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Voice of America, 96-09-13

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L- UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] BOSNIA / ELECTION (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BOSNIA / HOLBROOKE (S) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [05] BOSNIA / SERB BRIEFING (L) BY PAMALA TAYLOR (BANJA LUCA)
  • [06] BOSNIA / SERB REFUGEES BY PAMELA TAYLOR (BANJA LUKA)
  • [07] BOSNIA CANDIDATES BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)
  • [08] BOSNIA ELECTION EVE (L-ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (AHMICI, BOSNIA)
  • [09] BOSNIA YOUTH BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZENICA)
  • [10] OPEN MEDIA AND THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] SERBIA VOTING BY BARRY WOOD (BELGRADE)
  • [12] U-S BOSNIA ELECT (S) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [01] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/13/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09780
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 13TH //

    INTRO: DEALING WITH SADDAM HUSSEIN AND THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS ARE AMONG THE TOPICS IN MANY OF TODAY'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE: THE NEW REBEL ALLIANCE IN MEXICO; A RESURGENT RIGHT IN EL SALVADOR; THE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY; THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BAN TREATY AND THE START OF THE NEW JEWISH YEAR - - 5-THOUSAND-7-HUNDRED-57. NOW HERE IS ____________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE THREE NEW YORK AREA TABLOIDS ARE ALL LEADING THIS FRIDAY THE 13TH WITH EDITORIALS COMMENTING ON U-S POLICY TOWARD IRAQ. NEWSDAY'S HEADLINE READS: "STOP SADDAM" AND THE PAPER SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "FOR ALLIED MILITARY RETALIATION TO BE CREDIBLE, IT MUST BE SEVERE ENOUGH TO BE EFFECTIVE AS PUNISHMENT AND DETERRENT. THE CRUISE MISSILES LOBBED AT IRAQ LAST WEEK FOR HUSSEIN'S INCURSION INTO THE PROSCRIBED KURDISH ZONE DID NOT HAVE MUCH EFFECT. ..... A MORE EFFECTIVE STRIKE WOULD ENTAIL HITTING TARGETS MORE SENSITIVE THAN ANTIAIRCRAFT INSTALLATIONS. ... BUT HITTING SUCH TARGETS ALSO ENTAILS RISKING U-S LIVES - - A POLITICALLY UNPALATABLE PROSPECT WITH AN ELECTION LOOMING. STILL, THE RISK IS WORTH TAKING."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS CALLS ON THE PRESIDENT TO WEATHER THE CRITICISM HE HAS ALREADY TAKEN ON THE HANDLING OF THE LATEST IRAQI CRISIS.

    VOICE: "ALTHOUGH [PRESIDENT] CLINTON MUST CONTINUE TO MAKE HIS POLICY OBJECTIVES CLEAR BOTH TO CONGRESS AND TO THE PUBLIC, HE IS RIGHT TO MOVE QUICKLY AND FORCEFULLY TO BACK AMERICA'S COMMITMENT TO ITS PERSIAN GULF ALLIES - - PARTICULARLY AS SADDAM DRAWS A BEAD [PUTS IT IN THE SIGHTS OF HIS GUNS] ON KUWAIT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ADDS THE NEW YORK POST:

    VOICE: "IT MAY BE THAT THE MOMENT FOR DIRECT ACTION IN NORTHERN IRAQ HAS PASSED - - EVEN THOUGH SADDAM, QUITE LITERALLY , GOT AWAY WITH MURDER THERE. BUT THE U-S HAS MILITARY OPTIONS THAT TRANSCEND DELIVERING A NEW SET OF PINPRICKS. CHALLENGES - - AND ACTS OF DEFIANCE - - CARRIED OUT BY ADVERSARIES DETERMINED TO TEST WASHINGTON'S METTLE CANNOT BE IGNORED."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE BALKANS AND TOMORROW'S ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE BOSTON GLOBE CALLS THEM "UNDEMOCRATIC" IN ITS EDITORIAL HEADLINE, ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE ELECTION WILL BE A TRAVESTY OF DEMOCRACY BECAUSE SO FEW OF THE CONDITIONS THAT DAYTON CALLED FOR, SUCH AS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND THE RETURN OF REFUGEES, HAVE BEEN HONORED. THEREFORE IT IS LIKELY THAT ONLY HARD-LINE EXTREMISTS WHO HAVE BEEN ABLE TO CONTROL AND MANIPULATE THE VOTE WILL WIN. [OPT] .... WHAT IS REALLY IMPORTANT IS NOT THIS FLAWED ELECTION BUT THE MAINTENANCE OF A NATO - - AND THIS MEANS AN AMERICAN - - COMMITMENT TO STAY ENGAGED ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA UNTIL AT LEAST THE SECOND ELECTION, SCHEDULED FOR 1998, AND PERHAPS BEYOND."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: STILL IN NEW ENGLAND, PORTLAND'S [MAINE] PRESS HERALD, USES DRAMATIC LANGUAGE TO ASSESS THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: "BOSNIA IS A RAPE VICTIM. NO ONE SHOULD EXPECT IT TO RESUME NORMAL LIVING ANYTIME SOON, OR PERHAPS EVER. THE TRAUMA IS TOO DEEP, THE MEMORIES TOO HAUNTING. SATURDAY'S ELECTIONS IN THE VIOLATED LAND WILL BE ANYTHING BUT NORMAL. CRITICS WHO SAY THE VOTE MUST BE FAIR AND THOROUGHLY 'DEMOCRATIC' TO BE VALID ARE EXPECTING TOO MUCH."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: NEXT -- MEXICO'S INTERNAL TROUBLES, AND THE EMERGENCE OF A SECOND REVOLUTIONARY BAND, IS DISCUSSED IN TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR.

    VOICE: "THE SUDDEN SURFACING OF THE POPULAR REVOLUTIONARY ARMY (KNOWN BY ITS SPANISH ACRONYM, EPR) RAISES FRESH QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PACE OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL REFORM IN MEXICO. PRESIDENT ERNESTO ZEDILLO HAS MADE SUCH REFORMS - - FROM CONTINUED PRIVATIZATION TO ELIMINATING ELECTORAL FRAUD .....- - THE THEME OF HIS ADMINISTRATION. [HOWEVER]..... WHILE MEXICO'S ECONOMIC WOES HAVE EASED OF LATE, MIDDLE-AND-LOW-INCOME MEXICANS ARE STILL REELING FROM THE CURRENCY CRISIS AND GREATLY REDUCED PURCHASING POWER. .... THE SOIL FOR GRASS-ROOTS REBEL MOVEMENTS IS THERE, AND SYMPATHY FOR SUCH MOVEMENTS SPRINGS EASILY FROM MEXICO'S LONG REVOLUTIONARY TRADITION."

    TEXT: ELSEWHERE IN LATIN AMERICA, THE NEW YORK TIMES CASTS A WORRIED LOOK AT A RESURGENT POLITICAL RIGHT IN EL SALVADOR'S ARENA PARTY, MENTIONING RESUMED DEATH THREATS TO REPORTERS AND BOMBINGS. THE PARTY SAYS THE U-N SHOULD RECONSIDER ITS PULLOUT.

    VOICE: "THE HARD RIGHT IS LIKELY TO BECOME BOLDER AS OUTSIDE ATTENTION ON EL SALVADOR FADES. THE U-N WHICH HAS A STAFF OF SIX THERE, IS TO LEAVE AT THE END OF THE YEAR. IT SHOULD CONSIDER KEEPING A SMALL MONITORING OFFICE IN PLACE."

