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Voice of America, 13 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / CEASE-FIRE (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [03] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)

  • [04] MACEDONIA / BLOCKADE (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)

  • [05] PERRY / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [06] TROOPS FOR BOSNIA (TTA) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [07] TURKEY / PIPELINE BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)

  • [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [09] U-S-BOSNIA CEASE-FIRE (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [10] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09217
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, OCTOBER 13. //

    INTRO: THE WAR, OR LACK OF IT, IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS HIGH IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICA'S PAPERS THIS FRIDAY. A WIDE ARRAY OF OTHER TOPICS ARE GIVEN LESS ATTENTION, INCLUDING: THE RACE FOR U-S PRESIDENT; NEW TROUBLES FOR THE U-S NAVY; THE LATEST NOBEL PRIZE AWARDS AND U-S -CUBA POLICY. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FRIDAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" LEADS ITS EDITORIAL WITH THESE COMMENTS ABOUT THE BALKANS, ENTITLED "FINALLY, A CEASE-FIRE IN BOSNIA."

    VOICE: "WHO CANNOT BE RELIEVED TO SEE A CEASEFIRE TAKING EFFECT IN THE NEARLY FOUR-YEAR WAR IN BOSNIA? ONLY AS A TRUCE DEEPENS CAN LIVES BE SAVED, NEGOTIATIONS LAUNCHED, POPULATIONS MADE SAFE AND RECONSTRUCTION BEGUN... GRATIFYING AS A CEASE-FIRE IS, HOWEVER, THE HEAVY COSTS OF REACHING IT CANNOT BE DENIED... THE ALLIES MUST REMAIN ATTENTIVE TO HUMANITARIAN OBLIGATIONS EVEN -- ESPECIALLY -- WHEN THERE IS POLITICAL TEMPTATION TO CHEAT A LITTLE... NO ONE TRYING TO HELP FROM THE OUTSIDE SHOULD STOP PROTESTING VIOLATIONS AND PROTECTING THE VICTIMS."

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" IS MORE CRITICAL OF U-S INVOLVEMENT IN THE BALKANS PEACE PLAN, ASCRIBING TO WHITE HOUSE POLICY A DOMESTIC POLITICAL MOTIVE. VOICE; "THE BOSNIAN TROOP COMMITMENT PLAN BETRAYS THE AD HOC NATURE OF THIS ADMINISTRATION'S FOREIGN POLICY. IMPORTANT COMMITMENTS ARE MADE AS PART OF A PRESIDENTIAL RHETORICAL EXERCISE OR WHITE HOUSE IMPROVISATION, UNIFIED BY ONE PRINCIPLE: GET BOSNIA OFF THE FRONT PAGES UNTIL AFTER NOVEMBER 1996. ONCE MADE, GREAT-POWER COMMITMENTS ARE NOT EASILY WITHDRAWN, HOWEVER DEFICIENT IN RIGOROUS THOUGHT OR STRATEGIC VISION. [OPT] ... WHERE WILL THE U-S TROOPS BE STATIONED? WILL THEY BE AUTHORIZED TO SHOOT VIOLATORS OF THE PEACE ACCORD AND, IF SO, WILL THEIR GUNS BE A MATCH FOR, SAY, THE SERBIAN 105MM HOWITZERS? ... WHAT IF THE CROATS GET GRABBY OR ENGAGE IN BEASTLY ACTS? DO WE TAKE THEM ON [FIGHT THEM] AS WELL? WHEN WILL WE KNOW WHEN THE MISSION IS COMPLETED? ... WE ASK THESE QUESTIONS ... BECAUSE WE BELIEVE THE AMERICAN SUPERPOWER HAS INTERESTS IN AND RESPONSIBILITIES TO PEACE IN THE WORLD." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" IS CALLING FOR A FULL-SCALE UNITED NATIONS INVESTIGATION INTO CHARGES THAT DUTCH TROOPS DID NOT ACT APPROPRIATELY WHEN THE SERBS OVERRAN SREBRENICA SEVERAL MONTHS AGO.

    VOICE: "AS DETAILED BY GLOBE REPORTER ELIZABETH NEUFFER, THE DUTCH SOLDIERS ASSIGNED TO PROTECT THE U-N-DESIGNATED 'SAFE' AREA OF SREBRENICA IN JULY DID NOT LIFT A FINGER AS BOSNIAN SERBS TOOK THE CITY, CULLED THE MUSLIM MEN OF FIGHTING AGE FROM THE REFUGEE POPULATION AND PROCEEDED TO MOUNT ONE OF THE LARGEST SLAUGHTERS IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO... THE OFFICIAL DUTCH LINE HAS BEEN THAT THE TROOPS WERE MASSIVELY OUTNUMBERED AND RESISTANCE WAS OUT OF THE QUESTION. THAT MAY BE SO, BUT HOPELESSNESS CANNOT EXCUSE ACTIVE COMPLICITY, AND IT CANNOT EXCUSE THE INEXPLICABLE DUTCH BEHAVIOR OF NOT EVEN INFORMING U-N COMMANDERS OF THE SITUATION ... UNTIL IT WAS TOO LATE."

    TEXT: A FAIR AMOUNT OF EDITORIAL COMMENT IS DIRECTED TOWARD THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN THIS FRIDAY. IN "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION", THE CHRISTIAN COALITION IS CRITICIZED FOR AN ATTACK ON CANDIDATE ARLEN SPECTER, THE REPUBLICAN SENATOR FROM PENNSYLVANIA. SENATOR SPECTOR HAD CALLED THE COALITION EXTREMIST AND OUT OF TOUCH.

    VOICE: "THE [CHRISTIAN] COALITION'S EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, RALPH REED, HAS RESPONDED THAT SPECTER, A JEW, IS GUILTY OF RELIGIOUS BIGOTRY FOR APPLYING CODE WORDS SUCH AS 'EXTREMIST' TO THE COALITION. [MR.] REED IS WRONG, AND HE'S SMART ENOUGH TO KNOW HE'S WRONG. 'EXTREMIST' HAS NO HISTORY AS A CODE WORD FOR RELIGIOUS BIGOTRY. [OPT] ... THIS IDEA THAT CONSERVATIVE CHRISTIANS ARE THE VICTIMS OF BIGOTRY HAS BECOME A RECURRING THEME FOR THE CHRISTIAN COALITION. IT CLAIMS TO BE A POLITICAL MOVEMENT, BUT WHENEVER IT IS ATTACKED AS A POLITICAL MOVEMENT IT QUICKLY SEEKS SHELTER BEHIND RELIGION." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" TOOK A LONG LOOK AT THIS WEEK'S REPUBLICAN CANDIDATES FORUM IN NEW HAMPSHIRE AND THEN EXCLAIMED:

    VOICE: "IF COLIN POWELL IS WORRIED THAT THE EXPERIENCED REPUBLICANS ALREADY RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT CAN OUTCLASS HIM AS CAMPAIGNERS, THEIR NATIONAL T-V DEBUT IN NEW HAMPSHIRE WEDNESDAY NIGHT SHOULD PUT HIM ON THE ROAD TO CONCORD [THE STATE CAPITOL] WITH (CANDIDACY) FILING PAPERS IN HAND. ... THERE WAS LITTLE SPARK (IN THE DEBATE), AND THE GAPS IN THEIR ARGUMENTS WERE REVEALING."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THE NAVY CAME IN FOR A REBUKE FROM TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" FOR THE LATEST IN A SERIES OF RECENT PROBLEMS CONCERNING SEXUAL HARASSMENT.

