NEEDED, THE SIZE OF THE OVERALL FORCE IS STILL UNKNOWN. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY MEETS WITH RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV IN GENEVA SUNDAY, IN AN EFFORT TO FIND A WAY TO BRING RUSSIAN TROOPS INTO THE MISSION.

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ALSO WANTS A SEPARATE, MULTI-NATIONAL EFFORT TO STRENGTHEN THE POSTWAR BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY. MR. SLOCOMBE SAYS THE PROGRAM WOULD START WHEN THE INTERNATIONAL ARMS EMBARGO ON BOSNIA IS LIFTED.

    // SLOCOMBE ACT //

    IT WOULD BE APPROPRIATE TO PROVIDE WHAT LEVEL OF TRAINING AND ASSISTANCE WE THOUGHT WAS NECESSARY TO THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION.

    // END ACT //

    THE IDEA HAS CAUSED SOME DISAGREEMENT AMONG THE ALLIES, WITH FRANCE SAYING IT MIGHT ONLY BRING MORE BLOODSHED. HOWEVER, A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL SAYS HE DOES NOT EXPECT THE ISSUE TO DERAIL THE OVERALL PEACEKEEPING PLAN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DS/RAE
    05-Oct-95 3:22 PM EDT (1922 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] NATO ONITER (L) BY DAVID SWAN (WILLIAMSBURG)

    DATE=10/4/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186355
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS ARE MEETING IN WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA TODAY (THURSDAY), TO WORK ON PLANS FOR A POSSIBLE PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE ALLIES WILL ALSO DISCUSS THE QUESTION OF WHEN AND HOW TO ACCEPT NEW MEMBERS FROM EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE. V-O-A'S PENTAGON CORRESPONDENT DAVID SWAN REPORTS.

    TEXT: THOUGH IT'S CALLED AN INFORMAL SESSION, THE MINISTERS ARE DEALING WITH NATO'S TOUGHEST PROBLEMS, ESPECIALLY THE PROSPECT OF KEEPING THE PEACE IN THE BALKANS. THE ALLIES ARE TRYING TO PREPARE A MASSIVE PEACE ENFORCEMENT PLAN BEFORE THE BOSNIAN FACTIONS AGREE TO STOP FIGHTING.

    U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS THE MISSION MIGHT INCLUDE TRAINING OR ARMING BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN AN EFFORT TO KEEP THE OTHER PARTIES FROM REIGNITING THE WAR. FRENCH DEFENSE MINISTER CHARLES MILLION SAYS THAT IDEA WOULD ONLY CAUSE MORE BLOODSHED.

    // MILLION ACT //

    FRANCE WELCOMES THE U-S LED DIPLOMATIC ACTION FOR FURTHER PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. BUT FRANCE LOOKS FORWARD TO ORGANIZING A MULTI-NATIONAL FORCE RATHER THAN ARMING BELLIGERENTS AND POSSIBLY FACING THE HORRORS THAT COULD FOLLOW.

    // END ACT //

    THE SIZE OF THE NATO PEACEKEEPING ARMY IS ALSO CONTROVERSIAL. WHILE THE UNITED STATES HAS OFFERED UP TO 25-THOUSAND TROOPS, SOME OFFICIALS REPORTEDLY FAVOR A SMALLER NUMBER, TO AVOID ANTAGONIZING AN ALREADY SKEPTICAL CONGRESS. HOWEVER, MR. PERRY DENIES SUGGESTIONS THE ISSUE HAS SPLIT THE ADMINISTRATION.

    // PERRY ACT //

    WE ALL AGREE THAT ANY FORCE THAT GOES IN THERE -- NATO OR U-S FORCE -- SHOULD BE STRONG ENOUGH TO DEFEND ITSELF AND SHOULD BE STRONG ENOUGH TO DISCOURAGE ANY ATTACKS ON IT.

