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Voice of America, 17 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 17, 1995 !!!

  • [03] ALBANIA INVESTMENT (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (TIRANA)

  • [04] BOSNIA/U-N (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS ( GENEVA )

  • [05] BOSNIA / CEASE-FIRE (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [06] CHRISTOPHER / CROATIA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [07] CONGRESS-BOSNIA (L-ONITER) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

  • [08] CONGRESS / BOSNIA FORCE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SENATE)

  • [09] E-U COURT (S ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

  • [10] NATO / CLAES (L ONLY) CORRECTED BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

  • [11] NATO / CLAES (L ONLY) CORRECTED BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

  • [12] RUSSIA / BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

  • [13] SENATE-BOSNIA REACT BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)

  • [14] TURKEY/ POLITICS (S-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

  • [15] U-S-BALKANS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [16] U-S / BOSNIA HEARINGS (L-ONITER) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [17] YUGO SITREP (L ) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09221
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, OCTOBER 17TH //

    INTRO: THE RALLY BY MORE THAN 400-THOUSAND AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN IN WASHINGTON MONDAY IS COVERED EXTENSIVELY IN LEADING U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS TODAY, FROM ONE END OF THE NATION TO THE OTHER. IN ADDITION, OPINION WRITERS ARE COMMENTING ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SPEECH CALLING FOR RACIAL RECONCILIATION; THE PRESIDENTIAL VOTE IN IRAQ; THE U-S ROLE IN TURKEY'S REPRESSION OF THE KURDS, AND REACTION TO JAPAN'S LATEST BANK FAILURE. NOW, HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" SUMS UP ITS IMPRESSION OF WHAT WAS LABELLED THE MILLION MAN MARCH ON WASHINGTON WITH THIS EDITORIAL HEADLINE: "EARNEST CROWD, EMPTY LEADER", ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE MILLION MAN MARCH PRODUCED A HUGE CROWD HUNGRY FOR GREAT ORATORY. BUT INSTEAD OF SOMETHING LIKE THE CRYSTALLINE 19 MINUTES OF MARTIN LUTHER KING'S 'I HAVE A DREAM' SPEECH, THIS CROWD GOT A RAMBLING, SELF-OBSESSED TWO HOURS FROM LOUIS FARRAKHAN. [OPT] BY THE TIME THE NATION OF ISLAM LEADER GOT THROUGH SUCH ARCANE MATTERS AS NUMEROLOGY AND MASONIC LORE, HIS ADJURATIONS AGAINST VIOLENCE IN BLACK NEIGHBORHOODS SEEM ALMOST PERFUNCTORY. [END OPT] ... INDEED, THE MARCHERS PROVED TO BE OF GREATER HEART THAN THE LONG-WINDED SPEAKER WHO WANTED ALL CREDIT FOR THEIR PRESENCE... THE MARCH WAS DOMINATED BY A SPIRIT OF GOOD WILL, AS STRANGER EMBRACED STRANGER IN THE BRIGHT AUTUMN SUNSHINE."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, THE MARCH WAS PRAISED IN "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" AS ITS INSTIGATOR WAS NOT.

    VOICE: "UNFORTUNATELY, [MINISTER] FARRAKHAN IS FILLING A VOID LEFT BY LEADERS OF TRADITIONAL CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS, MANY OF WHOM SEEM TO NO LONGER CONNECT WITH THE GRASS ROOTS, PARTICULARLY WITH THE YOUNG. BUT IT'S IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT THE VOID IS NOT SIMPLY ONE OF BLACK AMERICAN LEADERSHIP, ... IT IS ALSO A VOID OF WHITE AMERICAN LEADERSHIP.... THOUSANDS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN DID MONDAY WHAT SO MANY CLERGY MEMBERS AND POLITICIANS HAVE BEEN URGING THEM TO DO: THEY STOOD UP TO BE COUNTED, THEY DISAVOWED VIOLENCE AND DRUGS AS THE WRONG WAYS TO ESCAPE THE RAVAGES OF RACISM AND SCARCE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES."

    TEXT: AND HERE IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL, "THE WASHINGTON POST" ADDED THESE THOUGHTS:

    VOICE: "... DESPITE THE SPIRIT OF CAMARADERIE AND RECONCILIATION, EVIDENCED ON THE MALL YESTERDAY, MINISTER FARRAKHAN DID NOT DEMONSTRATE THROUGH HIS WORDS THAT 'HE' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] IS ANYONE TO HEAL THE RACIAL DIVIDE SO CLEARLY APPARENT IN RECENT WEEKS. IN FACT, IT IS ONE THAT HE HAS AND CONTINUES TO CONTRIBUTE MIGHTILY TO."

    TEXT: IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST, "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND SAYS IT WAS A DAY OF "MIXED MESSAGES FOR AMERICAN BLACKS."

    VOICE: "IN A MARCH THAT WAS PROMOTED AS A 'HOLY DAY OF ATONEMENT AND RECONCILIATION,' [MINISTER] FARRAKHAN'S FAILURE TO MAKE ATONEMENT FOR HIS OWN HISTORY OF ANTI-SEMITISM AND OTHER BIGOTRY WAS A CONSPICUOUS AND REGRETTABLE BARRIER TO RECONCILIATION.J... MANY PARTICIPANTS IN THE MARCH -- FOR WHOM THE EVENT UNDOUBTEDLY WAS EMOTIONALLY POWERFUL AND EVEN GALVANIZING -- SAID THE EVENT SHOULD NOT BE SEEN AS ENDORSEMENT OF [MINISTER] FARRAKHAN'S DISTORTED THEOLOGY. RATHER, THE MESSAGE OF PERSONAL ATONEMENT AND RECONCILIATION AMONG PEOPLES IS BIGGER THAN ONE MAN."

    TEXT: BACK IN THE EAST, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE ADDED THIS ASSESSMENT OF THE HUGE CROWD AND THE PORTENT THE MARCH HAS FOR THE FUTURE:

    VOICE: "MR. FARRAKHAN'S SPEECH WAS TOO LONG ... BUT THE AUDIENCE ... STAYED WITH HIM... AFTER YESTERDAY, IT IS LIKELY THAT HE IS GOING TO BE MORE INFLUENTIAL THAN EVER, HIS LARGER AUDIENCE -- THE NATION -- WILL HAVE TO SEE THROUGH HIS DEMAGOGY AND ACCEPT ONLY THE RESPONSIBLE (AND WISE) PARTS OF HIS MESSAGE."

    TEXT: AND THERE WAS THIS HOPEFUL ASSESSMENT FROM "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER."

    VOICE: "NO MATTER HOW MANY AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN GATHERED ... IN WASHINGTON ... THE EVENT MAY HAVE A TRANSFORMING EFFECT ACROSS AMERICA. THE TRANSFORMATION WILL COME IF THE MARCHERS, THEIR SUPPORTERS AND THE NATION AS A WHOLE LISTEN TO THE STRONG AND POSITIVE MESSAGES DELIVERED BY SO MANY OF THE SPEAKERS WHO ADDRESSED THE PEACEFUL THRONG."

    TEXT: ON A RELATED TOPIC, SEVERAL PAPERS WROTE SEPARATE EDITORIALS ABOUT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SPEECH IN TEXAS, IN WHICH HE CONDEMNED RACISM, AND CALLED FOR RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE RACES. OF THAT ADDRESS, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE NOTES:

    VOICE: "ONE MAY QUIBBLE [ARGUE] WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON'S TACTICS IN GOING TO TEXAS TO SPEAK ABOUT THE RACIAL DIVIDE IN THE HEARTS AND MINDS OF AMERICANS ... ON THE SAME DAY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN ASSEMBLED ... IN WASHINGTON... BUT TACTICS ASIDE, MR. CLINTON'S WILLINGNESS TO SPEAK OUT FRANKLY ON THE MOST SEARING ISSUE IN THE WHOLE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE WAS EXEMPLARY... BY PUTTING RACIAL TOLERANCE ON A PERSONAL LEVEL, THE PRESIDENT AT LEAST WAS TRUE TO HIS ASSERTION THAT 'HONESTY IS THE ONLY GATEWAY' TO THE RECONCILIATION NEEDED TO HEAL OUR COUNTRY."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS THAT EVEN THOUGH THE RECENT VOTE IN IRAQ, IN WHICH PRESIDENT SADDAM RAN UNOPPOSED, WAS "A SHAM", IT HAD SOME VALUE, SUGGESTING THAT "EVEN TYRANTS CANNOT FULLY IGNORE THE DRIVE FOR DEMOCRACY."