    VOICE: "... THE MAN WHOM THE U-S NAVY PICKED TO ROOT OUT [UNCOVER] SEXUAL HARASSMENT AFTER THE TAILHOOK SCANDAL STOOD BEFORE A COURT-MARTIAL YESTERDAY, CHARGED WITH ... SEXUAL HARASSMENT. CAPTAIN EVERETT GREENE IS ACCUSED OF BARRAGING TWO ASSISTANTS WITH LOVE NOTES, PHONE CALLS, AND ASSORTED TRINKETS. HE IS THE HIGHEST-RANKING NAVY OFFICER SINCE WORLD WAR TWO TO FACE SUCH CHARGES... THESE ACCUSATIONS MIGHT HAVE BEEN JUST ANOTHER RUEFUL IRONY, EXCEPT THAT THEY RAISE SOME PERIPHERAL ISSUES APART FROM GUILT OR INNOCENCE... TWO ... QUESTIONS ARE WHETHER THE MILITARY CAN DISCIPLINE THE LIBIDOS OF ITS MEMBERS ... AND WHETHER IT CAN DISCIPLINE SOME LIBIDOS BETTER THAN OTHERS."

    TEXT: THE NOBEL PRIZE AWARDS OCCUPY THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES", WHICH SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE PRIZES WERE ESPECIALLY SWEET FOR UC [UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT] IRVINE, STRUGGLING TO OVERCOME THE SCANDAL OVER ITS FERTILITY CLINIC. CHEMISTRY PRIZES WENT TO IRVINE'S F. SHERWOOD ROWLAND AND HIS FORMER STUDENT, MARIO MOLINA, A NATIVE OF MEXICO NOW AT M-I-T, FOR PIONEERING WORK ON CHEMICAL PROCESSES THAT DESTROY OZONE. ALSO, A PHYSICS PRIZE WENT TO FREDERICK REINES OF IRVINE FOR DISCOVERING THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLE CALLED THE NEUTRINO. ..... THE PRIZES FOR THE OZONE WORK WERE PARTICULARLY DARING FOR THE NOBEL COMMITTEE. WHEN DONE IN THE 1970S, THE WORK WAS AT FIRST DERIDED BY MOST SCIENTISTS AND CERTAINLY BY THE INDUSTRY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EMISSION OF HUGE AMOUNTS OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (C-F-CS) INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. "

    TEXT: "THE TIMES" CONCLUDES BY CITING THE DISCOVERY OF THE HUGE HOLE IN THE OZONE LAYER OVER ANTARCTICA AS VINDICATING THE MEN'S EARLIER RESEARCH PRONOUNCEMENTS AND CRITICIZING AS IRRESPONSIBLE A BILL IN CONGRESS THAT WOULD DELAY OR REPEAL THE PHASE-OUT OF C-F-CS. WRITING ON THAT SAME LINE IS "THE NEW YORK TIMES", WHICH ALSO LAUDS THE WINNERS, AND WARNS OF THE ANTI-ENVIORNMENTAL TIDE SWEEPING THROUGH CONGRESS AND AMONG THE NATION'S TALK RADIO SHOWS.

    IN BOSTON, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" CRITICIZES A BILL THAT WOULD TIGHTEN THE U-S ECONOMIC EMBARGO ON CUBA, JUST AS RELATIONS BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND HAVANA ARE GRADUALLY IMPROVING.

    VOICE: "IN AN EFFORT TO HASTEN [PREMIER] CASTRO'S FALL, SENATOR JESSE HELMS, REPUBLICAN, OF NORTH CAROLINA AND REPRESENTATION DAN BURTON, REPUBLICAN OF INDIANA HAVE INTRODUCED A BILL, NOW PASSED BY THE HOUSE ... TO TIGHTEN THE SCREWS... THIS IS THE WORST IDEA SINCE THE INFAMOUS PIPELINE SANCTIONS AGAINST THE SOVIETS IN 1982. [OPT] ...AT THIS WRITING, THE BILL IS BEING DEBATED ON THE SENATE FLOOR. SENATORS SHOULD DEFEAT THE MEASURE. IF THEY DON'T, PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD ... VETO IT."[END OPT]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, SOME COMMENTS ON A CONTROVERSIAL MARCH ON WASHINGTON SCHEDULED FOR NEXT MONDAY. IT IS PREDICTED THAT A MILLION BLACK MEN FROM THROUGHOUT THE NATION WILL RESPOND TO THE CALL OF MILITANT BLACK NATION OF ISLAM LEADER LOUIS FARRAKHAN AND THE FORMER HEAD OF THE N-DOUBLE-A-C-P, BENJAMIN CHAVIS, TO ATONE FOR THEIR PAST TREATMENT OF BLACK WOMEN AND GIRLS AND TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEMSELVES. THE MARCH IS CONTROVERSIAL BECAUSE MR. FARRAKHAN AND HIS AIDES HAVE OFTEN MADE ANTI-SEMITIC COMMENTS, AND MR. CHAVIS WAS ACCUSED OF VERY POOR FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT OF THE N-DOUBLE-A-C-P BEFORE HE WAS FORCED OUT. TODAY'S "SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" SAYS:

