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Voice of America, 29 March 1996 (1 of 2)

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BRITAIN / U-S SPY BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

  • [03] CLINTON / DEMIREL (L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [04] E-U/SUMMIT (L) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS )

  • [05] HILLARY / GREECE (L ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVAS (ATHENS )

  • [06] NATO ANNIVERSARY BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)

  • [07] PERRY/BOSNIA PREVIEW (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)


  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09503
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON FRIDAY, MARCH 29TH //

    INTRO: A RULING BY THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT AND AMERICA'S RELATIONSHIP WITH TAIWAN ARE AMONG THE SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ON THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF AMERICA'S LEADING NEWSPAPERS. NOW, _________________ HAS A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE AND OTHER COMMENTS IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THIS WEEK, THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT ISSUED A DECISION IN A CASE INVOLVING WHETHER A NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBE COULD SUE A STATE OVER GAMBLING OPERATIONS. "BUT," NOTES THE LOS ANGELES TIMES, "THE IMPORT OF THE WEDNESDAY RULING HITS SQUARELY ON THE VERY LARGE ISSUES THAT MOTIVATED THE CREATION OF THE UNION: THE POWER OF THE STATES IN RELATION TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND THE LIMITS OF INDIVIDUAL POWER WITHIN THAT FEDERALIST SCHEME."

    VOICE: "WITH THIS DECISION, CONGRESS' POWER TO ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF SUCH OBVIOUS FEDERAL INTEREST, AS VIOLENCE AT ABORTION CLINICS, NARCOTICS... HAZARDOUS WASTE DUMPS OR PISTOLS IN THE HANDS OF EX-FELONS MAY BE IN QUESTION. THAT'S WHY THE 5-4 DECISION GENERATED EXCORIATING DISSENTS WITHIN THE COURT AND WIDESPREAD CONCERN OUTSIDE ITS SOLEMN HALLS. THE CASE INVOLVED THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF A SUIT BROUGHT BY THE SEMINOLE TRIBE AGAINST THE STATE OF FLORIDA UNDER THE 1988 FEDERAL INDIAN GAMING REGULATORY ACT. THE SEMINOLES SOUGHT TO FORCE FLORIDA TO NEGOTIATE THE TERMS OF A TRIBAL-STATE COMPACT FOR A CASINO ON SEMINOLE LAND. THE GAMING LAW ALLOWED TRIBES TO SUE STATES IN FEDERAL COURT FOR FAILING TO NEGOTIATE IN GOOD FAITH OVER THE OPERATION OF GAMBLING CASINOS ON TRIBAL LAND. CHIEF JUSTICE WILLIAM H. REHNQUIST, WRITING FOR THE MAJORITY, SAID THAT THIS PORTION OF THE LAW WAS AN UNCONSTITUTIONAL INCURSION ON STATE SOVEREIGNTY."

    TEXT: ON ITS EDITORIAL PAGE, THE NEW YORK TIMES WRITES THAT A "MAJORITY IS DRIVING THE SUPREME COURT TOWARD A REVOLUTIONARY, INDEED REACTIONARY, INTERPRETATION OF FEDERALISM, TILTING THE BALANCE DANGEROUSLY TOWARD STATES' RIGHTS" AT THE EXPENSE OF FEDERAL POWER.

    VOICE: "FOR GENERATIONS, THE COURT HAS GIVEN CONGRESS BROAD DISCRETION TO REGULATE INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN COMMERCE, AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSTITUTION. IN SO DOING, IT HONORED THE CONSTITUTION'S ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR SHARED FEDERAL-STATE GOVERNANCE WHILE INSURING A COMMON NATIONAL MARKET UNENCUMBERED BY TARIFF WALLS AND OTHER GATEKEEPERS AT EACH STATE BOUNDARY. THAT HONORABLE DESIGN MAY NOT SURVIVE THIS COURT, WHOSE RIGHT WING, WHICH HAS SOUGH TO ROLL BACK ESTABLISHED CIVIL LIBERTIES AND DIMINISH WOMEN'S RIGHTS, IS NOW BUSILY SEARCHING FOR CASES THAT WILL CHALLENGE THE FEDERAL ROLE."

    TEXT: NEWSDAY, A SUBURBAN NEW YORK NEWSPAPER, COMMENTS ON AN INVITATION ISSUED BY SENATOR JESSE HELMS. MISTER HELMS, A REPUBLICAN FROM NORTH CAROLINA, AND CHAIRMAN OF THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, INVITED LEE TENG-HUI, THE PRESIDENT OF TAIWAN, TO VISIT THE UNITED STATES.

    VOICE: "THIS INVITATION WAS -- THERE IS NO NICER WAY TO PUT IT-- DUMB, DUMB, DUMB. [SEN.] HELMS' MOVE WENT BEYOND A GLEEFUL TWEAKING OF THE CHINESE DRAGON'S OVERLY SENSITIVE TAIL. COMING FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF THE INFLUENTIAL SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, IT CARRIED UNDESERVED WEIGHT. THE RESPONSE FROM THE WHITE HOUSE, WHICH HAD MANAGED TO FINESSE THE CONFRONTATION IN THE TAIWAN STRAIT WITH UNUSUAL SKILL AND EFFECTIVENESS, WAS THE EQUIVALENT OF A PAINED GROAN. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION CALLED THE INVITATION 'BAD TIMING'. THAT'S DIPLOMATIC TO A FAULT... BOB DOLE, AS SENATE MAJORITY LEADER AND EVIDENT REPUBLICAN NOMINEE IN THE RACE FOR THE WHITE HOUSE, MUST TAKE HELMS ASIDE AND HAVE A SERIOUS TALK ABOUT A SENATOR'S RESPONSIBILITIES -- PARTICULARLY SINCE DOLE WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN PUTTING HELMS AT THE HEAD OF THE FOREIGN AFFAIRS PANEL."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME SUBJECT, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL OFFERS THE VIEW THAT, "HAVING FAILED WITH THEIR MISSILE TESTS TO PREVENT MR. LEE'S ELECTION, CHINA IS EMBARRASSED..."