    VOICE: "... IT WAS A VOTE NOT WITHOUT SIGNIFICANCE. FOR WHAT IT SHOWED IS THAT IN IRAQ -- AS IN CUBA OR NORTH KOREA OR ANY OTHER COUNTRY WHERE THE CULT OF PERSONALITY DEMANDS OVERWHELMING EVIDENCE OF BACKING FOR THE SUPREME LEADER -- THE POWER OF THE 'IDEA' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] OF A DEMOCRATIC VOTE IS TAKEN SERIOUSLY. MAYBE SOMEDAY THAT IDEA CAN BECOME A REALITY FOR IRAQIS. "

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" TAKES ISSUE WITH THE USE OF AMERICAN-SUPPLIED MILITARY WEAPONS BY TURKEY TO SUPPRESS THE COUNTRY'S MINORITY KURDS.

    VOICE: "TURKEY LAGS BEHIND ONLY ISRAEL AND EGYPT IN RECEIPT OF AMERICAN MILITARY AID... BUT THE AID IS NOW BEING USED TO PROLONG A WAR THAT BOTH DESTABILIZES TURKEY AND BETRAYS AMERICAN VALUES. THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAS ACKNOWLEDGED THAT TURKEY IS USING THE F-16'S AND OTHER AMERICAN WEAPONS TO STRAFE TURKISH VILLAGES IN ITS WAR AGAINST A KURDISH GUERRILLA GROUP, KILLING THOUSANDS OF CIVILIANS AND LEAVING MILLIONS HOMELESS. WASHINGTON SHOULD END THE SALE OF WEAPONS USED IN THE WAR, AND CONDITION FURTHER MILITARY AID AND SALES ON TURKISH RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS."

    TEXT: STILL ON THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" IS CALLING ON THE U-S GOVERNMENT TO HONOR ITS MILITARY CONTRACT WITH PAKISTAN. THE PAPER WANTS CONGRESSIONAL ACTION TO ALLOW PAKISTAN TO RECEIVE SOME OF THE 368-MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF WEAPONS THEY PAID FOR BUT NEVER GOT, DUE TO A LAW PREVENTING MILITARY SALES TO NATION'S DEVELOPING NUCLEAR WEAPONS. "THE GLOBE" SAYS:

    VOICE: "TO CONTAIN NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION ON THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT, THE UNITED STATES MUST EASE TENSIONS BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN. BUT THE CONFERENCE COMMITTEE SHOULD APPROVE THE BROWN AMENDMENT [WHICH FREES UP SOME OF THE WEAPONS AND GETS PAKISTAN THE REST OF ITS MONEY BACK.]"

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, "THE OREGONIAN" IN PORTLAND IS INCENSED THAT A LARGE JAPANESE BANK WHICH RECENTLY LOST MORE THAN ONE BILLION DOLLARS IN ITS NEW YORK OFFICE THROUGH UNSUPERVISED TRADING COMMITTED A SECOND ERROR.

    VOICE: "... WHAT HAS U-S BANKING AND SECURITIES TRADING CIRCLES RIGHTLY STEAMED [FURIOUS] IS THE JAPANESE FINANCE MINISTRY'S CONCEALING THE LOSSES FOR SIX WEEKS. A POSSIBLE MOTIVE MIGHT HAVE BEEN TO SOFTEN THE IMPACT OF THE SCANDAL ON JAPANESE MARKETS. THAT WOULD BE CHEATING... DAIWA AND JAPANESE CENTRAL BANKERS SHOULD HAVE NOTIFIED U-S REGULATORS IMMEDIATELY. AND FEDERAL REGULATORS HAVE SOME EXPLAINING TO DO, AS WELL. HOW IS IT THAT U-S BANKING RULES COULD BE SO MISUNDERSTOOD? WHAT SANCTIONS DO THEY PROPOSE TO ENSURE THAT SUCH DISCLOSURE LAPSES DON'T OCCUR AGAIN?"

    TEXT: AND ON THAT TROUBLING FINANCIAL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF U-S EDITORIAL COMMENT FOR THIS TUESDAY IN MID-OCTOBER. NEB/ANG/PCH 17-Oct-95 11:20 AM EDT (1520 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 17, 1995 !!!

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 10/17/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    :

    US / BALKANS -- THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS SENT ITS TOP OFFICIALS TO BRIEF THE US SENATE ON THE PROSPECTS FOR A PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THAT WILL REQUIRE THE STATIONING OF AMERICAN TROOPS IN THE BALKAN REPUBLIC. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE OFFICIALS ENCOUNTERED A SKEPTICAL SENATE. (10/17)

    CHRISTOPHER / CROATIA -- SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IN TESTIMONY BEFORE A SENATE COMMITTEE IS WARNING CROATIA AGAINST USING MILITARY FORCE TO GAIN CONTROL OF SERBIAN-OCCUPIED EASTERN SLAVONIA. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT. (10/17)

    BOSNIA / UN -- THE UNITED NATIONS IS STEPPING UP DELIVERY OF EMERGENCY RELIEF SUPPLIES TO THOUSANDS OF BOSNIAN SERBS WHO FLED THEIR HOMES IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY BEFORE THE BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE WENT INTO EFFECT LAST WEEK. CORRESPONDENT DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS OFFICIALS OF THE UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) IN GENEVA SAY CONDITIONS AT MAKESHIFT REFUGEE CAMPS THROUGHOUT THE REGION ARE RAPIDLY DETERIORATING. (10/17)

    BOSNIA CEASEFIRE -- SPORADIC FIGHTING IS REPORTED IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA, BUT UN OFFICIALS SAY THE CEASE-FIRE IS TAKING HOLD. STRINGER DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS ALL SIDES HAVE NOW SUBMITTED MAPS OF THE MILITARY CONFRONTATION LINE TO THE UN, AND OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS BROAD AGREEMENT ON THIS KEY ISSUE. (10/17)

    CHRISTOPHER / CONGRESS -- THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION MAKES ITS CASE TO THE SENATE FOR US INVOLVEMENT IN A BOSNIA PEACEKEEPING FORCE. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT ON THE ARGUMENT SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER PLANS TO MAKE. (10/16)

    US / BOSNIA -- THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THAT ONCE THE PEACE ACCORD IS REACHED, THE US WILL NOT WAIT UNTIL BOSNIAN WINTER IS OVER TO SEND ITS TROOPS TO BOSNIA. A DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAID THE DEPLOYMENT OF TROOPS WILL BE A MATTER OF DAYS, NOT MONTHS. STAFFER IVANA KUHAR REPORTS. (CROATIAN 10/16)

    SENATE / US TROOPS / BOSNIA -- SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER, DEFENSE SECRETARY PERRY, AND CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF JOHN SHALIKASHVILI ARE TESTIFYING AT THE SENATE ARMS COMMITTEE ON THE NEED TO SEND 20 THOUSAND TROOPS TO BOSNIA UPON CONCLUSION OF A PEACE AGREEMENT. THEIR DEPLOYMENT WOULD LAST A YEAR. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY EXPLAINS THAT US EXPECTS BOSNIAN SERBS TO REDUCE THEIR ARSENAL DURING THE YEAR. STAFFER IVANA KUHAR REPORTS. (CROATIAN 10/17)

    BOSNIA / CEASE-FIRE -- ACCORDING TO BOSNIAN AND SERBIAN SOURCES, THE LATEST CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA IS TAKING HOLD. AT THE SAME TIME, BOSNIAN SERB MEDIA REPORT THAT THE MEETING OF THEIR ASSEMBLY IN BANJALUKA WAS VERY DIFFICULT, BUT FAR REACHING IN TERMS OF RESULTS. STRINGER BORO KONTIC REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO. (SERBIAN 10/16)

    CROATIA / EASTERN SLAVONIA -- REPRESENTATIVES OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ARE TRYING TO RENEW TALKS BETWEEN CROATIAN GOVERNMENT AND SERBS FROM EASTERN SLAVONIA. IN THE MEANTIME, CROATIAN DEFENSE MINISTER G. SUSAK BELIEVES THAT THE ARRIVAL OF US TROOPS WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE REENFORCEMENT OF CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA. STRINGER STEVICA SUSA REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (SERBIAN 10/16)

    UN / BOSNIA -- THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL RECEIVES A REPORT ABOUT INTERNATIONAL CONTROL OF THE YUGOSLAV-BOSNIAN BORDER. YUGOSLAV AUTHORITIES HAVE INCREASED CONTROL AT ALL BORDER CROSSINGS AND THE TRANSPORT OF GOODS REMAINS COMPLETELY BLOCKED. STRINGER REPORT. (SERBIAN 10/16)

    ALBANIA / KOSOVA -- PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA HAS REQUESTED THAT THE PREDOMINANTLY ALBANIAN-INHABITED REGION OF KOSOVA BE INCLUDED IN ANY PEACE SETTLEMENT IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE TOLD A NEWS CONFERENCE IN TIRANA TUESDAY THE KOSOVO ISSUE IS NOT JUST AN ALBANIAN-SERB PROBLEM, IT IS A REGIONAL ISSUE. THE ALBANIAN LEADER ALSO DEFENDED THE PARLIAMENT'S DECISION TO REMOVE THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT. THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAD CRITICIZED THE MOVE, SAYING IT BRINGS INTO QUESTION ALBANIA'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE HELSINKI FINAL ACT. STRINGER ILIRIAN AGOLLI REPORTS. (ALBANIAN 10/17)

    ALBANIAN MINISTER / US -- ALBANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER SAFET ZHULALI CONTINUES HIS OFFICIAL VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES. AFTER THE SIGNING OF AN AGREEMENT FOR THE SHARING OF INFORMATION, ZHULALI HAS MET WITH OTHER ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS AND CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS. STAFFER AGIM FETAHAJ REPORTS. (ALBANIAN 10/17) 17-Oct-95 6:20 PM EDT (2220 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] ALBANIA INVESTMENT (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (TIRANA)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187008
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ALBANIA'S ECONOMIC REFORMS ARE ABOUT THREE YEARS OLD AND THE COUNTRY IS MAKING PROGRESS IN SHIFTING FROM DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN AID TO RELIANCE ON FOREIGN AND DIRECT INVESTMENT. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS FROM TIRANA.