    VOICE: "IT TOOK A SMART AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMAN WITH GUTS [COURAGE] TO EXPRESS CLEARLY AND SUCCINCTLY WHY SO MANY PEOPLE ARE TROUBLED BY MONDAY'S ALL-BLACK MILLION MAN MARCH AND DAY OF ATONEMENT IN WASHINGTON ... AND BY ITS ORGANIZERS... MARY FRANCES BERRY, CHAIRWOMAN OF THE U-S COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS, IS NOT BUYING [SUPPORT] IT. 'MR. FARRAKHAN ROUTINELY EXPRESSES THE MOST DESPICABLE, ANTI-SEMITIC, RACIST, SEXIST AND HOMOPHOBIC ATTITUDES IMAGINABLE,' SHE WROTE IN ... THE WASHINGTON POST EARLIER THIS WEEK. 'MR. CHAVIS' ROLE IN PRACTICALLY DESTROYING THE N-DOUBLE-A-C-P MAKES ANY ENTERPRISE IN WHICH HE IS ENGAGED SUSPECT AS FAR AS I AM CONCERNED." ... DURING A TIME OF HEIGHTENED RACIAL TENSION AFTER THE O-J SIMPSON VERDICT, THE LAST THING THE COUNTRY NEEDS IS A CALL TO SEPARATISM BY TWO OF THE COUNTRY'S MOST CONTROVERSIAL AFRICAN AMERICAN PERSONALITIES."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE OF SOCIAL COMMENTARY, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE OPINIONS CONTAINED IN TODAY AMERICAN NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    13-Oct-95 11:14 AM EDT (1514 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA / CEASE-FIRE (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186870
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-N OFFICIALS SAY SERIOUS FIGHTING IS CONTINUING IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA, BUT A CEASE-FIRE IS HOLDING IN THE REST OF THE COUNTRY. U-N MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE UNABLE TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF THE FIGHTING, BUT THERE ARE UNCONFIRMED REPORTS THE BOSNIAN ARMY AND CROAT FORCES ARE MOVING TOWARD BANJA LUKA, AND BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS SAY THE FIGHTING COULD CAUSE THE COLLAPSE OF THE CEASE-FIRE. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: WHILE MOST OF BOSNIA IS CALM, U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY VIEW THE CONTINUED HEAVY FIGHTING IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA WITH SERIOUS CONCERN.

    OFFICIALS SAY FIERCE FIGHTING IS CONTINUING AROUND THE TOWN OF SANSKI MOST, WHICH WAS SEIZED BY GOVERNMENT FORCES DURING THE TWO-DAY DELAY IN IMPLEMENTING THE CEASE-FIRE EARLIER THIS WEEK, AND BOSNIAN ARMY UNITS ARE NOW REPORTED TO BE ONLY 10 KILOMETERS FROM PRIJEDOR, THE LAST MAJOR SERB HELD TOWN IN WESTERN BOSNIA.

    PRIJEDOR WAS SHELLED BY GOVERNMENT AND CROAT FORCES EARLIER ON FRIDAY AND U-N REFUGEE OFFICIALS SAY 40 THOUSAND SERB CIVILIANS HAVE FLED THE TOWN TOWARD THE BOSNIAN SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA, WHICH IS ALREADY PACKED WITH 170 THOUSAND REFUGEES FROM PREVIOUS FIGHTING. THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, WAS IN PRIJEDOR WHEN THE SHELLING BEGAN AND HE CALLED ON THE UNITED STATES TO USE ITS DIPLOMATIC INFLUENCE TO STOP THE FIGHTING.

    BOSNIAN SERB ARMY OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE HALTED A GOVERNMENT ARMY ATTACK EAST FROM SANSKI MOSTLY TOWARD BANJA LUKA, BUT THERE ARE UNCONFIRMED REPORTS OF ATTACKING BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND CROAT FORCES ONLY 15 KILOMETERS SOUTH OF BANJA LUKA, FROM WHERE THE SOUNDS OF ARTILLERY EXPLOSIONS CAN BE HEARD.

    BANJA LUKA IS THE LARGEST BOSNIAN SERB CONTROLLED CITY AND THE BOSNIAN SERB'S MILITARY HEADQUARTERS IS LOCATED THERE. WERE IT TO FALL TO THE BOSNIAN ARMY IT WOULD BE THE MOST SERIOUS BOSNIAN SERB LOSS IN THE THREE AND HALF YEAR OLD WAR, AND U-N OFFICIALS WARN 700 THOUSAND SERBS WOULD FLEE THE TOWN IN THE LARGEST FORCED MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO.

    A SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS HAS SAID THE SERBS COULD PULL OUT OF THE PEACE PROCESS IF THE ATTACKS ARE NOT STOPPED, AND IF BANJA LUKA LOOKS LIKELY TO FALL, THERE IS A SERIOUS RISK THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, COULD ORDER THE POWERFUL SERBIAN ARMY TO INTERVENE DIRECTLY IN THE WAR. (SIGNED)

    NEB / DF / BD / JM
    13-Oct-95 4:37 PM EDT (2037 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186852
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BULGARIA HAS UNVEILED THE FINALISTS OF ABOUT 12-HUNDRED STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES TO BE OFFERED TO THE PUBLIC IN A MASS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD IN SOFIA REPORTS BULGARIA'S GOVERNMENT HOPES THE PRIVATIZATION WILL BOOST INVESTOR CONFIDENCE AND SPUR WHAT HAS BEEN SLUGGISH ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    TEXT: BULGARIA'S GOVERNMENT HAS AT LAST PUBLISHED THE NAMES OF THE COMPANIES THAT ARE TO BE TURNED OVER TO CITIZENS OVER THE NEXT 18 MONTHS.

    THE ENTERPRISES ARE BIG AND MEDIUM SIZED AND INCLUDE AGRICULTURAL FIRMS, HOTELS, TRANSPORT COMPANIES, ENERGY FIRMS, AND STEEL WORKS. ONCE THE COMPANIES ARE MADE INTO JOINT STOCK COMPANIES, UP TO 70 PERCENT OF THE SHARES WILL BE OFFERED TO THE PUBLIC, ESSENTIALLY FOR FREE, WHILE THE STATE PLANS TO RETAIN A 30 PERCENT OWNERSHIP.

    THE GOVERNMENT SAYS THE COMPANIES TO BE PRIVATIZED ARE NOT LOSING MONEY. HOWEVER INTERNATIONAL ECONOMISTS ARE SKEPTICAL. MOST BULGARIAN COMPANIES ARE NOT PROFITABLE AND IN A REGION THAT IS FAST TRANSFORMING AWAY FROM CENTRALIZED CONTROL, A HIGH 80 PERCENT OF BULGARIAN MANUFACTURING STILL OCCURS IN STATE ENTERPRISES.

    THE SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT WHICH CAME TO POWER LAST DECEMBER HAS MADE PROGRESS IN CONTROLLING BULGARIA'S HIGH INFLATION. THERE WILL BE SOME ECONOMIC GROWTH THIS YEAR. BUT UNEMPLOYMENT REMAINS AT 17 PERCENT AND THERE HAS BEEN VERY LITTLE FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN THIS STRATEGICALLY LOCATED COUNTRY THAT HAS A MAJOR PORT ON THE BLACK SEA.

    A CANADIAN, TIM O'NEIL, IS THE RESIDENT REPRESENTATIVE IN SOFIA OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT, AN INSTITUTION SET UP BY WESTERN GOVERNMENTS TO PROMOTE THE TRANSITION TO FREE MARKETS.

    MR. O'NEIL HAS REASONS WHY FOREIGN INVESTORS HAVE BEEN RELUCTANT TO COME TO BULGARIA.

