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Voice of America, 96-09-18

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / ELECTION (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] NATO / BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [04] ROMANIAN POLITICS (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (BUCHAREST)
  • [05] WHAT'S NEXT FOR BOSNIA? BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES JUDGE (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/18/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09786
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=_
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ON WEDNESDAY SEPTEMBER 18TH //

    INTRO: A WIDE VARIETY OF TOPICS HAS THE ATTENTION OF AMERICA'S NEWSPAPER READERS THIS WEDNESDAY, AS EDITORIAL WRITERS TACKLE SUCH SUBJECTS AS: PENTAGON NEGLIGENCE IN THE SAUDI ARABIAN BASE BOMBING; THE DECISION TO EXCLUDE INDEPENDENT CANDIDATE ROSS PEROT FROM THE UPCOMING NATIONALLY-BROADCAST PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES, AND THE ISSUE OF BILL CLINTON'S CHARACTER.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDED THE IRAQI SITUATION AND HOW THE WHITE HOUSE IS HANDLING IT; AND BOSNIA AFTER THE ELECTIONS.

    NOW, HERE WITH A QUOTE OR TWO, IS _____________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: A NEW REPORT BLAMES U-S MILITARY OFFICERS IN SAUDI ARABIA FOR LAX SECURITY IN THE FACE OF TERRORISM. NINETEENM AMERICAN SERVICEMEN DIED AND SEVERAL HUNDRED OTHERS WERE WOUNDED IT A RECENT ATTACK, AND THAT FORMS THE BASIS FOR THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD.

    VOICE: "THE TERRORISTS WHO SUCCESSFULLY BOMBED AN APARTMENT COMPLEX IN SAUDI ARABIA LAST JUNE .... MAY HAVE HAD UNWITTING ACCOMPLICES AMONG U-S MILITARY COMMANDERS. ACCORDING TO THE CONCLUSIONS OF AN INVESTIGATION BY [A] RETIRED ARMY GENERAL ... WHOM THE PENTAGON COMMISSIONED TO INVESTIGATE THE BOMBING, OFFICERS RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY AT THE COMPLEX WERE LAX ABOUT IMPLEMENTING BASIC SECURITY MEASURES. THE COMMANDERS ALSO IGNORED SEVERAL INTELLIGENCE REPORTS WARNING OF THE VULNERABILITY OF AMERICAN SERVICEMEN TO TERRORIST ATTACKS ....."

    TEXT: THE SUBJECT ALSO HAS THE LEAD POSITION ON THE EDITORIAL PAGE OF TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES. THE PAPER WRITES:

    VOICE: "THE PENTAGON'S COMMENDABLY CANDID REPORT ON THIS SUMMER'S TERRORIST BOMBING ..... INDUCES A DISQUIETING SENSE OF DEJA VU. ONCE AGAIN, THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT HAS PROVED MORE ADEPT AT INVESTIGATING ITS SECURITY LAPSES THAN IN PREVENTING THEM. [OPT] MANY LIVES WOULD HAVE BEEN SAVED IF THE PENTAGON HAD LEARNED FROM ITS PREVIOUS FAILURES TO SAFEGUARD AMERICAN FORCES STATIONED IN THE MIDDLE EAST, INCLUDING THE 1983 MARINE BARRACKS BOMBING IN BEIRUT THAT KILLED 241 PEOPLE. ..... MORE AMERICAN SERVICEMEN, 265, HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THREE TERRORIST ATTACKS IN THE MIDDLE EAST SINCE 1982 THAN HAVE DIED OVER THE SAME PERIOD IN COMBAT OPERATIONS WORLDWIDE ... INCLUDING GRENADA, PANAMA, SOMALIA AND THE PERSIAN GULF WAR." [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN DOMESTIC ISSUES, THE BIPARTISAN COMMISSION PLANNING THE UPCOMING PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES VOTED TO EXCLUDE REFORM PARTY CANDIDATE ROSS PEROT. THE COMMISSION TOOK THE ACTION BECAUSE THEY SAID MR. PEROT HAS "NO REALISTIC CHANGE OF WINNING". THE DECISION HAS CAUSED A GOOD DEAL OF DEBATE.

    LEADING OFF, THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS SAYS IT IS "NO LOSS."

    VOICE: ".... THE ... COMMISSION ... HAS STRUCK A BLOW FOR COMMON SENSE. THAT ROSS PEROT GETS LEFT OUT IS NO GREAT TRAGEDY."

