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Voice of America, 25 October 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 25, 1995 !!!

  • [03] BALKAN / DELAY (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [04] BRITAIN / IRAQ (S-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON )

  • [05] CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA OVERNIGHTER (S-O) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [06] CROATIA / SERBS (S-O) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [07] FRANCE / GERMANY (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

  • [08] GERMANY / U.N. (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN )

  • [09] RUSSIA'S ROLE IN THE BOSNIA PLAN BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

  • [10] RUSSIA / BOSNIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

  • [11] U-N 50/FINANCIAL WRAP (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [12] U-S / BALKANS / HUMAN RIGHTS (L-O) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

  • [13] UN 50 MEETING CLOSES (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [14] UNITED NATIONS AT 50 BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

  • [15] UNITED NATIONS AT 50 BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY TED LANDPHAIR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09234
    TELEPHONE=619-3515
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 25TH //

    INTRO: EDITORIAL WRITERS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES ARE DISSECTING A WIDE RANGE OF TOPICS THIS WEDNESDAY. HERE IS _________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" NOTES THAT THE UNITED STATES LARGEST LABOR ORGANIZATION, AFL-CIO, TODAY IS HOLDING ITS FIRST CONTESTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN 100 YEARS. BUT THE NEWSPAPER BELIEVES IT MAKES NO DIFFERENCE WHETHER ACTING PRESIDENT THOMAS DONAHUE OR CHALLENGER JOHN SWEENEY WINS.

    VOICE: "THE REAL MEANING OF THIS LABOR FIGHT IS THE ONGOING EVOLUTION FROM A MOVEMENT THAT REPRESENTED WORKING FOLK OF ALL STRIPES INTO ONE THAT IS MORE AND MORE A SPOKESMAN FOR GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES. . . . GLOBAL COMPETITION, CORPORATE COST-CUTTING, AND CHANGING TECHNOLOGY HAVE ALL PLAYED A ROLE IN THE DECLINE OF THE MOVEMENT. . . . [IN 1994] THE UNION SHARE OF TOTAL PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT CONTINUED TO FALL, TO ROUGHLY ONE IN TEN WORKERS. THE PUBLIC SECTOR IS A DIFFERENT STORY. THERE, UNIONIZATION HAS ADVANCED, BOTH IN ABSOLUTE NUMBERS AND AS A SHARE OF ALL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES. ROUGHLY FOUR IN TEN PUBLIC-SECTOR WORKERS BELONG TO UNIONS. . . . THE OVERRIDING POLITICAL GOAL FOR PUBLIC UNIONS . . . IS AN EVER-GROWING GOVERNMENT THAT HIRES EVER-MORE WORKERS. . . . BUT THIS PUTS UNIONS INCREASINGLY AT ODDS WITH THOSE PRIVATE-SECTOR WORKERS WHOSE TAXES HAVE TO FINANCE EVER-LARGER GOVERNMENT. THIS HARDLY HELPS THE AVERAGE STEELWORKER OR JANITOR."

    TEXT: "THE MIAMI HERALD" LOOKS WITH DISDAIN ON THE U-S SENATE'S VOTE TODAY ON A FEDERAL BUDGET, WHICH THE NEWSPAPER SAYS IS LOOKING MORE AND MORE LIKE THE HOUSE VERSION THAT RADICALLY REDUCES BOTH TAXES AND SPENDING. BECAUSE OF THE STRONG REPUBLICAN MAJORITIES IN BOTH HOUSES, THE BUDGET BILLS ARE LIKELY TO PASS, WRITES "THE HERALD." THAT WILL LIKELY LEAD TO A PRESIDENTIAL VETO.

    VOICE: "BOTH BILLS SLASH TAXES. WORSE, THE TAX REDUCTIONS GO TO FAMILIES WITH INCOMES UP TO 200-THOUSAND DOLLARS. THERE IS NO SUGGESTION THAT THESE UPPER-INCOME FAMILIES NEED THE MONEY; AT BEST THE IMPLICATION IS THAT THEY SOMEHOW DESERVE IT. THE PRICE OF THIS PROFLIGACY IS TO MAKE FAR DEEPER THE CUTS THAT AFFECT POOR AND WORKING-CLASS PEOPLE. THE SLICES FROM MEDICARE AND MEDICAID, FOR EXAMPLE, ARE NEARLY DOUBLE WHAT OTHERWISE WOULD HAVE BEEN REQUIRED (WITHOUT THE TAX CUT). . . . IT WILL BE PAINFUL AND DISRUPTIVE ENOUGH FOR THIS COUNTRY TO ABSORB THE CUTS NECESSARY JUST TO LIVE WITHIN ITS MEANS. TO PILE ON STILL DEEPER CUTS BY TOSSING AWAY NEEDED REVENUE WOULD BE THE HEIGHT OF RECKLESSNESS, AND A PROMISE OF REAL NATIONAL ANGUISH."

    TEXT: "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" SAYS THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CASE FOR SENDING AMERICAN TROOPS TO BOSNIA AS PEACEKEEPERS WILL BE A HARD SELL. THEN "THE MONITOR" LISTS SOME OF THE OBJECTIONS TO THE PROPOSED BOSNIA POLICY -- AND ANSWERS THEM. NUMBER ONE - THAT THE UNITED STATES HAS NO INTERESTS IN BOSNIA:

    VOICE: "NOT SO. IT IS A PRIMARY U-S INTEREST THAT THERE BE NO WAR IN EUROPE AND THAT DEMOCRACY FLOURISH."

    TEXT: NUMBER TWO - WHY AREN'T THE EUROPEANS DOING SOMETHING ABOUT IT?

    VOICE: "BRITAIN AND FRANCE TOGETHER HAVE HAD TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEACEKEEPING TROOPS STATIONED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA FOR SEVERAL YEARS. . . . THE U-S HAS HAD ZERO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS ON THE GROUND TO DATE."

    TEXT: NUMBER THREE - AMERICAN SOLDIERS WILL BE ATTACKED.

    VOICE: "IF THE U-S REFUSES EVER TO DEPLAY TROOPS ON THOSE GROUNDS, IT MIGHT AS WELL SHUT DOWN THE PENTAGON AND SEND EVERYBODY HOME. SERVING IN THE MILITARY MEANS FACING DANGER."

    TEXT: NUMBER FOUR - THE MISSION IS POORLY DEFINED.

    VOICE: "FAIR POINT. THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT MUST BE CAREFULLY DRAWN SO THAT U-S SOLDIERS -- AND THE U-S PRESS -- FULLY UNDERSTAND THEM."

    TEXT: LASTLY FROM THE "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR," NUMBER FIVE - THE U-S WON'T BE ABLE TO GET OUT.

    VOICE: "NATO IS PERFECTLY CAPABLE OF SENDING IN THE MILITARY FORCE REQUIRED TO EXTRICATE ITS TROOPS IF IT COMES TO THAT. BUT NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS SHOULD NOT BE SENT IN UNTIL THERE IS A REAL PEACE TO KEEP. AND WE'RE NOT THERE YET."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" NOTES THAT RETIRED CHILEAN GENERAL MANUEL CONTRERAS HAS FINALLY GONE TO PRISON, FIVE MONTHS AFTER CHILE'S SUPREME COURT ORDERED HIM THERE FOR THE 1976 CAR-BOMB MURDERS OF A LEFTIST CHILEAN OFFICIAL AND HIS AMERICAN ASSISTANT IN WASHINGTON.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT EDUARDO FREI WAS ABLE TO ENFORCE THE COURT'S SENTENCE AGAINST GENERAL CONTRERAS ONLY AFTER BUILDING HIM A SPECIAL PRISON AND OFFERING THE MILITARY A PAY HIKE FOR SOLDIERS AND A CUTOFF DATE FOR MOST REMAINING TRIALS OF MILITARY OFFICIALS ACCUSED OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS. . . . THE ONLY REASON MR. CONTRERAS WAS TRIED AT ALL WAS BECAUSE THE UNITED STATES PRESSED THE ISSUE. GENERAL CONTRERAS AND [HIS SECOND IN COMMAND] ARE THE ONLY SENIOR MILITARY OFFICIALS PUNISHED FOR THE THOUSANDS OF DEATHS AND DISAPPEARANCES OF THE 17-YEAR DICTATORSHIP [OF GENERAL AUGUSTO PINOCHET]. THEIR INCARCERATION PROVIDES THE SYMBOLIC JUSTICE VICTIMS AND THEIR FAMILIES HAVE DREAMED OF FOR YEARS. BUT IT IS ALSO A REMINDER THAT SYMBOLIC JUSTICE IS THE ONLY JUSTICE CHILE WILL GET."