    TEXT: WITH THIS WEEK'S OVERWHELMING VOTE OF APPROVAL FOR THE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY IN THE U-N GENERAL ASSEMBLY, THE WASHINGTON POST PONDERS THE POSSIBILITY OF THE WORLD'S LAST NUCLEAR TEST EXPLOSION, AND THE REMAINING OBSTACLE.

    VOICE: "MANY COUNTRIES NOTE THAT THE DECLARED NUCLEAR POWERS MAINTAIN THEIR OWN NUCLEAR OPTION EVEN AS THEY SEEK TO FORECLOSE THE OPTION OF OTHERS. THE AMERICAN JUSTIFICATION FOR ASSERTING SUCH A NUCLEAR PRIVILEGE IS THAT THE UNITED STATES IS A GLOBAL POWER WITH SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WORLD ORDER - - FOR INSTANCE, FOR DETERRING AND CONTAINING ROGUE STATES. A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES UNDERSTAND THIS LOGIC. AMONG THOSE THAT REJECT IT, INDIA HAS BEEN THE MOST FORWARD. ..... INDIA IS OFF BASE."

    TEXT: TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD, TALKING OF ANOTHER TREATY, THIS ONE SCHEDULED FOR A VOTE IN THE SENATE TODAY, BANNING CHEMICAL WEAPONS, URGES THE RATIFICATION, ADDING:

    VOICE: "WHY SHOULD THE VOTE BE CLOSE? WHY SHOULD ANY SENATOR FEEL A NEED TO STOCKPILE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TO RETALIATE AGAINST CHEMICAL WEAPONS?

    TEXT: LASTLY, TAKING NOTE OF THE JEWISH NEW YEAR, 5757 AND THE CELEBRATION OF ROSH HASHANA, THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD SAYS:

    VOICE: "IT WAS JUST A YEAR AGO THAT ROSH HASHANA USHERED IN A NEW ERA IN ISRAEL ITSELF, WITH THE COMMENCEMENT OF PEACE TALKS BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION. ISRAEL HAS A NEW GOVERNMENT, BUT THE PRAYERS OF THE FAITHFUL REMAIN THE SAME: FORGIVE US THE SINS OF THE PAST, AND BRING US PEACE IN THE NEW YEAR THAT BRINGS WITH IT SO MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR GOOD."

    TEXT: ON THAT RELIGIOUS NOTE, WE END THIS BRIEF LOOK AT TODAY'S EDITORIALS IN THE U-S PRESS. NEB/ANG/VO'HS
    13-Sep-96 11:21 AM EDT (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA/SARAJEVO (L- UPDATE) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203067
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ACTING PRESIDENT OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAS APOLOGIZED ON TELEVISION LATE FRIDAY FOR SECESSIONIST REMARKS MADE DURING THE ELECTION CAMPAIGN. THE APOLOGY WAS DEMANDED BY ELECTION ORGANIZERS, WHO THREATENED TO BAN SEVERAL PROMINENT NATIONALIST SERB CANDIDATES FROM THE ELECTION, IF THE APOLOGY WAS NOT MADE. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: GIVING IN TO PRESSURE FROM ELECTION ORGANIZERS, THE BOSNIAN SERB'S ACTING PRESIDENT, BILJANA PLAVSIC, READ THE STATEMENT OF APOLOGY WRITTEN BY INTERNATIONAL ELECTION ORGANIZERS ON BOSNIAN SERB TELEVISION. LOOKING DOWN AT THE PAGE THROUGHOUT, SHE APOLOGIZED FOR STATEMENTS MADE DURING THE CAMPAIGN THAT CALLED FOR THE SECESSION OF SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS FROM BOSNIA.

    ELECTION OFFICIALS SAID HER CAMPAIGN STATEMENTS, AND THOSE OF OTHER MEMBERS OF THE RULING SERB S-D-S PARTY, REPRESENTED A "CLEAR AND IMMEDIATE THREAT TO THE SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF BOSNIA." IF THE APOLOGY HAD NOT BEEN ISSUED, ELECTION ORGANIZERS HAD THREATENED TO BAN FROM THE ELECTIONS THREE OF THE FIVE LEADING S-D-S CANDIDATES FOR THE SERB PARLIAMENT.

    THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, WELCOMED THE JUDGEMENT BY ELECTION OFFICIALS.

    /// BILDT ACT ///

    HER LATEST STATEMENTS HAVE GONE BEYOND WHAT SHE DID BEFORE, AND WE HAVE WARNED HER CONTINUOUSLY, AND IT'S GOOD THAT ACTION WAS TAKEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHILE THE APOLOGY IS AN EMBARRASSMENT FOR THE SERBS, AN OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF BOSNIAN SERBS REMAIN IN FAVOR OF SECESSION FROM BOSNIA.

    EARLIER ON FRIDAY, THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT OF THE DAYTON PLAN, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, SAID THE ELECTION WOULD NOT LEGITIMIZE ANY SERB DESIRE FOR SECESSION. VISITING SARAJEVO AS HEAD OF AN AMERICAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OBSERVER MISSION, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD SIGNED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, AND INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE WOULD BE USED TO MAKE SURE THEY PARTICIPATED IN POWER SHARING INSTITUTIONS IN THE COUNTRY.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    WHATEVER AVAILABLE LEVERAGE IS THERE WILL BE USED TO REACH OUR POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC GOAL. WE'VE NEVER WAVERED IN THAT AND WE WON'T WAIVER IN THE FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THE SERBS WILL ENGAGE IN A MEANINGFUL WAY IN JOINT INSTITUTIONS WITH MUSLIMS AND CROATS. INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS SAY DIFFICULT NEGOTIATIONS WILL HAVE TO TAKE PLACE AFTER SATURDAY'S ELECTIONS, AND AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE ON THE SERBS AND NEIGHBORING SERBIA MAY WELL BECOME NECESSARY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/PCF/MMK
    13-Sep-96 2:31 PM EDT (1831 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA / ELECTION (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203057
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ELECTION OFFICIALS IN BOSNIA HAVE DEMANDED THE ACTING SERB PRESIDENT PERSONALLY READ AN APOLOGY ON SERB TELEVISION FOR MAKING SECESSIONIST STATEMENTS DURING THE CAMPAIGN. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THE ELECTION OFFICIALS SAY IF THE STATEMENT IS NOT MADE WITHIN HOURS, THREE OF THE TOP FIVE SERB CANDIDATES FOR THE SERB PARLIAMENT WILL BE REMOVED FROM THE ELECTION.

    TEXT: LESS THAN A DAY BEFORE POLLS ARE SET TO OPEN FOR ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA, ELECTION ORGANIZERS HAVE REACTED TO REPEATED STATEMENTS BY BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS ADVOCATING SECESSION. THE RULING SERB S-D-S PARTY WAS FINED 50-THOUSAND DOLLARS EARLIER THIS WEEK FOR SECESSIONIST STATEMENTS, WHICH ARE AGAINST THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT AND ELECTORAL RULES. NOW, THE ACTING SERB PRESIDENT, BILJANA PLAVSIC, HAS BEEN TOLD SHE MUST PERSONALLY READ A STATEMENT WRITTEN BY ELECTION ORGANIZERS DURING BOSNIAN SERB TELEVISION EVENING NEWS ON FRIDAY NIGHT. THE STATEMENT MUST ALSO APPEAR TWO OTHER TIMES DURING THE EVENING, AND NO OTHER COMMENTS OR REMARKS WILL BE ALLOWED EITHER BEFORE OR AFTER THE STATEMENT IS READ.

    MS. PLAVSIC REPEATED CALLS FOR SERBS TO CREATE THEIR OWN STATE AT AN S-D-S RALLY HELD IN PALE THURSDAY EVENING.

