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Voice of America, 96-09-04

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ALBANIA: WILL THERE BE A DEMOCRATIC PROCESS?
  • [03] BOSNIAN MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS POSTPONED BY EMMANUEL DUPARCQ (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] E-U / U-S / CUBA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [05] REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK: SLOVAKIA BY BARRY WOOD (ZAHORSKA VES, SLOVAKIA)
  • [06] ROMANIA-HUNGARY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [07] TURKEY-KURDS (L-ONLY) BY EDWARD DE MARCO (ISTANBUL)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/04/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09763
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 4TH //

    INTRO: MOST MAJOR U-S NEWSPAPERS LEAD THEIR EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS WEDNESDAY WITH COMMENTS ABOUT THE U-S ATTACKS AGAINST IRAQI DEFENSES IN RESPONSE TO IRAQ'S INVASION OF THE KURDISH-CONTROLLED CITY OF IRBIL. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S POTENTIAL FOR WINNING A SECOND TERM; THE HISTORIC TRIALS IN SOUTH KOREA; THE PERVASIVENESS OF TOBACCO MONEY IN POLITICS, AND THE IMPROVED COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTH CARE. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THERE IS GENERAL OUTRAGE AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN FOR ATTACKING THE KURDISH CITY OF IRBIL SATURDAY, AND APPROVAL OF THE WAY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS RETALIATED, WITH A PAIR OF CRUISE MISSILE ATTACKS. ALTHOUGH ONE PAPER, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, WONDERS ALOUD, WHERE ARE THE UNITED STATES' ALLIES FROM THE GULF WAR, NOW THAT SADDAM HUSSEIN IS CAUSING MORE TROUBLE? WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING WITH THE WASHINGTON POST.

    VOICE: "IN OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES THE UNITED STATES MIGHT HAVE DISTANCED ITSELF FROM A SITUATION IN WHICH A SOVEREIGN STATE MOVED AGAINST A FOREIGN-SUPPORTED SEPARATIST MOVEMENT ON ITS OWN SOIL. IRAQ WAS INTERVENING, AFTER ALL, AT THE REQUEST OF ONE KURDISH FACTION TO PRY OUT ANOTHER AIDED BY IRAN, A MORTAL FOE. BUT THESE WERE NOT NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES. IRAQ IS THE PERSONAL PRESERVE OF AN INTERNATIONALLY CERTIFIED HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATOR AND AGGRESSOR... IT IS CERTAINLY WITHIN BILL CLINTON'S REACH TO MAKE THE IRAQI LEADER PAY A PRICE AND TO DEMONSTRATE A CONTINUING COMMITMENT TO GULF STABILITY."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES CALLS THE U-S ATTACKS "A MEASURED RESPONSE TO IRAQ", BUT GOES ON TO SUGGEST THERE MAY BE POLITICAL PERIL AHEAD FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON.

    VOICE: "INCUMBENT PRESIDENTS USUALLY RECEIVE A SURGE OF SUPPORT WHEN THEY SEND MILITARY FORCES INTO ACTION, A LAW OF POLITICS THAT PROBABLY INFLUENCED THE SPEED OF MR. CLINTON'S RESPONSE AND ACCOUNTS FOR BOB DOLE'S AGITATED EFFORTS TO CRITICIZE MR. CLINTON'S HANDLING OF IRAQ. BUT UNEXPECTED REVERSALS AND THE LOSS OF AMERICAN LIVES CAN JUST AS QUICKLY ERASE ANY GAINS. SO FAR, MR. CLINTON HAS HANDLED ... SADDAM HUSSEIN WITH THE RIGHT MIX OF AMERICAN POWER AND RESTRAINT."

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES IS ALSO TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE POSSIBLE POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ATTACK ON IRAQ, AND SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "[PRESIDENT] CLINTON, NOT LEAST BECAUSE HE IS IN THE MIDDLE OF A CAMPAIGN FOR REELECTION, CAN BE EXPECTED TO STAND HIS GROUND. IN THIS CASE HE'S ON SOLID GROUND, DOING THE RIGHT THING IN THE RIGHT WAY IN BEHALF OF A CLEAR AND VITAL PRINCIPLE."

    TEXT: AS WE MENTIONED IN OUR INTRODUCTION, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE LACK OF SUPPORT THE UNITED STATES HAS RECEIVED FROM ITS GULF WAR COALITION PARTNERS, AND TAKES THIS ROLE CALL:

    VOICE: "THE FRENCH WERE SILENT, THE GERMANS AT FIRST LUKEWARM AND THEN MORE SUPPORTIVE, THE SPANISH MILDLY CRITICAL, THE JAPANESE MILDLY APPROVING, THE TURKS CAUTIOUS, THE ISRAELIS FEARFUL. THE RUSSIANS ARE HOSTILE ... AS ARE THE CHINESE. IN THE MUSLIM WORLD, ERSTWHILE FRIENDS MALAYSIA AND JORDAN HAVE BECOME CRITICS. [OPT] THE SAUDIS, SAVED FROM SADDAM IN THE GULF WAR, ASKED THAT AMERICAN PLANES BASED IN SAUDI ARABIA NOT BE USED IN THE ATTACK. [END OPT] NO AMERICAN SHOULD BE HAPPY ABOUT THIS STATE OF AFFAIRS... WHILE THIS IS A TICKLISH AFFAIR, IT IS SURELY APPROPRIATE TO ASK WHY THE U-S HAS SO LITTLE OVERSEAS BACKING FOR WHAT, IN LEGAL TERMS, IS THE RIGHT THING."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN SOUTH FLORIDA, THE MIAMI HERALD IS ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE LACK OF ALLIED SUPPORT FOR THE U-S ACTION.