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND (NEW YORK), NEWSDAY HAS A VERY DIFFERENT VIEW, STATING THAT "PEROT HAS EARNED THE RIGHT TO JOIN THE DEBATE" AND ADDING, THE DECISION "DIMMED AMERICAN DEMOCRACY A BIT."

    IN USA TODAY, THERE IS THIS:

    VOICE: "ONE OF [MR.] PEROT'S MAJOR APPEALS IS TO VOTERS DISAFFECTED WITH BOTH ESTABLISHED PARTIES, THOSE WHO FEEL NEITHER DEMOCRATS NOR REPUBLICANS ARE SERIOUS ABOUT ADDRESSING ISSUES VITAL TO THEM AND THAT THEY [THE TWO MAJOR PARTIES] OPERATE TO PROTECT THEIR JOINT MONOPOLY ON POWER. BY WRITING OFF [DISALLOWING] [MR.] PEROT, THE DEBATE COMMISSION GIVES ONE MORE TOUCH OF CREDIBILITY TO THAT SENSE OF BIPARTISAN PERSECUTION AND POWERLESSNESS."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] THE BALTIMORE SUN FAULTS THE COMMISSION FOR USING PUBLIC OPINION POLLS AS THE BASIS FOR ITS DECISION, AND SAYS:

    VOICE: "THIS IS NOT JUST ABOUT PRINCIPLE; IT IS ALSO ABOUT OPENING THE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES TO IMPORTANT ISSUES THE TWO MAJOR CANDIDATES WOULD PREFER TO IGNORE. THIS NEWSPAPER .....DEFENDS HIS RIGHT TO MAKE HIS CASE. .... WE SUPPORT HIS DEMAND THAT THE TRUE DIMENSIONS OF THE LONG-RANGE FINANCIAL THREAT TO SOCIAL SECURITY AND MEDICARE BE FACED SQUARELY. MESSRS CLINTON AND DOLE WON'T DO IT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: STILL WITH PRESIDENTIAL POLITICS, THE MANCHESTER [NEW HAMPSHIRE] UNION LEADER'S PUBLISHER NACKEY LOEB HAS A FRONT PAGE EDITORIAL TODAY LAMENTING BILL CLINTON'S ALLEGED CHARACTER FLAWS AND THE APATHY OF THE NATION'S VOTERS REGARDING THAT ISSUE.

    VOICE: "YES, INDEED, CHARACTER COUNTS IN THE UPCOMING VOTE FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. THERE IS A WIDE GULF BETWEEN THE CHARACTER OF THE REPUBLICAN AND DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATES. ..... IF YOU CAN BELIEVE THE POLLS, A RECENT ONE SHOWS 61 PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE RECOGNIZE BILL CLINTON'S DISHONESTY AND CONSIDER HIS ACTIONS IN WHITEWATER EITHER UNETHICAL OR ILLEGAL. ..... AND YET THESE SAME PEOPLE GAVE [MR.] CLINTON A WHOOPING 58-PERCENT JOB APPROVAL RATING AND A 19-PERCENT LEAD IN THE ELECTION. IT'S NOT THAT THEY DON'T KNOW ABOUT [MR.] CLINTON'S CHARACTER, IT'S THAT THEY DON'T SEEM TO CARE."

    TEXT: TURNING BACK TO FOREIGN AFFAIRS, PARTICULARLY THE U-S RELATIONSHIP WITH IRAQ, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS AMERICANS MAY BE LOSING SIGHT OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE REGION.