    TEXT: FINALLY, AND NOT SURPRISINGLY, ALL THREE NEW YORK DAILY NEWSPAPERS TOOK NOTE OF NEW YORK MAYOR RUDOLPH GIULIANI'S DECISION TO HAVE P-L-O CHAIRMAN YASSIR ARAFAT ESCORTED OUT OF A CITY-SPONSORED CONCERT FOR DIGNITARIES IN TOWN TO MARK THE 50TH BIRTHDAY OF THE UNITED NATIONS. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" WRITES THAT MR. ARAFAT MAY HAVE INTENDED TO PROVOKE A SCENE, BUT THE CITY WOULD HAVE LOOKED FAR NOBLER IF IT HAD DISPLAYED BETTER MANNERS.

    VOICE: "THE PROPER ROLE OF NEW YORK, AS THE U-N'S HOME CITY, IS TO PLAY GRACIOUS HOST TO ALL OF THE 140 OR SO WORLD LEADERS PRESENT. . . . THE MAYOR'S INSULT WAS ESPECIALLY ILL TIMED, BECAUSE THE CHAIRMAN OF THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION HAS, AT SOME RISK, BECOME A KEY PLAYER IN THE AMERICAN-SPONSORED MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS. [MR. GIULIANI] NEEDLESSLY EMBARRASSED THE CITY AT A MOMENT WHEN NEW YORK'S HOSPITALITY SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO SHINE."

    TEXT: "THE DAILY NEWS" AGREED.

    VOICE: "BY SHOWING [MR. ARAFAT] THE DOOR, THE MAYOR IS CREATING HIS OWN FOREIGN POLICY AT ODDS WITH THAT OF BOTH THE UNITED STATES AND ISRAEL. . . . UNTIL THIS WEEK, [MR.] GIULIANI HAS CONCENTRATED ON DEFEATING CRIME, SHRINKING GOVERNMENT, AND REFORMING A FAILING EDUCATION SYSTEM. THAT'S A TALL ENOUGH ORDER, AND, FOR THE MOST PART, HE IS SUCCEEDING BRILLIANTLY. HE SHOULD STICK TO THAT INSTEAD OF TRYING TO RE-INVENT FOREIGN POLICY."

    TEXT: BUT "THE NEW YORK POST" THINKS THE MAYOR DID THE RIGHT THING.

    VOICE: "OBVIOUSLY, DIPLOMATIC PROTOCOL REQUIRES THAT ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN AND MEMBERS OF HIS GOVERNMENT TREAT RESPECTFULLY THE TERROR CHIEFTAIN WHO LONG AGO SOUGHT TO DESTROY THE JEWISH STATE. THE SAME IS TRUE FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON. . . . BUT HOW THE MAYOR OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK DEALS WITH YASSER ARAFAT IS ANOTHER MATTER ENTIRELY. . . . [MR. GIULIANI] IS NOW THE POLITICAL LEADER OF THE CITY WITH THE LARGEST JEWISH POPULATION IN THE WORLD. IF THE MAYOR . . . DEEMS IT INAPPROPRIATE TO JOIN IN FESTIVITIES WITH YASSER ARAFAT, WE CAN UNDERSTAND HIS FEELINGS. . . . . THE MAYOR . . . MAINTINS HE WOULD NOT INVITE [MR.] ARAFAT TO 'ANYTHING, ANYWHERE, ANYTIME.' IT'S HARD TO QUARREL WITH THIS SENTIMENT."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS IN THE AMERICAN PRESS THIS WEDNESDAY.

    NEB/TL/PCH
    25-Oct-95 11:47 AM EDT (1547 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- OCTOBER 25, 1995 !!!

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 10/25/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    BOSNIA / WAR CRIMES -- THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAS DELAYED THE BEGINNING OF ITS FIRST TRIAL. THE CASE AGAINST DUSAN TADIC, A FORMER SERB PRISON GUARD AT A CAMP IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA, WAS POSTPONED UNTIL MAY. THE COURT ANNOUNCED ITS DECISION AFTER A LAWYER FOR THE DEFENSE ARGUED HE COULD NOT PREPARE AN ADEQUATE CASE EARLIER. STRINGERGILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS. (10/24)

    BOSNIA / UN -- BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC LECTURED THE UNITED NATIONS DURING ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS ABOUT UNFULFILLED RESOLUTIONS REGARDING BOSNIA. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE UNITED NATIONS. (10/24)

    CLINTON / BOSNIA -- PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS MET WITH THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA AND CROATIA IN NEW YORK TO URGE THEM TO COMPLETE WORK ON A PEACE AGREEMENT AT TALKS NEXT WEEK OUTSIDE DAYTON, OHIO. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS THE BALKAN LEADERS WERE MORE CONCILIATORY IN THEIR MEETING WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON THAN THEY WERE IN OTHER STATEMENTS. (10/24)

    US / RUSSIA / BOSNIA -- US DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV WILL MEET THURSDAY IN WASHINGTON TO DISCUSS THE RUSSIAN ROLE IN BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS. THE DEFENSE CHIEFS HAVE BEEN ASKED BY PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND YELTSIN TO RESOLVE THE THORNY ISSUE OF WHO WOULD COMMAND A RUSSIAN CONTINGENT IN BOSNIA. CORRESPONDENT DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS. (10/24)

    RUSSIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE BOSNIA PLAN -- CURRENT AFFAIRS' ERICA BENIS LOOKS AT THE DIFFICULTIES AND POSSIBILITIES TO INTEGRATE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN A NATO PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA. COMMENTS FROM TERENCE TAYLOR, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE LONDON-BASED INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES AND JOHN HILLEN, DEFENSE ANALYST FOR THE HERITAGE FOUNDATION. (10/25)

    GERMANY / BOSNIA -- THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT HAS ANNOUNCED IT WILL OFFER FOUR THOUSAND TROOPS TO THE MULTINATIONAL FORCE THAT IS BEING PUT TOGETHER TO POLICE AN EVENTUAL PEACE SETTLEMENT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AS CORRESPONDENT KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN, THE DECISION MARKS ANOTHER IMPORTANT STEP FOR GERMANY, WHICH HAS BEEN SLOWLY CASTING OFF ITS POST WORLD WAR II RELUCTANCE TO DEPLOY TROOPS ABROAD. (10/24)

    BOSNIA / PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT -- AS EFFORTS MOVE FORWARD TO HOLD PEACE TALKS AIMED AT ENDING THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, MEDICAL EXPERTS PREDICT THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTEREFFECTS OF THE CONFLICT ARE LIKELY TO BE LONG-LASTING. THAT WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION THIS WEEK AMONG PHYSICIANS AND SOCIAL WORKERS AT A SPECIAL GATHERING IN CHICAGO. CORRESPONDENT PAUL FRANCUCH REPORTS. (10/24)

    US / CROATIA / TUDJMAN INTERVIEW -- STRINGER IVICA PULJIC INTERVIEWS PRESIDENT TUDJMAN AFTER HIS MEETING WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON AND BOSNIAN PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC IN NEW YORK. THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT EXPRESSED CONFIDENCE IN THE US-LED PEACE INITIATIVE, SAYING THAT HIS MEETING WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOWED STRONG US DETERMINATION TO SOLVE THE CRISIS IN FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE SAID CROATIA WILL COOPERATE ON PEACEFUL REINTEGRATION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA, BUT WILL RESORT TO OTHER MEANS IF NECESSARY IF THE NEGOTIATIONS DO NOT BEAR FRUIT. (CROATIAN 10/24)

    UN / BOSNIAN PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS -- BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC ADDRESSED THE UNITED NATIONS EXPRESSING DISAPPOINTMENT WITH ITS UNFULFILLED MISSION IN BOSNIA. STRINGER IVICA PULJIC REPORTS FROM NEW YORK THAT MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID THAT UN IS THE SOURCE OF HOPE FOR BOSNIANS BUT AT THE SAME TIME A SOURCE OF DISAPPOINTMENT. (CROATIAN 10/24)

    US / BOSNIA / CROATIA -- IN AN INTERVIEW WITH STRINGER IVICA PULJIC, BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAYS HE INFORMED PRESIDENT CLINTON ABOUT PROBLEMS WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION AGREEMENT. HE SAYS MR CLINTON WAS VERY RECEPTIVE TO HIS CONCERNS. (CROATIAN 10/25)

    SERB OPPOSITION / OHIO TALKS -- THE VICE-CHAIRMAN OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF SERBIA/MONTENEGRO, MIODRAG PERSIC EXPRESSED CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM REGARDING THE OUTCOME OF THE FORTHCOMING PROXIMITY TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO. IN AN INTERVIEW WITH STAFFER MAJA DRUCKER, PERSIC STRESSED THAT SERBIAN OPPOSITION PARTIES AND THE PUBLIC ARE KEPT IN THE DARK BY MILOSEVIC AS TO WHAT EXTENT THIS EVENT COULD CONTRIBUTE TO LIFTING OF THE UN SANCTIONS WHICH IS OF VITAL INTEREST FOR THE COUNTRY. (SERBIAN 10/25)