    VOICE: "FEW AMERICANS DOUBT THAT IRAQI STRONGMAN SADDAM HUSSEIN 'HAD IT COMING' [DESERVED HIS FATE] BUT YESTERDAY'S RETALIATORY MISSILE ATTACK ON IRAQI MILITARY TARGETS NEAR BAGHDAD WAS LAUNCHED WITH SCANT INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT. AMERICANS OUGHT TO ASK: WHY?"

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: NEW ENGLAND'S LEADING DAILY, THE BOSTON GLOBE, WONDERS WHETHER SADDAM HUSSEIN HAS GOTTEN THE MESSAGE, AFTER TWO MISSILE STRIKES.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON HAD LITTLE CHOICE BUT TO RESPOND MILITARILY TO THE CHALLENGE THROWN DOWN BY SADDAM HUSSEIN OVER THE WEEKEND, BUT HIS RESPONSE MAY HAVE BEEN TOO LITTLE AND TOO LATE. YESTERDAY'S CRUISE MISSILE ATTACK WAS MORE OF A SLAP THAN A BLOW ... THE WORRY IS THAT THE MESSAGE IS NOT STRONG ENOUGH AND THAT SADDAM HUSSEIN WILL READ THE WRONG MEANING INTO IT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN THE SOUTH, THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION AGREES WITH THE PRESIDENT'S ACTION, CALLING THE MISSILE STRIKE "PUNISHING," BUT DESPAIRS OF HARM TO THE IRAQI PEOPLE.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS RIGHT TO RESPOND TO SADDAM HUSSEIN'S PROVOCATIONS AS FORCEFULLY AS HE DID... SADDAM DESERVED EVERY LICK [EVERY MISSILE EXPLOSION] ... AS IN THE PAST WHEN SADDAM TESTED AMERICAN RESOLVE, IT IS ORDINARY IRAQIS WHO BEAR THE CONSEQUENCES."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO OTHER TOPICS, BRIEFLY, THE BOSTON GLOBE, SAYS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL COLUMN THAT IF PRESIDENT CLINTON IS RE-ELECTED, HE WILL GET THE CHANCE TO RENEW HIS QUEST FOR COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL HEALTH CARE REFORM, BUT ADDS:

    VOICE: "BUT IT WON'T HAPPEN UNLESS HE TAKES DECISIVE ACTION SOON... THE SHAMEFUL FACT IS THAT THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS WITH NO HEALTH COVERAGE IS ABOUT 40-MILLION AND GROWING... [PRESIDENT] CLINTON WILL GREATLY IMPROVE HIS CHANCES OF SUCCESS IF HE PUTS BOLD INITIATIVES ON THE TABLE NOW."

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR TAKES NOTICE OF THE TWO HISTORIC CONVICTIONS RECENTLY OF SOUTH KOREA'S TWO IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENTS FOR CORRUPTION.

    VOICE: "...SOUTH KOREAN DEMOCRACY IS QUICKLY MATURING. THE LATEST PROOF: THE CONVICTION AND SENTENCING OF TWO FORMER PRESIDENTS AND MILITARY-COUP LEADERS. BOTH THESE MEN, CHUN DOO HWAN AND ROH TAE WOO, PRESENT A MIXED RECORD OF PUBLIC LIFE... THE MOST IMPORTANT MESSAGE FROM ALL THIS IS THAT THE PRACTICES EMPLOYED BY CHUN, ROH, AND THEIR ACCOMPLICES -- REPRESSION, COUPS, AND BRIBES -- ARE NO LONGER ACCEPTABLE IN SOUTH KOREA."

    TEXT: IN DOMESTIC AFFAIRS, THE WASHINGTON TIMES SAYS THAT AFTER VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE'S EMOTIONAL DESCRIPTION, AT THE DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, OF HIS SISTER'S DEATH DUE TO SMOKING-INDUCED LUNG CANCER, WHY WON'T THE DEMOCRATS ADMIT TAKING TOBACCO COMPANY CAMPAIGN MONEY.