    // END ACT //

    NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL WILLY CLAES SOUGHT TO REASSURE U-S CONGRESS ABOUT THE MISSION (THURSDAY) SAYING THE PEACEKEEPERS WILL NOT TAKE SIDES AND WILL NOT EVEN GO TO BOSNIA UNLESS THE GOVERNMENT WANTS THEM. BUT HE ARGUES THE OPERATION CAN NOT SUCCEED UNLESS THE UNITED STATES DOES ITS SHARE.

    MR. CLAES SAYS THE ALLIES CAN NOT CONTINUE THEIR CURRENT DIVISION OF LABOR -- WITH AMERICAN PLANES PATROLLING THE BOSNIAN SKIES AND EUROPEAN TROOPS ON THE GROUND.(SIGNED)

    NEB / DS / BD/PT
    04-Oct-95 8:47 PM EDT (0047 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] RUSSIA / BOSNIA (S) BY PETER COLLINS (MOSCOW)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186373
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ANDREI KOZYREV HAS CONDEMNED NEW NATO AIR STRIKES ON BOSNIAN-SERB MISSILE SITES. BUT, AS PETER COLLINS REPORTS FROM MOSCOW, RUSSIA'S REACTION THIS TIME IS MUCH MILDER THAN ITS HARSH ATTACKS LAST MONTH ON NATO'S AIR CAMPAIGN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: FOREIGN MINISTER KOZYREV IS IN NORWAY FOR AN OFFICIAL VISIT. HE TOLD REPORTERS IN OSLO THAT RUSSIA REMAINS OPPOSED TO AIR STRIKES IN BOSNIA. HE SAID ALL SIDES SHOULD BE WORKING TOWARD A CEASEFIRE -- NOT SETTING FIRE TO THE FUEL -- AS HE PUT IT.

    BEFORE LEAVING MOSCOW FOR OSLO, MR. KOZYREV SAID RUSSIA IS PREPARING A NEW INITIATIVE ON BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. ITS DETAILS HAVE YET TO EMERGE.

    WEDNESDAY'S STRIKES WERE THE FIRST SINCE A TWO-WEEK NATO AIR CAMPAIGN ENDED IN MID-SEPTEMBER. TOWARD THE END OF THAT PERIOD, RUSSIA WAS ACCUSING THE WEST OF COMMITTING GENOCIDE IN BOSNIA. TODAY'S COMMENTS, BY CONTRAST, APPEARED RESTRAINED.

    A FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN HERE IN MOSCOW EXPRESSED DEEP CONCERN ABOUT THE NEW AIR RAIDS, SAYING THEY COME AT A TIME WHEN THE WARRING PARTIES APPEARED TO BE CLOSE TO REACHING AGREEMENT ON A CEASEFIRE.

    RUSSIA'S DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV IS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA THIS WEEK, TALKING WITH BELGRADE AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS ABOUT THEIR CONDITIONS FOR A CEASEFIRE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PC/JWH/RAE
    05-Oct-95 9:11 AM EDT (1311 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] U-S/RUSSIA/NATO (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186408
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY FLIES TO GENEVA THIS WEEKEND FOR TALKS CENTERING ON BOSNIA WITH HIS RUSSIAN COUNTERPART, PAVEL GRACHEV. U-S/RUSSIAN DEFENSE RELATIONS WERE STRAINED BY THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN BOSNIA LAST MONTH, WHICH RUSSIA STRONGLY OPPOSED. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY WILL MEET RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER GRACHEV IN GENEVA SUNDAY IN AN EFFORT TO CLEAR AWAY DIFFERENCES OVER BOSNIA AS THE OCTOBER TENTH CEASE-FIRE IN THE FOUR-YEAR-OLD WAR DRAWS NEAR.

    OFFICIALS HERE SAY THE TWO DEFENSE CHIEFS WILL FOCUS ON WAYS OF FACILITATING RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN A MULTI-NATIONAL MILITARY FORCE THAT WOULD IMPLEMENT ANY BOSNIAN PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    PLANS ARE BEING MADE TO SEND A NATO-LED CONTINGENT OF SOME 50-THOUSAND TROOPS TO BOSNIA TO ENFORCE AN AGREEMENT AND REPLACE THE BELEAGURED U-N PROTECTION FORCE THERE.