    GERMANY / BOSNIA -- GERMANY ANNOUNCED ITS OFFER TO SEND 4000 TROOPS AS A PART OF PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA. STRINGER IVICA LOVRIC REPORTS FROM BONN THAT THE GERMAN DEFENSE MINISTRY SAID THAT THE TROOPS WILL BE TAKEN ONLY FROM LOGISTICS, MEDICAL AND TRANSPORTATION UNITS. (CROATIAN 10/24)

    TURKISH JOURNALISTS / BOSNIAN SERBS -- TWO TURKISH JOURNALISTS, HELD CAPTIVE BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS FOR FOURTEEN DAYS WERE RELEASED OVER THE WEEKEND. STAFFER MEHMET ILHAN INTERVIEWED MUNIRE ACIM, CORRESPONDENT FOR THE DAILY HURRIYET. MS ACIM HOLDS RESPONSIBLE AN INDIVIDUAL FRENCH SOLDIER OF THE UN FORCE FOR KNOWINGLY GUIDING THEM TOWARDS THE BOSNIAN SERB POSITIONS. SHE THANKS THE VOA AND THE OTHER INTERNATIONAL NEWS MEDIA, FOR COVERING THEIR CAPTIVITY. (TURKISH 10/25)

    CROATIA / ELECTION -- TWO CANDIDATES OF THE MAIN CROATIAN OPPOSITION PARTY SAY IN A PRE-ELECTION SPEECH THAT THE MOST IMPORTANT THING FOR CROATIA IS TO BECOME A MEMBER OF THE MAIN EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS. CANDIDATES IVO SKRABALO AND CHRIS CVIIC NOTED THAT THIS WILL NOT BE ACHIEVABLE BECAUSE THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND THE OTHER EUROPEAN BODIES CONSIDER CROATIA AS A COUNTRY WITH GENERAL LACK OF DEMOCRACY. STRINGER SLAVICA LUKIC REPORTS FROM ZAGREB. (CROATIAN 10/24) 25-Oct-95 5:04 PM EDT (2104 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BALKAN / DELAY (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187465
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE IS A ONE DAY DELAY IN THE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS SCHEDULED TO START NEXT WEEK NEAR DAYTON, OHIO. V-O-A'S RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE DELAY IS TO ACCOMMODATE A SUMMIT MEETING IN MOSCOW.

    TEXT: THE IDEA CAME FROM RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN WHEN HE MET PRESIDENT CLINTON MONDAY IN HYDE PARK, NEW YORK. AS PART OF RUSSIA'S PLEDGE TO WORK WITH THE UNITED STATES IN BRINGING PEACE TO BOSNIA, MR. YELTSIN WANTS TO MEET THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA IN MOSCOW.

    THAT MOSCOW MEETING WILL TAKE PLACE ON OCTOBER 31ST, THE DAY THE PEACE TALKS WERE SUPPOSED TO BEGIN AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR BASE, OUTSIDE DAYTON, OHIO. PRESIDENT CLINTON AGREED. IN NEW YORK TUESDAY. PRESIDENT CLINTON URGED CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN AND BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC TO MAKE THE MOSCOW STOP BEFORE THEY COME TO OHIO TO NEGOTIATE. AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE SECURED THE AGREEMENT OF SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER GAVE THE NEWS TO REPORTERS AS HE MET THE SAUDI FOREIGN MINISTER HERE AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    /// CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    WE WELCOME THIS INITIATIVE. IT REFLECTS PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S PERSONAL COMMITMENT -- THE COMMITMENT OF RUSSIA TO WORK WITH THE UNITED STATES AND THE CONTACT GROUP TO ACHIEVE A SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME OF THE PEACE TALKS, WHICH WILL START IN DAYTON, NOW ON THE FIRST OF NOVEMBER.

    /// END CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S MEETING WITH THE THREE BALKAN LEADERS WILL BE A SUMMIT MEETING, NOT PART OF THE CONFERENCE THAT BEGINS IN DAYTON AND ENDS WHEN THERE IS THE BASIS FOR A BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE MOSCOW MEETING WILL ASSIST THE NEGOTIATIONS.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    WE THINK IT IS A POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT BECAUSE WE THINK IT STRENGTHENS THE PEACE PROCESS. IT STRENGTHENS INTERNATIONAL UNITY AND RESOLVE ON THE EVE OF THE DAYTON PEACE TALKS AND IT MAKES CLEAR TO ALL THE PARTIES INVOLVED, ALL THREE OF THEM AND THEIR SUPPORTERS EVERYWHERE, THAT THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA ARE TOGETHER, THAT WE CANNOT BE PLAYED OFF AGAINST EACH OTHER.

    /// END BURNS ACT ///

    THE PLAN IS FOR THE THREE PRESIDENTS TO SPEND A FEW HOURS WITH PRESIDENT YELTSIN EARLY IN THE DAY NEXT TUESDAY AND THEN FLY DIRECTLY FROM MOSCOW TO DAYTON TO BE IN PLACE FOR A CEREMONIAL OPENING AT THE AIR BASE ON WEDNESDAY THE FIRST OF NOVEMBER. THE SECRETARY OF STATE WILL URGE THE PRESIDENTS PUBLICLY TO MAKE PROGRESS AND THEN WILL LEAVE THEM TO PRODUCE AN AGREEMENT WITH THE HELP OF MR. HOLBROOKE AND INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS.

    CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN HAS ALREADY SAID HE WILL STAY IN DAYTON FOR ONLY A FEW DAYS AND WILL LEAVE HIS FOREIGN MINISTER TO HANDLE CROATIA'S INTEREST, THE RE-INTEGRATION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA UNDER CROATIAN SOVEREIGNTY. THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THERE IS NO EXCUSE FOR CROATIAN THREATS TO RECOVER THE LAST SECTION OF ITS TERRITORY UNDER SERBIAN OCCUPATION BY FORCE. THAT'S WHAT THE NEGOTIATIONS ARE SUPPOSED TO PREVENT.(SIGNED)

    NEB / RP / BD/PT
    25-Oct-95 4:57 PM EDT (2057 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BRITAIN / IRAQ (S-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON )

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187435
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN HAS EXPELLED AN IRAQI DIPLOMAT. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: A BRIEF FIVE-LINE STATEMENT FROM THE BRITISH FOREIGN OFFICE SIMPLY SAYS THE ADMINISTRATIVE ATTACHE AT THE IRAQI INTERESTS SECTION OF THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY HAS BEEN DECLARED PERSONA NON GRATA FOR ACTIVITIES INCOMPATIBLE WITH HIS DIPLOMATIC STATUS -- A EUPHEMISM FOR SPYING.

    THE STATEMENT IDENTIFIES THE MAN AS KHAMIS KHALAF AL AJILI. A FOREIGN OFFICE SPOKESMAN SAYS HE HAS UNTIL NEXT TUESDAY TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY. THE SPOKESMAN RELEASED NO FURTHER INFORMATION, SAYING THE FOREIGN OFFICE STATEMENT SPEAKS FOR ITSELF.

    A SPOKESWOMAN AT THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY SAID ALL SENIOR OFFICIALS HAVE LEFT FOR AMMAN TO ATTEND THE ECONOMIC SUMMIT -- SO SHE COULD NOT COMMENT ON THE EXPULSION.

    BRITAIN SEVERED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH IRAQ AT THE OUTSET OF THE GULF WAR IN 1990. THE TASK OF LOOKING AFTER IRAQ'S INTERESTS IN BRITAIN IS LEFT UP TO A SMALL STAFF OF IRAQI DIPLOMATS BASED IN THE JORDANIAN EMBASSY HERE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    25-Oct-95 9:45 AM EDT (1345 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] CHRISTOPHER / BOSNIA OVERNIGHTER (S-O) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187475
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER IS CONVENING A MEETING OF ALL HIS BOSNIA NEGOTIATORS OUTSIDE WASHINGTON TODAY. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, IT WILL BE THE FINAL PREPARATIONS FOR NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIA PEACE TALKS.

    TEXT: AWAY FROM RINGING TELEPHONES AND OFFICIALS BRINGING HIM ROUTINE PROBLEMS ABOUT OTHER WORLD ISSUES, SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER, ASSISTANT SECRETARY RICHARD HOLBROOKE AND OTHER U-S OFFICIALS INVOLVED IN BOSNIA PEACE TALKS ARE SETTING THE STAGE.

    THEY ARE MEETING IN A U-S GOVERNMENT FACILITY NEAR WARRENTON, VIRGINIA TO PREPARE FOR NEXT WEDNESDAY'S OPENING OF NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE PRESIDENTS OF SERBIA, CROATIA AND BOSNIA. THE THREE BALKAN LEADERS WILL ARRIVE AT WRIGHT PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE NEAR DAYTON, OHIO TUESDAY NIGHT AFTER THEY HOLD A QUICKLY SCHEDULED MEETING WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN IN MOSCOW.