    VOICE: "EVER SUBTLE, A BEIJING FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESWOMAN INTONED THAT THOSE ATTEMPTING TO 'TAKE ADVANTAGE' OF THE EVENT, 'WILL INEVITABLY MEET THE RESOLUTE OPPOSITION OF THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND ALL THE CHINESE PEOPLE'... WE SUSPECT THAT A COOLING-OFF PERIOD IS NOW NEEDED. INDEED, WHAT TAIWAN NEEDS MORE THAN A PRESIDENTIAL VISIT IS FOR THE U-S TO SHOW ITS SUPPORT WHILE REMAINING WITHIN THE CONFINES OF ITS 'ONE-CHINA' POLICY."

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES APPROVED A MEASURE TO ALLOW STATES TO CLOSE PUBLIC SCHOOL DOORS TO YOUNGSTERS WHO ARE NOT IN THIS COUNTRY LEGALLY. THE VOTE WAS 257 IN FAVOR, 163 AGAINST. THE WASHINGTON POST HAS THIS TO SAY:

    VOICE: "MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SHOULD BE WARY OF THE INSTINCT TO PUNISH CHILDREN BECAUSE THEIR PARENTS HAVE BROKEN THE LAW TO BRING THEM HERE. THEY SHOULD THINK TWICE ABOUT THE WISDOM OF CREATING A CLASS OF PEOPLE -- MANY OF WHOM, IT HAS TO BE CONCEDED, WILL PROBABLY BE SPENDING THE REST OF THEIR LIVES HERE -- WHO ARE UNEDUCATED AND HAVE NOT HAD THE PRIME SOCIALIZING EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO SCHOOL. THE LARGER BILL OF WHICH THIS ILL-ADVISED PROVISION IS NOW A PART SEEKS TO CONTROL ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION IN A VARIETY OF WAYS THAT PROMISE TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE. THE SCHOOLS AMENDMENT MAY SINK THE ENTIRE PROPOSAL. IN ITS PLACE, LEGISLATORS SHOULD PROVIDE REALISTIC, TARGETED HELP TO THOSE SCHOOL DISTRICTS THAT BEAR A SPECIAL BURDEN BECAUSE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS NOT YET SUCCEEDED IN CONTROLLING THE BORDERS."

    TEXT: IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL FRIDAY, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR NOTES THAT "EACH YEAR THE COMMITTEE TO PROTECT JOURNALISTS ISSUES A SURVEY OF JOURNALISTIC CONDITIONS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD." ACCORDING TO THE PAPER: "IT'S A JARRING REALITY CHECK FOR BOTH WRITERS AND READERS FORTUNATE ENOUGH TO HAVE RELATIVELY UNFETTERED ACCESS TO NEWS AND INFORMATION."

    VOICE: "THE COMMITTEE'S JUST-RELEASED 1995 OVERVIEW UNDERSCORES THE VIGILANCE REQUIRED AT A TIME OF WRENCHING CHANGE AND INCIPIENT DEMOCRATIZATION. THERE WERE SOME POSITIVE NOTES -- THE TENACITY OF SOUTH KOREAN JOURNALISTS IN EXPOSING PAST CORRUPTION, THE STIRRING OF AN INDEPENDENT PRESS IN CUBA, THE STRIKING DOWN OF 'LICENSING' FOR JOURNALISTS IN COSTA RICA. BUT OMINOUS NOTES PREDOMINATE. THE KILLING OF JOURNALISTS IN ALGERIA WAS UNABATED -- 24 PERISHED LAST YEAR, MOSTLY AT THE HANDS OF ANTIGOVERNMENT EXTREMISTS. TURKEY HAS THE HIGHEST TOTAL OF JAILED REPORTERS AND EDITORS, 51, MOST OF THEM DETAINED FOR TAKING A LINE OTHER THAN THE GOVERNMENT'S IN COVERING THE KURDISH REBELLION... MOB AND DRUG-CARTEL ASSASSINS TARGETED NEWSMEN AND WOMEN IN RUSSIA AND COLUMBIA. THE LIST GOES ON AND ON.... WITH VARYING DEGREES OF SKILL AND OBJECTIVITY, JOURNALISTS TRY TO CAST LIGHT WHERE IT'S NOT WANTED. THEIR WORK MAY NEVER BE UNIVERSALLY ADMIRED, BUT IT IS UNIVERSALLY NEEDED AND DESERVES UNSTINTING PROTECTION."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, THE MIAMI HERALD EDITORIALIZES THAT THE RECENT DEATH OF EDMUND MUSKIE, AT AGE 81, "STILLED A VOICE OF REASON IN AMERICAN PUBLIC AFFAIRS."

    VOICE: "HIS CAREER SPANNED A TUMULTUOUS ERA OF POLITICAL CHANGE. ONE CHANGE WAS FOR THE BETTER -- THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM FINALLY REACHED THE NATION'S REMAINING ENCLAVES OF ONE-PARTY RULE. ED MUSKIE LED THE DEMOCRATS BACK FROM THE DEAD IN MAINE, A STATE THAT HAD DEFINED 'ROCK-RIBBED REPUBLICAN' UNTIL HE WON THE GOVERNORSHIP IN 1954. ANOTHER OF THE CHANGES, HOWEVER, WAS ARGUABLY FOR THE WORSE: U-S SEN. ED MUSKIE BECAME AN EARLY EXAMPLE OF PRESIDENTIAL TIMBER FELLED BY THE AX OF PERSONAL ATTACK. IT HAPPENED IN THE SUPERHEATED ATMOSPHERE OF 1972'S NEW HAMPSHIRE PRIMARY. HE LOST HIS COOL AS HE RESPONDED TO AN ATTACK ON HIS WIFE BY THE STATE'S LARGEST NEWSPAPER, THE MANCHESTER UNION LEADER... SENATOR MUSKIE WENT ON TO LOSE THE 1972 NOMINATION TO SEN. GEORGE MCGOVERN... MR. MUSKIE, MEANWHILE, CONTINUED TO SERVE -- IN THE SENATE UNTIL 1980, THEN BRIEFLY AS PRESIDENT CARTER'S SECRETARY OF STATE. TOMORROW (SATURDAY) THIS WORLD WAR II NAVY VETERAN AND IMMIGRANT'S SON WILL BE BURIED AT ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY -- AN HONOR RICHLY DESERVED."