    VOICE: "[OPT] TIM RUSSERT, HOST OF N-B-C'S 'MEET THE PRESS,' APPARENTLY HAD SIMILAR EXPECTATIONS AND PUT THE QUESTION TO WHITE HOUSE CHIEF OF STAFF LEON PANETTA SUNDAY. MR. RUSSERT: ... 'WILL THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE STOP TAKING TOBACCO MONEY?' MR. PANETTA: ... WE ACCEPT CONTRIBUTIONS FROM A NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS, BUT THE REAL QUESTION IS WHETHER THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES IS GOING TO SIMPLY KNEE-JERK TO THE POLICIES THAT THEY WANT... YOU CAN SORT THROUGH MR. PANETTA'S GIBBERISH AS MANY TIMES AS YOU LIKE, BUT THE WORD 'YES' -- AS IN, 'YES, THE PARTY WILL STOP TAKING TOBACCO INDUSTRY MONEY -- APPEARS NOWHERE. [END OPT] IN FACT, AS THIS NEWSPAPER HAS REPORTED, SINCE MR. CLINTON AND MR. GORE WERE NOMINATED IN JULY 1992, THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY HAS RECEIVED MORE THAN 900-THOUSAND DOLLLARS IN TOBACCO 'SOFT' MONEY ... CONTRIBUTED TO PARTIES RATHER THAN INDIVIDUAL CANDIDATES."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE ABOUT PERCEIVED POLITICAL HYPOCRISY, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    04-Sep-96 10:59 AM EDT (1459 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] ALBANIA: WILL THERE BE A DEMOCRATIC PROCESS?

    DATE= SEPTEMBER 5, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06947
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    SEPTEMBER 5, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE:

    IN MAY, ALBANIA HELD SERIOUSLY FLAWED PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. ACCORDING TO OBSERVERS FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, IN SOME CASES THE NUMBER OF BALLOTS CAST EXCEEDED THE NUMBER OF SIGNATURES ON THE VOTER LISTS. IN ADDITION, MANY BALLOTS WERE ALTERED OR INVALIDATED SO AS TO FAVOR PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA'S PARTY. AS A RESULT, THE OPPOSITION WITHDREW ITS CANDIDATES AND REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE THE RESULTS OF THE ELECTION.

    ALBANIA'S ELECTION COMMISSION INVESTIGATED THE IRREGULARITIES IN THE MAY 26TH ELECTIONS. THIS LED TO REPEAT ELECTIONS ON JUNE 16TH IN SEVENTEEN OF ONE-HUNDRED FIFTEEN DISTRICTS. CANDIDATES FROM THE RULING PARTY WON IN ALL SEVENTEEN DISTRICTS. THE REPEAT ELECTIONS DID NOT RECTIFY THE IRREGULARITIES OBSERVED IN THE INITIAL ELECTIONS IN MAY. CITING THESE IRREGULARITIES, MOST OPPOSITION PARTIES BOYCOTTED THE REPEAT ELECTIONS. PRESIDENT BERISHA'S PARTY DECLARED VICTORY AND ULTIMATELY CLAIMED ONE-HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO OF ONE-HUNDRED FORTY SEATS IN PARLIAMENT.

    IN AN EFFORT TO PREVENT FUTURE ELECTION FRAUD, THE UNITED STATES CALLS ON ALBANIA'S RULING PARTY TO OFFER OPPOSITION PARTIES A SERIOUS ROLE IN PREPARING FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS SCHEDULED FOR OCTOBER 20TH AND IN DRAFTING AND ADOPTING A NEW CONSTITUTION. AFTER THOSE TASKS HAVE BEEN COMPLETED, ALBANIA SHOULD CONSIDER HOLDING NEW PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. IN THE MEANTIME, THE U.S. URGES THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT TO BROADEN THE DIALOGUE BETWEEN RULING AND OPPOSITION PARTIES. THE U.S CALLS ON THE OPPOSITION PARTIES TO PARTICIPATE IN EFFORTS TO DEMOCRATIZE ALBANIA'S POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    04-Sep-96 5:16 PM EDT (2116 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIAN MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS POSTPONED BY EMMANUEL DUPARCQ (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/04/96
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09765
    TELEPHONE=401-7422
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    [ED'S NOTE: THIS EDITORIAL PACKAGE IS IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP ISSUED ON THURSDAYS.]

    INTRO: THE WORLD PRESS IS COMMENTING ABOUT THE DECISION OF THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- OR O-S-C-E -- TO POSTPONE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA HAS PROMPTED A MIX OF COMMENT IN THE WORLD PRESS. SOME COMMENTATORS CALLED IT A SENSIBLE DECISION, WHILE OTHERS SAID IT WAS A "BAD OMEN" THAT PUTS THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA IN JEOPARDY. SOME EDITORIAL WRITERS EXPRESSED SURPRISE THAT NATIONAL ELECTIONS ARE STILL SCHEDULED FOR SEPTEMBER 14TH. FOR A SAMPLING OF WHAT THE PAPERS THINK, HERE IS ______________ WITH THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: WE BEGIN THE SURVEY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHERE ANALYST KVETA BUSCHOVA, WRITING FOR HOSPODARSKE NOVINY, SAYS THE DECISION TO DELAY THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS MARKS ''THE FIRST TIME THE WORLD HAS BACKED DOWN FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON TREATY". MEANWHILE, THE CZECH DAILY SVOBODONE SLOVO DOUBTS THAT THE SEPTEMBER 14TH VOTE WILL SETTLE ANYTHING.

    VOICE: ''FIRST AND FOREMOST, THE CURRENT CRISIS MAY CAST DOUBT ON THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS, WHICH WON'T RESULT IN MULTIETHNIC COEXISTENCE ANYWAY. A CYNIC WOULD SAY, WHY IS THERE SO MUCH ADO ABOUT THE FACT THAT THE BOSNIAN CITIZENS WILL BE ALLOWED TO CONFIRM BY THE ELECTIONS WHAT THEY HAVE BEEN FIGHTING AND DYING FOR ALMOST THREE YEARS--THE DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY."