    // O'NEIL ACT //

    THE FOREIGN INVESTORS DO COME HERE, I BELIEVE THEY SEE SOME OPPORTUNITY BUT FOR THE MOST PART, BULGARIAN COMPANIES ARE RELATIVELY SMALL. THE PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM, THE CASH PROGRAM, HAS BEEN MOVING VERY SLOWLY, IT IS CUMBERSOME AND IT CAN TAKE A VERY LONG TIME FOR A FOREIGN INVESTOR TO ACQUIRE A COMPANY THROUGH THE CASH PROGRAM. I BELIEVE THEY OFTEN CONCLUDE IT IS EASIER TO DO BUSINESS IN NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES.

    // END ACT //

    BULGARIA HAS ATTRACTED ONLY THREE QUARTERS OF A BILLION DOLLARS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. BY CONTRAST HUNGARY, A COUNTRY NOT THAT MUCH BIGGER THAN BULGARIA HAS ATTRACTED MORE THAN EIGHT-BILLION DOLLARS. BULGARIA, UNTIL THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM, WAS VERY DEPENDENT ON THE SOVIET UNION WHICH ACCOUNTED FOR ABOUT 70 PERCENT OF ITS IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. BULGARIA'S TRADE HAS SHIFTED TO THE WEST, BUT LIVING STANDARDS HAVE NOT RECOVERED AND REMAIN WELL BELOW THE DEPRESSED LEVELS OF 1989. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BW/JWH/CF
    13-Oct-95 1:14 PM EDT (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] MACEDONIA / BLOCKADE (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (SOFIA)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186846
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GREECE ON SUNDAY IS EXPECTED TO END ITS 18-MONTH ECONOMIC BLOCKADE OF ITS NORTHERN NEIGHBOR, MACEDONIA. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS FROM SOFIA THAT BULGARIA'S GOVERNMENT HOPES AN END TO THE SANCTIONS WILL PROMOTE A GENERAL IMPROVEMENT IN THE REGION'S ECONOMY.

    TEXT: BUSINESS LEADERS IN SOFIA SAY THE END TO THE GREEK SANCTIONS ON MACEDONIA WILL HAVE A RELATIVELY SMALL DIRECT IMPACT ON BULGARIA. IN FACT, IN THE SHORT TERM, THE RESUMPTION OF TRADE BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND ITS LARGER NEIGHBOR TO THE SOUTH, COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT BULGARIA.

    SINCE THE GREEKS SEVERED RAIL AND ROAD LINKS BETWEEN MACEDONIA AND THE GREEK PORT OF SALONIKA, THE BULGARIANS HAVE BENEFITED FROM THE DIVERSION OF THAT ONCE LUCRATIVE TRANSIT TRADE.

    LAND-LOCKED MACEDONIA HAS BEEN GETTING ITS OIL THROUGH BULGARIA. AND MOST OF ITS MEAGER IMPORTS AND EXPERTS HAVE HAD TO MAKE THE LONG TRIP ACROSS BULGARIA TO THE BLACK SEA PORT OF VARNA.

    OF MORE IMPORTANCE TO THE BULGARIANS ARE THE UNITED NATIONS-IMPOSED SANCTIONS ON SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO. THE MAIN ROAD WEST FROM SOFIA RUNS NOT TO MACEDONIA BUT TO SERBIA, WHOSE SOUTHERN CITY OF NIS IS ONLY A TWO-HOUR DRIVE FROM THE BULGARIAN CAPITAL.

    BULGARIA SAYS THAT BY OBSERVING AND ENFORCING THE U-N SANCTIONS, ITS ECONOMY HAS LOST BILLIONS OF DOLLARS. RAPID GROWTH OF SMUGGLING AND ORGANIZED CRIME HAVE BEEN BY-PRODUCTS OF THE SANCTIONS.

    THE BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT SUPPORTS THE NORMALIZATION OF GREEK-MACEDONIA RELATIONS. IT HOPES THIS EASING OF BILATERAL TENSIONS AND THE PROSPECTS FOR PEACE IN BOSNIA WILL LEAD TO AN END TO THE SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA.

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS SAY THE BULGARIANS ARE ILL PREPARED TO CAPITALIZE ON THESE PROMISING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS. THEY POINT TO THE SLOWNESS OF THE PRIVATIZATION WHICH HAS LEFT MOST BULGARIAN TRADING COMPANIES STILL IN STATE OWNERSHIP AND WITH CHRONIC CASH SHORTAGES.

    THE EXPERTS SAY GREEK COMPANIES ARE MOST LIKELY TO BENEFIT FROM ECONOMIC NORMALIZATION.

    WHILE BULGARIA HAS RECOGNIZED MACEDONIA'S INDEPENDENCE, BILATERAL RELATIONS HAVE NOT FLOURISHED IN THE FOUR YEARS SINCE MACEDONIA PEACEFULLY SECEDED FROM THE YUGOSLAV FEDERATION.

    NEARLY TWO-DOZEN BILATERAL AGREEMENTS HAVE YET TO BE IMPLEMENTED BECAUSE OF BULGARIAN SENSITIVITIES ABOUT RECOGNIZING MACEDONIA WHICH HAS A DISTINCT LANGUAGE FROM BULGARIAN. THE GOVERNMENT IN SOFIA IS PROMOTING A REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE IN WHICH SOME OF THE ANTICIPATED AID MONEY DESTINED FOR BOSNIA WOULD BE SPREAD FARTHER TO THE SOUTH AND EAST TO INCLUDE ALBANIA, MACEDONIA, AND BULGARIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BW/JWH/JM
    13-Oct-95 11:56 AM EDT (1556 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] PERRY / BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186856
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS HE IS RECOMMENDING A ONE-YEAR TIME LIMIT FOR THE DEPLOYMENT OF NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN BOSNIA. THE TARGET IS BEING SET IN PART TO EASE CONGRESSIONAL CONCERNS ABOUT THE COST AND DURATION OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE MISSION. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL PUSH STRONGLY FOR A CLEARLY DEFINED MISSION FOR THE NATO-LED PEACE FORCE. AND HE SAYS THAT WHILE NO DEADLINE IS BEING SET, THE FORCE SHOULD BE ABLE TO DO ITS JOB AND LEAVE BOSNIA WITHIN A YEAR OF ARRIVAL.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY'S COMMENTS CAME AMID CONCERN IN CONGRESS THAT THE U-S LED FORCE OF UP TO 60-THOUSAND TROOPS -- ONCE DEPLOYED -- COULD BECOME BOGGED DOWN INDEFINITELY TRYING TO ENFORCE A BOSNIAN PEACE SETTLEMENT.