    IN THEIR MEETING TODAY, THE AMERICAN OFFICIALS WILL AGREE ON THE FINAL U-S NEGOTIATING POSTURE BEFORE THE BALKAN PRESIDENTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIATORS ARRIVE IN OHIO. THE PLAN IS TO HAVE SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER OPEN THE TALKS PUBLICLY AT THE AIR FORCE BASE BEFORE THE FACILITY IS CLOSED OFF WHILE NEGOTIATIONS PROCEED. OFFICIALS SAY THE SECRETARY OF STATE WILL RETURN TO THE TALKS FROM TIME TO TIME. THE GOAL IS PREPARE A BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT. THE WORKING ESTIMATE IS TWO WEEKS BUT NO ONE CAN SAY FOR SURE. (SIGNED)

    NEB / RP / BD/PT
    25-Oct-95 7:05 PM EDT (2305 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] CROATIA / SERBS (S-O) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187472
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CROATIAN OFFICIALS AND REBEL SERB LEADERS HELD MORE TALKS WITH U-N AND U-S MEDIATORS WEDNESDAY ON THE DISPUTED REGION OF EASTERN SLAVONIA, THE LAST STRIP OF CROATIAN TERRITORY STILL HELD BY SERB FORCES. THERE WAS NO WORD OF PROGRESS AT WEDNESDAY'S SESSION, BUT OFFICIALS ARE VOICING HOPE FOR A SETTLEMENT BEFORE NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM ZAGREB.

    TEXT: WEDNESDAY'S NEGOTIATING SESSION TOOK PLACE IN THE SERB-HELD TOWN OF ERDUT, A FEW KILOMETERS FROM CROATIA'S BORDER WITH YUGOSLAVIA.

    CROATIAN OFFICIALS TOLD LOCAL REPORTERS THEY PRESENTED WHAT THEY CALLED THEIR MINIMUM DEMANDS FOR A SETTLEMENT OF THE EASTERN SLAVONIA QUESTION.

    ZAGREB IS REPORTEDLY INSISTING ON THE DISARMING OF ALL SERB PARAMILITARY FORCES IN THE REGION WITHIN THREE WEEKS OF A SETTLEMENT. IT WANTS CROATIAN TROOPS TO BE DEPLOYED TO WITHIN FIVE KILOMETERS OF THE YUGOSLAV BORDER, WITH CROATIAN POLICE AND CUSTOMS OFFICERS OCCUPYING FRONTIER POSTS.

    ZAGREB IS ALSO REPORTEDLY DEMANDING THAT NATO TROOPS REPLACE THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCES CURRENTLY IN THE REGION. AND IT INSISTS THAT THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD PRIOR TO THE RESTORATION OF COMPETE CROATIAN CONTROL CAN LAST NO MORE THAN ONE YEAR.

    THERE WAS NO WORD ON THE SERB RESPONSE.

    U-S MEDIATOR PETER GALBRAITH SAID HE AND U-N ENVOY THORVALD STOLTENBERG WILL DRAFT WHAT THEY HOPE WILL BE A FINAL PEACE ACCORD PRIOR TO THE NEXT ROUND OF TALKS ON SATURDAY. MR. GALBRAITH SAID HE HOPES AN AGREEMENT CAN BE SIGNED BEFORE NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN THE U-S STATE OF OHIO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/BD/LWM
    25-Oct-95 6:30 PM EDT (2230 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] FRANCE / GERMANY (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187448
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC IS MAKING HIS FIRST OFFICIAL VISIT TO BONN FOR TALKS WITH GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL. V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN BONN REPORTS THERE IS NO FORMAL AGENDA FOR THE DINNER MEETING, BUT SEVERAL KEY ISSUES ARE LIKELY TO BE DISCUSSED.

    TEXT: FRENCH OFFICIALS SAY MR. CHIRAC WILL USE THE DINNER GET TOGETHER TO TRY TO SHOW THAT GERMAN FRENCH RELATIONS HAVE NOT BEEN STRAINED SINCE HIS ELECTION AS PRESIDENT.

    BUT THE TALKS COME AMID CONTINUED OUTRAGE OVER FRENCH NUCLEAR TESTING AND CONCERNS THAT PLANS FOR EUROPEAN INTEGRATION MAY BE SIDETRACKED.

    SOME ECONOMISTS HAVE SPECULATED THAT PARIS MAY BE UNABLE TO MAKE THE KINDS OF TOUGH BUDGET DECISIONS THAT WILL BE REQUIRED FOR FRANCE TO JOIN THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY BY THE 1999 DEADLINE.

    GERMANY HAS BEEN A KEY PROPONENT OF THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY, BUT OFFICIALS HAVE EXPRESSED OPPOSITION TO ANY RELAXATION OF THE CRITERIA REQUIRED TO JOIN.

    ANALYSTS SAY MR. KOHL AND MR. CHIRAC ALSO ARE LIKELY TO DISCUSS THE RESUMPTION OF FRENCH NUCLEAR TESTING, SOMETHING THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT HAS AVOIDED PUBLICLY CRITICIZING BUT SAYS IT IS OPPOSED TO.

    IN ADDITION TO THOSE CONCERNS, OFFICIALS SAY THEY EXPECT THE SUBJECT OF BOSNIA AND THE LATEST PEACE EFFORTS TO BE DISCUSSED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/MMK
    25-Oct-95 12:32 PM EDT (1632 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] GERMANY / U.N. (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN )

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187443
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL HAS BEEN CRITICIZED AT HOME FOR NOT ATTENDING THE UNITED NATIONS' CELEBRATION OF ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY. SOME GERMAN COMMENTATORS HAVE ACCUSED THE CHANCELLOR OF HURTING GERMANY'S DRIVE FOR A PERMANENT SEAT ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: THE CRITICISM BEGAN IN THE NEWSPAPERS, WITH MORE THAN ONE EDITORIAL ACCUSING THE CHANCELLOR OF ARROGANCE FOR NOT ATTENDING THE U-N ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS.

    OPPOSITION SOCIAL DEMOCRAT EBERHARD BRECHT TOLD THE LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT THAT THE CHANCELLOR'S ABSENCE FROM THE U-N BIRTHDAY PARTY HAD CAST DOUBT ON HIS SUPPORT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS.

    CHANCELLOR KOHL HAS RESPONDED TO THE CRITICISM BY REPEATEDLY SAYING HE DID NOT FEEL THE FIVE MINUTE TIME LIMIT GIVEN TO LEADERS WAS ENOUGH TO MAKE A CONVINCING IMPRESSION. MR. KOHL ALSO DEFENDED HIMSELF BY SAYING GERMANY'S READINESS TO SUPPORT THE UNITED NATIONS IS SURPASSED BY NO ONE IN EUROPE OR ANYWHERE ELSE.

    CRITICS SAY MR. KOHL'S ADVISORS MAY HAVE UNDERESTIMATED THE NUMBER OF HIGH LEVEL MEETINGS THAT WOULD TAKE PLACE ON THE SIDELINES OF THE ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION.

    BY FAILING TO ATTEND THEY SAY, MR. KOHL MAY ALSO HAVE GIVEN A SIGNAL THAT HIS GOVERNMENT DOES NOT VALUE THE UNITED NATIONS AS HIGHLY AS ITS BID FOR A PERMANENT SEAT ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL WOULD SUGGEST.

    SOME COMMENTATORS HAVE WRITTEN SARCASTICALLY THAT IT WAS THE CHANCELLOR'S OWN SECRET HOW HIS BEHAVIOR WOULD HELP GERMANY, WHICH HAS SEEN LITTLE PROGRESS IN ITS DRIVE FOR PERMANENT COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/MH/CF
    25-Oct-95 11:43 AM EDT (1543 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] RUSSIA'S ROLE IN THE BOSNIA PLAN BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08682
    TELEPHONE=619-0934
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //
    ANNCR: AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS WEEK, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON MET PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN OF RUSSIA FOR FOUR HOURS OF TALKS AT THE ESTATE OF FORMER PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT IN HYDE PARK, NEW YORK. ONE OF THE MAIN ISSUES DISCUSSED AT THIS MINI-SUMMIT WAS RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN A PEACEKEEPING FORCE FOR BOSNIA ONCE THE WARRING SIDES REACH A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. WE GET DETAILS FROM ____________ IN THIS REPORT PREPARED

    BY VOA'S ERICA BENIS:

    TEXT: THE TWO PRESIDENTS AGREED THAT RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE BOSNIA PEACE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS. BUT THEY MADE ONLY LIMITED PROGRESS IN DETERMINING THE EXTENT OF RUSSIA'S ROLE IN WHAT WOULD BE A U-S-LED NATO OPERATION.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON ARGUED IN FAVOR OF A PEACEKEEPING FORCE UNDER NATO COMMAND, TO BE DEPLOYED IF AND WHEN THE WARRING PARTIES IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA REACH A FORMAL AGREEMENT. PRESIDENT YELTSIN DID NOT BACK OFF HIS PREVIOUS STATEMENT THAT HE WILL NOT PUT RUSSIAN TROOPS UNDER NATO COMMAND. BOTH PRESIDENTS SAID THEY WERE DEFERRING TO THEIR MILITARY STRATEGISTS TO ARRANGE A COMMAND STRUCTURE ACCEPTABLE TO BOTH SIDES. TALKS BETWEEN U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY AND RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV WILL BEGIN IN A COUPLE OF DAYS IN WASHINGTON.