    IF THE JUDGEMENT IS NOT ACCEPTED AND CARRIED OUT, ELECTION OFFICIALS SAY THREE OF THE TOP FIVE S-D-S CANDIDATES FOR THE BOSNIAN SERB ASSEMBLY WILL BE REMOVED FROM THE PARTY'S LIST.

    WHILE THE JUDGEMENT IS SIGNIFICANT, CRITICS SAY IT HAS COME TOO LATE TO HAVE ANY IMPACT ON VOTERS WHO WILL BE GOING TO THE POLLS ON SATURDAY.

    EARLIER ON FRIDAY, THE FORMER AMERICAN DIPLOMAT WHO MEDIATED THE THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN ON BOSNIA ARRIVED IN SARAJEVO. THE OFFICIAL, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, IS HEADING AN AMERICAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OBSERVER MISSION.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD SIGNED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AND WERE COMMITTED TO IT, AND HE SAID SATURDAY'S ELECTION WOULD NOT LEAD TO THE BREAK-UP OF BOSNIA.

    /// ACT - HOLBROOKE ///

    THIS ELECTION IS NOT ABOUT SECESSION OR TO LEGITIMIZE SECESSION. THIS ELECTION IS ABOUT CREATING THE CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS OF A SINGLE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WITH A LOOSE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID USING THE ELECTION RESULT TO MOVE TOWARD SECESSION WOULD BE USING THE DAYTON ACCORD AGAINST ITS OWN GOAL. WHEN ASKED WHETHER THE U-S WOULD BE PREPARED TO USE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS TO FORCE THE SERBS TO SHARE POWER, MR. HOLBROOKE WAS UNEQUIVOCAL.

    /// ACT - HOLBROOKE ///

    WHATEVER AVAILABLE LEVERAGE IS THERE WILL BE USED TO REACH OUR POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC GOAL. WE'VE NEVER WAVERED IN THAT, AND WE WON'T WAIVER IN THE FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    OFFICIALS SAY REQUIRING MS. PLAVSIC TO PERSONALLY READ THE APOLOGY FOR SECESSIONIST STATEMENTS IS CERTAIN TO EMBARRASS THE BOSNIAN SERBS, BUT THERE IS CLEARLY OVERWHELMING SUPPORT IN SERB-CONTROLLED TERRITORY FOR SECESSION. THEY SAY WHETHER THE SERBS WILL ENGAGE IN A MEANINGFUL WAY IN JOINT INSTITUTIONS IN BOSNIA WITH MUSLIMS AND CROATS WILL BE KNOWN ONLY AFTER THE ELECTION. AND THEY SAY AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE ON THE SERBS AND NEIGHBORING SERBIA MAY WELL BECOME NECESSARY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/MMK
    13-Sep-96 11:15 AM EDT (1515 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA / HOLBROOKE (S) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203049
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FORMER U-S DIPLOMAT WHO MEDIATED THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA, RICHARD HOLBROOKE, HAS REJECTED CALLS FOR SECESSION BY BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS MR. HOLBROOKE IS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL AS HEAD OF A U-S PRESIDENTIAL OBSERVER MISSION FOR SATURDAY'S ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA.

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS ON HIS ARRIVAL AT SARAJEVO'S AIRPORT, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE BOSNIAN SERBS HAD SIGNED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AND WERE COMMITTED TO IT. AND HE SAID SATURDAY'S ELECTION WOULD NOT LEAD TO THE BREAK-UP OF BOSNIA.

    /// ACT - HOLBROOKE ///

    THIS ELECTION IS NOT ABOUT SECESSION OR TO LEGITIMIZE SECESSION. THIS ELECTION IS ABOUT CREATING THE CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS OF A SINGLE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WITH A LOOSE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID USING THE ELECTION RESULT TO MOVE TOWARD SECESSION WOULD BE USING THE DAYTON ACCORD AGAINST ITS OWN GOAL. WHEN ASKED WHETHER THE U-S WOULD BE PREPARED TO USE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS TO FORCE THE SERBS TO SHARE POWER, MR. HOLBROOKE WAS UNEQUIVOCAL.

    /// ACT - HOLBROOKE ///

    WHATEVER AVAILABLE LEVERAGE IS THERE WILL BE USED TO REACH OUR POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC GOALS. WE'VE NEVER WAVERED IN THAT AND WE WON'T WAIVER IN THE FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IT IS NOT YET CLEAR WHETHER THE BOSNIAN SERBS WILL AGREE TO SHARE POWER WITH MUSLIMS AND CROATS AFTER THE ELECTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/MMK
    13-Sep-96 9:34 AM EDT (1334 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA / SERB BRIEFING (L) BY PAMALA TAYLOR (BANJA LUCA)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203066
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT A BRIEFING IN BANJA LUCA TODAY THE FOUR ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE BOSNIA ELECTION PASSED OUT MAPS OF THE RECOMMENDED ROUTES VOTERS AND REPORTERS SHOULD TAKE TO AVOID MINE FIELDS. VOA'S PAMALA TAYLOR FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE BANJA LUCA BRIEFINGS HAVE BECOME A DAILY EVENT TO INFORM LOCAL SERB REPORTERS ABOUT THE ELECTIONS.

    THOMAS MIGLIERINA, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- OR O-S-C-E - WHICH OVERSEES THE ELECTION PROCESS, OPENED THE BRIEFING WITH SOME LOGISTICAL DETAILS. HE SAID 800 BUSES WITH 50 SEATS EACH WOULD BE CARRYING THE BULK OF VOTERS TO POLLING STATIONS SO AS TO AVOID MASSIVE TRAFFIC JAMS ON ELECTIONS DAY. THEN MR. MIGLIERINA READ A STATEMENT FROM THE O-S-C-E ELECTION COUNCIL.

    // MIGLIERINA ACT //

    THE COUNCIL RECORDS THE OBLIGATION OF SOCIETY TO PROTECT AND ENFORCE THE RIGHT ALL CITIZENS THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY IRRESPECTIVE OF THEIR ETHNIC ORIGIN OR PRESENT DOMICILE.TO VOTE IN SECRET WITHOUT FEAR AND INTIMIDATION. THESE INCLUDE TOTAL FREEDOM OF MOMENT TO AND FROM THE POLLING STATIONS.

    // END ACT //

    ALTHOUGH THE O-S-C-E HAS POSITIONED THOUSANDS OF MONITORS AT ALL POLLING STATIONS THE ELECTIONS ARE NOT EXPECTED TO GO WITHOUT INCIDENT OF INTIMIDATION. THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE -- OR I-FOR -- CAPTAIN PAUL BROOKS WARNED THEIR COULD BE POTENTIAL TROUBLE SPOTS. HE CITED THE TOWN OF JAJCE AND MORKONIC GRAD WHERE VOTERS ARE EXPECTED TO CROSS INTER ETHNIC BOUNDARY LINES FROM FEDERATION TERRITORY.

    BUT CAPTAIN BROOKS MADE IT CLEAR THAT IF THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE ARE UNABLE TO HANDLE ANY SITUATION HE'S PREPARED TO SEND IN THE I-FOR TROOPS.

    // BROOKS ACT //

    WE ALL HERE IN SUPPORT OF BOTH O-S-C-E AND I-P-T-F ON ELECTION DAY. AND SO IF A SITUATION REACHED THE STAGE WHERE THEY COULD NO LONGER COPE, THEN WE WOULD BE IN A POSITION TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.