    RUSSIA HAS REPEATEDLY STRESSED ITS DESIRE TO TAKE PART IN A PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, BUT HAS SAID ITS TROOPS CANNOT SERVE UNDER NATO COMMAND AND HAS SOUGHT A SHARED COMMAND ARRANGEMENT.

    SECRETARY PERRY AND MR. GRACHEV WILL SEEK A FORMULA TO INTEGRATE RUSSIAN FORCES INTO THE PEACEKEEPING OPERATION, AND ALSO ATTEMPT TO EASE TENSIONS STEMMING FROM THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN IN BOSNIA LAST MONTH.

    MOSCOW WAS BITTERLY CRITICAL OF THE ATTACKS AGAINST BOSNIAN SERB FORCES LAST MONTH -- AT ONE POINT DESCRIBING THEM AS GENOCIDE. TO SHOW ITS DISPLEASURE, IT HAS THREATENED TO PULL OUT OF WHAT ARE TO BE UNPRECEDENTED JOINT MILITARY PEACEKEEPING EXERCISES WITH U-S FORCES LATER THIS MONTH IN KANSAS.

    U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY THE GENEVA MEETING WILL LIKELY PRODUCE A FINAL DECISION ON WHETHER THE TEN-DAY PROGRAM CAN GO FORWARD AS PLANNED OCTOBER 17TH.

    THE SO-CALLED PEACEKEEPER-95 EXERCISES WOULD BE THE FIRST TIME RUSSIAN COMBAT TROOPS RECEIVE TRAINING IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES. SECRETARY PERRY AND OTHER SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN DESCRIBING THEM AS AN IMPORTANT LANDMARK IN POST-COLD WAR COOPERATION.

    THE GENEVA MEETING, EXPECTED TO LAST ONLY ONE DAY, WILL ALSO COVER NATO'S PLANNED EXPANSION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE -- TO WHICH RUSSIA IS STRONGLY OPPOSED -- AND MOSCOW'S ROLE IN NATO'S PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE PROGRAM. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CB/PT
    05-Oct-95 5:14 PM EDT (2114 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] YUGO SITREP (S) BY WAYNE COREY (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/5/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186375
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RODOVAN KARADZIC, SAYS THE SERBS ARE READY TO ACCEPT A CEASE-FIRE THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS HOLDING MORE TALKS WITH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ON A TRUCE. V-O-A'S WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: MR. KARADZIC TOLD ASSOCIATED PRESS TELEVISION HE IS READY TO SIGN A GENERAL CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT RIGHT NOW.

    HE ALSO OFFERED AN APPARENT CONCESSION TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TO ACCEPT A TRUCE. MR. KARADZIC SAYS THE SERBS ARE PREPARED TO ALLOW CIVILIANS TO USE ONE ROAD INTO AND OUT OF THE BESIEGED MUSLIM ENCLOSE OF GORAZDE.

    THE AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, IS HOLDING MORE TALKS ON A CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIAN WITH PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC IN SARAJEVO.

    MR. HOLBROOKE EARLIER DISCUSSED WHAT HE CALLED A SERIOUS GOVERNMENT CEASEFIRE PROPOSAL WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC IN BELGRADE. AFTER THAT MEETING, THE U-S ENVOY SAID THERE STILL WHERE DIFFERENCES ABOUT A TRUCE. HE IMPLIED, THOUGH, THAT THE DIFFERENCES WERE BEING NARROWED.

    AS THE CEASE-FIRE NEGOTIATIONS CONTINUE, THE UNITED NATIONS REPORTS SERB FORCES HAVE REGAINED MORE TERRITORY DURING A COUNTER-OFFENSIVE AGAINST GOVERNMENT TROOPS IN NORTWESTERN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    05-Oct-95 9:38 AM EDT (1338 UTC)
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    Source: Voice of America

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