    TEXT: IN THE NETHERLANDS, ALGEMEN DAGBLAD THINKS DELAYING THE MUNICIPAL VOTE WAS AN OPEN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT THAT SERIOUS PROBLEMS EXIST THAT ELECTIONS MIGHT NOT CHANGE.

    VOICE: "IF THE LOCAL ELECTIONS HAD TAKEN PLACE, THIS WOULD HAVE MEANT THE CROWN ON ETHNIC CLEANSING. THE ELECTIONS WERE TO BE THE FIRST STEP TOWARD A NEW POLITICAL START IN BOSNIA. BUT UNDER THESE CIRCUMSTANCES IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A VICTORY FOR THE EXTREMISTS. THE INJUSTICE RESULTING FROM THE WAR WOULD HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED BY AN ELECTORAL DECISION AND THE INTEGRATION PROCESS WOULD HAVE BECOME MORE DIFFICULT... POSTPONEMENT SEEMS SENSIBLE, BUT THE QUESTION REMAINS WHETHER THE PROBLEMS WILL NOT BE JUST AS BAD IN THE SPRING OR MAYBE EVEN WORSE."

    TEXT: IN GERMANY, THE NEUE OSNABRUECKER ZEITUNG SEES POSTPONEMENT OF THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS AS A SIGNAL THAT INTERNATIONAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE BALKANS IS FAR FROM FINISHED.

    VOICE: "THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST CONCEDE THAT ITS POLITICAL AND MILITARY MISSION IN THE BALKANS WILL LAST CONSIDERABLY LONGER THAN ORIGINALLY PLANNED. THIS IS WHY THE PRESSURE ON THE OPPONENTS OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN THE BALKANS SHOULD BE DRASTICALLY INCREASED TO PREVENT A DISASTER IN THE LONG RUN. THE MAIN THING NOW IS TO ARREST ALL WAR CRIMINALS AT LAST TO PREVENT THEM FROM SABOTAGING A NEW BEGINNING. WITH THE CANCELLATION OF THE LOCAL ELECTIONS, THERE IS NO LONGER A REASON TO SHOW ANY CONSIDERATION FOR SUCH KIND OF POLITICAL GANGSTERS."

    TEXT: MOVING TO RUSSIA, THE ARMY PAPER, KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE PROSPECT OF A DURABLE PEACE IN BOSNIA, AND SAYS SOME BOSNIANS "MAY NOT BE READY FOR DEMOCRACY."

    VOICE: "IT DOES NOT TAKE A PROPHET TO SEE THAT THE ELECTION WILL RESULT IN THE EMERGENCE OF EVEN MORE PRONOUNCED MONO-ETHNIC STATES. AS FOR THE LOCAL ELECTIONS, THEIR RESULTS WILL SURELY BE QUESTIONED BY THE LOSING SIDE... DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURES AND INSTITUTIONS, WHILE BEING FAIR, ARE NOT NECESSARILY GOOD FOR ANY SOCIETY AS A MEANS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS. MUCH DEPENDS ON WHETHER OR NOT THEY CAN BE ADAPTED TO SOCIETY AS A NATURAL AND ONLY FORM OF ITS EXISTENCE, NOT AS ALIEN RULES IMPOSED FROM OUTSIDE. MUCH DEPENDS ON THE LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AND CONDITION OF SOCIETY."

    TEXT: IN CANADA, THE TORONTO GLOBE AND MAIL THINKS THAT, DESPITE SOME CONTRADICTIONS IN THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD NOT DROP THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS IN BOSNIA.

    VOICE: ""IN ORDER THAT THE PEACEKEEPERS CAN LEAVE EXPEDITIOUSLY, DAYTON STRIVES FOR STABILITY THROUGH AN INTERNAL BALANCE OF POWER... THERE ARE TWO THINGS WRONG WITH THIS. THE FIRST IS THAT IT REQUIRES BUILDING UP THE MILITARY STRENGTH OF THE MUSLIM FORCES. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY SHOULD NOT BE IN THE BUSINESS OF ARMING POTENTIAL BELLIGERENTS... THE SECOND DEPLORABLE CONSEQUENCE... IS THAT WE MUST INSTITUTIONALIZE THE ENTITIES WE WISH TO BALANCE... (THUS,) THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, (WHICH WAS) DESIGNED TO TURN BOSNIA AWAY FROM ETHNIC DIVISION, IS CEMENTING THAT DIVISION... THE FACT IS THAT AN ELECTION THAT CAN START THE PROCESS OF HEALING IN BOSNIA NEEDS MORE TIME... HOWEVER, ALL IS NOT LOST. IT IS WITHIN THE MEANS OF THE WORLD COMMUNITY TO STAY, AND IT SHOULD DO SO."

    TEXT: IN CHINA, THE OFFICIAL PEOPLE'S DAILY (RENMIN RIBAO) SAYS THAT POSTPONEMENT OF THE LOCAL ELECTIONS RAISES THE QUESTION OF THE LONG-TERM SECURITY IN THE AREA.