    // END ACT //

    CAPTAIN BROOKS SAID I-FOR HAS THE POWER TO PREVENT LOCAL POLICE FROM STOPPING CARS AND TO STOP VEHICLES WHO DEVIATE OFF THE RECOMMENDED VOTING ROUTE. AFTER A BRIEFING A FRENCH REPORTER SUMMED THINGS UP BY SAYING "THEY'RE CLEARLY HOPING FOR THE BEST. LET'S HOPE THEY'RE PREPARED FOR THE WORST." (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT/KB/CF
    13-Sep-96 2:44 PM EDT (1844 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIA / SERB REFUGEES BY PAMELA TAYLOR (BANJA LUKA)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34361
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: REFUGEES FORM A KEY PART OF THE ELECTORATE IN BOSNIA'S ELECTION ON SATURDAY. V-O-A'S PAMELA TAYLOR WENT TO TWO BOSNIAN SERB TOWNS -- PRIJDOR AND TRNOPOLJE -- TO LEARN HOW REFUGEES FEEL ABOUT THE VOTE, AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE NAME PRIJDOR AND TRNOPOLJE BECAME NOTORIOUS IN 1992 WHEN SOME WESTERN REPORTERS DISCOVERED INTERNMENT CAMPS HOLDING THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS. THE TELEVISED IMAGES OF EMACIATED MEN FLASHED AROUND THE WORLD. TODAY, THERE ARE FEW, IF ANY MUSLIMS LEFT IN EITHER PRIJDOR OR TRNOPOLJE. AND THE PEOPLE IN THE TWO TOWNS ARE ABSOLUTELY CONVINCED THE INTERNMENT CAMP STORIES ARE SIMPLY ANTI-SERB PROPAGANDA.

    /// LOCAL PEOPLE -- FADE UNDER ///

    OUTSIDE THE REFUGEE HOUSING ADMINISTRATION IN PRIJDOR, THERE WAS A LIVELY DEBATE ABOUT THE ELECTIONS, AS REFUGEES FROM TOWNS NOW IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION WAITED FOR WORD ON PROSPECTS FOR A PLACE TO LIVE.

    ALL OF THEM SAID THEY PLAN TO VOTE. SEVERAL EXPRESSED SUPPORT FOR THE RULING S-D-S PARTY OF FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC. OTHERS PREFERRED ANYONE OTHER THAN THE PARTY WHICH THEY FELT HAD LED THEM TO DISASTER.

    BUT THEY WERE UNITED IN THEIR CONVICTIONS THAT THEIR VOTES WILL HELP ENSURE THEY FINALLY HAVE A SERB STATE.

    AT A REFUGEE CAMP IN NEARBY TRNOPOLJE, THE VIEWS WERE MUCH THE SAME. THE CAMP IS IN A SCHOOL WHICH WILL BE ONE OF THE POLLING PLACES SATURDAY.

    AS THEY GATHERED AROUND A TABLE TO TALK AND DRINK STRONG COFFEE FROM TINY CUPS, THERE WAS GENUINE EXCITEMENT AMONG THE REFUGEES ABOUT THE PROSPECTS THE ELECTION MIGHT CHANGE THEIR PLIGHT.

    THE ADMINISTRATOR AT THE CAMP, HERSELF A REFUGEE FROM BIHAC -- WHICH IS NOW IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION -- IS RADMILLA PERIC. SHE SAYS ALL THE REFUGEES SHE KNOWS PLAN TO VOTE.

    /// PERIC ACT - FADE UNDER ///

    MS. PERIC SAID THE REFUGEES WANT TO MAKE SURE THEIR VOTES COUNT AGAINST ANY MUSLIM VOTE FOR UNIFICATION, WHICH SHE SAID MOST SERBS INTERPRET AS MUSLIM DOMINATION.

    WHEN ASKED IF SHE KNOWS WHY THE TRNOPOLJE IS KNOWN OUTSIDE BOSNIA, SHE REPLIED SHE KNOWS WESTERN PROPAGANDA CLAIMED THERE WERE CONCENTRATION CAMPS AT THE TOWN. BUT SHE SAID THE TRUTH WAS THAT TRNOPOLJE WAS ACTUALLY A TRANSIT CAMP FOR MUSLIMS TRYING TO GET FROM ONE PART OF THE WARZONE TO SAFETY IN ANOTHER. AND SHE SAID, NO ONE WAS KILLED AT THE CAMP.

    BACK IN BANJA LUKA, THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE ORGANIZATION THAT IS OVERSEEING THE ELECTIONS, TOMAS MIGELIERINA, EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT SO MANY BOSNIAN SERBS BELIEVE THEIR VOTE IS GOING TO GIVE THEM AN INDEPENDENT STATE.

    HE SAID SERB POLITICIANS KNOW THIS IS NOT T RUE AND ARE DELIBERATELY MISLEADING THEIR PEOPLE

    /// MIGELIERINA ACT ///

    THERE ARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPRESSING YOUR OPINION AND CHEATING THE PEOPLE, PARTICULARLY YOUR OWN PEOPLE. YOU CAN SAY YOU DON'T LIKE SOMETHING. EVERYBODY IS FREE TO CRITICIZE AND SAY HE WISHES SOMETHING ELSE. YOU CANNOT TELL THE PEOPLE THAT IF THEY VOTE FOR A SPECIFIC PARTY THEY WILL COMPLETE THE INDEPENDENCE OF REPUBLIKA SREPSKA.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MIGELIERINA SAID THE ELECTIONS ARE PROCEEDING ACCORDING TO THE DAYTON ACCORDS, WHICH ALL PARTIES SIGNED, SAYING THE BOSNIA SERB REPUBLIC IS JUST ONE OF TWO ENTITIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT/JWH/MMK
    13-Sep-96 12:01 PM EDT (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] BOSNIA CANDIDATES BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34360
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHEN BOSNIAN VOTERS GO THE POLLS SATURDAY, PERHAPS THE MOST IMPORTANT DECISION THEY WILL MAKE WILL BE TO CHOOSE A CANDIDATE FOR THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY. CONSISTING OF ONE MUSLIM, ONE SERB AND ONE CROAT, THE PRESIDENCY WILL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR BOSNIA'S FOREIGN POLICY, BUDGET AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DECISIONS BY THE NEW NATIONAL PARLIAMENT. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO, THE PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST HAS BEEN DOMINATED BY A FEW PEOPLE WHO CAME TO PROMINENCE DURING BOSNIA'S 43-MONTH WAR.

    TEXT: AS THE CURRENT PRESIDENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC IS THE COUNTRY'S BEST-KNOWN MUSLIM LEADER AND VIEWED BY LOYALISTS AS THE FATHER OF THE COUNTRY.

    //OPT//

    BORN IN 1925, MR. IZETBEGOVIC HAS SPENT NEARLY HIS ENTIRE LIFE IN SARAJEVO, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF NINE YEARS AS A POLITICAL PRISONER IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. FIRST ELECTED TO THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY OF THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA IN 1990, MR. IZETBEGOVIC SPEARHEADED BOSNIA'S SUCCESSFUL DRIVE FOR INDEPENDENCE IN 1992. //END OPT//

    ALTHOUGH CRITICS ACCUSE THE NORMALLY RESERVED PRESIDENT OF TURNING INCREASINGLY TOWARD MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISM, MR. IZETBEGOVIC CONTINUES TO CALL FOR A UNIFIED BOSNIA THAT WELCOMES ALL ETHNIC GROUPS.

    // BEGIN IZETBEGOVIC LANGUAGE ACT AND FADE //

    AT THE FINAL CAMPAIGN RALLY OF HIS "PARTY FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION," MR. IZETBEGOVIC SAID HE WILL WORK WITH OPPOSITION FIGURES, AS LONG AS THEY ACCEPT A UNIFIED AND DEMOCRATIC BOSNIA -- AND THE RETURN OF REFUGEES.