    TEXT: ALBANIA WILL CONTINUE TO NEED FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FOR MANY MORE YEARS. BUT THE GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY ATTRACTING SMALL AMOUNTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, SOMETHING IT FEELS IS FAR MORE USEFUL THAN AID.

    FOREIGN INVESTMENT WAS FORBIDDEN BY LAW UNTIL THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM. NOW ALBANIA ENCOURAGES INVESTORS ALLOWING FOREIGN FIRMS TO HAVE COMPLETE OWNERSHIP OF LOCAL ENTERPRISES.

    THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL FOREIGN INVESTMENT WAS COCA COLA WHOSE TEN-MILLION DOLLAR BOTTLING PLANT OUTSIDE THE CAPITAL IS ALREADY A LOCAL LANDMARK. COCA COLA IS CONTINUING TO EXPAND AND MORE INVESTMENTS ARE IN THE WORKS. THERE ALSO IS FOREIGN INTEREST IN OIL EXPLORATION AND COAL MINING.

    IN THE UNDER DEVELOPED TOURISM INDUSTRY, AUSTRIA'S ROGNER HOTEL CHAIN IN A PIONEER. ROGNER RECENTLY OPENED A NEW HOTEL IN TIRANA AND PLANS TO DEVELOP A TOURIST RESORT ON THE SOUTHERN ALBANIA COAST.

    ROGNER HAS INVESTED MORE THAN 20-MILLION DOLLARS IN ITS TIRANA HOTEL. IT WAS ASSISTED BY THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT, THE E-B-R-D, WHICH HAS A MAJORITY HOLDING IN THE VENTURE.

    THE MARKETING AND SALES MANAGER FOR THE HOTEL, VENERA COCOLI, SAYS IT HAS BEEN A CHALLENGE TO TRAIN ALBANIANS IN THE EXACTING STANDARDS OF THE WESTERN TRAVEL INDUSTRY.

    // COCOLI ACT //

    WE HAD TO START AT THE BEGINNING, HOW TO SMILE, LETS SAY, IT WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING. TO LEARN (TEACH) PEOPLE HOW TO SMILE, HOW TO BE FRIENDLY, IT IS HARD, BUT IT IS WORKING. PEOPLE HERE ARE INTEREST (EAGER) TO LEARN. NOW FOR EXAMPLE THE FRONT OFFICE MANAGER IS AN ALBANIA AND BEFORE IT WAS AN AUSTRIAN. WE ARE TRYING TO REPLACE AUSTRIANS WITH ALBANIANS.

    // END ACT //

    BUSINESS PEOPLE REPEATEDLY SAY THAT THE MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE IN WORKING IN ALBANIA IS CHANGING THE MENTALITY OF THE PEOPLE. THEY ARE, SAY SEVERAL FOREIGN MANAGERS, NOT USED TO WORKING A REGULAR EIGHT-HOUR SHIFT. THERE IS LITTLE CONCEPT OF SERVICE AND THE IDEA OF THE CUSTOMER BEING THE BOSS IS DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND. AND YET, THE FOREIGN BUSINESSES HAVE CONSIDERABLE PRAISE FOR THE ALBANIANS. THEY SAYS PEOPLE ARE QUICK TO LEARN AND RESPONSIVE TO INCREASED RESPONSIBILITY AND RESPECTABLE WAGES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BW/JWH/CF
    17-Oct-95 7:37 AM EDT (1137 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA/U-N (L ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS ( GENEVA )

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187031
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS IS STEPPING UP DELIVERY OF EMERGENCY RELIEF SUPPLIES TO THOUSANDS OF BOSNIAN SERBS WHO FLED THEIR HOMES IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY BEFORE THE BOSNIAN CEASE-FIRE WENT INTO EFFECT LAST WEEK. AS WE HEAR FROM VOA'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS, OFFICIALS OF THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) IN GENEVA SAY CONDITIONS AT MAKESHIFT REFUGEE CAMPS THROUGHOUT THE REGION ARE RAPIDLY DETERIORATING.

    TEXT: NEARLY 170-THOUSAND BOSNIAN SERB CIVILIANS HAVE FLED THEIR HOMES IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY DURING THE PAST SIX WEEKS ALONE. U-N OFFICIALS SAY MORE THAN A QUARTER OF THESE LATEST REFUGEES LEFT THE TOWNS OF SANSKI MOST AND MRKONJIC GRAD, WHICH FELL TO BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND CROATIAN TROOPS JUST HOURS BEFORE THE CEASE-FIRE WENT INTO EFFECT.

    CITING REPORTS FROM A U-N-H-C-R TEAM THAT HAS JUST TOURED THE AREA, SPOKESMAN RON REDMOND DESCRIBED CONDITIONS AT MAKESHIFT SERB REFUGEE CENTERS THROUGHOUT THE REGION AS APPALLING.

    // REDMOND ACT //

    CROWDS OF PEOPLE -- VERY LARGE CROWDS OF PEOPLE -- ARE HAVING TO SEEK SHELTER IN VERY SMALL SPACES UNDER EXTREMELY POOR HYGIENIC AND SANITARY CONDITIONS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. REDMOND SAID THERE ARE PILES OF GARBAGE AND HUMAN WASTE ON THE FRINGES OF MANY OF THE COLLECTIVE CENTERS, LEADING TO INFESTATIONS OF LICE, TICKS AND RATS.

    HE SAID A LARGE NUMBER OF THE REFUGEES ARE IN POOR HEALTH. MANY, ESPECIALLY CHILDREN, ARE ALREADY SUFFERING FROM BRONCHITIS AND OTHER RESPIRATORY AILMENTS. SOME CASES OF TUBERCULOSIS HAVE ALSO BEEN REPORTED, AS WELL AS AN OUTBREAK OF DYSENTARY ATTRIBUTED TO CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER.

    THE SPOKESMAN SAID CLINICS AND HEALTH CENTERS IN THE REGION LACK ESSENTIAL SUPPLIES. AND THERE IS ALSO A SHORTAGE OF BABY FOOD.

    MR. REDMOND SAID U-N-H-C-R IS SENDING ADDITIONAL TRUCKLOADS OF EMERGENCY SUPPLIES TO THE REGION FROM THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL, BELGRADE. THE AGENCY HAS ALSO CHARTERED A HELICOPTER TO FERRY IN SUPPLIES FROM NEIGHBORING CROATIA.

    U-N OFFICIALS REPORT THE BATTLE LINES IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA APPEAR TO HAVE STABILIZED OVER THE PAST FEW DAYS. AND MR. REDMOND SAID THE EXODUS OF REFUGEES HAS HALTED. BUT U-N AND RED CROSS OFFICIALS WARN THERE COULD BE A HUMANITARIAN CATASTROPHE IN THE REGION UNLESS MORE AID IS DISPATCHED BEFORE THE BALKAN WINTER SETS IN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/MH/CF
    17-Oct-95 12:13 PM EDT (1613 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA / CEASE-FIRE (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187028
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SPORADIC FIGHTING IS CONTINUING IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA, BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAY THE CEASEFIRE IS TAKING HOLD. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS ALL SIDES HAVE SUBMITTED MAPS OF THE MILITARY CONFRONTATION LINE TO THE U-N, AND OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS BROAD AGREEMENT ON THIS KEY ISSUE.

    TEXT: ARTILLERY FIRE AND SPORADIC FIGHTING ARE CONTINUING IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA AROUND THE TOWN OF SANSKI MOST. BUT U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY DO NOT BELIEVE THE CLASHES WILL AFFECT THE CEASEFIRE, NOW INTO ITS SIXTH DAY.