    VOICE: "AMERICAN AIR STRIKES AND FORCE DEPLOYMENTS ARE REESTABLISHING A FACT THAT MAY HAVE GOTTEN A LITTLE CLOUDED OVER THE PAST SIX YEARS: U-S INTERESTS IN AND AROUND IRAQ REMAIN CEMENTED TO THE REGION'S HUGE OIL FIELDS. THAT ECONOMIC STAKE COMPELLED U-S AND ALLIED INTERVENTION TO ROLL BACK SADDAM HUSSEIN'S INVASION OF KUWAIT. TO A LARGE DEGREE, IT'S SHAPING WASHINGTON'S POLICY NOW. [OPT] .....DESPITE THE DICTATOR'S GRIM RECORD, MANY IN THE REGION STILL VIEW HIM AS A FELLOW ARAB GETTING HIT FOR ASSERTING HIS AUTHORITY OVER HIS OWN COUNTRY. WHY NO OUTCRY, THEY ASK, OVER TURKEY'S NEW 'SECURITY ZONE' IN NORTHERN IRAQ, OR IRAN'S RECENT INCURSION INTO IRAQ TO AID THE KURDISH FACTION IT FAVORS, OR ISRAEL'S LONG OCCUPATION OF SOUTHERN LEBANON? .... IN THIS ENVIRONMENT, THE U-S MILITARY RESPONSE TO SADDAM MUST BE MEASURED."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] REGARDING THAT VERY POLICY, USA TODAY FAULTS WHAT IT FEELS IS INCONSISTENCY COMING FROM THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. FIRST, THE PAPER CHIDES THE WHTIE HOUSE FOR THREATENING TO DISPROPORTIONATELY RETALIATE FOR ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES FIRED AT U-S PLANES, BUT OFFERING NO RESPONSE. SECONDLY, THE PAPER TAKES THE ADMINISTRATION TO TASK FOR FAILING TO INFORM THE KUWAITIS AHEAD OF TIME ABOUT PENTAGON PLANS TO DEPLOY 5-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS THERE, ONLY TO HAVE THE KUWAITIS INITIALLY REFUSE TO ACCEPT THEM. SAYS USA TODAY:

    VOICE: "SUCH A REBUKE IS ALWAYS EMBARRASSING. WHEN DELIVERED BY A TINY NATION LIBERATED JUST FIVE YEARS AGO BY 450-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS, IT'S APPALLING. ...ADD UP THE MISCUES OF THE PAST WEEK, AND IT'S OBVIOUS WHY [MR.] CLINTON FELT A NEED TO REGROUP MONDAY. ... WITH FOUR YEARS UNDER HIS BELT [EXPERIENCE], [MR.] CLINTON SHOULD KNOW THAT AMBIGUITY IS THE LAST WEAKNESS TO SHOW SADDAM. JUST ASK GEORGE BUSH." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON BOSNIA'S ELECTION, NEWSDAY SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "IF THE PERFECT IS THE ENEMY OF THE GOOD, THEN LAST WEEKEND'S BOSNIA ELECTION WAS NOT SO BAD. AFTER 43 MONTHS OF UNRELENTING WAR, BOSNIAN SERBS, MUSLIMS AND CROATS USED BALLOTS INSTEAD OF BULLETS TO DECIDE THEIR DIVIDED COUNTRY'S FATE. THAT FATE REMAINS MURKEY, HOWEVER, AND .... THERE IS LITTLE DOUBT THAT NATO TROOPS - - INCLUDING A SIZABLE U-S CONTINGENT - - WILL HAVE TO RENEW THEIR PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA FOR SOME TIME TO COME."

    TEXT: FINALLY, THE BOSTON GLOBE CHEERS WHAT IS SAYS IS A "HORROR AVERTED IN TRANSYLVANIA," NOTING A RECENT FRIENDSHIP TREATY SIGNED BETWEEN ROMANIA AND HUNGARY, GUARANTEEING THE SAFETY AND RIGHTS OF THE ONE-POINT-SIX MILLION ETHNIC HUNGARIANS LIVING THERE.

    VOICE: "...... THE SIGNING OF [THE] TREATY ... SIGNIFIES NOT ONLY A TRIUMPH OF STATECRAFT FOR THE GOVERNMENTS IN BUDAPEST AND BUCHAREST BUT ALSO IS AN EXAMPLE OF PREEMPTIVE DIPLOMACY THAT WESTERN STATES CAN AND SHOULD PRACTICE IN CENTRAL EUROPE."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL OPINION FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    18-Sep-96 11:05 AM EDT (1505 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / ELECTION (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203304
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA IS HOLDING TALKS WITH MEMBERS OF BOSNIA'S NEW JOINT PRESIDENCY. THE MEETINGS COME ONLY HOURS AFTER ELECTION ORGANIZERS ANNOUNCED THAT MUSLIM CANDIDATE ALIA IZETBEGOVIC HAD WON THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF THE THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY COUNCIL. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS OFFICIALS HOPE TO QUICKLY SET UP POWER-SHARING INSTITUTIONS CALLED FOR IN THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    TEXT: THE MEDIATOR WHO HEADS THE CIVILIAN SIDE OF PEACE EFFORTS IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, IS ALREADY HOLDING TALKS WITH EACH MEMBER OF THE COUNTRY'S NEW THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY. EARLIER, ELECTION ORGANIZERS ANNOUNCED ALIA IZETBEGOVIC, THE MAIN MUSLIM CANDIDATE AND CURRENT BOSNIAN PRESIDENT, HAD WON THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF THE PRESIDENCY COUNCIL. HE NARROWLY DEFEATED HIS SERB RIVAL, MOMCILO KRAJISNIK.