    COLONEL TERENCE TAYLOR IS ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE LONDON-BASED INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES. HE NOTES THAT IN THEIR REMARKS AT HYDE PARK, PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND YELTSIN REFERRED TO THE BOSNIA PEACEKEEPING PROBLEM AS A MILITARY-TECHNICAL ONE. BUT IN THE COLONEL'S VIEW IT IS ESSENTIALLY A POLITICAL ISSUE.

    TAPE: CUT ONE TAYLOR "THE TWO DEFENSE MINISTERS ARE MEMBERS OF A GOVERNMENT AND ARE GOING TO TALK POLITICS. THAT'S CLEAR. SO IT'S A COMBINATION OF POLITICS AND MILITARY INTEROPERABILITY. IF THEY'VE GOT THE HIGHEST LEVEL APPROVAL FOR SOME SORT OF COOPERATION, IT WOULD BE MY GUESS THEY'LL WORK OUT SOME ACCOMODATION. BUT IT'S GOT TO SATISFY EVERYBODY. ALL THE NATO COUNTRIES HAVE GOT TO AGREE TO WHAT'S HAPPENING. SO WE HAVE AHEAD OF US QUITE A TRICKY POLITICAL-MILITARY JUNGLE. BUT IT COULD BE WORKED OUT."

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS ARE ANXIOUS TO DETERMINE QUICKLY THE MAKEUP OF THE FORCE FOR BOSNIA, BECAUSE IT IS VIEWED AS THE BACKBONE FOR PEACE TALKS THAT ARE SCHEDULED TO START ON OCTOBER 31ST IN DAYTON, OHIO. SEVERAL COUNTRIES THAT ARE NOT NATO MEMBERS ARE EXPECTED TO PLAY A ROLE IN THE OPERATION, NOTABLY RUSSIA. EXACTLY WHAT THE MILITARY RELATIONSHIP WOULD BE BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIAN FORCES IS YET TO BE ESTABLISHED.

    JOHN HILLEN IS A DEFENSE ANALYST FOR THE HERITAGE FOUNDATION, A RESEARCH ORGANIZATION IN WASHINGTON. HE SAYS THERE ARE THREE POSSIBLE OPTIONS FOR WORKING OUT ANY KIND OF MILITARY COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO, SHOULD A PEACE PLAN BE REACHED:

    TAPE: CUT TWO HILLEN "THE FIRST OPTION, WHICH IS PREFERRED BY THE UNITED STATES, IS (FOR THE RUSSIAN TROOPS) TO OPERATE UNDER NATO COMMAND AND CONTROL, BECAUSE NATO HAS A REHEARSED AND RELIABLE STRUCTURE FOR THE COMMAND AND CONTROL OF LARGE AND COMPLEX FORCES. THE SECOND OPTION, WHICH IS PREFERABLE TO RUSSIA, IS A JOINT APPROACH TO THIS, WHEREBY NATO IS ONE PLAYER AND RUSSIA IS THE OTHER PLAYER. BRINGING THESE EFFORTS TOGETHER WILL BE A U-N COMMAND AND CONTROL STRUCTURE AT THE TOP."

    TEXT: MR. HILLEN SAYS THE UNITED STATES AND NATO IN GENERAL ARE AGAINST HAVING THE UNITED NATIONS INVOLVED, BECAUSE IT HAS PROVEN CONCLUSIVELY OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS THAT IT CANNOT DO THE JOB.

    TAPE: CUT THREE HILLEN "THERE IS A THIRD OPTION, WHICH I THINK IS THE PREFERRED COMPROMISE FOR THE AMERICANS IN PARTICULAR. AND THAT HAS RUSSIA PARTIPATE, BUT NOT IN A DIRECT COMBAT GROUND FORCES ROLE. RUSSIAN FORCES WOULD TAKE PART IN SUCH THINGS AS NATION-BUILDING ACTIVITIES, MINE CLEARING, REPLACING CIVILIAN INFRASTUCTURE AND RECONSTRUCTION IN BOSNIA; THOSE SORTS OF MISSIONS. AND I'M NOT SURE THAT WILL BE ACCEPTABLE TO RUSSIA."

    TEXT: OBSERVERS SAY THAT WITH RUSSIA FACING BOTH PARLIAMENTARY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS NEXT YEAR, MOSCOW IS LOOKING FOR A VISIBLE ROLE IN THE BOSNIA PEACE PLAN TO SHOW ITS PEOPLE THAT IT IS A MAJOR PLAYER IN SOLVING THE CRISIS.

    WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF PUTTING TOGETHER A COMMAND AND COOPERATION STRUCTURE THAT WILL ACCOMODATE EVERYBODY? COLONEL TERENCE TAYLOR SAYS IN THE CASE OF THE RUSSIAN MILITARY INTEGRATING WITH NATO -- ITS ADVERSARY FOR MORE THAN 40 YEARS -- THE CORE OF THE PROBLEM IS WHO COMMANDS WHOM.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR TAYLOR "IT SOUNDS LIKE A MILITARY QUESTION, WHEN IT'S PUT LIKE THAT, BUT IT'S NOT. IT'S A POLITICAL QUESTION: WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP GOING TO BE BETWEEN THE SENIOR RUSSIAN OFFICER, THE MAN IN COMMAND OF THE RUSSIAN FORCE, WITH HIS NATO -- HE WOULD SAY -- COUNTERPART. WHAT'S OUR RELATIONSHIP GOING TO BE? WHO'S GOING TO GIVE THE ORDERS? I CERTAINLY AM NOT GOING TO GO THROUGH THE NATO COMMANDER."

    TEXT: MOSCOW IS STILL CONSIDERING THE SIZE OF THE RUSSIAN FORCE IT WILL SEND TO BOSNIA. ORIGINALLY, PRESIDENT YELTSIN SUGGESTED SENDING UP TO 20- THOUSAND TROOPS --- EQUAL TO WHAT THE AMERICANS ARE PLANNING TO DISPATCH TO BOSNIA. BUT COLONER TAYLOR SAYS HE IS NOW CONSIDERING A MUCH SMALLER FORCE.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE TAYLOR "I WOULD GUESS THAT THE MILITARY IN RUSSIA WOULD HAVE SERIOUS PROBLEMS ABOUT DEPLOYING A FORCE OF THAT SIZE INTO BOSNIA. AND I THINK THEY'RE RATHER HOPING THAT SOMEBODY ELSE IS GOING TO PAY."

    TEXT: COLONEL TAYLOR CONCLUDES THAT ENLISTING RUSSIAN HELP TO PUT BOSNIA BACK TOGETHER WOULD MARK A FIRST SUCCESSFUL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA, EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES ON A DEMANDING SECURITY MISSION IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA.

    NEB/EB/PCH

    25-Oct-95 3:15 PM EDT (1915 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] RUSSIA / BOSNIA (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187458
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE LEADERS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA, AND CROATIA WILL MEET NEXT WEEK IN MOSCOW, ONE DAY BEFORE THEY BEGIN PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES. PETER HEINLEIN IN THE RUSSIAN CAPITAL REPORTS THE MOSCOW MEETING WILL GIVE PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN AN OPPORTUNITY TO VOICE HIS SUPPORT FOR THE BALKAN PEACE PROCESS.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN GRIGORY KARASIN (WEDNESDAY) SAID LEADERS OF THE WARRING FACTIONS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA WOULD MEET PRESIDENT YELTSIN AT THE KREMLIN NEXT TUESDAY. MR. KARASIN DESCRIBED THE MEETING AS THE START OF A FUNDAMENTALLY NEW STAGE IN EFFORTS TO BRING AN END TO FIGHTING IN THE BALKANS.

    THE THREE LEADERS -- PRESIDENTS FRANJO TUDJMAN OF CROATIA, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC OF BOSNIA, AND SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA -- WERE EARLIER SCHEDULED TO BEGIN PEACE TALKS IN THE UNITED STATES THAT DAY. BUT MR. KARASIN SAID THE U-S TALKS WERE PUSHED BACK A DAY TO MAKE ROOM FOR THE MOSCOW STOPOVER.