    WITHIN BOSNIA'S SERB REPUBLIC, 52-YEAR-OLD MOMCILO KRAJISNIK IS THE BEST-KNOWN CANDIDATE FOR THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY.

    ANALYSTS SAY MR. KRAJISNIK IS NOW THE MAIN POWERBROKER IN THE SERB REPUBLIC AND EXERTS CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE OVER POLICE AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES.

    //OPT//

    MR. KRAJISNIK HAD SERVED AS THE SPEAKER OF THE ASSEMBLY OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, BUT RESIGNED HIS POSITION WHEN THE WAR BROKE OUT IN 1992. HE LATER BECAME SPEAKER OF THE BOSNIAN SERB ASSEMBLY. //END OPT//

    HE HAS LONG BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH THE VIEWS OF OTHER HARD-LINE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS WHO ADVOCATE AN ETHNICALLY PURE SERB STATE THAT COULD BE INCORPORATED INTO A GREATER SERBIA.

    //OPT//

    ALTHOUGH NOT WELL KNOWN FOR HIS HUMOR, THE BOSNIAN SERB SPEAKER WAS IN A JOKING MOOD AT A RECENT CAMPAIGN RALLY.

    // KRAJISNIK ACT //

    "I HAVE TO TELL YOU SOMETHING THAT WAS TOLD TO ME BY A MAN FROM KRAJINA," MR. KRAJISNIK SAID. "HE TOLD ME THAT IN THE YEAR 2000 WE WILL BEAT AMERICA ... BUT IN SOCCER." //END OPT//

    // POSSIBLE USE OF CROWD CHEERS //

    ANALYSTS SAY MR. KRAJISNIK COULD TURN OUT TO BE THE TOP VOTE-GETTER IN THE ELECTION IF MUSLIM CANDIDATES -- SUCH AS FORMER PRIME MINISTER HARIS SILAJDZIC -- TAKE VOTES AWAY FROM MR. IZETBEGOVIC.

    THE SOMETIMES COMBATIVE MR. SILAJDZIC SERVED AS BOSNIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER BEFORE BECOMING PRIME MINISTER IN 1993. EASILY THE SECOND MOST POPULAR MUSLIM IN BOSNIA, HE FORMED HIS OWN PARTY LAST YEAR AND HAS CAMPAIGNED FOR A MULTI-ETHNIC STATE.

    THE MOST LIKELY WINNER FOR THE CROAT SEAT ON THE PRESIDENCY IS 49-YEAR-OLD KRESIMIR ZUBAK, THE CURRENT PRESIDENT OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    A FORMER JUDGE, MR. ZUBAK WAS WOUNDED IN 1992 WHILE SERVING AS A SOLDIER IN THE CROAT MILITIA. ANALYSTS CONSIDER MR. ZUBAK A RELATIVE MODERATE, BUT WITHOUT MUCH SUPPORT OUTSIDE HIS CROAT "H-D-Z" PARTY.

    // REST OPT //

    PROFESSOR LJUBO MIR BERBEROVIC OF THE SERB CIVIC COUNCIL IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE THREE WINNERS WILL HAVE TO WORK TOGETHER DESPITE HAVING DIVERGENT VIEWS ON THE FUTURE OF THE COUNTRY.

    // BERBEROVIC ACT //

    WHAT I LIKE TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT IS THE FACT THAT THEY WILL BE HEAVILY CONTROLLED. THAT'S WHAT I EXPECT. THAT'S A KIND OF GUARANTEE THAT THINGS WILL WORK TO A MEASURE.

    // END ACT //

    THE TRUE TEST WILL NOT COME UNTIL THE VOTES ARE COUNTED AND THE THREE MEMBERS OF THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY ACTUALLY SIT DOWN TO BEGIN THE PROCESS OF WORKING TOGETHER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF/RRM
    13-Sep-96 11:54 AM EDT (1554 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] BOSNIA ELECTION EVE (L-ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (AHMICI, BOSNIA)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203062
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE STAGE IS NOW SET FOR THE ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, WITH MORE THAN TWO-MILLION ELIGIBLE VOTERS IN THE COUNTRY PREPARING TO CAST THEIR BALLOTS. THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE DISPLACED BY THE CONFLICT ARE EXPECTED TO CROSS FORMER BATTLE LINES TO VOTE IN THEIR HOMETOWNS AND VILLAGES. IT WILL BE AN EMOTIONAL MOMENT FOR MANY, SUCH AS FOR THOSE EXPELLED FROM THE CENTRAL BOSNIAN VILLAGE OF AHMICI DURING THE MUSLIM-CROAT FIGHTING OF 1993. FROM AHMICI, V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS.

    TEXT: THERE IS AN EERIE QUIET IN AHMICI NOW. THE TINY VILLAGE IS COMPLETELY DESERTED. ITS FEW DOZEN HOUSES STAND ROOFLESS AND SHELL-POCKED. THE MOSQUE IS NO MORE THAN A PILE OF RUBBLE WITH WHAT REMAINS OF THE MINARET PERCHED ON TOP. THE GARDENS ARE OVERGROWN WITH WEEDS. UNPICKED, FALLEN FRUIT LIES ROTTING ON THE GROUNDS. A CHILD'S SHOE PROTRUDES FROM THE MUD OUTSIDE ONE HOUSE. FADING GRAFFITI SCRAWLED ON A WALL WELCOMES VISITORS TO WHAT IT TERMS "THIS HAPPY VILLAGE."

    THREE YEARS AGO, AHMICI WAS THE SCENE OF ONE OF THE WORST MASSACRES OF THE MUSLIM-CROAT WAR. INDICTMENTS HANDED DOWN BY THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE BLAME SIX BOSNIAN CROAT MILITARY AND POLITICAL LEADERS FOR THE KILLING OF 120 PEOPLE IN AHMICI. THE SIX ARE ALSO ACCUSED OF THE KILLING OR EXPULSION OF HUNDREDS OF OTHER MUSLIMS IN A STRING OF TOWNS AND VILLAGES IN THE CENTRAL LASVA RIVER VALLEY.

    SOME CROATS IN THE NEARBY TOWN OF VITEZ SAY THEY HAVE NEVER HEARD OF AHMICI. THOSE WILLING TO ACKNOWLEDGE WHAT HAPPENED THERE ARE QUICK TO POINT OUT ANOTHER DESTROYED VILLAGE -- BUHINE KUCE -- BARELY A KILOMETER AWAY. THERE, THEY SAY, MUSLIM TROOPS SLAUGHTERED VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE CROAT POPULATION LESS THAN TWO MONTHS BEFORE THE EVENTS AT AHMICI.

    THE SURVIVORS OF AHMICI ARE AMONG ABOUT 35-HUNDRED DISPLACED MUSLIMS EXPECTED TO TRAVEL BY BUS TO THE VITEZ REGION SATURDAY TO CAST THEIR BALLOTS. THOSE FROM AHMICI WILL NOT VOTE IN THE VILLAGE ITSELF. ELECTION ORGANIZERS FROM THE O-S-C-E (ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE) RULED THAT THE VILLAGE IS TOO SMALL TO WARRANT ITS OWN POLLING STATION. INSTEAD, THE REFUGEES WILL CAST THEIR BALLOTS AT ANOTHER STATION ABOUT 500 METERS DOWN THE ROAD.