    VOICE: "IN TIME, THERE WILL BE NO BAR TO HOLDING ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA, THOUGH THEIR FAIRNESS AND AUTHORITATIVENESS MAY BE REDUCED. HOWEVER, THE SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTIONS WILL NOT RESOLVE COMPLEX PROBLEMS, SUCH AS HOW TO INDUCE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE NEWLY-ELECTED GOVERNMENT BODIES AND THE OLD REGIONAL REGIMES, AND WHO WILL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY...AFTER THE MULTINATIONAL FORCES LEAVE BOSNIA AT THE END OF THIS YEAR."

    TEXT: IN ASIA, THE INDONESIA TIMES ASSERTS BOTH SERBS AND CROATS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CURRENT POLITICAL STALEMATE IN BOSNIA.

    VOICE: "WHEN THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS WERE SIGNED ... THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ARGUED THAT THE SEPTEMBER BALLOT FOR CENTRAL AS WELL AS LOCAL BODIES WOULD ALLOW THE COUNTRY TO REUNITE AFTER FOUR MONTHS OF BLOODY CONFLICT. HOWEVER, EVIDENCE...[SHOWS THAT]...THE SERBS AND THE CROATS ARE STILL BENT ON DIVIDING THE COUNTRY... SINCE 1992, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS HAVE BEEN BOOTED OUT OF THEIR HOMES IN CROAT AND SERB-HELD AREAS, PART OF THEIR RESPECTIVE EFFORTS TO CREATE ETHNICALLY HOMOGENOUS TERRITORIES IN BOSNIA."

    TEXT: THAT SENTIMENT FROM THE INDONESIA TIMES CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIA'S THOUGHTS ON THE POSTPONEMENT OF THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA.
    NEB/ED/PCH
    04-Sep-96 12:27 PM EDT (1627 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] E-U / U-S / CUBA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=9/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-202625
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS REFUSED TO RELAX ITS OPPOSITION TO A CONTROVERSIAL U-S LAW TO PUNISH SOME FOREIGN FIRMS THAT DO BUSINESS WITH CUBA. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SPECIAL ENVOY ON CUBA, UNDER SECRETARY OF COMMERCE STUART EIZENSTAT, HAS BEEN VISITING SENIOR EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS, INCLUDING TRADE COMMISSIONER LEON BRITTAN.

    HE HAS BEEN ATTEMPTING TO DEFUSE CRITICISM OF RECENT LEGISLATION ON CUBA, KNOWN AS THE HELMS-BURTON ACT. THE LAW ALLOWS SANCTIONS AGAINST NON-AMERICAN FIRMS AND THEIR DIRECTORS IF THE COMPANIES CONCERNED PROFIT FROM CERTAIN TRADE WITH CUBA.

    THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS STRONGLY CONDEMNED THE LAW, CLAIMING IT IS NOT RIGHT FOR THE UNITED STATES TO INTERFERE IN THE TRADING POLICY OF NON-AMERICAN COMPANIES.

    A SERIES OF COUNTER-SANCTIONS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES ARE UNDER DISCUSSION, INCLUDING A COMPLAINT TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION, AND LEGISLATION TO ENABLE EUROPEAN FIRMS FINED IN THE AMERICAN COURTS TO RECOVER DAMAGES THROUGH EUROPEAN COURTS.

    COMMISSIONER BRITTAN TOLD MR. EIZENSTAT EUROPE SHARES U-S CONCERNS ABOUT CUBA, BUT DOES NOT SHARE AMERICA'S APPROACH.

    HE SAID EUROPE WILL VIGOROUSLY DEFEND ITS INTEREST AND THOSE OF EUROPEAN COMPANIES WHICH FALL VICTIM TO THE HELMS-BURTON LEGISLATION, OR TO SIMILAR LEGISLATION CONCERNING COMPANIES DEALING WITH IRAN AND LIBYA.

    AFTER THE DISCUSSIONS, AN E-U SPOKESMAN STRESSED THIS IS A FUNDAMENTAL ISSUE OF PRINCIPLE, AND THE EUROPEAN UNION DOES NOT SEE THE SCOPE FOR NEGOTIATING A COMPROMISE. BUT, THERE WAS MORE AGREEMENT ON BROADER POLICY ON CUBA.

    E-U OFFICIALS AGREED TO THE AMERICAN APPROACH HUMANITARIAN AID SHOULD BE CHANNELED THROUGH NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND SHOULD NOT BENEFIT THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT.

    THEY ALSO SAID NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND CUBA ON A NEW PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ARE AT A STANDSTILL, FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS.

    WHILE THERE WAS NO MEETING OF MINDS ON THE HELMS-BURTON ACT, EUROPEAN OFFICIALS HAVE STRESSED THEY SHARE MANY OF AMERICA'S POLICY OBJECTIVES REGARDING CUBA. BUT THEY ARE DETERMINED TO CONTINUE THEIR OPPOSITION TO THE LEGISLATION.