    A U-S OFFICIAL WHO REQUESTED ANONYMITY SAID THE MOSCOW MEETING IS DESIGNED TO HELP THE PEACE PROCESS MOVE AHEAD. HE SAID THE MEETING WOULD GIVE PRESIDENT YELTSIN AN OPPORTUNITY TO DECLARE HIS SUPPORT FOR THE TALKS. BUT HE EMPHASIZED PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WILL NOT BEGIN UNTIL THE THREE BALKAN LEADERS ARRIVE IN THE UNITED STATES THE FOLLOWING DAY.

    THE INDIRECT TALKS WILL BE HELD AT A U-S AIR FORCE BASE IN OHIO. THEY WILL BE OVERSEEN BY U-S MEDIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE, ALONG WITH RUSSIAN DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV AND EUROPEAN UNION NEGOTIATOR CARL BILDT.

    U-S OFFICIALS SAY THE MEDIATORS WILL TRAVEL BACK AND FORTH DURING THE PROXIMITY TALKS, PASSING MESSAGES AMONG THE THREE BALKAN PRESIDENTS. THE HOPE IS, PROGRESS IN THESE INDIRECT NEGOTIATIONS WILL EVENTUALLY LEAD TO FACE TO FACE TALKS.

    THE GOAL OF THE OHIO PROXIMITY TALKS IS A SETTLEMENT THAT WOULD RESULT IN FORMATION OF TWO ETHNIC REPUBLICS WITHIN A SINGLE BOSNIA. ONE REPUBLIC WOULD BE CONTROLLED BY SERBS, THE OTHER JOINTLY BY MUSLIMS AND CROATS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/JWH/MMK
    25-Oct-95 2:20 PM EDT (1820 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] U-N 50/FINANCIAL WRAP (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/24/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187419
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MONEY PROBLEMS -- THOSE OF THE UNITED NATIONS -- WERE A DOMINANT THEME OF THE U-N'S 50TH ANNIVERSARY OBSERVANCE. AS THREE DAYS OF MARATHON SPEECH-MAKING WOUND TO A CLOSE TUESDAY -- THE PRE-OCCUPATION WITH THE U-N'S FINANCIAL VIABILITY DID NOT DIMINISH. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE LAST LEG OF SPEECH-MAKING BY THE WORLD'S LEADERS REVEALED CONTINUING CONCERN AND SYMPATHY FOR THE U-N'S FINANCIAL CRISIS. GOVERNMENTS OWE THE U-N OVER THREE BILLION DOLLARS FOR GENERAL EXPENSES AND FOR PEACEKEEPING. THE UNITED STATES, BY ITSELF, IS OVER A BILLION DOLLARS IN ARREARS.

    COUNTRIES -- BOTH RICH AND POOR -- CHASTISED THE DEBTORS. LESTER BIRD, THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE CARIBBEAN NATION OF ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, OFFERED ONE OF THE MORE ELOQUENT ASSESSMENTS OF THE U-N'S PREDICAMENT. HE SAID THE ORGANIZATION WOULD NOT HAVE SURVIVED IN THE REAL WORLD OF CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY:

    /// BIRD ACT ///

    IF THE UNITED NATIONS WERE A MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANY, IT WOULD HAVE COLLAPSED LONG AGO. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN PUT INTO RECEIVERSHIP OR LIQUIDATION AND A PUBLIC ENQUIRY WOULD HAVE BEEN HELD INTO THE CONDUCT OF ITS OPERATIONS. SOMEBODY WOULD HAVE HAD TO PAY -- OR PAY UP.

    /// END ACT ///

    SWEDEN'S PRIME MINISTER, INGVAR CARLSSON, IS LEADING A NORDIC EFFORT TO FIND ALTERNATIVE FUNDING FOR THE UNITED NATIONS. BUT HE STRESSED THAT THE MANDATORY CONTRIBUTIONS BY U-N MEMBERS MUST BE THE BACKBONE OF THE ORGANIZATION:

    /// CARLSSON ACT ///

    IT IS A SHAME THAT SO MANY MEMBER STATES DO NOT PAY WHEN THEY OWE THIS TO THE ORGANIZATION. THE UNITED NATIONS CANNOT BE MORE THAN WHAT ITS MEMBERS ALLOW IT TO BE.

    /// END ACT ///

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER SAID IT'S RISKY FOR THE UNITED NATIONS TO DEPEND EXCLUSIVELY ON CONTRIBUTIONS. HE SUGGESTED OTHER POSSIBILITIES TO RAISE MONEY -- AMONG THEM, A TAX ON FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS, AN EXTRA TAX ON AIRLINE TICKETS AND CHARGING FOR THE USE OF COMMON GLOBAL RESOURCES SUCH AS SEA-LANES OR FISHING ON THE HIGH SEAS.

    THE FINAL DECLARATION OF THE ANNIVERSARY SESSION REMINDS U-N MEMBERS OF THE NEED TO PAY THEIR DUES IN A TIMELY FASHION. BUT IT THREATENS NO PENALTIES FOR LATE PAYMENTS. NOR DOES IT PROPOSE OTHER REMEDIES FOR THE U-N'S CASH-FLOW PROBLEMS.

    NATIONAL LEADERS -- FOR THREE DAYS -- EXPRESSED THEIR BELIEF THAT THE WORLD NEEDS THE ORGANIZATION PERHAPS NOW MORE THAN EVER. BUT THE SHADOW OF BANKRUPTCY STILL DARKENS ITS FUTURE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/SKH
    24-Oct-95 8:31 PM EDT (0031 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] U-S / BALKANS / HUMAN RIGHTS (L-O) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZAGREB)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187471
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN SHATTUCK IS MAKING ANOTHER TOUR OF BALKAN CAPITALS TO PRESS WASHINGTON'S HUMAN RIGHTS CONCERNS IN ADVANCE OF NEXT WEEK'S BOSNIAN PEACE TALKS IN THE U-S STATE OF OHIO. THE AMERICAN ENVOY HELD A NEWS CONFERENCE IN ZAGREB WEDNESDAY, AND WE HAVE A REPORT FROM V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL.

    TEXT: THE GUNS MAY HAVE FALLEN SILENT IN BOSNIA. BUT MR. SHATTUCK SAYS LIVES ARE STILL AT STAKE.

    AS MANY AS TWO THOUSAND MUSLIM MEN WERE DETAINED BY SERB FORCES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE COUNTRY EARLIER THIS MONTH IN A CAMPAIGN THAT INCLUDED THE FORCED EXPULSION OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM WOMEN, CHILDREN AND OLD PEOPLE.

    SOME OF THE DETAINED MEN ARE REPORTEDLY BEING HELD IN SERB PRISON CAMPS, WHILE OTHERS HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED TO WORK GANGS. U-N OFFICIALS SAY HUNDREDS MAY HAVE BEEN KILLED. AND MR. SHATTUCK IS SEEKING ACCESS TO THE AREA TO DETERMINE THE FATE OF THE MISSING.

    IN BELGRADE WEDNESDAY, THE U-S ENVOY SOUGHT TO ENLIST THE SUPPORT OF SERBIA'S PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. HE SAID HE GAVE MR. MILOSEVIC A PARTIAL LIST OF THE MISSING, AND ASKED HIM TO USE HIS INFLUENCE WITH BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS TO ENSURE THAT HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS, GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES AND JOURNALISTS ARE ALLOWED INTO THE AREA. HE SAID THE SERBIAN PRESIDENT AGREED TO PASS ON THE REQUEST.

    MR. SHATTUCK SAID HE HIMSELF IS READY TO TRAVEL TO NORTHERN BOSNIA AT A MOMENT'S NOTICE BUT ONLY IF SERB AUTHORITIES GRANT IMMEDIATE AND UNCONDITIONAL ACCESS.

    /// SHATTUCK ACT ///

    WHAT IS AT STAKE HERE ARE HUNDREDS OF LIVES, AND WE ARE DETERMINED TO ENSURE THAT THEY NOT BE LOST IN THE CHAOS AND THAT THERE BE AN OPPORTUNITY TO GET ACCESS TO THE REGION.

    /// END SHATTUCK ACT ///

    MR. SHATTUCK IS ALSO CONTINUING TO PRESS THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT ON HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES; SPECIFICALLY THE FATE OF THE NEARLY TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND CROATIAN SERBS WHO FLED THE KRAJINA REGION LAST AUGUST WHEN ZAGREB GOVERNMENT FORCES INVADED AND RECAPTURED THE AREA FROM SERB REBELS.

    THE U-S ENVOY IS ON HIS THIRD VISIT TO ZAGREB IN THE SPACE OF A MONTH, URGING CROATIAN OFFICIALS TO DO MORE TO ENCOURAGE THE RETURN OF THE SERBS, MOST OF WHOM FLED TO YUGOSLAVIA.