    TEXT: AND WITH THOSE WORDS PRINTED IN FRIDAY'S EDITION OF THE MIAMI HERALD, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF SOME OF THE LEADING U-S NEWSPAPERS.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    29-Mar-96 10:25 AM EST (1525 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BRITAIN / U-S SPY BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32865
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A REPORT BY A BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE SAYS IT HAS SERIOUS CONCERNS ABOUT THE DAMAGE TO BRITISH INTERESTS AS A RESULT OF THE WORK OF FORMER C-I-A AGENT ALDRICH AMES. AMES IS SERVING A LIFE SENTENCE IN THE UNITED STATES AFTER BEING FOUND GUILTY TWO YEARS AGO OF SPYING FOR THE SOVIET UNION. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON, THE COMMITTEE CRITICIZES THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY FOR NOT PROVIDING ADEQUATE INFORMATION ABOUT AMES TO BRITISH INTELLIGENCE SERVICES.

    TEXT: ALDRICH AMES WAS A SENIOR OFFICIAL AT THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, HEADING THE C-I-A'S COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE DIVISION. IN FEBRUARY, 1994, HE WAS CHARGED WITH SPYING FOR THE SOVIET UNION AND SUBSEQUENTLY FOUND GUILTY. HE IS NOW SERVING A LIFE SENTENCE IN AN AMERICAN PRISON.

    FOR NINE YEARS, AMES SPIED FOR THE SOVIET UNION. HE WAS THE HIGHEST AMERICAN SOURCE RECRUITED BY SOVIET INTELLIGENCE SINCE THE POST-WAR PERIOD.

    TWO YEARS AFTER HIS ARREST, AMES' TREACHERY IS STILL SENDING SHOCK WAVES THROUGH THE WESTERN INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES.

    A NEW REPORT BY THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT'S INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY COMMITTEE SAYS THE AMES AFFAIR HAS RAISED A NUMBER OF SERIOUS CONCERNS AS TO THE EXACT NATURE AND EXTENT OF THE DAMAGE DONE TO BRITISH INTERESTS.

    RUPERT ALLASON IS A BRITISH LAWMAKER AND AN EXPERT ON SECURITY MATTERS. HE DESCRIBES SOME OF THE CONCERNS EXPRESSED BY THE COMMITTEE.

    // ALLASON ACT //

    WHAT APPEARS TO HAVE HAPPENED IS THAT RICK AMES, WHEN HE WAS SUPPLYING INFORMATION TO THE SOVIETS, COMPROMISED PRACTICALLY EVERY SINGLE C-I-A SOVIET SOURCE. NOW SOME OF THOSE SOVIET SOURCES WERE ELIMINATED STRAIGHT AWAY -- THEY WERE ACTUALLY ARRESTED AND EXECUTED. SOME OF THE OTHERS CONTINUED ON STREAM, SUPPLYING INFORMATION LONG AFTER WE KNOW RICK AMES HAD COMPROMISED THEM. THE OBVIOUS CONCLUSION TO REACH IS THAT THEY WERE TAKEN UNDER CONTROL AND THEY WERE MANAGED AS DOUBLE AGENTS AND USED AS A CONDUIT TO SUPPLY DISINFORMATION.

    // END ACT //

    MR. ALLASON SAYS THERE MUST BE AN IN-DEPTH LOOK AT WHAT SORT OF INFORMATION WAS SUPPLIED TO WASHINGTON AND LONDON BY THOSE AGENTS COMPROMISED BY AMES -- SOMETHING ALSO RECOMMENDED BY THE BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE.

    // ALLASON ACT //

    THERE HAS TO BE A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS, A SORT OF POST-MORTEM TO DETERMINE PRECISELY WHICH SOURCES WERE TAINTED AND THEN -- AND THIS IS WHERE THE BRITISH CONCERN IS -- WHAT HAPPENED TO THAT INFORMATION AND WAS IT PASSED TO BRITISH MINISTERS. AND IF SO, WHAT DECISIONS MIGHT HAVE BEEN TAKEN, CONSTRUCTED UPON MATERIAL THAT WAS VERY DEEPLY FLAWED.

    // END ACT //

    THE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE ACCUSES THE U-S CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OF NOT PROVIDING BRITISH AGENCIES WITH A DETAILED READ-OUT OF THE DAMAGE AMES DID TO BRITISH INTERESTS AND ASSETS. THE COMMITTEE SAYS TWO YEARS AFTER A MAJOR BETRAYAL, SUCH AN APPROACH IS UNACCEPTABLE.

    MR. ALLASON SAYS AMES' TREACHERY GOES FAR BEYOND THE IMMEDIATE BLOWS TO WESTERN INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES.

    // ALLASON ACT //

    HE MANAGED SINGLEHANDEDLY TO ELIMINATE 25 YEARS OF VERY HARD FOUNDATION WORK IN RECRUITING SOURCES IN THE OLD SOVIET UNION -- AND WHAT MAKES IT TERRIBLY SAD, IS THAT THAT KIND OF BETRAYAL OF TRUST LASTS LONG AFTER HE HAS BEEN IMPRISONED: BECAUSE OTHER PEOPLE CONTEMPLATING VOLUNTEERING THEIR SERVICES TO WESTERN AGENCIES WILL THINK TWICE KNOWING THAT THAT KIND OF DUPLICITY AND TREACHERY COULD REMAIN UNDETECTED FOR SO LONG.

    // END ACT //

    THE COMMITTEE'S REPORT WAS FINISHED LAST DECEMBER BUT ONLY RELEASED THIS WEEK AFTER BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR APPROVED ITS PUBLICATION. IN A LETTER TO THE COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN, MR. MAJOR SAID HE BELIEVES DAMAGE DONE TO BRITISH INTERESTS AS A RESULT OF THE AMES AFFAIR WAS "NOT GREAT." (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/JWH/JM
    29-Mar-96 11:38 AM EST (1638 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] CLINTON / DEMIREL (L) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195084
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON MET WITH TURKISH PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL AT THE WHITE HOUSE FRIDAY, AND OFFICIALS SAY THE TALKS HIGHLIGHTED THE CLOSE TIES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEY. V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN DAVID JOHNSON SAYS PRESIDENT CLINTON BEGAN THE MEETING BY NOTING THAT THE UNITED STATES CONSIDERS TURKEY, WITH ITS STRATEGIC LOCATION BETWEEN EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST, A KEY ALLY AND NATO PARTNER.

    // JOHNSON ACT //

    THE PRESIDENT MADE CLEAR THAT THE STARTING POINT FOR DISCUSSIONS WITH TURKEY WAS THAT THEY ARE KEY IN A NUMBER OF RELATIONSHIPS THE UNITED STATES HAS, THE ALLIANCE FOR SECURITY AND STABILITY IN EUROPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST, AND FOR U-S RELATIONS WITH COUNTRIES IN THAT PART OF THE WORLD, PARTICULARLY THE ISLAMIC COUNTRIES.