    MR. PERRY SAID UNFORSEEN DEVELOPMENTS MIGHT REQUIRE THE FORCE TO REMAIN IN BOSNIA LONGER THAN A YEAR. BUT HE SAID THE ADMINISTRATION IS DETERMINED TO AVOID THE SO-CALLED "MISSION CREEP" EXPERIENCED IN THE PAST -- IN WHICH U-S PEACEKEEPERS HAVE HAD TO TAKE ON RESPONSIBILITIES NOT PART OF THEIR ORIGINAL MANDATE:

    // PERRY ACTUALITY //

    I BELIEVE STRONGLY THAT AN IMPORTANT MANAGEMENT TOOL IS SET A CLEAR MISSION STATEMENT, SET A CLEAR EXIT STRATEGY, AND HAVE A SCHEDULE TIED TO THAT EXIT STRATEGY. AND FURTHERMORE THAT I BELIEVE IN BOSNIA, THAT MISSION CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN ABOUT A YEAR'S TIME. AND SO I WILL BE RECOMMENDING THAT THERE BE A SCHEDULE LIKE THAT SET AND I'LL FURTHER BE RECOMMENDING THAT ONE YEAR IS ABOUT THE RIGHT TIME.

    // END ACT //

    MR. PERRY AND OTHER SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS WILL BE AT CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS NEXT WEEK DEFENDING THE ENVISAGED PEACEKEEPING FORCE, WHICH WOULD INVOLVE AS MANY AS 25-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS AND COST THE UNITED STATES AS MUCH AS TWO BILLION DOLLARS FOR THE ONE-YEAR STAY.

    NATO'S POLICY-MAKING ATLANTIC COUNCIL APPROVED THE OUTLINE OF THE PEACEKEEPING PLAN EARLIER THIS WEEK, AND DETAILED PLANNING IS NOW UNDER WAY. IT'S EXPECTED THAT ADVANCE UNITS OF THE FORCE WOULD BE INSERTED INTO BOSNIA IMMEDIATELY UPON THE SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION OF PEACE TALKS AMONG THE BOSNIAN PARTIES THAT ARE TO BEGIN IN THE UNITED STATES AT THE END OF THE MONTH.

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S CHIEF BOSNIA NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS TO FLY TO EUROPE THIS WEEKEND TO DISCUSS PEACEKEEPING ISSUES WITH THE ALLIES -- AND THEN TO MOSCOW TO DISCUSS WAYS OF ACCOMMODATING RUSSIA'S DESIRE TO TAKE PART IN THE BOSNIA FORCE.

    THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA REMAIN AT ODDS OVER WHO WOULD COMMAND A RUSSIAN CONTINGENT, HOW MANY RUSSIAN TROOPS WOULD BE INVOLVED, AND WHO WOULD PAY FOR THE RUSSIAN DEPLOYMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CF
    13-Oct-95 2:02 PM EDT (1802 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] TROOPS FOR BOSNIA (TTA) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08654
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: A 60 DAY TRUCE NOW OFFICIALLY IN EFFECT IN BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA SETS THE THE STAGE FOR TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES AMONG ALL PARTIES, POSSIBLY LEADING TO A FULL PEACE CONFERENCE. THE SO-CALLED 'PROXIMITY TALKS' INVOLVING ALL THE PARTIES IN THE CONFLICT ARE TO BEGIN SOMEWHERE IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES ON OCTOBER 31ST.

    VOA'S TALK TO AMERICA PROGRAM (10/11) INTERVIEWED THREE

    EXPERTS ABOUT THEIR VIEWS ON THE CHANCES FOR A LASTING PEACE IN THE AREA. PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS:

    TEXT: NATO HAS APPROVED A FIVE STAGE PLAN DESIGNED TO SEPARATE THE WARRING FACTIONS IN BOSNIA WITH AT LEAST 50 THOUSAND COMBAT TROOPS. ONCE A FINAL PEACE ACCORD IS IN PLACE, PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS PROMISED TO PROVIDE UP TO 25 THOUSAND U-S SOLDIERS TO THIS SEPARATION FORCE. RETIRED NAVY VICE ADMIRAL JACK SHANAHAN, NOW DIRECTOR OF

    THE CENTER FOR DEFENSE INFORMATION, TOLD VOA THAT HE IS

    CONCERNED THAT WE ARE LOOKING AT DECADES OF U-S TROOP INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 SHANAHAN RUNS [:] "I DO NOT YET SEE THAT PROVERBIAL LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL. WE'VE GONE THROUGH A NUMBER OF CEASEFIRES. THIS ONE IS ALSO GOING TO BE TENUOUS AT BEST. WITH THE FOLLOW ON PEACE TALKS SCHEDULED TO BEGIN IN WASHINGTON LATER THIS MONTH, PERHAPS PEOPLE WILL KEEP THEIR HANDS OFF THE TRIGGER, AT LEAST LONG ENOUGH TO SEE HOW THOSE TALKS DEVELOP.

    TEXT: BUT, SPEAKING BY PHONE FROM ZAGREB, PHIL ARNOLD, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE KNOWN AS UNPROFOR, SAID HE WAS MORE OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE CHANCES OF ACHIEVING A REAL PEACE THIS TIME:

    TAPE: CUT # ARNOLD RUNS [:] "I THINK WHAT YOU'RE SEEING IS EXHAUSTION ON BOTH SIDES. CLASSICALLY IN U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS, THE U-N REALLY ONLY COMES IN EFFECTIVELY WHEN BOTH SIDES BECOME EXHAUSTED. THAT WAS THE CASE IN CAMBODIA AND ELSEWHERE AROUND THE WORLD AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED HERE."

    TEXT: NEVERTHELESS, U-N SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS-BOUTROS GHALI HAS RECOMMENDED PULLING THE 9 THOUSAND U-N PEACEKEEPERS OUT OF BOSNIA. THEY WILL BE REPLACED BY THE NEW, LARGER FORCE MADE UP OF TROOPS FROM BOTH NATO AND RUSSIA. NATO OFFICIALS EXPECT RUSSIAN AND THE UNITED STATES TO CONTRIBUTE ABOUT 20 THOUSAND SOLDIERS EACH.BRITAIN AND FRANCE WILL ALSO SEND LARGE CONTINGENTS, AND GERMANY IS EXPECTED TO PROVIDE FIVE THOUSAND SOLDIERS. ADMIRAL SHANAHAN SAID HE HATES TO SEE THE UNITED NATIONS PULL OUT.

    TAPE: CUT # SHANAHAN "NATO IS NOT ORGANIZED MILITARILY OR POLITICALLY TO DEAL WITH THE KIND OF SITUATIONS THAT WE FACE IN BOSNIA. THE RUSSIANS STILL LOOK AT NATO AS AN ALLIANCE DIRECTED AT THEM AND IF YOU BRING NATO IN AND PUT ALL THE FORCES, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE RUSSIANS, UNDER OTHER COMMAND, I CAN VISUALIZE DOWN THE ROAD, LOOKING ACROSS THE STREET AT RUSSIAN SOLDIERS AND THAT MAKES ME VERY UNCOMFORTABLE."