    IT RAINED IN AHMICI FRIDAY, AND THE SURROUNDING HILLS WERE SHROUDED IN FOG. THERE IS A SIMILAR FORECAST FOR ELECTION DAY. NATO COMMANDERS IN THE REGION ARE PLEASED. IT IS IDEAL WEATHER, SAYS CAPTAIN PETER COTTRELL, THE LOCAL SPOKESMAN FOR THE "I-FOR" PEACE-KEEPING FORCE. HE SAYS IT SHOULD HELP KEEP THE CROWDS DOWN AND DISCOURAGE POTENTIAL TROUBLE-MAKERS.

    HEAVILY ARMED NATO TROOPS WILL BE OUT IN FORCE ON POLLING DAY, MAINTAINING WHAT CAPTAIN COTTRELL CALLS A "HIGH PROFILE." BUT THEY WILL NOT PROVIDE SECURITY AT THE POLLING STATIONS, NOR WILL THEY ESCORT REFUGEE VOTERS. CAPTAIN COTTRELL SAYS THAT JOB WILL FALL TO THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND THE U-N POLICE FORCE.

    IAN MITCHELL, THE REGIONAL DIRECTOR OF O-S-C-E OPERATIONS, SAYS HE IS PLEASED WITH THE COOPERATION THE ORGANIZATION HAS RECEIVED FROM LOCAL CROAT AND MUSLIM OFFICIALS AND POLICE COMMANDERS. THEY HAVE IDENTIFIED THEIR OWN POTENTIAL "HOT-SPOTS" IN THE VITEZ REGION, WHERE THE MINGLING OF MUSLIM AND CROAT VOTERS COULD SPARK TROUBLE.

    BUT THESE SAME OFFICIALS HAVE PROVIDED FIRM SECURITY GUARANTEES FOR ELECTION DAY. AND WHILE NO ONE HERE IS RULING OUT ISOLATED INCIDENTS AT THE POLLS, MOST BELIEVE THE VOTING -- IN THIS REGION, AT LEAST -- WILL BE RELATIVELY PEACEFUL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DR/PCF/RRM
    13-Sep-96 2:13 PM EDT (1813 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] BOSNIA YOUTH BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZENICA)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34357
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIA'S YOUNG PEOPLE HAVE AN ENORMOUS STAKE IN THE ELECTIONS SATURDAY. YOUNG SERBS, MUSLIMS, AND CROATS SAW THEIR LIVES DISRUPTED BY THE CONFLICT. EDUCATION AND CAREERS WERE SUSPENDED WHILE YOUNG MEN WENT OFF TO FIGHT AND THE YOUNG WOMEN STRUGGLED TO SURVIVE. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS TALKED TO YOUNG BOSNIAN VOTERS IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, AND FILED THIS REPORT FROM THE TOWN OF ZENICA.

    TEXT: THEY HAVE MUCH IN COMMON, THESE TWO YOUNG MEN, ONE A CROAT, THE OTHER A MUSLIM. BOTH ARE 27, DARK HAIRED, CLEAN SHAVEN, EACH RECENTLY MARRIED, AND BOTH WITH NEW-BORN SONS. NIKOLA, THE CROAT, AND RIYAD, THE MUSLIM, LIVE BARELY 20 KILOMETERS APART IN THE CENTRAL TOWNS OF VITEZ AND TRAVNIK. BOTH HAVE LOW-PAYING JOBS. NIKOLA WORKS AS A TRADER IN THE LOCAL MARKET. RIYAD IS EMPLOYED PART-TIME AT A BREWERY.

    THEY HAVE ONE OTHER THING IN COMMON. BOTH FOUGHT THROUGHOUT THE BOSNIAN WAR, RIYAD IN THE MUSLIM-DOMINATED ARMY, NIKOLA IN THE CROAT MILITIA.

    THOUGH THEY HAVE NEVER MET, IT IS QUITE LIKELY THAT THEY SHOT AT EACH OTHER DURING THE VICIOUS CROAT-MUSLIM FIGHTING OF 1993. IT IS A CHAPTER IN THEIR LIVES THAT BOTH WANT TO FORGET. AND EACH IS LOOKING TO SATURDAY'S VOTE IN HOPES IT WILL HELP CONSOLIDATE THE PEACE.

    CROATIA'S NATIONAL ANTHEM LAUNCHED A CAMPAIGN RALLY IN VITEZ IN SUPPORT OF THE H-D-Z, VIRTUALLY UNCHALLENGED AMONG BOSNIA'S CROAT VOTERS.

    NIKOLA AND HIS YOUNG WIFE MARIJANA HAVE COME TO THE LOCAL FOOTBALL FIELD ON A BRIGHT AND SUNNY AUTUMN AFTERNOON TO LISTEN TO THE SPEAKERS.

    // NIKOLA - FADE UNDER //

    NIKOLA THINKS THE ELECTIONS ARE A GOOD THING FOR BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS AND CROATS. HE HOPES THAT WITHIN A FEW YEARS THERE WILL BE REAL CHANGES HERE THAT WILL BRING PROSPERITY AND SECURITY TO BOTH COMMUNITIES.

    THE MOST IMPORTANT THING, SAYS NIKOLA, IS TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT LEADERS. HE AND MARIJANA HAVE NO DOUBTS ABOUT THEIR DECISION. THEY WILL VOTE FOR THE H-D-Z. NIKOLA SAYS THESE ARE PEOPLE I CAN TRUST, AND I AM CERTAIN THEY WILL WORK FOR PEACE AND TO REBUILD THE COUNTRY. A 30-MINUTE DRIVE AWAY, IN TRAVNIK, RIYAD IS LESS CERTAIN OF HIS CHOICE.

    THE BOSNIAN ANTHEM OPENED THE CAMPAIGN RALLY FOR THE MUSLIM-DOMINATED S-D-A IN A HOTEL PARKING LOT. RIYAD AND HIS WIFE DINA HAVE BROUGHT THEIR YEAR-OLD SON HARIS AND THEY WATCH THE PROCEEDINGS FROM A CURB-SIDE ON THE FRINGES OF THE CROWD.

    // RIYAD - FADE UNDER //

    TO BE HONEST, SAYS RIYAD, WE JUST DO NOT KNOW WHAT THESE ELECTIONS WILL BRING, WHETHER THE SITUATION WILL BE BETTER OR WORSE. BUT WE ARE AFRAID, HE ADDS, THAT THE VOTE MAY ONLY CONSOLIDATE THE DIVISIONS IN BOSNIA.

    RIYAD AND DINA HAVE TENTATIVELY DECIDED TO CAST THEIR BALLOTS FOR THE S-D-A, EVEN THOUGH THEIR SON IS NAMED FOR HARIS SILADZIC, THE FORMER PRIME MINISTER WHO FORMED HIS OWN PARTY EARLIER THIS YEAR AND IS CHALLENGING THE S-D-A.

    RIYAD SAYS, "WE WANT THINGS TO BE THE WAY THEY WERE BEFORE THE WAR, WITH MUSLIMS AND CROATS LIVING TOGETHER WITHOUT BORDERS AND ROADBLOCKS." DINA NODS IN AGREEMENT. SHE SAYS, "WE JUST WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT OUR SON AND ALL THE OTHER BABIES IN BOSNIA DO NOT HAVE TO SUFFER AS WE DID." RIYAD, NIKOLA, AND THEIR WIVES WERE BORN IN CENTRAL BOSNIA AND ALL SAY THEY INTEND TO REMAIN, NO MATTER WHAT THE OUTCOME OF SATURDAY'S VOTE.

    ALISSIA IS AFRAID SHE ALSO HAVE TO REMAIN IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. AND THAT IS WHY SHE THINKS THE ELECTIONS ARE A SHAM.