    IN THE WORDS OF ONE EUROPEAN OFFICIAL, WE DO NOT BELIEVE YOU SHOULD ATTACK YOUR ENEMIES BY PUNISHING YOUR FRIENDS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    04-Sep-96 9:26 AM EDT (1326 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK: SLOVAKIA BY BARRY WOOD (ZAHORSKA VES, SLOVAKIA)

    DATE=9/4/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25781
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: SINCE 1993 SLOVAKIA, THE POORER EASTERN PART OF THE OLD CZECHOSLOVKIA, HAS TAKEN ITS PLACE AS ONE OF CENTRAL EUROPE'S NEWEST COUNTRIES. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD SPENT A WEEK IN SLOVAKIA RECENTLY AND FINDS THE COUNTRY OF FIVE AND ONE-HALF MILLION AN INTERESTING MIX OF URBAN AND RURAL LIFE.

    TAPE: CUT ONE: SOUND OF DIESEL TOWBOAT MOVING UPSTREAM ON A WINDSWEPT DANUBE RIVER, FOLLOWED BY ON-SCENE DESCRIPTION:

    IT'S A WINDY DAY ON THE DANUBE. I'M ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF BRATISLAVA ON THE DANUBE. THIS IS THE STEAMER SZAMBATHEY, WITH THE RED WHITE AND GREEN HUNGARIAN TRI-COLOR WHIPPING IN THE BREEZE. IT IS TOWING AND A VERY STRONG WAKE COMES OUT FROM THIS FAST MOVING RIVER--AND IT IS TOILING UPSTEAM.

    I'M BENEATH THE BRIDGE THAT TEARS RIGHT THROUGH THE CENTER OF BRATISLAVA, ESSENTIALLY DESTROYING THE OLD CITY CENTER."

    TEXT: BRATISLAVA'S VISUAL TRADEMARK IS THE GAUNT, STONE CASTLE WHICH FOR CENTURIES HAS STOOD AS A SENTINEL HIGH ABOVE THE DANUBE. ITS FOUR CORNER TURRETS MAKE THIS CITADEL RESEMBLE AN UPSIDE DOWN TABLE. NEXT TO IT IS THE NEW BUILDING THAT HOUSES THE SLOVAK PARLIAMENT.

    BUT WHERE I'VE BEEN STANDING IS ANOTHER LESS APPEALING EMBLEM OF THE CITY LANDSCAPE. IT IS THE SIMILARLY GAUNT CONCRETE AND STEEL TOWER OF THE MODERN SUSPENSION BRIDGE THAT SPANS THE DANUBE RIGHT IN THE CITY CENTER. THE RESTAURANT ATOP THIS 20 YEAR OLD STRUCTURE PROVIDES A MAGNIFICENT VIEW OF THE DANUBE AND THE TERRITORY OF THREE COUNTRIES--SLOVAKIA, AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY. ON A WINDY SUMMER DAY THE ENTIRE EDIFICE DISCERNIBLY SWAYS, CAUSING A SENSATION SIMILAR TO BEING ABOARD A BIG SHIP.

    ROBERT STEIGER GUIDES TOURISTS THROUGH THE BRIDGE TOWER. HE COMPLAINS ABOUT THE IRREPARABLE DAMAGE DONE BY THE COMMUNISTS WHO INSISTED THAT THE HIGHWAY AND APPROACH TO THE BRIDGE CUT THROUGH THE CITY CENTER, SEPARATING THE ANCIENT CATHEDRAL FROM THE ADJACENT CASTLE.

    TAPE: CUT TWO: STEIGER

    THEY WANTED TO CHANGE THE CITY SO THEY CHANGED IT. IT'S NOT A VERY GOOD PLACE (FOR A BRIDGE). IT WOULD HAVE BEEN MUCH MORE USEFUL TO PLACE IT A KILOMETER UP OR DOWN THE RIVER. THEY EVEN HAD TO BUILD TWO NEW BRIDGES (FURTHER UP THE RIVER). IT'S NOT VERY GOOD. BUT, YOU HAVE A WONDERFUL VIEW. IT IS THE ONLY GOOD THING THEY MADE."

    TEXT: THE FINE PANORAMA DOES NOT APPLY TO THE AREA BEHIND THE BRIDGE. ON THE SOUTH BANK OF THE RIVER THE COMMUNISTS BUILT ROW AFTER ROW OF HIGH RISE HOUSING. NOT FAR FROM THE AUSTRIAN BORDER, THESE DREARY, MODULAR STRUCTURES ARE HOME TO THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE. ROBERT STEIGER SAYS HE'S HAPPY HE DOESN'T LIVE IN SOUTH BRATISLAVA.

    TAPE: CUT THREE, STEIGER

    IT'S TERRIBLE TO LIVE THERE. THERE ARE 150 THOUSAND PEOPLE THERE. IT IS TERRIBLE. THE CRIMINALITY IS HIGH AND THE WORST PROBLEM. IF I GO THERE I DON'T KNOW WHERE I AM (BECAUSE THEY ALL LOOK THE SAME), WHICH STREET. IT'S LIKE A LABRYRINTH. THERE ARE NO TREES OR PARKS, ONLY BUILDINGS.