    HE HAS GIVEN ZAGREB GOVERNMENT AUTHORITIES LISTS OF AROUND FOUR THOUSAND SERBS WHO HAVE SIGNALED THEIR DESIRE TO GO BACK TO KRAJINA, AND HE HAS URGED THE CROATIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY TO DISPATCH ADDITIONAL CONSULAR OFFICERS TO BELGRADE TO HELP PROCESS THE APPLICATIONS.

    IN ADDITION, MR. SHATTUCK IS CALLING ON ZAGREB TO ABOLISH LEGAL IMPEDIMENTS TO THE RETURN OF THE SERBS, INCLUDING A DECREE THAT STIPULATES THAT THOSE WHO FLED MUST RECLAIM THEIR PROPERTY IN KRAJINA WITHIN NINETY DAYS.

    THE U-S ENVOY SAYS ZAGREB MUST ALSO DO MORE TO ENSURE SECURITY IN THE KRAJINA REGION, WHERE U-N AND HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE REPORTED A WAVE OF KILLINGS, LOOTING AND ARSON SINCE CROATIAN TROOPS REGAINED CONTROL OF THE AREA.

    MR. SHATTUCK SAYS HUMAN RIGHTS WILL BE A MAJOR CONCERN WHEN THE CROATIAN, SERBIAN AND BOSNIAN PRESIDENTS GATHER FOR NEXT WEEK'S PEACE TALKS AT A U-S AIRFORCE BASE JUST OUTSIDE DAYTON, OHIO.

    /// 2ND SHATTUCK ACT ///

    AND THEREFORE I THINK IT IS IN THE INTERESTS OF ALL PARTIES TO SHOW GOOD FAITH IN TAKING STEPS NOW WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN RIGHTS ON THE EVE OF THESE TALKS SO THEY ARE NOT AT A DISADVANTAGE WHEN THEY ARRIVE IN DAYTON.

    /// END 2ND SHATTUCK ACT ///

    U-S AND WEST EUROPEAN OFFICIALS HAVE SUGGESTED THAT POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION AID FOR THE BALKANS COULD BE WITHHELD FROM THOSE WHO CONTINUE TO VIOLATE BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS.(SIGNED)

    NEB / DBR / BD/PT
    25-Oct-95 6:27 PM EDT (2227 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] UN 50 MEETING CLOSES (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=10/24/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-187421
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WORLD LEADERS MARKING THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNITED NATIONS HAVE PROMISED TO PROVIDE THE ORGANIZATION THE RESOURCES IT REQUIRES TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE FOR THE NEXT CENTURY. THE THREE-DAY OBSERVANCE ENDED LATE TUESDAY WITH THE ADOPTION BY ACCLAMATION (OR WITHOUT A VOTE) OF A WIDE-RANGING DECLARATION. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: GOVERNMENTS REAFFIRMED THE PRINCIPLES OF THE U-N CHARTER. THEY EXPRESSED THEIR DETERMINATION THAT THE UNITED NATIONS WILL WORK WITH RENEWED VIGOR TO PROMOTE PEACE, DEVELOPMENT, EQUALITY, JUSTICE AND UNDERSTANDING AMONG THE WORLD'S PEOPLES.

    WITH THE ORGANIZATION NEARLY BANKRUPT -- THE DECLARATION ALSO PROMISES TO MAKE SURE THE U-N IS PROPERLY EQUIPPED AND FINANCED TO SERVE THE NEXT CENTURY MORE EFFECTIVELY. GOVERNMENTS AGREED THE U-N NEEDS REFORM.

    HEADS OF STATE, KINGS, MINISTERS AND SPECIAL ENVOYS -- OVER 180 OF THEM -- CAME TO NEW YORK TO HONOR THE UNITED NATIONS. U-N SUPPORTERS CONSIDER THEIR PRESENCE ALONE A CONFIRMATION THAT THE U-N HAS A FUTURE.

    U-N OFFICIALS WERE LOOKING FOR A VISION. THEY SAY THEY NOW HAVE ONE. STILL, THE FINAL DOCUMENT WAS VAGUE -- MORE A GUIDEPOST FOR CONTINUING DEBATE THAN A FORMULA FOR ACTION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/SKH
    24-Oct-95 10:34 PM EDT (0234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] UNITED NATIONS AT 50 BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08684
    TELEPHONE=212-264-2327
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNITED NATIONS WAS COMMEMORATED IN NEW YORK THIS WEEK WITH A CLEAR MESSAGE FROM MEMBER STATES: RE-EVALUATE THE MISSION, REASSESS THE OPERATION AND RE-ORGANIZE THE STRUCTURE. IN SHORT, REFORM OR BECOME IRRELEVANT. BUT THE ZEAL FOR REFORM IN RECENT YEARS HAS OFTEN OVERSHADOWED REAL U-N ACHIEVEMENTS. BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS FROM V-O-A'S NEW YORK BUREAU ON SOME OF THE UNITED NATIONS' ACCOMPLISHMENTS. HOST: FEW DISPUTE THE NEED FOR REFORM AS THE UNITED NATIONS BEGINS ITS SECOND HALF CENTURY. EVEN THE WORLD ORGANIZATION'S FIERCEST DEFENDERS ADMIT ITS BUREAUCRACY IS BLOATED, ITS OPERATION IS OFTEN INEFFICIENT, AND CHANGES HAVE MADE SOME OF ITS AGENCIES IRRELEVANT. STILL, SUPPORTERS SAY CRITICS FOCUS ON THE UNITED NATIONS' FAILURES AND OVERLOOK ITS ACHIEVEMENTS.

    ED LUCK IS PRESIDENT EMERITUS OF THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, A GROUP DEDICATED TO STRENGTHENING THE UNITED NATIONS AND ENCOURAGING U-S PARTICIPATION IN THE U-N SYSTEM. HE SAYS THE HIGH PROFILE FAILURES OF PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS IN BOSNIA AND SOMALIA OVERSHADOW THE SUCCESSES OF SEVERAL OTHER OPERATIONS.

    TAPE: CUT ONE: LUCK: "THE IDEA OF SOLDIERS WITHOUT ENEMIES, IT IS REALLY QUITE A NEW CONCEPT TO GIVE WARRING PARTIES AN ALTERNATIVE, TO KEEP THE HOPE OF PEACE ALIVE. I THINK WHAT THE U-N HAS DONE ACROSS THE SPECTRUM IN PLACES LIKE CAMBODIA AND EL SALVADOR AND MOZAMBIQUE AND ANGOLA, AND RIGHT NOW IN HAITI. I THINK THE U-N HAS MOVED IN MANY PLACES WHERE PEOPLE THOUGHT THERE WAS NO HOPE AT ALL AND HAS BROUGHT BACK A SENSE OF ORDER, A SENSE OF RENEWAL, AND I THINK THAT HAS BEEN A VERY POSITIVE THING."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO ED LUCK, PEACEKEEPING IS ONE OF TWO IMPORTANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS NEITHER ANTICIPATED WHEN THE UNITED NATIONS WAS INITIALLY ESTABLISHED IN 1945 NOR INCLUDED IN THE U-N CHARTER. THE SECOND IS DEMOCRACY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO: LUCK: "THE IDEA OF DEMOCRACY IN THE U-N WAS REALLY QUITE CONTROVERSIAL FOR MANY YEARS AND PART OF DEBATES. NOW RATHER RECENTLY, AND IN A QUIET WAY, THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS RELEASED HIS AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY. THE U-N HAS BEEN ASKED TO MONITOR ELECTIONS IN 62 COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. I THINK THAT IS QUITE REMARKABLE. IT HAS BECOME AN ENGINE TO ENCOURAGE PLURALISM AND STABILITY BOTH THROUGH HUMAN RIGHTS AND ALSO THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN THE GOVERNMENTAL PROCESS. I THINK THAT HAS BEEN AN EXTRAORDINARY ADVANCE."

    TEXT: SOME SUPPORTERS, LIKE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR DENNIS SMITH, THINK ONE OF THE UNITED NATIONS' BIGGEST ACHIEVEMENTS HAS BEEN ITS ABILITY TO JUST STAY ALIVE IN THE FACE OF AN ONSLAUGHT OF CRITICISM, PARTICULARLY FROM THE WEST, WHICH PROVIDES THE BULK OF THE U-N BUDGET.