    ALL SIDES HAVE PRESENTED MAPS OF WHERE THEY BELIEVE THE CONFRONTATION LINE BETWEEN THEIR ARMIES IS LOCATED. THE UNITED NATIONS' MILITARY SPOKESMAN, LIEUTENANT COLONEL CHRIS VERNON, SAID WHILE THERE WAS SOME DISAGREEMENT ABOUT THE AREA AROUND SANSKI MOST, THE MAPS WERE VERY SIMILAR.

    /// VERNON ACT ///

    THIS IS A MOST ENCOURAGING EVENT, AND A GREAT IMPROVEMENT ON PREVIOUS CEASEFIRES, WHERE THE CONFRONTATION LINE AGREEMENT WAS NEVER ACHIEVED, AND CLEARLY IF YOU DON'T GET THAT DEGREE OF AGREEMENT AT THE BEGINNING IT IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT THEREAFTER TO ENFORCE ANY DEGREE OF CEASEFIRE AND MONITOR VIOLATIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT OTHER PARTS OF THE CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT HAVE NOT YET BEEN IMPLEMENTED. BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS COMPLAIN THE ROAD TO THE EASTERN ENCLAVE OF GORAZDE HAS YET TO BE OPENED AS CALLED FOR IN THE TRUCE AGREEMENT AND WATER SUPPLIES HAVE NOT BEEN RESTORED TO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL.

    THE UNITED NATIONS HAS SENT DAILY PATROLS TO TRY TO OPEN THE GORAZDE ROAD, BUT THEY HAVE SO FAR BEEN TURNED BACK BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS. AND ON MONDAY, OFFICIALS COMPLAINED PEACEKEEPERS HAD BEEN THREATENED BY BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIERS MANNING CHECKPOINTS ON THE ROAD.

    THE WATER SUPPLY TO SARAJEVO REMAINS CUT BECAUSE OF WHAT U-N OFFICIALS CALL "POLITICAL PROBLEMS." SARAJEVO'S MAIN WATER PUMPING STATION IS IN BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY, AND IT HAS YET TO BE SWITCHED ON. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY DO NOT KNOW WHEN THE PROBLEMS WILL BE SOLVED.

    DESPITE THE DIFFICULTIES, SENIOR U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE STILL OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE PEACE PROCESS. THEY SAY ALL THE PROBLEMS SHOULD NOW BE SOLVED AT THE NEGOTIATING TABLE AND NOT ON THE BATTLEFIELD. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH/GPT
    17-Oct-95 11:46 AM EDT (1546 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] CHRISTOPHER / CROATIA (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187046
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IN TESTIMONY BEFORE A SENATE COMMITTEE IS WARNING CROATIA AGAINST USING MILITARY FORCE TO GAIN CONTROL OF SERBIAN-OCCUPIED EASTERN SLAVONIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN'S REPEATED THREATS TO TAKE EASTERN SLAVONIA BY FORCE IF NEGOTIATIONS DO NOT SUCCEED ARE DRAWING CONCERN IN THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER SAYS HE WILL CONTINUE TO WARN PRESIDENT TUDJMAN THAT MILITARY ACTION WILL JEOPARDIZE CROATIA'S HOPE TO JOIN WESTERN INSTITUTIONS.

    // CHRISTOPHER ACT //

    WE'VE MADE IT ABSOLUTELY CLEAR TO PRESIDENT TUDJMAN THAT WE THINK THAT AREA SHOULD NOT BE CONQUERED OR TAKEN BY FORCE. HE KNOWS IT WILL BE VERY COSTLY TO CROATIA IN TERMS OF ITS DESIRE TO BECOME PART OF WESTERN INSTITUTIONS AND I INTEND TO TELL HIM AGAIN AND AS FORCEFULLY AS WE CAN THAT WE THINK IT WOULD BE A SERIOUS MISTAKE FOR THEM TO DO THAT.

    // END ACT //

    THE SECRETARY OF STATE DISMISSES PRESIDENT TUDJMAN'S STATEMENTS AS PART OF THE CROATIAN ELECTION CAMPAIGN BUT HE SAYS THEY ARE NOT CONDUCIVE TO PEACE. THE UNITED STATES FEARS CROATIAN MILITARY ACTION IN SERBIAN-OCCUPIED EASTERN SLAVONIA WILL BRING THE YUGOSLAV ARMY INTO BATTLE AND WILL RUIN THE CURRENT U-S PEACE INTIATIVE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/CF
    17-Oct-95 3:17 PM EDT (1917 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] CONGRESS-BOSNIA (L-ONITER) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187059
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// THIS AND THE GOLLUST L-ONITER ON U-S /BOSNIA SHOULD BE USED AS ALTERNATES ///

    INTRO: TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS ARE DEFENDING THE PRESIDENT'S BOSNIA STRATEGY BEFORE SKEPTICAL MEMBERS OF THE U-S CONGRESS. THEY STARTED WITH BACK-TO-BACK APPEARANCES BEFORE TWO SENATE COMMITTEES. AND TODAY (WEDNESDAY), THEY MOVE OVER TO THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS THEY CAN EXPECT A COOL RECEPTION FROM REPUBLICANS ON THE HOUSE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE.

    TEXT: TWO MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE HAVE LAUNCHED AN ALL-OUT EFFORT TO BLOCK ANY DECISION TO SEND U-S GROUND TROOPS TO BOSNIA. REPUBLICAN DANA ROHRABACHER OF CALIFORNIA SAYS CONGRESS MUST VOTE BEFORE THE PRESIDENT ACTS.

    /// ROHRABACHER ACT ///

    THE POLICY HAS BEEN A FAILURE, AND NOW AMERICAN TROOPS ARE GOING TO HAVE TO SUFFER. OUR BOYS ARE GOING TO BE PUT IN HARM'S WAY. WE ARE NOT GOING TO LET THAT HAPPEN. AND WE ARE GOING TO DO OUT BEST TO STOP IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    CONGRESSMAN ROHRABACHER SERVED IN THE REAGAN WHITE HOUSE IN 1983 WHEN THE DECISION WAS MADE TO SEND AMERICAN MARINES TO LEBANON -- MARINES WHO WERE KILLED IN THEIR BARRACKS BY A SUICIDE BOMBER. HE DRAWS A PARALLEL BETWEEN THEIR MISSION AND THE PROPOSED DEPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA.

    /// 2ND ROHRABACHER ACT ///

    WELL, I AM AFRAID WHAT WE ARE SEEING RIGHT NOW -- THIS IDEA ABOUT SENDING AMERICAN TROOPS INTO THE BALKANS -- IS JUST A REPEAT OF THE LEBANON SITUATION. THE CHANCES OF US BRINGING PEACE THERE WITH GROUND TROOPS IS VERY SMALL. THE CHANCES OF THIS TURNING INTO A FIASCO WHERE MANY OF OUR YOUNG PEOPLE LOSE THEIR LIVES IS VERY HIGH.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONLY ONCE IN RECENT HISTORY HAS A PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TURNED TO CONGRESS FOR PERMISSION BEFORE SENDING TROOPS INTO ACTION. THAT ONE EXCEPTION WAS THE GULF WAR AND U-S FORCES WERE ALREADY IN PLACE IN THE REGION BEFORE A VOTE WAS HELD IN THE LEGISLATURE. NO VOTES WERE HELD PRIOR TO DEPLOYMENTS IN PANAMA, SOMALIA AND HAITI. CONGRESSMAN DON MANZULLO -- MR. ROHRABACHER'S COLLEAGUE ON THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE -- SAYS CONGRESS MUST AND WILL HAVE A SAY ON BOSNIA.

    /// MANZULLO ACT ///

    WE REPRESENT THE PEOPLE IN THIS COUNTRY WHOSE CHILDREN MAY HAVE TO GO TO BOSNIA. WE HAVE A DIRECT INTEREST IN MAKING SURE THAT IF THOSE CHILDREN ARE COMMITTED TO GOING INTO HARM'S WAY THAT MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SHOULD HAVE A SAY IN WHETHER OR NOT THAT OCCURS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN STRESSES THERE ARE ALTERNATIVES TO THE INTRODUCTION OF AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS. HE SAYS THERE IS SUPPORT IN CONGRESS FOR THE USE OF U-S AIR POWER. AND HE ADDS THE UNITED STATES SHOULD LIFT THE BOSNIA ARMS EMBARGO AND PROVIDE EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PW/SKH
    17-Oct-95 6:49 PM EDT (2249 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] CONGRESS / BOSNIA FORCE (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SENATE)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187042
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS BEGUN AN EFFORT TO REASSURE A SKEPTICAL CONGRESS ABOUT ITS PLANS TO SEND MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO BOSNIA UNDER A NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED THE FORCE MIGHT BECOME BOGGED DOWN IN BOSNIAN FIGHTING, AND MAY TRY TO BLOCK FUNDING FOR THE U-S ROLE. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE U-S SENATE.