    TEXT: BUT MR. ARNOLD DISMISSED THIS CONCERN AND SAID THE DECISION ON WHETHER UNPROFOR LEAVES OR STAYS IS UP TO THE SAME BIG POWER MEMBERS OF THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL WHO ARE DECIDING THINGS IN NATO:

    TAPE: [OPT] CUT # ARNOLD RUNS [:] "IT'S UP TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL, THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS IF YOU WILL, TO DECIDE IF THAT'S RIGHT OR WRONG. AS FAR AS THE 9 THOUSAND TROOPS ARE CONCERNED, WITH THE CHANGED MILITARY ENVIRONMENT, THE FALL OF TWO POCKETS IN EASTERN BOSNIA AND THE CHANGED SITUATION AROUND BIHAC, THE (SECRETARY) GENERAL DECIDED THAT WE HAD MORE SOLDIERS THAN WE HAD MISSION AND THEREFORE RECOMMENDED A SUBSTANTIAL DRAW DOWN." [END OPT]

    TEXT: MR. ARNOLD SAID THE BIG POWERS HAVE DECIDED THAT U-N PEACEKEEPERS DON'T FIT THE PROFILE OF WHAT NATO WANTS IN BOSNIA. THIS WAS A REFERENCE TO NATO OBJECTIONS TO THE EARLIER DUAL KEY SYSTEM WHICH REQUIRED NATO TO GET U-N APPROVAL FOR ANY MILITARY ACTION IN BOSNIA. BOTH MEN AGREED THERE'S A LONG WAY YET TO GO BEFORE THE LINES OF DEMARCATON ARE DRAWN. ADMIRAL SHANAHAN SAID IN THE MEANTIME THERE MAY BE A LOT MORE FIGHTING AND ETHNIC CLEANSING:

    TAPE: CUT # SHANAHAN RUNS [:] "THERE'S OBVIOUSLY GOING TO BE A MOVEMENT OF POPULATIONS AS WE RE-FORMULATE THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF BOTH SIDES. NOW IS THAT A FORM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING OR WE GOING TO BE ABLE TO MOVE THESE PEOPLE ON A VOLUNTARY BASIS? IS IT GOING TO BE FORCED RELOCATION? ALL THIS ENTERS THE EQUATION AS TO WHETHER WE'RE GOING TO HAVE A LASTING PEACE. "

    TEXT: BUT AGAIN, PHIL ARNOLD DISAGREED WITH THIS PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO:

    TAPE: CUT # ARNOLD RUNS [:] "THE RECENT GAINS ON THE GROUND HAVE PUSHED THE QUESTION OF SWITCHING POPULATIONS LOWER ON THE AGENDA BECAUSE THE LAND SEEMS TO BE DIVIDED ABOUT HOW IT'S SUPPOSED TO BE. NOW THERE CAN BE EXCHANGES ON ONE SIDE OR THE OTHER. AS FAR AS THE STRUCTURE OF THE STATE, ACCORDING TO THE U-S PLAN PRESENTED BY ASSISTANT SECRETARY (OF STATE RICHARD) HOLBROOKE, THERE WILL BE TWO CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THIS SINGLE STATE: A SERB PART AND A CROATIAN-MUSLIM PART."

    TEXT: A THIRD EXPERT ALSO INTERVIEWED BY VOA WAS LT. GENERAL MANFRED EISELE (PRON: EYE'-ZELA) OF UNPROFOR'S PLANNING SECTION IN NEW YORK. HE SAID THERE IS REALLY ONLY ONE GOOD HISTORICAL EXAMPLE WHERE SUCH A DIVIDED STATE HAS WORKED :

    TAPE: CUT # ISELA RUNS [:] "IF ALL GOES WELL, BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA COULD FOLLOW THE PARTERN OF BELGIUM WITH TWO SEPARATE PARTS AND SEPARATE GOVERNMENTS. BUT IT TOOK THE BELGIANS SOME WHILE TO SETTLE THEIR DIFFERENCES PEACEFULLY AND SO I DO NOT THINK WE WILL SEE A PEACEFUL FUTURE FOR BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA ARRIVING BY CHRISTMAS 1995."

    TEXT: RETIRED ADMIRAL JACK SHANAHAN, ALONG WITH UNPROFOR'S SPOKESMAN IN ZAGREB, PHIL ARNOLD AND MANFRED EISELE IN NEW YORK WERE GUESTS ON THE VOICE OF AMERICA PROGRAM 'TALK TO AMERICA'. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PAM/NES
    13-Oct-95 3:02 PM EDT (1902 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] TURKEY / PIPELINE BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186860
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A HIGH-RANKING TURKISH OFFICIAL SAYS THAT HIS GOVERNMENT IS PLEASED THAT A CONSORTIA OF OIL COMPANIES HAS AGREED TO SHIP AZERBAIJAN OIL THROUGH TWO PIPELINES, ONE OF THEM TO RUN EVENTUALLY TO TURKEY'S MEDITERRANEAN COAST. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE AZERBAIJAN INTERNATIONAL OPERATING COMPANY, OR A-I-O-C, IS A CONSORTIA OF OIL COMPANIES WHICH EARLIER THIS WEEK ANNOUNCED PLANS TO EXPORT OIL FROM AZERBAIJAN THROUGH TWO RIVAL PIPELINES. ONE RUNS THROUGH RUSSIAN TERRITORY TO THE BLACK SEA PORT OF NOVOROSSIISK; THE OTHER IS THROUGH GEORGIA TO ITS BLACK SEA PORT OF BATUMI. A LINK WOULD EVENTUALLY EXTEND THE PIPELINE IN GEORGIA TO AN EXISTING ONE IN TURKEY LEADING TO ITS MEDITERRANEAN PORT OF CEYHAN.

    AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON, ONUR OYMEN, TURKEY'S DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER, SAYS HIS GOVERNMENT IS PLEASED WITH THE CONSORTIA'S DECISION.

    // OYMEN INSERT //

    IT WILL HAVE A BIG IMPACT ON THE TURKISH ECONOMY, AND WE BELIEVE IT WAS WISE TO DECIDE THAT THIS OIL FROM CASPIAN SEA BE TRANSPORTED TO THE WESTERN WORLD THROUGH ALTERNATIVE ROUTES. IT WILL BE BETTER FOR THE FUTURE OF THESE OIL RESOURCES, AND IT WILL BE BETTER FOR ALL THE COUNTRIES OF THE REGION. AND OF COURSE, WE WILL CONTINUE TO COOPERATE WITH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR THE REALIZATION OF THIS PROJECT, AND WE WILL ATTRACT A NUMBER OF INVESTORS FROM AMERICA FOR THAT PROJECT, AND FOR OIL-BASED INDUSTRIES IN TURKEY.