    PROFESSOR SMITH ALSO PLACES THE U-N ROLE IN REFUGEE AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES ON HIS LIST OF MAJOR U-N ACCOMPLISHMENTS. FROM ITS VERY BEGINNING, AT THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN DEEPLY INVOLVED IN REFUGEE ISSUES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE: SMITH: "THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF PLACES AROUND THE WORLD WHERE IT IS HARD TO IMAGINE, AS DISMAL AS THEIR PLIGHT HAS BEEN, WHERE IT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN MUCH WORSE HAD THERE NOT BEEN AN ORGANIZATION LIKE THE UNITED NATIONS TO MOVE IN AND PROVIDE ASSISTANCE ON AN INTERNATIONAL BASIS. SO THAT IS HIGH ON MY LIST. I ALSO THINK THAT THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN THE LEADER IN DELCARING HUMAN RIGHTS AND MAKING THAT AN ISSUE. IT HAS NOT DELIVERED ON IT -- IT CANNOT DELIVER ON IT ON ITS OWN -- BUT HUMAN RIGHTS IS FOR ME A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF WHAT MAKES THE FUTURE WORTH LIVING. WORDS ARE NOT BULLETS BUT WORDS IN MANY WAYS HAVE SHAPED OUR EXISTENCE AND CONTINUE TO. AND SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORDS ADDRESS THE CONDITION OF PEOPLE'S HUMAN RIGHTS."

    TEXT: MUCH OF THE PLIGHT OF THE UNITED NATIONS STEMS FROM ITS VERY ESSENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATION. BECAUSE IT REPRESENTS PEOPLE FROM EVERY CULTURE AND CORNER OF THE GLOBE, THE UNITED NATIONS MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT PEOPLE. AND DEFINITIONS OF ITS ROLE ARE OFTEN IN CONFLICT.

    MOREOVER, IT IS SOMETIMES FORGOTTEN THAT AS A MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATION IT MUST RELY ON ITS MEMBERS FOR GUIDANCE AND LEADERSHIP. THE MEMBERS SENT THE UNITED NATIONS A CLEAR MESSAGE AT THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATION -- IT IS TIME TO REFORM. SUPPORTERS SAY THAT MESSAGE OFFERS THE UNITED NATIONS AN OPPORTUNITY TO RENEW ITS MISSION AND REVITALIZE ITS REPUTATION. BUT IT WILL NEED THE SUPPORT OF ITS MEMBERS TO DO SO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/NY/BJS/PCH
    25-Oct-95 4:12 PM EDT (2012 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [15] UNITED NATIONS AT 50 BY BARBARA SCHOETZAU (NEW YORK)

    DATE=10/25/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08684
    TELEPHONE=212-264-2327
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE UNITED NATIONS WAS COMMEMORATED IN NEW YORK THIS WEEK WITH A CLEAR MESSAGE FROM MEMBER STATES: RE-EVALUATE THE MISSION, REASSESS THE OPERATION AND RE-ORGANIZE THE STRUCTURE. IN SHORT, REFORM OR BECOME IRRELEVANT. BUT THE ZEAL FOR REFORM IN RECENT YEARS HAS OFTEN OVERSHADOWED REAL U-N ACHIEVEMENTS. BARBARA SCHOETZAU REPORTS FROM V-O-A'S NEW YORK BUREAU ON SOME OF THE UNITED NATIONS' ACCOMPLISHMENTS. HOST: FEW DISPUTE THE NEED FOR REFORM AS THE UNITED NATIONS BEGINS ITS SECOND HALF CENTURY. EVEN THE WORLD ORGANIZATION'S FIERCEST DEFENDERS ADMIT ITS BUREAUCRACY IS BLOATED, ITS OPERATION IS OFTEN INEFFICIENT, AND CHANGES HAVE MADE SOME OF ITS AGENCIES IRRELEVANT. STILL, SUPPORTERS SAY CRITICS FOCUS ON THE UNITED NATIONS' FAILURES AND OVERLOOK ITS ACHIEVEMENTS.

    ED LUCK IS PRESIDENT EMERITUS OF THE UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, A GROUP DEDICATED TO STRENGTHENING THE UNITED NATIONS AND ENCOURAGING U-S PARTICIPATION IN THE U-N SYSTEM. HE SAYS THE HIGH PROFILE FAILURES OF PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS IN BOSNIA AND SOMALIA OVERSHADOW THE SUCCESSES OF SEVERAL OTHER OPERATIONS.

    TAPE: CUT ONE: LUCK: "THE IDEA OF SOLDIERS WITHOUT ENEMIES, IT IS REALLY QUITE A NEW CONCEPT TO GIVE WARRING PARTIES AN ALTERNATIVE, TO KEEP THE HOPE OF PEACE ALIVE. I THINK WHAT THE U-N HAS DONE ACROSS THE SPECTRUM IN PLACES LIKE CAMBODIA AND EL SALVADOR AND MOZAMBIQUE AND ANGOLA, AND RIGHT NOW IN HAITI. I THINK THE U-N HAS MOVED IN MANY PLACES WHERE PEOPLE THOUGHT THERE WAS NO HOPE AT ALL AND HAS BROUGHT BACK A SENSE OF ORDER, A SENSE OF RENEWAL, AND I THINK THAT HAS BEEN A VERY POSITIVE THING."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO ED LUCK, PEACEKEEPING IS ONE OF TWO IMPORTANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS NEITHER ANTICIPATED WHEN THE UNITED NATIONS WAS INITIALLY ESTABLISHED IN 1945 NOR INCLUDED IN THE U-N CHARTER. THE SECOND IS DEMOCRACY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO: LUCK: "THE IDEA OF DEMOCRACY IN THE U-N WAS REALLY QUITE CONTROVERSIAL FOR MANY YEARS AND PART OF DEBATES. NOW RATHER RECENTLY, AND IN A QUIET WAY, THE SECRETARY-GENERAL HAS RELEASED HIS AGENDA FOR DEMOCRACY. THE U-N HAS BEEN ASKED TO MONITOR ELECTIONS IN 62 COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. I THINK THAT IS QUITE REMARKABLE. IT HAS BECOME AN ENGINE TO ENCOURAGE PLURALISM AND STABILITY BOTH THROUGH HUMAN RIGHTS AND ALSO THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN THE GOVERNMENTAL PROCESS. I THINK THAT HAS BEEN AN EXTRAORDINARY ADVANCE."

    TEXT: SOME SUPPORTERS, LIKE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR DENNIS SMITH, THINK ONE OF THE UNITED NATIONS' BIGGEST ACHIEVEMENTS HAS BEEN ITS ABILITY TO JUST STAY ALIVE IN THE FACE OF AN ONSLAUGHT OF CRITICISM, PARTICULARLY FROM THE WEST, WHICH PROVIDES THE BULK OF THE U-N BUDGET.

    PROFESSOR SMITH ALSO PLACES THE U-N ROLE IN REFUGEE AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES ON HIS LIST OF MAJOR U-N ACCOMPLISHMENTS. FROM ITS VERY BEGINNING, AT THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN DEEPLY INVOLVED IN REFUGEE ISSUES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE: SMITH: "THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF PLACES AROUND THE WORLD WHERE IT IS HARD TO IMAGINE, AS DISMAL AS THEIR PLIGHT HAS BEEN, WHERE IT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN MUCH WORSE HAD THERE NOT BEEN AN ORGANIZATION LIKE THE UNITED NATIONS TO MOVE IN AND PROVIDE ASSISTANCE ON AN INTERNATIONAL BASIS. SO THAT IS HIGH ON MY LIST. I ALSO THINK THAT THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN THE LEADER IN DELCARING HUMAN RIGHTS AND MAKING THAT AN ISSUE. IT HAS NOT DELIVERED ON IT -- IT CANNOT DELIVER ON IT ON ITS OWN -- BUT HUMAN RIGHTS IS FOR ME A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF WHAT MAKES THE FUTURE WORTH LIVING. WORDS ARE NOT BULLETS BUT WORDS IN MANY WAYS HAVE SHAPED OUR EXISTENCE AND CONTINUE TO. AND SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT WORDS ADDRESS THE CONDITION OF PEOPLE'S HUMAN RIGHTS."

    TEXT: MUCH OF THE PLIGHT OF THE UNITED NATIONS STEMS FROM ITS VERY ESSENCE AS AN INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATION. BECAUSE IT REPRESENTS PEOPLE FROM EVERY CULTURE AND CORNER OF THE GLOBE, THE UNITED NATIONS MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT PEOPLE. AND DEFINITIONS OF ITS ROLE ARE OFTEN IN CONFLICT.

    MOREOVER, IT IS SOMETIMES FORGOTTEN THAT AS A MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATION IT MUST RELY ON ITS MEMBERS FOR GUIDANCE AND LEADERSHIP. THE MEMBERS SENT THE UNITED NATIONS A CLEAR MESSAGE AT THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY COMMEMORATION -- IT IS TIME TO REFORM. SUPPORTERS SAY THAT MESSAGE OFFERS THE UNITED NATIONS AN OPPORTUNITY TO RENEW ITS MISSION AND REVITALIZE ITS REPUTATION. BUT IT WILL NEED THE SUPPORT OF ITS MEMBERS TO DO SO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/NY/BJS/PCH
    25-Oct-95 4:12 PM EDT (2012 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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