    TEXT: NOT FAR AWAY, LESS THAN 20 MINUTES BY CAR, THERE IS QUITE A DIFFERENT LIFE.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR: SOUND OF CHURCH BELLS, UNDER AND FADE//

    TEXT: THIS IS THE VILLAGE OF DEVIN, SITE OF ANCIENT CLIFF TOP FORT AND WHERE THE MORAVA RIVER MEETS THE DANUBE. HERE LIFE IS TRANQUIL AND SLOW. ALONG A VILLAGE LANE THERE IS A SMALL CAFE IN THE BASEMENT OF A HOUSE WHERE FLOWERS BLOOM IN WINDOW BOXES AND A TRELLIS OF VINES LINES THE PASSAGE WAY TO THE ENTRANCE. INSIDE, PERCHED COMFORTABLY ON LEATHER STOOLS PULLED UP TO A TABLE MADE FROM THE TRUNK OF A TREE, TWO FRIENDS SHARE DRINKS AND WHILE AWAY A SUMMER AFTERNOON. IRISH BORN CEDRIC TEMPLE LIVES IN HUNGARY BUT COMES TO DEVIN TO ENJOY THE RUSTIC BEAUTY OF RURAL SLOVAKIA. MR. TEMPLE SAYS NEARBY VINEYARDS PRODUCE A FINE CHAMPAGNE WHOSE ORIGINS GO BACK TO THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY WHEN NAPOLEON'S ARMY DEFEATED THE AUSTRIANS NOT FAR FROM DEVIN.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE, TEMPLE/WOOD (CT) "THE CHAMPAGNE BUSINESS WAS STARTED BY A FRENCH OFFICER WHO WAS INJURED. HE STOPPED IN PRESSBURG (BRATISLAVA) TO RECOVER FROM HIS INJURIES. HE TAUGHT THE LOCAL PEOPLE HOW TO MAKE CHAMPAGNE. AND THIS HUBERT CHAMPAGNE COMPANY WAS STARTED IN 1815 AND WAS THE FIRST COMPANY OUTSIDE OF FRANCE TO PRODUCE REAL CHAMPAGNE." (BW) "HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS ITS QUALITY?" (CT) "THE QUALITY IS EQUAL TO ANYTHING. AT THE MOMENT THE BEST CHAMPAGNE IN THE WORLD IS PROBABLY COMING FROM AUSTRALIA AND NOT FRANCE. BUT THIS SLOVAK CHAMPAGNE IS THE BEST CHAMPAGNE OBTAINABLE IN EASTERN EUROPE." (BW) "AND IS THE COMPANY PRIVATIZED?" (CT) "NO, THE COMPANY IS UP FOR PRIVATIZATION BUT IT HASN'T HAPPENED YET."

    TEXT: DRIVING ON FROM DEVIN UP THE MORAVA RIVER TOWARDS THE CZECH BORDER, LIFE TAKES ON A AMBIANCE OF AN EVEN MORE DISTANT AND SLOWER TIME. ABUNDANT FIELDS OF CORN EXTEND AS FAR AS THE EYE CAN SEE. A CHURCH SPIRE RISING IN THE DISTANCE IS THE ONLY CLUE THAT A VILLAGE LIES AHEAD. IN THE HAMLET OF ZAHORSKA VES, A WOMAN IN A BLACK BABOOSHKA, LONG SKIRT AND SWEATER CARRYING A WATERING CAN SLOWLY PEDALS HER BICYCLE ALONG THE ROAD. MORE BICYCLES AND A FEW MOTORBIKES ARE PARKED OUTSIDE THE BEER GARDEN WHERE THE MEN HAVE GATHERED EARLY ON A FRIDAY NIGHT. WHERE THE ROAD MEETS THE LANGUID RIVER THE SILENCE IS BROKEN BY THE SOUND OF NORTHBOUND TRAFFIC RUSHING BY ON THE AUSTRIAN SIDE OF THE BORDER. THE AUSTRIAN THOROUGHFARE IS CLOSE ENOUGH SO THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO READ THE LETTERING ON THE SIDES OF TRUCKS. AN OLD MAN SITS FISHING ON THE OPPOSITE SHORE. TWO LARGE WHITE SWANS ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE STREAM.

    TAPE: CUT SIX: CHURCH BELLS - ESTABLISH AND FADE UNDER TEXT

    TEXT: IN THIS PLACE, ONCE A COLD WAR FRONTIER, FEAR IS GONE AND LIFE HAS REVERTED TO THE TRANQUIL PACE OF A TIME LONG AGO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/NES
    04-Sep-96 10:51 AM EDT (1451 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] ROMANIA-HUNGARY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=9/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-202631
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PRIME MINISTERS OF HUNGARY AND ROMANIA WILL SIGN THEIR LONG-DELAYED FRIENDSHIP TREATY IN THE ROMANIAN CITY OF TIMOSOARA LATER THIS MONTH. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE ANNOUNCEMENT CAME ONLY HOURS AFTER THE HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT TURNED BACK OPPOSITION CALLS TO REVIEW THE TREATY.