    TEXT: THE ADMINISTRATION IS MOUNTING AN ALL-OUT LOBBYING CAMPAIGN FOR THE BOSNIAN FORCE -- SENDING SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER, DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND TOP MILITARY OFFICIALS TO SENATE HEARINGS TO DEFEND PLANS TO DISPATCH MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS ON THE PEACE MISSION.

    SECRETARY CHRISTOPHER TOLD THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE A LEADING U-S ROLE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IS ESSENTIAL TO BOTH THE FUTURE OF NATO AND THE STABILITY OF EUROPE.

    HE SAID IF THE KILLING IN BOSNIA IS TO STOP, AND THE WORST EUROPEAN CONFLICT SINCE WORLD WAR TWO FINALLY ENDED, THEN THE UNITED STATES MUST FOLLOW THROUGH WITH A STRATEGY HE SAID HAS BROUGHT PEACE WITHIN SIGHT.

    DEFENSE SECRETARY PERRY SAID THE ADMINISTRATION IS DETERMINED TO AVOID PEACEKEEPING MISTAKES OF THE PAST -- AND THAT THE NATO-LED BOSNIA FORCE, OF SOME 60-THOUSAND TROOPS ALTOGETHER, WILL HAVE THE UNIFIED COMMAND STRUCTURE AND THE MILITARY POWER TO DEAL WITH ANY THREAT:

    // PERRY ACTUALITY //

    IF IT IS ATTACKED BY ANYONE, IT WILL BRING A LARGE HAMMER DOWN ON THEM IMMEDIATELY. THEY WILL RESPOND QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY. IN SUM, THIS NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA WILL BE THE BIGGEST, AND THE TOUGHEST AND THE MEANEST DOG IN TOWN.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    SOME REPUBLICAN SENATORS SAY THEY FEAR THE U-S TROOPS COULD BECOME BOGGED DOWN IN A VIETNAM-STYLE MILITARY INVOLVEMENT, AND SAY THEY MAY DEMAND SPECIFIC CONGRESSIONAL AUTHORIZATION FOR THE FORCE. SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN SAYS PRESIDENT CLINTON, AS COMMANDER IN CHIEF, HAS THE AUTHORITY TO ACT ALONE -- BUT IF HE DOES SO, IT COULD PROVOKE A CRISIS BETWEEN THE CONGRESS AND EXECUTIVE BRANCH:

    // MCCAIN ACTUALITY //

    THE PRESIDENT SHOULD COME FORWARD AND SEEK AUTHORIZATION FROM THE CONGRESS AS WE HAVE IN THE PAST. OTHER ADMINISTRATIONS HAVE, AS WELL AS THIS ONE IF WE'RE GOING TO MAKE THIS KIND OF COMMITMENT. I UNDERSTAND THAT DECISION HAS TO BE MADE ONLY BY THE PRESIDENT. BUT I'M AFRAID THAT IF THE PRESIDENT DOES NOT, YOU MIGHT SEE A VERY UGLY FIGHT ERUPT WHICH COULD HAVE SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES FOR YOUR EFFORTS AS WELL AS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONGRESS AND THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH.

    // END ACT //

    ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAID THEY ARE CONFIDENT THE BOSNIAN FORCE WILL BE ABLE TO COMPLETE ITS TASK OF SEPARATING FORCES AND IMPLEMENTING A PEACE SETTLEMENT WITHIN THE ENVISAGED 12-MONTH SPAN. BUT THEY ACKNOWLEDGE THE OPERATION MIGHT BE SLOWED, IF NATO TROOPS FORCES ARE NOT ABLE TO GO INTO BOSNIA UNTIL DECEMBER, WHEN WINTER WEATHER WILL BECOME AN OBSTACLE.

    PRELIMINARY NEGOTIATIONS FOR THE PEACE ACCORD THAT WOULD TRIGGER THE INTRODUCTION OF NATO FORCES ARE DUE TO BEGIN IN THE UNITED STATES OCTOBER 31ST. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CF
    17-Oct-95 2:18 PM EDT (1818 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] E-U COURT (S ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187038
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE E-U COURT OF JUSTICE SAYS IT IS NOT LEGAL TO DISCRIMINATE AGAINST MEN. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS THE RULING MEANS IT IS ILLEGAL FOR EMPLOYERS TO FAVOR WOMEN WORKERS ABOVE MEN.

    TEXT: THE CASE WAS BROUGHT BY A LANDSCAPE GARDENER, EEKHARD KALANKE, WHO WORKS FOR THE PARKS DEPARTMENT IN THE GERMAN CITY OF BREMEN. HE FAILED TO WIN PROMOTION WHEN A SENIOR JOB BECAME VACANT -- NOT BECAUSE OF HIS ABILITY, BUT BECAUSE OF HIS SEX.

    AN EQUALLY-QUALIFIED WOMAN GOT THE POST, THANKS TO A POLICY OF DISCRIMINATION IN FAVOR OF WOMEN.

    UNABLE TO SECURE THE SUPPORT OF GERMANY'S COURTS, MR KALANKE TOOK HIS CASE TO THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE, THE EUROPEAN UNION'S COURT, WHICH RULED IN HIS FAVOR.

    THE EUROPEAN JUDGES SAY THERE IS NOTHING WRONG WITH STRIVING FOR EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN. BUT THEY SAID IT IS WRONG IF YOU FAVOR WOMEN ABOVE MEN, MERELY BECAUSE THEY ARE WOMEN.

    E-U OFFICIALS ARE FURIOUS AT THIS JUDGMENT, AND ARE CONSIDERING AMENDING EUROPEAN LAW SO WOMEN CAN CONTINUE TO BENEFIT FROM POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION. MEANWHILE, THEY ARE IN A DIFFICULT POSITION BECAUSE THE E-U'S CIVIL SERVICE HAS A POLICY OF POSITIVE DISCRIMINATION FOR WOMEN. (SIGNOFF)

    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    17-Oct-95 12:48 PM EDT (1648 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] NATO / CLAES (L ONLY) CORRECTED BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187036
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    RE-RUNNING TO CORRECT NUMBER AND NAMES IN SIXTH GRAF OF TEXT

    INTRO: THERE IS A STRONG CHANCE THAT THE BELGIAN PARLIAMENT WILL VOTE THIS WEEK TO LIFT THE IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION OF NATO SECRETARY GENERAL WILLY CLAES. MR. CLAES FACES CHARGES OF FORGERY AND CORRUPTION, DATING BACK TO WHEN HE WAS A BELGIAN CABINET MINISTER. AND, AS JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS, THE RACE IS ALREADY ON TO FIND A SUCCESSOR TO MR. CLAES AS THE NATO CHIEF.

    TEXT: WILLY CLAES SAYS HE IS INNOCENT. BUT ON SATURDAY, A COMMITTEE OF BELGIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS VOTED HE SHOULD STAND TRIAL. IF THE FULL PARLIAMENT ENDORSES THIS VIEW WHEN IT ASSEMBLES LATER THIS WEEK, IT IS BELIEVED MR CLAES WILL RESIGN FROM NATO. THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM DATE BACK TO THE 1980'S WHEN HE WAS THE BELGIAN ECONOMICS MINISTER.

    BRIBES OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS WERE GIVEN TO THE FLEMISH SOCIALIST PARTY TO SECURE CONTRACTS FOR THE PURCHASE OF HELICOPTERS AND RADARS FOR AIRCRAFT.

    MR CLAES IS A SENIOR MEMBER OF THE FLEMISH SOCIALIST PARTY, AND IT IS ALLEGED THAT, DESPITE HIS DENIALS, HE KNEW ABOUT THE BRIBES. PUBLICLY, THE 16 NATO NATIONS ARE STANDING BEHIND MR. CLAES, UNTIL THE BELGIAN PARLIAMENT MAKES ITS DECISION. BUT BEHIND THE SCENES, CONSULTATIONS HAVE BEGUN ON WHO MIGHT SUCCEED HIM.

    OBSERVERS SAY THE FAVORITE IS A FORMER DANISH FOREIGN MINISTER UFFE ELLEMANN-JENSEN.

    HE SPEAKS FLUENT ENGLISH, IS WELL LIKED IN WASHINGTON, AND IS A VETERAN PLAYER ON THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC STAGE. HOWEVER, HE IS NOT THE ONLY CANDIDATE WHOSE NAME IS BEING DISCUSSED AT NATO.

    FORMER BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY DOUGLAS HURD AND HIS SUCCESSOR MALCOLM RIFKIND, HAVE BOTH BEEN MENTIONED, ALTHOUGH IT MANY DOUBT EITHER WOULD WANT THE NATO JOB.