    // END ACT //

    EARLY OIL PRODUCTION IN THE CASPIAN SEA OFF AZERBAIJAN IS EXPECTED TO BE ABOUT 80-THOUSAND BARRELS A DAY. BUT SOME EXPERTS BELIEVE IT COULD BE NEARLY 10 TIMES THAT AMOUNT BY THE END OF THE CENTURY. ON IRAQ, MR. OYMEN SAYS TURKEY IS URGING THAT NATION TO FULFILL U-N SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS WHICH WOULD LEAD TO THE LIFTING OF INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST IT. HE SAYS TURKEY HOPES THAT ONCE SANCTIONS ARE LIFTED, IRAQ CAN RE-ESTABLISH ITS OWN TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY.

    TURKISH MILITARY FORCES ARE CURRENTLY SPARRING WITH THOSE OF A TURKISH KURD SEPARATIST GROUP, THE P-K-K, WHICH USE AREAS IN NORTH IRAQ AS SANCTUARIES. MR. OYMEN SAYS TURKEY JOINS THE UNITED STATES IN SUPPORTING A CEASE-FIRE INITIATIVE BETWEEN TWO RIVAL IRAQI KURD GROUPS -- THE PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN AND THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY -- WHICH WOULD LEAD TO EFFECTIVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NORTH IRAQ AND BETTER CONTROL OF P-K-K GUERRILLAS.

    // OYMEN ACT //

    OUR INTEREST IS THAT NO COUNTRY WOULD BE HAPPY TO HAVE A NO-MAN'S LAND IN ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. SO THE PROBLEM IN SOUTHERN TURKEY AND THE REGIONS OF NORTH IRAQ, THERE IS NO STATE AUTHORITY, NO GOVERNMENT, WHICH MEANS THAT THERE IS A POWER VACUUM AND THAT TERRORISTS ARE PROFITING FROM THIS VACUUM, NOT ONLY CROSSING THE BORDER AND ATTACKING VILLAGES TO KILL INNOCENT TURKISH PEOPLE, BUT ALSO TO ATTACK KURDISH GROUPS IN NORTH IRAQ.

    // END ACT //

    MR. OYMEN SAYS THAT THE P-K-K CONTINUES TO ATTACK IRAQI KURDISH FORCES BELONGING TO THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND HAS KILLED HUNDREDS OF IRAQI KURD CIVILIANS DURING THE STRUGGLE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AB/CF
    13-Oct-95 2:32 PM EDT (1832 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31370
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REPLACES ITS TOP CIVILIAN OFFICIAL IN THE BALKANS, AS NATO PREPARES FOR A POSSIBLE TAKEOVER OF THE U-N OPERATION; THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT IS STUNNED BY NEW REVELATIONS CONCERNING IRAQ'S PAST WEAPONS PROGRAMS; AND, WESTERN GOVERNMENTS ARE PROTESTING AFRICAN PLANS TO GIVE LIBYA A TWO-YEAR TERM ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI HAS APPOINTED KOFI ANNAN -- HIS TOP PEACEKEEPING OFFICIAL -- AS THE NEW CIVILIAN ADMINISTRATOR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE WILL ALSO SERVE AS U-N ENVOY TO NATO. THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IS MAKING PLANS TO TAKE COMMAND OF THE U-N OPERATION IF A PEACE SETTLEMENT IS REACHED.

    YASUSHI AKASHI, THE JAPANESE NATIONAL WHO HAS SERVED IN ZAGREB FOR OVER TWO YEARS, WILL COME BACK TO NEW YORK AS A SENIOR ADVISOR TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL. U-N SPOKESMEN SAY MR. AKASHI HAD REQUESTED RE-ASSIGNMENT.

    MR. AKASHI BECAME A CONTROVERSIAL FIGURE IN THE BALKANS. HE RAN AFOUL OF NATO, WHICH ACCUSED HIM OF STALLING OVER AIR STRIKES. HIS POPULARITY WITH THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WAS ALSO IN DECLINE. MEANWHILE, THE SECURITY COUNCIL WELCOMED THE LATEST CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA -- AMID GREAT CONCERN OVER CONTINUING MILITARY ACTIVITY IN THE NORTHWEST. DIPLOMATS ARE FOCUSED ON A NEW ROUND OF PEACE TALKS SCHEDULED FOR OCTOBER 31ST IN THE UNITED STATES. THE COUNCIL ISSUED A STATEMENT CAUTIONING ALL PARTIES AGAINST TAKING ANY ACTION THAT MIGHT INTERFERE WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF PEACE.

    -0-

    IRAQ'S HOPES FOR JOINING THE WORLD OIL MARKET AGAIN WERE DASHED THIS PAST WEEK AS THE U-N'S CHIEF ARMS INSPECTOR REPORTED THERE IS A LOT MORE TO VERIFY BEFORE IRAQ GETS A CLEAN BILL OF HEALTH. THE OIL BAN -- IMPOSED SHORTLY AFTER THE IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT IN 1990 -- IS LINKED TO PROGRESS ON DISMANTLING IRAQ'S CAPACITY TO PRODUCE WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.

    NEW INFORMATION REVEALS IRAQ HAD MORE CHEMCIAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS MATERIAL THAT IT HAD PREVIOUSLY ADMITTED AND WAS INVOLVED IN A CRASH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP A NUCLEAR BOMB. THE DISCLOSURES FORCED BAGHDAD TO SURRENDER THOUSANDS OF ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTS THAT HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY STUDIED.

    U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT CALLED FOR A TIGHTENING OF THE U-N'S MONITORING SYSTEM IN IRAQ. CHIEF INSPECTOR ROLF EKEUS SAID PERHAPS SOME ADJUSTMENTS WILL HAVE TO BE MADE, BUT OVERALL THE SYSTEM SET UP A YEAR AGO IS SOUND.

    IRAQ HAS REFUSED A SECURITY COUNCIL DEAL ALLOWING IT TO SELL A LIMITED AMOUNT OF OIL FOR FOOD AND OTHER ESSENTIAL SUPPLIES. U-N AGENCIES ARE REPORTING THAT HUNGER AND POVERTY ARE INCREASING AMONG ORDINARY IRAQIS AS A RESULT OF THE SANCTIONS.

    -0-

    NEXT MONTH, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY WILL ELECT FIVE NEW MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL AND WESTERN DIPLOMATS HAVE MOUNTED A MAJOR CAMPAIGN TO PREVENT LIBYA FROM FILLING ONE OF THOSE POSITIONS.

    THE UNITED STATES, FRANCE AND BRITAIN SAY IT WOULD BE INAPPROPRIATE FOR A COUNTRY UNDER U-N SANCTIONS TO OCCUPY A SEAT IN THE 15-MEMBER BODY THAT DEALS WITH INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY.