    // END ACT //

    BUT MR. JOHNSON SAYS THE PRESIDENT ALSO EXPRESSED HIS CONCERN ABOUT THE TENSIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND ANOTHER NATO ALLY, GREECE.

    // JOHNSON ACT //

    THE PRESIDENT MADE CLEAR THAT WE CONSIDER BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY VERY VALUED ALLIES, AND THE CONFLICT THEY HAVE IS ONE THAT DEEPLY SADDENS US.

    // END ACT //

    EARLIER THIS YEAR, TURKEY AND GREECE NEARLY WENT TO WAR OVER DISPUTED CLAIMS TO AN ISLET IN THE AEGEAN SEA. THEIR MILITARY SHIPS PULLED BACK AFTER U-S MEDIATION, BUT TENSIONS REMAIN HIGH.

    FOR HIS PART, PRESIDENT DEMIREL SAID TURKEY IS READY TO OPEN TALKS WITH GREECE WITHOUT PRECONDITIONS.

    // DEMIREL ACT //

    WE ARE READY TO DISCUSS ANYTHING AND EVERYTHING WITH OUR NEIGHBOR, GREECE, ANYTIME, ANY PLACE, AT ANY LEVEL.

    // END ACT //

    MR. JOHNSON SAYS MR. CLINTON ENCOURAGED MR. DEMIREL TO CONSIDER THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE OR OTHER THIRD PARTY TO HELP RESOLVE THE DISPUTE.

    ANOTHER ISSUE ON THE AGENDA: CYPRUS, WHERE TURKISH TROOPS OCCUPY THE NORTHERN THIRD OF THE ISLAND. SPOKESMAN JOHNSON SAYS MR. CLINTON PLEDGED STEPPED UP U-S EFFORTS TO GET TALKS GOING BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY ON THE ISSUE.

    MR. JOHNSON SAYS THE TWO LEADERS ALSO DISCUSSED TURKEY'S BATTLE AGAINST THE SEPARATIST KURDISH WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K, ALTHOUGH HE DID NOT ELABORATE.

    HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS HAVE CONDEMNED TURKEY FOR USING U-S WEAPONS AGAINST KURDISH CIVILIANS.

    THE UNITED STATES HAS EXPRESSED SYMPATHY WITH TURKEY'S DESIRE TO END ATTACKS BY THE P-K-K, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME URGING THAT COUNTRY TO SETTLE THE KURDISH ISSUE PEACEFULLY AND TO RESPECT HUMAN RIGHTS.

    MR. CLINTON'S MEETING WITH MR. DEMIREL CAME A DAY AFTER FIRST LADY HILLARY RODHAM CLINTON CONCLUDED A THREE-DAY VISIT TO TURKEY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAT/BD/JM
    29-Mar-96 5:21 PM EST (2221 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] E-U/SUMMIT (L) BY JOHN FRASER ( BRUSSELS )

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195067
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LEADERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION HAVE COMPLETED TALKS IN TURIN, ITALY, TO LAUNCH A MARATHON NEGOTIATION ON THE REFORM OF THE 15-NATION BLOC. HOWEVER, THE MEETING WAS DOMINATED BY THE ISSUE MOST EUROPEANS CITIZENS ARE MOST CONCERNED ABOUT -- THE SAFETY OF BRITISH BEEF. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR WAS AN ANGRY MAN EARLIER THIS WEEK WHEN HE LEARNED THAT THE OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS HAD ALL VOTED FOR A WORLDWIDE BAN ON BRITISH BEEF EXPORTS. THIS WAS BECAUSE OF CONCERN ABOUT MAD COW DISEASE -- OR B-S-E -- AND ITS POSSIBLE LINK TO HUMAN HEALTH. HOWEVER, HE IS A HAPPIER MAN FOLLOWING THIS MEETING, AT WHICH HIS EUROPEAN UNION COLLEAGUES SHOWED REAL UNDERSTANDING FOR THE CRISIS IN BRITAIN, AND -- EQUALLY IMPORTANTLY -- AGREED THAT THE MONEY MUST BE FOUND TO HELP PAY FOR THE CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES WHICH ARE NEEDED.

    WHILE MR. MAJOR WAS MEETING HIS EUROPEAN COLLEAGUES AT THE SUMMIT, HIS

    AGRICULTURE MINISTER DOUGLAS HOGG WAS MEETING THE EUROPEAN UNION'S FARM COMMISSIONER FRANZ FISCHLER IN BRUSSELS, TO DISCUSS THE BEEF CRISIS.

    BOTH MEN MADE PROGRESS IN AGREEING TO THE MEASURES WHICH WILL BE NEEDED -- AND WHICH ARE EXPECTED TO INCLUDE THE SLAUGHTER OF MANY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF CATTLE. HOWEVER, A FINAL AGREEMENT ON THE MEASURES, AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL HELP TO FINANCE THEM, WILL HAVE TO AWAIT A MEETING OF EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE MINISTERS ON MONDAY.

    EUROPEAN UNION PRESIDENT JACQUES SANTER HAS PROMISED THE BRITISH THAT THERE WILL BE A SUBSTANTIAL EFFORT BY THE EUROPEAN UNION TO HELP JOHN MAJOR. HE ADDS THAT HE SEES THE B-S-E CRISIS NOT AS JUST A BRITISH PROBLEM, BUT AS A EUROPEAN PROBLEM.

    THE BILL FOR RESTORING PUBLIC CONFIDENCE WILL DEPEND ON THE MEASURES WHICH ARE TAKEN, AND COULD EXCEED FOUR BILLION DOLLARS.

    THE MAIN REASON FOR THE SUMMIT BEING HELD WAS TO LAUNCH A NEGOTIATION KNOWN AS THE INTER-GOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE, TO OVERHAUL THE EUROPEAN UNION'S CREAKY DECISION-TAKING PRODECURES.

    WITH TEN OR MORE COUNTRIES FROM EASTERN EUROPE JOINING MALTA AND CYPRUS IN LINING UP FOR MEMBERSHIP, THERE IS A FEELING THAT THE 15-NATION BLOC MUST BE RADICALLY OVERHAULED IF IT IS STILL TO FUNCTION AFTER ENLARGEMENT.