    THE E-U'S FORMER NEGOTIATOR IN BOSNIA, DAVID OWEN, WHO IS ALSO A FORMER BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY, IS ALSO BEING SPOKEN OF. DUTCH CANDIDATES ARE THE FORMER PRIME MINISTER RUUD LUBBERS AND HOLLAND'S E-U COMMISSIONER, HANS VAN DEN BROEK, WHO IS WELL BRIEFED ON THE BOSNIAN DOSSIER, AS HE CURRENTLY HANDLES IT INSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    THE GERMAN NAME BEING MENTIONED IS THE DEFENSE MINISTER, VOLKER RUEHE. PORTUGUESE E-U COMMISSIONER JOAO DE DEUS PINHEIRO HAS ALSO BEEN MENTIONED IN HIS COUNTRY'S MEDIA AS A POSSIBLE CANDIDATE.

    IF MR CLAES DOES RESIGN THIS WEEK, NATO MINISTERS ARE EXPECTED TO DISCUSS WHO SHOULD SUCCEED HIM WHEN THEY GATHER AT THE UNITED NATIONS THIS WEEKEND. WILLY CLAES HAS ALSO BEEN INVITED, BUT WILL NOT ATTEND IF HE RESIGNS FROM NATO. (SIGNOFF)

    NEB/JF/JWH/JM
    17-Oct-95 12:41 PM EDT (1641 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] NATO / CLAES (L ONLY) CORRECTED BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187036
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    RE-RUNNING TO CORRECT NUMBER AND NAMES IN SIXTH GRAF OF TEXT

    INTRO: THERE IS A STRONG CHANCE THAT THE BELGIAN PARLIAMENT WILL VOTE THIS WEEK TO LIFT THE IMMUNITY FROM PROSECUTION OF NATO SECRETARY GENERAL WILLY CLAES. MR. CLAES FACES CHARGES OF FORGERY AND CORRUPTION, DATING BACK TO WHEN HE WAS A BELGIAN CABINET MINISTER. AND, AS JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS, THE RACE IS ALREADY ON TO FIND A SUCCESSOR TO MR. CLAES AS THE NATO CHIEF.

    TEXT: WILLY CLAES SAYS HE IS INNOCENT. BUT ON SATURDAY, A COMMITTEE OF BELGIAN PARLIAMENTARIANS VOTED HE SHOULD STAND TRIAL. IF THE FULL PARLIAMENT ENDORSES THIS VIEW WHEN IT ASSEMBLES LATER THIS WEEK, IT IS BELIEVED MR CLAES WILL RESIGN FROM NATO. THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM DATE BACK TO THE 1980'S WHEN HE WAS THE BELGIAN ECONOMICS MINISTER.

    BRIBES OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS WERE GIVEN TO THE FLEMISH SOCIALIST PARTY TO SECURE CONTRACTS FOR THE PURCHASE OF HELICOPTERS AND RADARS FOR AIRCRAFT.

    MR CLAES IS A SENIOR MEMBER OF THE FLEMISH SOCIALIST PARTY, AND IT IS ALLEGED THAT, DESPITE HIS DENIALS, HE KNEW ABOUT THE BRIBES. PUBLICLY, THE 16 NATO NATIONS ARE STANDING BEHIND MR. CLAES, UNTIL THE BELGIAN PARLIAMENT MAKES ITS DECISION. BUT BEHIND THE SCENES, CONSULTATIONS HAVE BEGUN ON WHO MIGHT SUCCEED HIM.

    OBSERVERS SAY THE FAVORITE IS A FORMER DANISH FOREIGN MINISTER UFFE ELLEMANN-JENSEN.

    HE SPEAKS FLUENT ENGLISH, IS WELL LIKED IN WASHINGTON, AND IS A VETERAN PLAYER ON THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC STAGE. HOWEVER, HE IS NOT THE ONLY CANDIDATE WHOSE NAME IS BEING DISCUSSED AT NATO.

    FORMER BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY DOUGLAS HURD AND HIS SUCCESSOR MALCOLM RIFKIND, HAVE BOTH BEEN MENTIONED, ALTHOUGH IT MANY DOUBT EITHER WOULD WANT THE NATO JOB.

    THE E-U'S FORMER NEGOTIATOR IN BOSNIA, DAVID OWEN, WHO IS ALSO A FORMER BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY, IS ALSO BEING SPOKEN OF. DUTCH CANDIDATES ARE THE FORMER PRIME MINISTER RUUD LUBBERS AND HOLLAND'S E-U COMMISSIONER, HANS VAN DEN BROEK, WHO IS WELL BRIEFED ON THE BOSNIAN DOSSIER, AS HE CURRENTLY HANDLES IT INSIDE THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    THE GERMAN NAME BEING MENTIONED IS THE DEFENSE MINISTER, VOLKER RUEHE. PORTUGUESE E-U COMMISSIONER JOAO DE DEUS PINHEIRO HAS ALSO BEEN MENTIONED IN HIS COUNTRY'S MEDIA AS A POSSIBLE CANDIDATE.

    IF MR CLAES DOES RESIGN THIS WEEK, NATO MINISTERS ARE EXPECTED TO DISCUSS WHO SHOULD SUCCEED HIM WHEN THEY GATHER AT THE UNITED NATIONS THIS WEEKEND. WILLY CLAES HAS ALSO BEEN INVITED, BUT WILL NOT ATTEND IF HE RESIGNS FROM NATO. (SIGNOFF)

    NEB/JF/JWH/JM
    17-Oct-95 12:41 PM EDT (1641 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] RUSSIA / BOSNIA TALKS (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187034
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN POLICY MAKERS HAVE AGREED TO PUT ASIDE DEEP DIFFERENCES TO WORK MORE CLOSELY ON EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO BOSNIA. PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS A SENIOR RUSSIAN OFFICIAL IS TRAVELLING WITH THE CHIEF U-S NEGOTIATOR FOR TALKS WITH BOSNIAN AND SERBIAN LEADERS.

    TEXT: RUSSIA'S FIRST DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV (TUESDAY) SAID TWO DAYS OF TALKS IN MOSCOW AMONG THE FIVE-NATION CONTACT GROUP ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA RAISED MORE QUESTIONS THAN THEY ANSWERED. BUT MR. IVANOV SAID DESPITE NAGGING DISAGREEMENTS, PLANS ARE GOING FORWARD FOR PROXIMITY TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES LATER THIS MONTH AMONG THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA.

    AS IF TO UNDERLINE THE MOOD OF COOPERATION, AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE ANNOUNCED BOTH MR. IVANOV AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVE CARL BILDT WOULD JOIN HIM FOR SEPARATE TALKS WITH BOSNIAN AND SERBIAN LEADERS.

    THE THREE LEFT MOSCOW SHORTLY AFTER THE CONCLUSION OF THE CONTACT GROUP MEETING FOR BELGRADE, WHERE THEY WERE TO MEET SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. THEY ARE TO PROCEED TO SARAJEVO WEDNESDAY TO SEE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC

    THE AMERICAN ENVOY SAID SEVERAL DIFFICULT ISSUES REMAIN. AMONG THE TOUGHEST IS HOW TO BRING RUSSIAN TROOPS INTO AN INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE BEING FORMED BY NATO. MOSCOW HAS RULED OUT PLACING ITS TROOPS UNDER NATO COMMAND. BUT THE UNITED STATES HAS REJECTED A PROPOSAL BY RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV FOR A SYSTEM OF ROTATING COMMAND BETWEEN RUSSIAN AND NATO MILITARY CHIEFS.

    THE ITAR-TASS NEWS AGENCY TUESDAY SAID THE TROOP QUESTION WILL BE TAKEN UP BY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WHEN THEY MEET IN NEW YORK NEXT WEEK.

    SPEAKING TO REPORTERS TUESDAY, MR. HOLBROOKE CHOSE TO DOWNPLAY THE DIFFERENCES, FOCUSING INSTEAD ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RUSSIA'S INVOLVEMENT IN TALKS WITH THE LEADERS OF THE WARRING FACTIONS. HE DESCRIBED DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER IVANOV'S PARTICIPATION IN THE SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY AS A SYMBOL OF THE ACCELERATING PACE OF EFFORTS TO MOVE TOWARD PROXIMITY TALKS WITHIN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS.

    THE AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR WENT OUT OF HIS WAY TO PRAISE RUSSIA'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE PEACE PROCESS, TERMING IT AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT IN SOLVING THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT. THE COMMENT WAS SEEN AS AN EFFORT TO BLUNT DOMESTIC RUSSIAN CRITICISM. POLITICAL OPPONENTS HAVE ACCUSED PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S GOVERNMENT OF WEAKNESS IN ITS BOSNIAN POLICY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/JWH/GPT
    17-Oct-95 12:12 PM EDT (1612 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] SENATE-BOSNIA REACT BY DAVID SWAN (SENATE)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31386
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SENATE LEADERS SAY PRESIDENT CLINTON IS FACING A DIFFICULT TASK IN PERSUADING THE PUBLIC AND CONGRESS TO SUPPORT THE USE OF AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE SENATE AND HOUSE (OF REPRESENTATIVES) ARE HOLDING HEARINGS ON THE PLAN, WHICH WOULD PUT NATO PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA ONCE THE FACTIONS SIGN A PEACE ACCORD. V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS FROM CAPITOL HILL.