    PUNITIVE MEASURES WERE IMPOSED ON LIBYA IN 1992 BECAUSE OF ITS REFUSAL TO SURRENDER TWO SUSPECTS IN THE 1988 BOMBING OF AN AMERICAN AIRLINER OVER SCOTLAND. FRANCE IS ALSO INVESTIGATING A LIBYAN CONNECTION IN THE DOWNING OF A FRENCH PASSENGER PLANE OVER WEST AFRICA.

    AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS HAD SELECTED LIBYA TO OCCUPY THE ROTATING COUNCIL SEAT RESERVED FOR A NORTH AFRICAN COUNTRY. THE WESTERN ALLIES ARE TRYING TO PERSUADE THEM TO WITHDRAW LIBYA'S CANDIDACY IN FAVOR OF EGYPT, TUNISIA OR MOROCCO.

    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY WILL VOTE IN SECRET BALLOT ON NOVEMBER EIGHTH. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 13-Oct-95 7:02 PM EDT (2302 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] U-S-BOSNIA CEASE-FIRE (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186863
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS WARNING BOTH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO STOP THE CONTINUED FIGHTING IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES IS TRYING TO GET THE COMBATANTS IN BOSNIA TO CONCENTRATE ON THE PEACE TALKS THAT BEGIN OCTOBER 31ST. HOWEVER, THE CONTINUED FIGHTING IN NORTHWEST BOSNIA IS STARTING TO THREATEN THOSE TALKS, AS WELL AS THE AMERICAN-NEGOTIATED CEASE-FIRE.

    ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE HAS ASKED SERBIA TO USE ITS INFLUENCE WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO STOP FIGHTING IN HIS TELEPHONE CALL TO THE YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTER. THE AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO BOSNIA HAS MADE A SIMILAR APPEAL TO PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC AND THE U-S AMBASSADOR TO CROATIA PRESSED THE ISSUE WITH THE CROATIAN DEFENSE MINISTER.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE FIGHTING IS A WASTE OF TIME.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    WE ARE DISAPPOINTED IN BOTH THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT FOR THE CONTINUATION OF FIGHTING IN THE NORTHWEST, AND WE HAVE MADE OUR DISPLEASURE AND OUR OPPOSITION TO THE CONTINUED FIGHTING KNOWN TO BOTH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    //END ACT///

    MR. BURNS SAYS THE FIGHTING HAS NOT CHANGED THE BATTLE LINES, AND BOTH SIDES HAVE MORE TO GAIN AT THE FORTHCOMING NEGOTIATIONS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/MMK
    13-Oct-95 3:06 PM EDT (1906 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=10/13/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186854
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN MUSLIM AND CROAT FORCES HAVE SHELLED ANOTHER SERB-HELD TOWN AS THEY CONTINUE WHAT THE SERBS CALL AN UNRELENTING OFFENSIVE IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS SAY THEY TAKE SERIOUSLY SERB THREATS TO BOYCOTT PLANNED PEACE TALKS IF THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS IGNORE THE NATIONWIDE CEASE-FIRE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: MUSLIM OR CROAT GUNNERS HAVE SHELLED THE SERB-HELD TOWN OF PRIJEDOR. FOUR SHELLS ARE SAID TO HAVE LANDED IN THE CENTER OF TOWN WHILE THE SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, WAS ON A VISIT THERE.

    THE SHELLING INDICATES THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS ARE CONTINUING THEIR OFFENSIVE IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA DESPITE THE CEASE-FIRE THAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE IN EFFECT THROUGHOUT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    PRIJEDOR IS NORTHWEST OF THE BIGGEST SERB TOWN IN BOSNIA, BANJA LUKA. THE SHELLING OF PRIJEDOR COULD FORCE THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS TO FLEE FOR SAFETY.

    IN THE BANJA LUKA AREA, AN ESTIMATED 40-THOUSAND PEOPLE WHO FLED THERE FROM OTHER PLACES MIGHT HAVE TO MOVE AGAIN. IF BANJA LUKA ITSELF IS THREATENED, THE NUMBER OF DISPLACED PEOPLE COULD EXCEED 200-THOUSAND.

    PRIJEDOR IS CRITICAL TO BANJA LUKA'S DEFENSE. THE FALL OF PRIJEDOR WOULD PUT THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS IN POSITION TO ADVANCE TOWARD BANJA LUKA ALONG MAIN ROADS FROM THREE DIRECTIONS.

    UNITED NATIONS OFFICIALS TOLD V-O-A THEY TAKE SERIOUSLY THE SERBS' THREAT TO WITHDRAW FROM THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS IF THE MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFENSIVE DOES NOT STOP.

    IF BANJA LUKA IS ENDANGERED, THE OFFICIALS SAY THERE WOULD BE NO REASON FOR THE SERBS TO NEGOTIATE A PEACE AGREEMENT.

    WHILE A MASSIVE INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF DISPLACED SERBS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA IS POSSIBLE, THE SERBS ARE CONTINUING THEIR ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN IN THE REGION. THE ETHNIC CLEANSING HAS INVOLVED MASS EXPULSIONS, RAPE, BEATINGS, AND EVEN THE KILLING OF MUSLIM OR CROAT CIVILIANS.

    IN THE HAGUE, THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL HAS HEARD MORE TESTIMONY ABOUT THE ALLEGED BEATING, KILLING, AND RAPE OF PRISONERS AT OR NEAR A SERB-RUN PRISON CAMP IN 1992.

    A BOSNIAN MUSLIM WOMAN, ZEHRA SMAJLOVIC, RECALLED HOW THE SERBS TOOK AWAY YOUNG WOMEN. SHE CRIED AS SHE TOLD THE TRIBUNAL THE WOMEN WERE NEVER SEEN AGAIN. SHE ALSO DESCRIBED THE BEATING OF MALE PRISONERS BY THE CAMP COMMANDER, DRAGAN NIKOLIC. SHE SAID THE SCREAMS OF THE MEN AND THEIR CRIES FOR MERCY WERE HORRIBLE.

    A NUMBER OF FORMER MUSLIM PRISONERS HAVE TESTIFIED THAT MEN WERE TAKEN FROM A LARGE ROOM, BEATEN OUT OF SIGHT OF THE OTHER PRISONERS, AND THEN RETURNED TO THE LARGE ROOM, WHERE THEY DIED.

    THE CAMP COMMANDER IS NOT IN THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL'S CUSTODY. HE WILL NOT BE TRIED IN HIS ABSENCE. BUT THE TRIBUNAL IS EXPECTED TO ISSUE AN INTERNATIONAL WARRANT FOR HIS ARREST. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/BG
    13-Oct-95 1:25 PM EDT (1725 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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