    THE LEADERS, MEETING IN A FORMER FIAT CAR FACTORY IN TURIN, SAID THE EXPANSION OF THE UNION, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF NEW MEMBERS, IS AN HISTORIC MISSION, BUT THERE IS NO DISGUISING BIG DIFFERENCES OF VIEW ON THE REFORMS WHICH ARE NOW NEEDED.

    SOME NATIONS, SUCH AS BELGIUM AND ITALY, WOULD LIKE THE EUROPEAN UNION TO SPEED AHEAD WITH INTERGRATION TOWARDS A FEDERAL STATE -- A UNITED STATES OF EUROPE.

    MORE CAUTIOUS NATIONS, SUCH AS BRITAIN AND DENMARK, ARE RELUCTANT TO GIVE UP MANY MORE POWERS TO THE UNION.

    SUCH DIFFERENCES OF APPROACH WILL BE DIFFICULT TO RECONCILE, AND THERE IS A REAL DANGER THAT THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE COULD END A YEAR OR MORE FROM NOW IN FAILURE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/MH/MMK
    29-Mar-96 12:41 PM EST (1741 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] HILLARY / GREECE (L ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVAS (ATHENS )

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195062
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GREEK HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS HAVE CRITICIZED THE UNITED STATES AT THE START OF A THREE-DAY VISIT BY AMERICAN FIRST LADY HILLARY CLINTON. ANTHEE CARASSAVAS REPORTS THE ATHENS CHAPTER OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL IS COMPARING PRESIDENT CLINTON TO SUCH DICTATORS AS STALIN AND HITLER FOR _NOT_ OPPOSING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

    TEXT: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ACTIVISTS BEGAN A CAMPAIGN AGAINST CAPITAL PUNISHMENT THAT THEY SAY WILL CULMINATE IN PROTESTS AT THE (SUMMER) OLYMPIC GAMES THAT BEGIN IN FOUR MONTHS IN (THE AMERICAN CITY OF) ATLANTA .

    AS THE PRESIDENT'S WIFE ARRIVED IN GREECE, AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTED A POSTER SHOWING MR. CLINTON, ALONG WITH STALIN, HITLER AND SADDAM HUSSEIN -- ALL RAISING THEIR HANDS TO APPROVE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

    THE POSTER WAS DISTRIBUTED TO ALL GREEK NEWSPAPERS, ALTHOUGH AS OF FRIDAY NONE HAD PUBLISHED IT. THE COMPARISON OF MR. CLINTON WITH THE DICTATORS APPARENTLY DID _NOT_ HAVE THE APPROVAL OF THE HEADQUARTERS OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL IN LONDON. AMNESTY HAS, HOWEVER, REPEATEDLY CRITICIZED THE UNITED STATES, AMONG OTHER COUNTRIES, FOR IMPOSING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT.

    MRS. CLINTON BEGAN HER TRIP TO GREECE WITH A TOUR OF THE ACROPOLIS AND A SPEECH ON THE VALUE OF DEMOCRACY. SHE WILL ATTEND A CEREMONY SATURDAY WHERE THE OLYMPIC TORCH WILL BE LIT AT THE SITE OF THE ANCIENT GAMES, IN THE TOWN OF OLYMPIA.

    // REST OPTIONAL //

    MRS. CLINTON WILL ALSO MEET WITH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND PUBLIC REPRESENTATIVES DURING HER TRIP.

    THE LOCAL CHAPTER OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL HERE IN ATHENS IS TRYING TO LINK MRS. CLINTON'S PRESENCE AT THE OLYMPIC TORCH CEREMONY WITH A PETITION THAT WILL BE DELIVERED IN ATLANTA AS INTERNATIONAL GAMES BEGIN DENOUNCING THE DEATH PENALTY IN THE UNITED STATES AND ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AC/MH/ART
    29-Mar-96 11:43 AM EST (1643 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] NATO ANNIVERSARY BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09024
    TELEPHONE=619-3937
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // ACTUALITIES IN AUDIO SERVICES //
    (NOTE TO EDITORS: THIS SCRIPT IS FOR BCAST ON 4/4/96 BUT IS BEING DISTRIBUTED IN ADVANCE TO PERMIT LANGUAGE SERVICE TRANSLATION/ADAPTATION)

    INTRO: NATO -- THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- IS VERY MUCH IN THE NEWS THESE DAYS, SPURRED BY PLANS FOR ITS EXPANSION EASTWARD AND ITS FIRST-TIME INVOLVEMENT OUTSIDE THE BORDERS OF ITS MEMBER COUNTRIES -- SPECIFICALLY, THE PEACEKEEPING EFFORTS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. APRIL 4TH WILL BE ANNIVERSARY OF THE

    SIGNING OF THE NATO TREATY IN 1949. VOA'S FRANK RONALDS

    TAKES A LOOK AT THE HISTORY OF THE ALLIANCE AND THE CONTROVERSY OVER ITS EXPANSION. HOST: THE SOVIET UNION WAS THE ONLY POWER TO MAKE TERRITORIAL GAINS OUT OF WORLD WAR TWO -- AND THOSE GAINS WERE ENORMOUS, ESPECIALLY IF ONE INCLUDES EXPANSION OF MOSCOW'S POLITICAL CONTROL OVER THE EAST-CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OCCUPIED BY THE SOVIET ARMIES. THE VIOLATION BY THE U-S-S-R OF THE YALTA ACCORDS, WHICH CALLED FOR FREE ELECTIONS IN THE OCCUPIED COUNTRIES, ALONG WITH THE BERLIN BLOCKADE AND SOVIET PRESSURES ON GREECE AND TURKEY LED IN 1947 TO A WESTERN AID PLAN FOR THOSE TWO COUNTRIES. IT ALSO GAVE RISE TO THE MARSHALL PLAN, WHICH HELPED WESTERN EUROPE OVERCOME THE DESPAIR AND DEVASTATION WROUGHT BY THE WAR. THE UNITED STATES POLICY OF CONTAINMENT AFTER THE WAR ALSO LED TO THE CREATION OF NATO TWO YEARS LATER. U-S PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN EXPLAINED ITS PURPOSES THIS WAY:

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- TRUMAN "WE BELIEVE IT IS POSSIBLE FOR NATIONS TO ACHIEVE UNITY ON THE GREAT PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND JUSTICE, AND AT THE SAME TIME TO PERMIT, IN OTHER RESPECTS, THE GREATEST DIVERSITY OF WHICH THE HUMAN MIND IS CAPABLE. THIS METHOD OF ORGANIZING DIVERSE PEOPLES AND CULTURES IS IN DIRECT CONTRAST TO THE METHOD OF THE POLICE STATE, WHICH ATTEMPTS TO ACHIEVE UNITY BY IMPOSING THE SAME BELIEFS AND THE SAME RULE OF FORCE ON EVERYONE." HOST: IT WAS NOT, HOWEVER, UNTIL NORTH KOREA ATTACKED SOUTH KOREA IN 1950 THAT THE UNITED STATES AND WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES SERIOUSLY BEGAN RE-ARMING. THE ACTION IN KOREA WAS PROCLAIMED BY THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL, NOT NATO, BUT NAKED AGGRESSION THERE WAS CONCEIVED AS A GLOBAL THREAT.