    TEXT: THE REPUBLICANS WHO RUN CONGRESS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN SKEPTICAL OF U-S INVOLVEMENT IN THE BALKANS. NOW, WHEN AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS MAY BE HEADING TO BOSNIA FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE LAWMAKERS SAY THE WHITE HOUSE HAS NOT PRESENTED A CONVINCING CASE.

    AT A TUESDAY AFTERNOON HEARING, SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN JESSE HELMS DECLARED THE PEACE WOULD NEVER LAST -- AND THE UNITED STATES SHOULD STAY AWAY.

    // HELMS ACT //

    I CAN NOT AND I DO NOT AND I WILL NOT SUPPORT SENDING AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO FIGHT AND TO DIE FOR THE SAKE OF AN AGREEMENT NOT YET REACHED WHICH MAY OFFER NO MORE THAN THE PROMISE OF A BRIEF PAUSE WHILE ALL SIDES PREPARE FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF BALKAN WARS.

    // END ACT //

    MEMBERS OF BOTH PARTIES SAY THE PRESIDENT SHOULD ASK THE HOUSE AND SENATE TO FORMALLY APPROVE THE MISSION, AS THEY DID JUST BEFORE THE START OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR. THE ADMINISTRATION SAYS SUCH ACTION IS NOT REQUIRED BY THE CONSTITUTION. STILL, SENATORS ARGUE THE MOVE IS POLITICALLY CRUCIAL IF THE DEPLOYMENT IS TO HAVE SUPPORT FROM THE PEOPLE AND AT LEAST ONE-AND- ONE-HALF BILLION DOLLARS FROM CONGRESS TO PAY THE COST. DEMOCRATIC SENATOR ROBERT BYRD WARNS THE BOSNIAN WAR MAY COME BACK TO HAUNT THE WHITE HOUSE, EVEN IF AMERICANS ARE THERE FOR ONLY 12 MONTHS.

    // BYRD ACT //

    BECAUSE ONE YEAR, YOU SAY, ONE YEAR IT'LL BE OVER. OUR PART. WE'LL BE OUT. WELL, ONE YEAR AWAY FROM TODAY WE'RE GOING TO BE HEADING INTO AN ELECTION. AND THERE'S GOING TO BE AN ELECTION DYNAMIC INVOLVED.

    // END ACT //

    PENTAGON OFFICIALS ARE TRYING TO DEFUSE SOME OF THE MOST POLITICALLY SENSITIVE QUESTIONS. THEY HAVE ASSURED CONGRESS THE TROOPS WILL BE WELL-ARMED AND ABLE TO PROTECT THEMSELVES, UNLIKE THE MUCH-CRITICIZED U-N PROTECTION FORCE.

    THE ADMINISTRATION HAS SAID REPEATEDLY A NATO MISSION CAN NOT SUCCEED WITHOUT U-S MILITARY MIGHT AND LEADERSHIP. DEMOCRATIC SENATOR JOHN GLENN AGREES, SAYING THE FACTIONS WILL NOT STOP FIGHTING UNLESS AMERICAN TROOPS ARE READY TO STEP IN.

    // GLENN ACT //

    SO THE QUESTION IS, IS IT RIGHT OR WRONG AND ARE THE RISKS ACCEPTABLE? I BELIEVE IT IS RIGHT. WE CAN GO IN AND PROVIDE A SEPARATION THERE. I BELIEVE TO OUR CREDIT, ITS THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY A SUPERPOWER HAS BEEN WILLING TO GO INTO A SITUATION LIKE THIS FOR GOOD, WITH NO ULTERIOR MOTIVE, NO TERRITORIAL DESIGNS OF THEIR OWN.

    // END ACT //

    BUT MANY LAWMAKERS ARE EXTREMELY WARY ABOUT COMMITTING THE NATION'S ARMED FORCES TO PEACEKEEPING. THEY REMEMBER THE DISASTER IN SOMALIA TWO YEARS AGO, WHEN FAMINE RELIEF BECAME COMBAT AND 18 U-S SOLDIERS WERE KILLED IN A FURIOUS STREET BATTLE IN MOGADISHU. REPUBLICAN SENATOR JAMES INHOFE BLUNTLY ASKED ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS IF THEY ARE WILLING TO RISK MORE CASUALTIES IN BOSNIA.

    // INHOFE ACT //

    I'D LIKE TO HAVE ANY ONE OF YOU TELL ME IF WE'RE GOING TO HAVE HUNDREDS OF YOUNG AMERICANS DYING OVER THERE IS THE MISSION AS YOU DESCRIBED IT IN YOUR OPENING STATEMENTS JUSTIFICATION FOR THEIR DEATHS.

    // END ACT //

    THE WITNESSES REPLIED THAT THE COST WOULD BE JUSTIFIED, THAT THE RISK OF DOING NOTHING IS EVEN GREATER. SO FAR AT LEAST, MANY MEMBERS OF CONGRESS DO NOT AGREE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DS/GPT
    17-Oct-95 3:50 PM EDT (1950 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] TURKEY/ POLITICS (S-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187061
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH PRESIDENT, SULEYMAN DEMIREL HAS ASKED PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER TO FORM A NEW GOVERNMENT, ENDING DAYS OF SPECULATION OVER TURKEY'S POLITICAL FUTURE. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: NEWS THAT PRESIDENT DEMIREL HAD ASKED MRS. CILLER, WHOSE MINORITY GOVERNMENT LOST A VOTE OF CONFIDENCE SUNDAY IN PARLIAMENT TO FORM A NEW ADMINISTRATION TRIGGERED WIDESPREAD RELIEF AMONG BUSINESS CIRCLES AND TURKEY'S WESTERN ALLIES.

    JUST DAYS AGO, THERE WERE MANY WHO BELIEVED MRS. CILLER'S DAYS IN POLITICS WERE NUMBERED. POLITICAL OBSERVERS SAY THE COUNTRY'S FIRST WOMAN LEADER STAGED A REMARKABLE COMEBACK AFTER PERSUADING HER FORMER SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC COALITION PARTNERS TO ESTABLISH A NEW GOVERNMENT, TOGETHER, WITH HER CONSERVATIVE TRUE PATH PARTY, OR D-Y-T.)

    THE FOUR-YEAR-LONG COALITION BETWEEN PRIME MINISTER CILLER AND THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN PEOPLE'S PARTY, OR C-H-P, COLLAPSED LAST MONTH OVER POLICY DIFFERENCES.

    MRS. CILLER IS WIDELY BELIEVED TO HAVE AGREED TO A NUMBER OF TERMS PUT FORTH BY C-H-P LEADER DENIZ BAYKAL IN ORDER TO SECURE HIS BACKING.

    THESE INCLUDE ENDING AN ONGOING WAGE DISPUTE WITH PUBLIC SECTOR WORKERS, AS WELL AS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF LONG-DELAYED DEMOCRATIC REFORMS.

    THE TWO PARTIES HAVE ENOUGH SEATS BETWEEN THEM TO SECURE THE REQUIRED MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT. (SIGNED) NEB/AZ/BD-T/LWM 17-Oct-95 7:43 PM EDT (2343 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [15] U-S-BALKANS (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187043
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS SENT ITS TOP OFFICIALS TO BRIEF THE U-S SENATE ON THE PROSPECTS FOR A PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA THAT WILL REQUIRE THE STATIONING OF AMERICAN TROOPS IN THE BALKAN REPUBLIC. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE OFFICIALS ENCOUNTERED A SKEPTICAL SENATE.

    TEXT: IN AN UNUSUAL JOINT APPEARANCE, THE SECRETARY OF STATE, THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE AND THE CHAIRMAN OF THE MILITARY CHIEFS OF STAFF PRESENTED THE CASE FOR U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA TO SENATORS CLEARLY SKEPTICAL ABOUT THEIR DEPLOYMENT.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER TOLD THE SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE THERE WILL BE NO PEACE SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA WITHOUT NATO.