    // ALISSIA ACT - FADE UNDER //

    SHE SITS IN A SMALL CAFE HERE IN ZENICA, A PRETTY YOUNG 19-YEAR-OLD WITH DARK HAIR AND PIERCING BLACK EYES. SHE IS RAIL-THIN AND NERVOUS. SHE GESTURES INCESSANTLY WITH HER HANDS AS SHE CHAIN SMOKES CIGARETTES AND DRINKS ENDLESS CUPS OF STRONG BLACK COFFEE.

    ALISSIA HAS LIVED IN ZENICA FOR THE PAST THREE YEARS, AS A REFUGEE. SHE WAS BORN IN BANJA LUKA, THE SERB STRONGHOLD TO THE NORTHWEST. SHE, HER MUSLIM FATHER AND CROAT MOTHER WERE EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOME AT THE OUTSET OF THE WAR.

    THE SERBS WILL NOT LET US RETURN, NO MATTER WHAT THE OUTCOME OF THE ELECTIONS, SHE SAYS, ADDING THAT SHE BELIEVES THE VOTE WILL LEAD ONLY TO ANOTHER WAR.

    ALISSIA IS NOT A SUPPORTER OF THE S-D-A. SHE THINKS THE PARTY HAS TURNED TO MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISM, ABANDONING THE IDEA OF A MULTI-ETHNIC BOSNIA. SHE SAYS SHE GAVE UP ON THE PARTY LEADER, PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, THE DAY HE COMPLAINED ABOUT A CHRISTMAS PROGRAM ON BOSNIAN T-V THAT FEATURED SANTA CLAUS. I AM A MUSLIM, SHE SAYS, BUT I GREW UP WITH SANTA CLAUS, AND I DO NOT WANT HIM TAKEN AWAY FROM ME AND MY CHILDREN.

    BUT ALLISSIA SAYS SHE AND OTHER REFUGEES HERE WILL CAST THEIR BALLOTS FOR THE S-D-A. WE MUST, SHE SAYS, BECAUSE IF THE MUSLIM VOTE IS DIVIDED, ONLY THE SERBS WILL WIN. BUT ALLISSIA DOES NOT THINK THE VOTE WILL MAKE ANY REAL DIFFERENCE HERE, AND THE FUTURE, SHE SAYS, IS DARK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DR/JWH/CF
    13-Sep-96 8:55 AM EDT (1255 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [10] OPEN MEDIA AND THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09398
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=(INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: THE OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE, OR OMRI [OM-REE], HAS ASSUMED A MAJOR ROLE IN MONTORING THE ELECTION PROCESS

    IN BOSNIA. VOA REPORTER JUDITH LATHAM RECENTLY SPOKE

    WITH KEY PEOPLE AT OMRI WHO HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN EXPANDING MEDIA ACCESS IN THE REGION, WHERE NEWS IS OFTEN TIGHTLY CONTROLLED, AND IN DISSEMINATING THIS INFORMATION TO A WIDER PUBLIC. HERE'S _____ WITH DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE, FUNDED MAINLY BY THE OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE WHICH IS PART OF THE NETWORK OF SOROS FOUNDATIONS, SERVES PEOPLE IN THE FORMERLY COMMUNIST SOCIETIES OF EASTERN EUROPE AND THE SOVIET UNION. MICHAEL KAUFMANN, DIRECTOR OF PUBLICATIONS AT OMRI HEADQUARTERS IN PRAGUE, SAYS THAT THE INSTITUTE WAS STARTED TWO YEARS AGO WHEN THE SOROS FOUNDATIONS ACQUIRED THE RIGHTS TO THE ARCHIVES OF RADIO FREE EUROPE-RADIO LIBERTY.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- KAUFMANN (0:32) "THE BASIC IDEA IS TO ENCOURAGE DIALOGUE AND TO GATHER AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATION THAT WOULD BE USEFUL. EVERYTHING WE PRODUCE IS AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE EAST AND WEST. WE GIVE A VERY THOROUGH 30-COUNTRY DIGEST SIX DAYS A WEEK. WE PRODUCE A MAGAZINE EVERY TWO WEEKS CALLED 'TRANSITION,' WHICH DEALS WITH ARTICLES ABOUT AND FROM THE REGION. THEN WE HAVE SEVERAL OTHER ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS, ONE OF WHICH IS CALLED 'PURSUING THE BALKAN PEACE.'"

    TEXT: OMRI'S KEY PERSON IN SARAJEVO IS THE WELL-KNOWN JOURNALIST AND PRE-1989 CZECH DISSIDENT JAN URBAN [YAHN OOR-BAHN]. MR. KAUFMANN SAYS JAN URBAN HAS SET UP A STRINGER NETWORK IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- KAUFMANN (0:22) "LET ME SAY THAT IT IS STILL HARDER THAN IT SOUNDS TO FIND PEOPLE ACROSS THE ETHNIC DIVIDE WHO WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THE SAME PUBLICATION. I THINK HE DID WONDERS. HE TOOK PEOPLE FROM SARAJEVO TO BANJA LUKA, AND HE BROUGHT PEOPLE FROM BANJA LUKA TO SARAJEVO. THAT'S NOT A VERY LONG DISTANCE GEOGRAPHICALLY. IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL TERMS IT'S LIKE GOING TO THE MOON."

    TEXT: JAN URBAN'S WORK IN BOSNIA BEGAN IN 1992 WHEN HE AND OTHER DISSIDENT CZECHOSLOVAK JOURNALISTS FORMED A FOUNDATION CALLED PEOPLE IN NEED TODAY. THEY COMBINED JOURNALISTIC ASSIGNMENTS WITH DELIVERIES OF HUMANITARIAN AID. JAN URBAN AND HIS COLLEAGUES ARE NOW DEEPLY INVOLVED IN COVERING THE BOSNIA ELECTIONS.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- URBAN (0:48) "WE FROM THE VERY BEGINNING OF OUR WORK HERE WORKED WITH INDEPENDENT MEDIA ON ALL SIDES, (BEGIN OPT) NOT ONLY BRINGING THEM TOGETHER, THE FIRST HISTORICAL POSTWAR MEETING OF INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS FROM REPUBLIKA SRPSKA AND THE FEDERATION WAS ORGANIZED BY OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE IN BANJA LUKA, BUT ALSO WE HAVE DEVELOPED A NETWORK OF OUR OWN STRINGERS CONCENTRATED ON PREPARATIONS FOR THE ELECTIONS, AND WE COOPERATE WITH SEVERAL OTHER ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE WORKING IN THIS FIELD. (END OPT) AND WE ARE TRYING TO SEE WHAT TROUBLESPOTS SHOULD BE COVERED MORE THAN THE OTHERS ON SEPTEMBER 14 AND WHAT KIND OF ANALYSIS AND INFORMATION WE COULD GET."

    TEXT: JAN URBAN BELIEVES THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS ON SATURDAY WILL BE DEEPLY FLAWED, AND SAYS THAT MANY PARTIES ARE AT FAULT.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- URBAN (0:42) "THIS WILL BY NO MEANS BE A FREE ELECTION, AND IT WILL NOT BE FAIR. WHEN YOU ANALYZE THE OFFICIAL MEDIA IN THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA, IN THEIR TELEVISION NEWS PROGRAMS, THERE IS NEARLY NO MENTION OF OTHER THAN THE RULING PARTY. (BEGIN OPT) YOU HAVE FREQUENT VIOLATIONS OF ALL AGREEMENTS AND O-S-C-E [ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE] RULES AND WITH THE SILENT NODDING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, BE IT CARL BILDT'S OFFICE OR O-S-C-E. (END OPT) THE RULING SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF RADOVAN KARADZIC CAN BE SURE TO WIN. THE OPPOSITION HAS NO SPACE IN MEDIA OTHER THAN THEIR OWN SMALL SERBO-CROATIAN PRINTED MEDIA."