    SOVIET AGGRESSION AGAINST AFGHANISTAN IN 1979 PRODUCED A SIMILAR WESTERN REACTION. AFTER THE AFGHAN MUJAHEDDIN ACQUIRED SHOULDER-LAUNCHED STINGER MISSILES, THE SOVIET FORCES LOST CONTROL OF THE AIR. THEY WERE FORCED TO WITHDRAW FROM AFGHANISTAN IN 1988, WHICH PROVED TO BE JUST THE FIRST STEP IN THE UNRAVELLING OF THE SOVIET EMPIRE, CULMINATING IN THE BREAK-UP OF THE U-S-S-R ITSELF.

    JOHN LEWIS GADDIS SAYS THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET BLOC WAS PREDICTED BY GEORGE KENNAN, RUSSIAN SPECIALIST WHO HEADED THE POLICY-PLANNING STAFF IN THE U-S STATE DEPARTMENT AFTER THE WAR, WHEN HE DEVELOPED THE CONTAINMENT POLICY. A PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT OHIO UNIVERSITY, MR. GADDIS IS THE EDITOR OF A BOOK ENTITLED, "CONTAINING THE SOVIET UNION: A CRITIQUE OF U-S POLICY":

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- GADDIS "KENNAN HAS ALWAYS TAKEN THE VIEW THAT TO SOME EXTENT THE SOVIET UNION WOULD CONTAIN ITSELF THROUGH OVEREXPANSION. KENNAN HAS LONG BEEN A STUDENT OF EMPIRES AND HE HAS LONG REALIZED THAT ONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPIRES IS THAT THEY GET TOO BIG, THAT THEY GET WEAK AROUND THE PERIPHERY, AND THAT SOMETIMES WITHOUT SOME OTHER ACTOR HAVING TO GENERATE THE RESISTANCE, EMPIRES CAN CONTAIN THEMSELVES THROUGH OVEREXTENSION." HOST: ALTHOUGH IT PROVIDED THE STRENGTH REQUIRED TO ASSURE THE SUCCESS OF THE CONTAINMENT POLICY, THROUGHOUT ITS NEARLY HALF-CENTURY EXISTENCE THE ARMED FORCES OF NATO NEVER FIRED A SHOT IN ANGER. TWENTY-FOUR COUNTRIES OF EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, INCLUDING RUSSIA ITSELF, HAVE NOW JOINED IN THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE, OR P-F-P, AN ORGANIZATION WHICH PROMOTES COOPERATION WITH THE 16 MEMBER-COUNTRIES OF NATO. SEVERAL P-F-P NATIONS HAVE JOINED THE NATO FORCE NOW ATTEMPTING TO ESTABLISH PEACE IN BOSNIA, IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. COOPERATION IS ALSO FOSTERED AT THE GEORGE MARSHALL CENTER IN GARMISCH, GERMANY, WHERE THOUSANDS OF MID-LEVEL MILITARY OFFICERS FROM EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION HAVE TAKEN FIVE-MONTH COURSES ON THE OPERATION OF THE MILITARY WITHIN DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS.

    JORG KUEBART, A FORMER LIEUTENANT GENERAL IN THE GERMAN AIR FORCE, IS DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF THE MARSHALL CENTER. HE POINTS OUT THAT NATO HAS HELPED GERMANY AND SPAIN TO OVERCOME THE LEGACY OF TOTALITARIANISM AND CAN HELP THE P-F-P NATIONS AS WELL:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- KUEBART "IN NATO, WE ARE USED FROM THE VERY EARLY DAYS ON TO THINK INTERNATIONALLY. WE HAVE NEVER BEEN THINKING IN NATIONAL TERMS. WHAT WE DO HERE IS TO TRY TO CONVINCE PEOPLE THAT THE WAY WE DO IT IN NATO IS THE BEST WAY TO DO IT. TO COOPERATE BETWEEN ARMED FORCES AND TO COOPERATE BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS. AND WHAT WE TEACH AND WHAT WE TALK ABOUT AND WHAT WE DISCUSS IS EXACTLY WHAT WE LEARNED FROM NATO: HOW TO COOPERATE AND HOW TO BE GOOD PARTNERS AND TRUST EACH OTHER." HOST: THE NATO COUNCIL IN BRUSSELS HAS APPROVED A POLICY OF GRADUALLY EXPANDING THE ORGANIZATION TO THE EAST. EXCEPT FOR RUSSIA, VIRTUALLY ALL OF THE COUNTRIES IN THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE ARE IN FAVOR OF JOINING NATO. SINCE THE LEGISLATURES OF ALL 16 NATO COUNTRIES WOULD HAVE TO APPROVE THE ADMISSION OF ANY NEW COUNTRY, IT IS LIKELY TO BE SEVERAL YEARS BEFORE ANY SUCH EXPANSION TAKES PLACE. MOST LEADING FIGURES BELIEVE THAT ARRANGEMENTS CAN BE MADE TO REASSURE RUSSIA BEFORE THAT HAPPENS. BUT ALEXANDER VERSHBOW, DIRECTOR FOR EUROPEAN AFFAIRS IN THE WHITE HOUSE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, SAYS THAT THE EXPANSION WILL COME IN DUE TIME:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- VERSHBOW "NATO EXPANSION WILL HAPPEN. IT IS ONLY A QUESTION OF WHEN AND HOW. LET ME JUST SAYS THAT NATO MEMBERS WILL HAVE TO MEET CERTAIN BASIC STANDARDS OF DEMOCRACY, INTERNAL STABILITY AND PEACEFUL RELATIONS WITH THEIR NEIGHBORS. ANCHORING THE CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN NATO AND EVENTUALLY THE EUROPEAN UNION AS WELL SHOULD HAVE THE SAME STABILIZING EFFECT AS NATO, THE MARSHALL PLAN, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY HAD IN THE FIRST POST-WAR DECADES." HOST: ALEXANDER VERSHBOW, OF THE WHITE HOUSE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL. (SIGNED)