    TEXT: THE TWO PRIME MINISTERS WILL SIGN THE TREATY IN THE WESTERN ROMANIAN CITY OF TIMOSOARA ON SEPTEMBER 16TH. //OPT// ROMANIAN PRESIDENT ION ILIESCU, FAVORED TO WIN NOVEMBER'S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, WILL WITNESS THE SIGNING. //END OPT//

    THE TWO CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES CONCLUDED WORK ON THE TREATY TWO WEEKS AGO. THE ACCORD, PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF ETHNIC HUNGARIANS IN ROMANIA AND JOINTLY RENOUNCING TERRITORIAL CLAIMS, HAS BEEN UNDER DISCUSSION FOR THE PAST FOUR YEARS. THE IMPETUS FOR AN AGREEMENT RIGHT NOW WAS DEMANDS BY WESTERN COUNTRIES SAYING IT IS A PRE-CONDITION FOR JOINING NATO OR THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    BUT THERE IS OPPOSITION TO THE ACCORD IN BOTH ROMANIA AND HUNGARY. EVIDENCE OF THAT IS THAT NEITHER COUNTRY WOULD HAVE THE SIGNING CEREMONY IN ITS CAPITAL, AGREEING INSTEAD ON A VENUE MID-WAY BETWEEN BUCHAREST AND BUDAPEST. TIMOSOARA IS A CENTER FOR ROMANIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS, AND WHERE THE UPRISING AGAINST COMMUNIST RULE BEGAN IN LATE 1989.

    EARLY WEDNESDAY MORNING, THE HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT TURNED ASIDE OPPOSITION DEMANDS THAT THE TREATY BE REVIEWED. THE RULING COALITION OF SOCIALISTS AND FREE DEMOCRATS EASILY WON THE VOTE AFTER A STORMY 13-HOUR DEBATE. THE CONSERVATIVE HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION SAYS THE TREATY DOES NOT ASSURE COLLECTIVE RIGHTS FOR ROMANIA'S ONE AND A HALF MILLION ETHNIC HUNGARIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/MMK
    04-Sep-96 11:37 AM EDT (1537 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] TURKEY-KURDS (L-ONLY) BY EDWARD DE MARCO (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=9/4/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-202648
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT IS WARNING THAT IT WILL NOT TOLERATE STEPPED-UP ACTIVITY BY SEPARATIST KURDISH REBELS. ANKARA FEARS THE MILITANTS MAY USE THE IRAQI CRISIS TO LAUNCH CROSS BORDER RAIDS FROM IRAQ. EDWARD DE MARCO REPORTS FROM ISTANBUL.

    TEXT: TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER SAID WEDNESDAY THAT A TOP CONCERN WAS A MASSING OF KURDISH GUERRILLAS ALONG THE IRAQI-TURKISH BORDER. SHE HINTED THAT TURKEY WOULD MOVE INTO IRAQ TO PREVENT ATTACKS FROM THE REBELS. BUT A FOREIGN MINISTRY SPOKESMAN LATER DOWNPLAYED THE TOUGH TALK, AND CHARACTERIZED MRS. CILLER'S WORDS AS A WARNING.

    WHILE ONE KURDISH FACTION HAS JOINED FORCES WITH SADDAM HUSSEIN TO BATTLE A RIVAL FACTION IN NORTHERN IRAQ, CONFLICT INVOLVING A THIRD KURDISH GROUP CONTINUED HERE IN NEIGHBORING TURKEY. THAT'S THE GROUP ANKARA IS WORRIED ABOUT -- THE MARXIST-INSPIRED "KURDISH WORKERS PARTY," OR "P-K-K." THE MILITANT GROUP HAS BATTLED TURKISH SECURITY FORCES FOR 12 YEARS IN EASTERN TURKEY. THE VIOLENT CONFLICT HAS COST NEARLY 20-THOUSAND LIVES.

    EVEN AS THE DRAMA UNFOLDED THIS WEEK IN IRAQ, FIGHTING CONTINUED WITHIN TURKEY. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT REPORTED THAT 42 P-K-K REBELS AND THREE TURKISH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED IN SEPARATE CLASHES ON TUESDAY.

    MANY IN TURKEY FEAR THAT "OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT," THE U.S.-LED EFFORT TO SHIELD IRAQI KURDS, HAS ALSO GIVEN THE P-K-K A SAVE HAVEN FROM WHICH TO LAUNCH ATTACKS ON TURKEY. LAST YEAR, MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND TURKISH TROOPS PUSHED INTO NORTHERN IRAQ IN PURSUIT OF P-K-K REBELS. THOSE TROOPS LATER WITHDREW AFTER THE OPERATION WAS COMPLETED.

    IN AN EFFORT TO IMPROVE STRIFE-TORN CONDITIONS IN EASTERN TURKEY, TURKISH PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN HAS PROPOSED MEASURES TO GIVE KURDS MORE CULTURAL AUTONOMY. HE ALSO IS URGING ECONOMIC INITIATIVES TO BOOST THE POOR REGION. BUT HE HAS VOWED TO CONTINUE A HARD LINE AGAINST THE P-K-K. AND WEDNESDAY'S WARNING FROM FOREIGN MINISTER CILLER SEEMED TO UNDERSCORE TURKEY'S RESOLVE THAT IT WILL NOT BE VICTIMIZED BY THE ONGOING TENSIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EDM/PCF/MMK
    04-Sep-96 3:06 PM EDT (1906 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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