    TEXT: THOUGH FAR FROM IDEAL, JAN URBAN VIEWS THE MEDIA CLIMATE IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, AS CONSIDERABLY BETTER.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- URBAN (0:24) "THEIR SITUATION IS VERY, VERY DIFFERENT BECAUSE THROUGHOUT THE WAR THERE WAS A RANGE OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA, INCLUDING LOCAL RADIO STATIONS. AND THE OPPOSITION IN THE FEDERATION, WITH ALL THE FLAWS AND THE ATTACK OF THE RULING PARTY -- INCLUDING PHYSICAL ATTACKS, BOMB THREATS OR EVEN BOMB EXPLOSIONS -- HAS A MUCH BETTER CHANCE AND A MUCH STRONGER POSITION THAN IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA."

    TEXT: MR. URBAN SAYS THE OPEN MEDIA RESEARCH INSTITUTE IS ALREADY TURNING ITS ATTENTION TO LOCAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA, WHICH HAVE BEEN POSTPONED.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- URBAN (0:36) "WE ARE PUTTING LOTS OF CONCENTRATION ON THE PREPARATIONS OF LOCAL ELECTIONS, MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. AND PRECISELY BECAUSE THEY WERE POSTPONED, I THINK THEY WILL BE EVEN MORE IMPORTANT AND MORE SIGNIFICANT FOR THE FUTURE OF THE COUNTRY. (BEGIN OPT) WE WOULD LIKE TO SEE HOW THE SITUATION EVOLVES IN THE BRCKO AREA, WHICH IS STILL UNCLEAR, AND PROBABLY THE HOTTEST SPOT OF ALL. AND WE WOULD LIKE TO GO THERE AND HAVE OUR PEOPLE WORK VERY CLOSELY TO SEE HOW LOCAL ELECTIONS WILL BE PREPARED IN THIS PART OF BOSNIA AND HERCEGOVINA." (END OPT)

    TEXT: IN THE DAYS AND MONTHS AHEAD, JAN URBAN SAYS THE INDEPENDENT AND FOREIGN MEDIA HAVE AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY IN HELPING TO PROMOTE PEACE AND DEMOCRACY IN THE REGION.
    13-Sep-96 11:32 AM EDT (1532 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] SERBIA VOTING BY BARRY WOOD (BELGRADE)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203061
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THOUSANDS OF SERBIAN REFUGEES FROM BOSNIA HAVE CONVERGED ON BELGRADE WHERE SPECIAL BUSES AND TRAINS ARE TAKING THEM TO BOSNIA TO VOTE ON SATURDAY. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS MORE IN THIS REPORT FROM THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL.

    TEXT: AS MANY AS 60-THOUSAND REFUGEES ARE EXPECTED TO MAKE THE RELATIVELY SHORT JOURNEY BACK TO BOSNIA. THOSE COMING FROM BELGRADE WILL ARRIVE IN THE TOWN OF BIJELINA, JUST ACROSS THE DRINA RIVER IN BOSNIA. FROM THERE THEY WILL TRAVEL BY BUSES UNDER NATO SUPERVISION TO THE TOWNS AND VILLAGES WHERE THEY USED TO RESIDE.

    MOST OF THE REFUGEES LIVING IN SERBIA WILL VOTE IN THE BOSNIAN SERB REPUBLIC, BUT AS MANY AS 10-THOUSAND PLAN TO VOTE IN AREAS THAT ARE PART OF THE MOSLEM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    SERBIAN AUTHORITIES HAVE ASKED MOTORISTS TO STAY OFF THE ROADS THAT LEAD WEST FROM BELGRADE SO THAT THE REFUGEE CONVOYS WILL BE ABLE TO QUICKLY GET THROUGH. THE RED CROSS HAS PROVIDED TEAMS OF PHYSICIANS TO TRAVEL WITH THE REFUGEES AS A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF THOSE RETURNING TO VOTE ARE ELDERLY. // OPT // ABOUT 85-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES IN SERBIA HAVE ALREADY CAST ABSENTEE BALLOTS. // END OPT //

    EARLIER FRIDAY, THE YUGOSLAV TRADE MINISTER SAID HE EXPECTS THE REMAINING ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO TO BE LIFTED 10 DAYS AFTER THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS.

    // OPT //

    FOREMOST AMONG THE REMAINING SANCTIONS IS A PROVISION THAT HAS PREVENTED YUGOSLAVIA FROM REJOINING THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. NEGOTIATIONS ON READMISSION HAVE BEEN TAKING PLACE THIS WEEK. I-M-F MEMBERSHIP IS A PRE-CONDITION FOR YUGOSLAVIA JOINING THE WORLD BANK AND GETTING BADLY-NEEDED CREDITS FROM OTHER INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. UNDER THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD, THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL IS TO MAKE A DECISION ON LIFTING THE REMAINING SANCTIONS 10 DAYS AFTER INTERNATIONALLY CERTIFIED ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/CF
    13-Sep-96 12:37 PM EDT (1637 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [12] U-S BOSNIA ELECT (S) BY DAVID BORGIDA (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=9/13/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203075
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT: *INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION VIEWS (SATURDAY'S) (THE) BOSNIAN ELECTIONS AS A CRITICAL STEP TOWARD RE-CREATING A SINGLE BOSNIAN STATE AS ENVISIONED BY THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS. U-S OFFICIALS ACKNOWLEDGE THAT AFTER FOUR YEARS OF WAR, PROBLEMS ARE LIKELY TO SURFACE IN THE DAYS AHEAD, AND THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL HAVE TO REMAIN DEEPLY INVOLVED IN ETHNICALLY DIVIDED BOSNIA. BUT THEY BELIEVE AN ENVIRONMENT HAS BEEN CREATED THAT WILL ALLOW SUCCESSFUL BALLOTING TO TAKE PLACE. WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DAVID BORGIDA HAS MORE ON U-S EXPECTATIONS.

    TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION BELIEVES BOSNIA'S FIRST NATIONWIDE ELECTIONS SINCE 1990 ARE ON TRACK, WITH VOTER PARTICIPATION EXPECTED TO BE HIGH.

    SANDY VERSHBOW, SENIOR DIRECTOR OF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, COMMENTS:

    /// VERSHBOW ACT ///

    FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT HAS IMPROVED -- IT'S CERTAINLY NOT ANYWHERE NEAR SATISFACTORY -- BUT WE THINK THAT WITH I-FOR'S (THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE'S) SUPPORT AND THE INVOLVEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE TASK FORCE, ALL THOSE WHO WANT TO VOTE AND WANT TO CROSS FROM ONE ENTITY INTO THE OTHER WILL BE ABLE TO DO SO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. VERSHBOW SAYS U-S OFFICIALS ARE LOOKING BEYOND THE ELECTIONS TO THE NEXT STEP -- ESTABLISHING COMMON INSTITUTIONS TO BRING BOSNIA'S SERB AND MUSLIM-CROAT ENTITIES TOGETHER. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGES IT WILL TAKE INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND PRESSURE TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN.

    HE SAYS HE EXPECTS RESULTS OF THE PRESIDENTIAL VOTE TO BE KNOWN WITHIN TWO OR THREE DAYS OF THE ELECTION. RESULTS OF THE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, HE SAYS, PROBABLY WILL NOT BE KNOWN UNTIL LATER NEXT WEEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BORG/RRM
    13-Sep-96 3:42 PM EDT (1942 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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