    NEB/FR/PCH
    29-Mar-96 8:35 AM EST (1335 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] PERRY/BOSNIA PREVIEW (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195069
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY LEAVES WASHINGTON LATE FRIDAY (EDS: 9:30 PM) ON A SIX-DAY TRIP TO THREE BALKAN COUNTRIES AND EGYPT. MR. PERRY WILL BE SEEKING TO HELP REINFORCE THE SHAKY FEDERATION BETWEEN BOSNIAN CROATS AND MUSLIMS. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY WILL MEET CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN SATURDAY IN ZAGREB AND BOSNIA'S ACTING PRESIDENT EJUP GANIC IN SARAJEVO SUNDAY TO UNDERLINE U-S CONCERN ABOUT THE TROUBLED BOSNIAN FEDERATION.

    THE ALLIANCE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS AND CROATS WAS FORMED WITH U-S HELP AS A COUNTERWEIGHT TO SERB INFLUENCE, AND IT HAS BEEN PLAGUED BY DISPUTES AS THE TWO SIDES HAVE FAILED TO AGREE ON SUCH THINGS AS A COMMON FLAG, EDUCATION SYSTEM AND UTILITIES.

    A SENIOR PENTAGON OFFICIAL WHO BRIEFED REPORTERS ON THE PERRY MISSION SAID DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEDERATION IS FUNDAMENTAL TO THE SUCCESS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORDS. HE SAID MR. PERRY WILL STRESS TO THE PARTIES THAT IT IS IN THEIR OWN BEST INTEREST TO SEE THAT THE FEDERATION IS ON SOLID GROUND BY THE END OF THE YEAR -- WHEN THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE WILL BE WITHDRAWN.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY WILL VISIT SEVERAL U-S PEACEKEEPING POSTS IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA AND ALSO PAY A CALL ON THE RUSSIAN BRIGADE SERVING WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. HE GOES ON FROM BOSNIA TO ALBANIA LATE SUNDAY TO JOIN IN A CONFERENCE OF DEFENSE MINISTERS FROM THE SOUTHERN BALKANS REGION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/ART
    29-Mar-96 1:22 PM EST (1822 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32871
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TIGHTENS MONITORING IN IRAQ IN PREPARATION FOR THE FUTURE LIFTING OF SANCTIONS; SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI WARNS IN BEIJING THAT U-N REFORM IS BEING HELD HOSTAGE TO THE ORGANIZATION'S FINANCIAL CRISIS; AND, SHORTAGE OF FUNDS HOLDS UP RELIEF EFFORTS IN THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC OF TAJISKISTAN -- WHERE U-N OFFICIALS SAY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE FACE STARVATION. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK.

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS UNANIMOUSLY APPROVED AN IMPORT-EXPORT MONITORING SYSTEM FOR IRAQ TO ENSURE THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT DOES NOT RE-ACQUIRE BANNED WEAPONS. THE MECHANISM WILL GO INTO EFFECT OFFICIALLY WHEN THE U-N SANCTIONS IMPOSED AFTER IRAQ'S 1990 INVASION OF KUWAIT ARE FINALLY LIFTED. HOWEVER, SOME DIPLOMATS BELIEVE SETTING UP THE NEW SYSTEM WILL HAVE ALMOST IMMEDIATE BENEFITS. IT WILL ALLOW GOVERNMENTS TO SPOT LOOPHOLES IN THEIR EXISTING REGULATIONS FOR ENFORCING SANCTIONS.

    THE NEW MECHANISM IS AIMED AT CONTROLLING IRAQ'S IMPORT OF DUAL-USE ITEMS WHICH MIGHT HAVE A MILITARY AS WELL AS CIVILIAN FUNCTION -- SUCH AS PESTICIDES THAT COULD BE USED TO MAKE CHEMICAL WEAPONS. EVEN WHEN U-N SANCTIONS ARE ENDED -- IRAQ WILL BE UNDER SURVEILLANCE TO PREVENT IT FROM RE-BUILDING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.

    THE ADOPTION OF THIS LATEST RESOLUTION DOES NOT IMPLY THAT U-N MEASURES ARE COMING OFF ANYTIME SOON. IRAQ STILL MUST ACCOUNT FULLY FOR KUWAITIS MISSING SINCE THE IRAQI OCCUPATION, RETURN STOLEN PROPERTY AND DISCLOSE EVERYTHING ABOUT PAST WEAPONS PROGRAMS.

    U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT TESTIFIED IN CONGRESS THIS PAST WEEK TO REASSURE AMERICAN LEGISLATORS THAT THE SECURITY COUNCIL WOULD NOT ACT PREMATURELY IN TAKING PRESSURE OFF IRAQ. MEANWHILE, THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION HAS ISSUED A NEW WARNING THAT HEALTH CONDITIONS INSIDE IRAQ ARE DETERIORATING AT AN ALARMING RATE UNDER THE U-N SANCTIONS. THE U-N AGENCY SAID MANY IRAQIS MANAGE TO SURVIVE ON A SEMI-STARVATION DIET DUE TO SHORTAGES OF FOOD AND THE CASH TO BUY IT.

    IRAQ AND THE UNITED NATIONS ARE HOLDING MORE TALKS STARTING APRIL EIGHTH ON A SPECIAL DEAL THAT WOULD ALLOW LIMITED OIL EXPORTS FROM IRAQ TO RAISE FUNDS FOR HUMANITARIAN PURCHASES.

    -0-

    SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI SPENT FIVE DAYS IN CHINA THIS PAST WEEK. HIS NEW YORK OFFICE CALLED IT A MISSION TO STRENGTHEN U-N/CHINESE RELATIONS. ONE OF THE TOPICS THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ADDRESSED IS U-N REFORM. HE SAID HE IS TRYING HIS BEST TO STREAMLINE THE ORGANIZATION AND MAKE IT MORE EFFECTIVE. BUT HE WARNED THE CONTINUING FINANCIAL CRISIS IS CRIPPLING THE REFORM EFFORT BECAUSE THE UNITED NATIONS HAS TO CONCENTRATE ON SIMPLY SURVIVING.