    /// CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    IF WE ASK NATO TO ACT IN BOSNIA, THE UNITED STATES CANNOT FAIL TO CONTRIBUTE TROOPS TO THE MISSION. WE CANNOT SAY TO OUR ALLIES: WE HAVE COME THIS FAR TOGETHER, BUT NOW YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN. THAT WOULD MEAN ABDICATING OUR LEADERSHIP OF THE ALLIANCE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT, BOTH REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS TOLD THE ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS THEY HAVE NOT DEMONSTRATED AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA REPRESENT A VITAL NATIONAL INTEREST. THE SENATORS ALSO URGE PRESIDENT CLINTON TO SEEK CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL BEFORE HE SENDS ABOUT 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO ENFORCE A PEACE AGREEMENT. (SIGNED) NEB/PEMSTEIN/RAE 17-Oct-95 1:52 PM EDT (1752 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .

    [16] U-S / BOSNIA HEARINGS (L-ONITER) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187060
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// THIS AND THE WOLFSON LONG ONITER ON CONGRESS / BOSNIA SHOULD BE USED AS ALTERNATES ///

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS BEGUN THE TASK OF TRYING TO PERSUADE A SKEPTICAL CONGRESS TO SUPPORT ITS PLANS FOR ENFORCING A FUTURE PEACE AGREEMENT IN BOSNIA. THERE IS WIDESPREAD CONCERN AMONG MEMBERS OF CONGRESS THAT AMERICAN FORCES COULD BECOME BOGGED DOWN IN BALKANS FIGHTING. V-O-A DEFENSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S TOP NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISERS WILL BE BACK IN CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS FOR A SECOND DAY TODAY -- (WEDNESDAY) IN AN EFFORT TO LINE UP SUPPORT FOR A PEACE MISSION THEY SAY IS ESSENTIAL TO THE FUTURE OF NATO AND THE SECURITY OF EUROPE. THE UNITED STATES IS TO PROVIDE MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND TROOPS FOR THE NATO-LED IMPLEMENTATION FORCE -- THAT IS TO GO INTO BOSNIA IMMEDIATELY UPON THE SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION OF THE PEACE TALKS THAT BEGIN IN THE UNITED STATES AT THE END OF THE MONTH. ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS WHO SPENT MORE THAN SIX HOURS TESTIFYING BEFORE SENATE COMMITTEES TUESDAY HEARD SENATORS FROM BOTH PARTIES VOICE CONCERN THAT U-S AND NATO FORCES MIGHT FIND THEMSELVES BOGGED DOWN AND CAUGHT IN A CROSSFIRE BETWEEN BOSNIAN FACTIONS. BUT DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY INSISTED THE NEW FORCE WILL HAVE THE UNIFIED COMMAND, RULES OF ENGAGEMENT, AND THE ARMAMENTS NEEDED TO TURN BACK ANY CONCEIVABLE THREAT:

    /// PERRY ACT ///

    IF IT (THE MULTINATIONAL FORCE) IS ATTACKED BY ANYONE, IT WILL BRING A LARGE HAMMER DOWN ON THEM IMMEDIATELY (OR WILL BRING ABOUT HARSH CONSEQUENCES). THEY (THE MEMBERS OF THE FORCE) WILL RESPOND QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY. IN SUM, THIS NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA WILL BE THE BIGGEST AND THE TOUGHEST AND THE MEANEST DOG (OR FORCE) IN TOWN.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY SAID THAT SINCE THE NATO FORCE WILL BE SENT IN TO IMPLEMENT AN AGREEMENT REACHED BY THE BOSNIAN PARTIES, IT IS UNLIKELY TO BE OPPOSED BY AN ORGANIZED ARMY. BUT HE COULD NOT RULE OUT ATTACKS BY IRREGULAR FORCES UNHAPPY WITH TERMS OF AN ACCORD OR BY TERRORIST ELEMENTS. WHILE PRESIDENT CLINTON COULD DEPLOY U-S FORCES IN BOSNIA USING HIS AUTHORITY AS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, SENATORS FROM BOTH PARTIES URGED HIM TO SEEK A SPECIFIC AUTHORIZATION. REPUBLICAN JESSE HELMS, CHAIRMAN OF THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, MADE CLEAR HE WOULD OPPOSE INVOLVEMENT ON ANY TERMS:

    /// HELMS ACT ///

    I DO NOT AND I WILL NOT SUPPORT SENDING AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO FIGHT AND TO DIE FOR THE SAKE OF AN AGREEMENT NOT YET REACHED, WHICH MAY OFFER NO MORE THAN THE PROMISE OF A BRIEF PAUSE WHILE ALL SIDES PREPARE FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF BALKAN WARS. DISPLACED POPULATIONS AND UNPUNISHED WAR CRIMINALS ORGANIZED IN A TEMPORARY PARTITION OF BOSNIA WILL NOT BE THE BASIS FOR A LASTING PEACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS TOLD SENATORS THE U-S BOSNIA DEPLOYMENT WOULD INVOLVE A CALL-UP OF AS MANY AS THREE-THOUSAND RESERVE FORCES, AND COST ONE AND A HALF BILLION DOLLARS FOR A MISSION THEY INSISTED WOULD LAST NO LONGER THAN A YEAR. THE UNITED STATES WOULD ALSO COMMIT ITSELF TO TRAIN AND RE-ARM THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARMY, IF THAT PROVES NECESSARY, TO CREATE A MILITARY BALANCE WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS. AND IT WOULD CONTRIBUTE AT LEAST 250-MILLION DOLLARS TO A EUROPEAN-LED EFFORT TO REBUILD THE BOSNIAN ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE. MILITARY JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF CHAIRMAN GENERAL JOHN SHALIKASHVILI SAID RUSSIA IS WELCOME TO CONTRIBUTE SOLDIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, BUT HE SAID THE RUSSIANS WOULD HAVE TO BE UNDER THE NATO CHAIN OF COMMAND, AND PAY THEIR OWN WAY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/SKH
    17-Oct-95 7:12 PM EDT (2312 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [17] YUGO SITREP (L ) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=10/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187054
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMERICAN, RUSSIAN AND WESTERN EUROPEAN PEACE ENVOYS ARE IN BELGRADE FOR TALKS WITH SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. AFTER THEY AND MR. MILOSEVIC DISCUSS EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, THE ENVOYS WILL TRAVEL ON TO SARAJEVO. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: AMERICAN ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE, RUSSIAN ENVOY IGOR IVANOV AND EUROPEAN UNION MEDIATOR CARL BILDT ARE BEGINNING AN UNPRECEDENTED ROUND OF SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY TOGETHER. MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS THE JOINT SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY SIGNIFIES THE ACCELERATING PACE AND INTENSITY OF INTERNATIONAL ATTEMPTS TO REACH A PEACE SETTLEMENT FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. SOON AFTER HE ARRIVED IN BELGRADE, THE U-S ENVOY MET WITH PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC. MR. MILOSEVIC WILL CONFER WITH THE RUSSIAN AND EUROPEAN UNION NEGOTIATORS WEDNESDAY MORNING. AFTER THEIR TALKS IN BELGRADE, THE ENVOYS WILL FLY TO SARAJEVO FOR TALKS WITH BOSNIA'S MUSLIM PRESIDENT, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC. THEY ARE ALSO EXPECTED TO MEET WITH CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN IN ZAGREB. THIS IS EXPECTED TO BE THE LAST ROUND OF SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY BEFORE THE SERBIAN, BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS BEGIN PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES AT THE END OF THIS MONTH. MR. HOLBROOKE SAYS NO ONE SHOULD ASSUME THAT PEACE IN BOSNIA IS JUST AROUND THE CORNER. HE SAYS ALL THE MAJOR ISSUES DIVIDING THE BOSNIAN SERBS, THE MUSLIMS AND THE CROATS ARE STILL UNRESOLVED. MEANWHILE, DIVISIONS BETWEEN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC AND THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL LEADERSHIP AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS ARE RESURFACING. MR. MILOSEVIC IS SAID TO BE UNWILLING TO MEET WITH A BOSNIAN SERB DELEGATION, LED BY RADOVAN KARADZIC. THE DELEGATION WAS TO HAVE GONE TO BELGRADE TO SEEK MR. MILOSEVIC'S SUPPORT IN THE FACE OF MAJOR SERB SETBACKS ON THE BATTLEFIELDS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. AT THE SAME TIME, THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY, TANJUG, REPORTS THE CREATION OF A BOSNIAN SERB PATRIOTIC FRONT THAT OPPOSES THE SERB POLITICAL LEADERSHIP. TANJUG, WHICH IS CONTROLLED BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, SAYS THE PATRIOTIC FRONT IS DEMANDING A NEW SERB GOVERNMENT THAT COULD BE SUPPORTED BY ALL SERB FACTIONS. THE SERB ASSEMBLY EARLIER ANNOUNCED THAT FOUR SENIOR OFFICERS, LOYAL TO THE ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, WERE BEING FORCED TO RETIRE. BUT, THE OFFICERS WERE ALL SAID TO BE WORKING ON TUESDAY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/SKH
    17-Oct-95 6:09 PM EDT (2209 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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