    GOVERNMENTS OWE THE UNITED NATIONS SOME THREE BILLION DOLLARS. THE UNITED NATIONS HAS BEEN FORCED TO JUGGLE ACCOUNTS -- BORROWING FROM PEACEKEEPING FUNDS TO RUN DAILY OPERATIONS.

    THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ALSO HEARD BEIJING'S VIEWS ON NEW WAYS THE UNITED NATIONS CAN WORK TO REINFORCE INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY. CHINA, AS ONE OF THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL, TRADITIONALLY EXPRESSES RESERVATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF FORCE IN U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS AND THE IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS. CHINA LOOKS SKEPTICALLY AT U-N INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNAL DISPUTES.

    -0-

    U-N OFFICIALS HAVE WARNED ABOUT A SUBSTANTIAL DECLINE IN THE HUMANITARIAN SITUATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN, WHICH HAS BEEN DEVASTATED BY CIVIL WAR SINCE 1992. THEY ESTIMATE SOME 600-THOUSAND PEOPLE IN THE COUNTRY ARE IN DIRE NEED OF EMERGENCY FOOD AID. CONTRIBUTIONS TO A RELIEF FUND HAVE SLOWED DOWN.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL AT WEEK'S END NOTED THE OVERALL SITUATION. IT SIGNALED THE UNITED NATIONS MIGHT PULL OUT ITS SMALL OBSERVER FORCE IN TAJIKISTAN IF CLASHES CONTINUE. A CEASEFIRE HAS BEEN EXTENDED UNTIL THE END OF MAY, BUT VIOLATIONS ARE BEING REPORTED.

    THE TRUCE IS THE MAIN ACHIEVEMENT OF NEARLY TWO YEARS OF U-N BROKERED TALKS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/JM
    29-Mar-96 4:54 PM EST (2154 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=3/29/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195064
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE HAS DECIDED TO RELEASE A SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB MILITARY OFFICER INTO THE CUSTODY OF THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. THE OFFICER -- COLONEL ALEKSA KRSMANOVIC -- AND A BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL WERE ORIGINALLY ARRESTED BY BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES, AND PROTESTS BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD THREATENED TO DERAIL THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS. GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE.

    TEXT: IN AN EMOTIONAL SPEECH TO THE COURT, COLONEL KRSMANOVIC SAID THAT HE HAD BEEN -- IN HIS WORDS -- KIDNAPPED IN BOSNIA AND BROUGHT ILLEGALLY TO THE HAGUE. HE SAID HE HE WAS NOT WILLING TO COOPERATE WITH INVESTIGATORS AND REFUSED TO ACT AS A WITNESS IN ANY OF THE TRIBUNAL'S CASES. HE QUOTED WHAT HE SAID IS A SERB SAYING THAT WHEN A PERSON "IS IN MISERY, IT IS BETTER TO KEEP QUIET" AND HE SAID HE WAS SCARED OF UNJUSTLY ACCUSING SOMEONE.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, COLONEL KRSMANOVIC TOLD THE COURT THAT HE WAS NOT AFRAID TO BE SENT BACK TO SARAJEVO, BUT SIMPLY THOUGHT IT WAS WRONG.

    // ACT KRSMANOVIC //

    WHAT AM I DOING IN THE HAGUE AND WHAT WILL I DO IN SARAJEVO? WHERE ARE THE LIMITS OF THE DENIGRATION OF THE OFFICERS OF THE SERBIAN ARMY AND THE SERBIAN PEOPLE? IF THE PROSECUTOR WANTS TO RETURN ME TO SARAJEVO THEN I WOULD SAY THAT IS A SHAME -- FOR ME, FOR HIM, AND FOR EVERYBODY AND FOR THIS WHOLE TRIBUNAL.

    // END ACT //

    COLONEL KRSMANOVIC'S LAWYER, IGOR PANTELIC, ARGUED FOR HIS UNCONDITIONAL RELEASE, SAYING THAT THE COLONEL HAD ALREADY BEEN INVESTIGATED IN THE HAGUE AND SHOULD NOT GO THROUGH THE SAME PROCESS IN SARAJEVO. WHAT WAS THIS "MIRACLE EVIDENCE," HE ASKED, THAT THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL COULD NOT FIND BUT WHICH THE AUTHORITIES IN SARAJEVO BELIEVED THEY HAD.

    COLONEL KRSMANOVIC WAS BEING HELD AS A "POSSIBLE WITNESS OR SUSPECT." THE PROSECUTOR SAID THERE WAS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO INDICT HIM, AND GIVEN HIS SILENCE, HE HAD TO BE RELEASED. BUT, THE PROSECUTOR SAID HE MUST BE SENT TO SARAJEVO.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVE VASVYA VIDOVIC TOLD THE TRIBUNAL THAT HER GOVERNMENT WANTED THE COLONEL BACK IN ORDER TO COMPLETE ITS INVESTIGATIONS,

    // ACT VIDOVIC //

    HE PARTICIPATED IN THE ACQUISITION AND ORGANIZED THE SUPPLY OF FIGHTING UNITS. ALSO HE SUPPLIED THEM WITH AMMUNITION, MINES, POISON GASES, MODIFIED AIRCRAFT, AND IN THIS WAY HE CONTRIBUTED DIRECTLY TO THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CITY OF SARAJEVO AND THE KILLING OF INNOCENT CIVILIANS. AS A RESULT OF THESE ATTACKS, SOME 14- THOUSAND CIVILIAN PEOPLE WERE KILLED INCLUDING 14-HUNDRED AND 50 CHILDREN.

    // END ACT //

    A JUDGE AT THE TRIBUNAL AGREED THAT THERE WAS NO CHOICE BUT TO TRANSFER THE COLONEL TO BOSNIAN CUSTODY. ONCE BACK IN SARAJEVO, HE WILL FACE POSSIBLE CHARGES OF WAR CRIMES -- WHICH CAN CARRY THE DEATH PENALTY. THE TRANSFER MUST BE COMPLETED BEFORE WEDNESDAY AT MIDNIGHT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/GS/JWH/CF
    29-Mar-96 11:37 AM EST (1637 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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