    MR. KRAJISNIK, THE NATIONALIST LEADER OF THE BOSNIAN-SERB PARLIAMENT, LOST BECAUSE STRONG SUPPORT FOR ANOTHER SERB CANDIDATE ALLOWED MR. IZETBEGOVIC TO CAPTURE THE MOST VOTES.

    THE RESULTS FROM THE PRESIDENCY ELECTION HELD SATURDAY HAVE NOT BEEN FORMALLY CERTIFIED AS FINAL, BUT MR. BILDT SAYS HE IS MOVING TO SET UP JOINT POWER-SHARING INSTITUTIONS CALLED FOR IN THE DAYTON ACCORD.

    /// ACT - BILDT ///

    WHEN THE COMMON INSTITUTIONS ARE SET UP THE PRESIDENCY OPERATES, THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY, THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. THEN IT IS A QUESTION OF THE DIFFERENT MEASURES THAT MUST BE TAKEN, BUT FIRST THINGS FIRST AND THAT IS THE SETTING UP OF THE COMMON INSTITUTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SPEAKING AFTER HIS MEETING WITH MR. IZETBEGOVIC, MR. BILDT SAID HE HAS THE FULL SUPPORT OF THE SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT FOR HIS EFFORTS.

    /// ACT - BILDT ///

    MR. IZETBEGOVIC HAS, YES, AND THE OTHERS, PRIME MINISTER MURATOVIC AND VICE PRESIDENT GANIC AND THE OTHERS HAVE PLEDGED THEM TO COOPERATE WITH US ON THESE ISSUES.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT IT IS THE COOPERATION OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS IS THE MOST PROBLEMATIC. THE RULING SERB PARTY RAN AN ELECTION CAMPAIGN BASED ON ETHNIC SEPARATION AND EVENTUAL SECESSION FROM BOSNIA.

    OBSERVERS SAY MR. BILDT'S MEETINGS WITH SERB LEADERS IN PALE ARE NOT LIKELY TO GO SO SMOOTHLY. BUT HE SAYS THAT WHILE HE SEES A LOT OF PROBLEMS, HE ALSO SEES WAYS OF SOLVING THOSE PROBLEMS.

    /// ACT - BILDT ///

    WE'VE HAD EXTENSIVE PREPARATORY TALKS WITH ALL PRESIDENCY CANDIDATES FOR QUITE SOME TIME, SO WE KNOW WHERE THE STICKING POINTS AND THE DIFFICULT ISSUES ARE.

    /// END ACT ///

    IT COULD BE SOME DAYS BEFORE ELECTION RESULTS ARE CERTIFIED AS FINAL AND COMMON INSTITUTIONS, IF THEY ARE ESTABLISHED, CAN BEGIN TO EXERCISE POWER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    18-Sep-96 11:33 AM EDT (1533 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] NATO / BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=9/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203302
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NATO ALLIANCE IS SAYING IT WILL NOT ABANDON BOSNIA IN DECEMBER, WHEN THE MANDATE FOR THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IS DUE TO EXPIRE. HOWEVER, NATO CHIEFS HAVE REFUSED TO COMMENT ON HOW THE OPERATION COULD BE EXTENDED, AS JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE ASSURANCE THAT NATO WILL NOT ABANDON BOSNIA WAS GIVEN BY THE ALLIANCE'S SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA, DURING A NEWS CONFERENCE IN BRUSSELS WEDNESDAY. HOWEVER, HE SAID IT IS TOO EARLY TO TALK ABOUT WHAT WILL HAPPEN AFTER DECEMBER, WHEN THE MANDATE FOR THE 55-THOUSAND-STRONG NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE CALLED "I-FOR" IS DUE TO EXPIRE.

    HE CONFIRMED THAT NATO IS PLANNING FOR ALL CONTINGENCIES, AND THAT THE ISSUE WILL BE DISCUSSED BY ALLIANCE DEFENSE MINISTERS, WHO MEET NEXT WEEK IN BERGEN, NORWAY. MR. SOLANA ADDED THAT NATO EXPECTS THE THREE COMMUNITIES IN BOSNIA -- THE CROATS, MUSLIMS AND SERBS -- TO WORK TOGETHER FOLLOWING THE NATIONAL ELECTIONS. AND HE WARNED THAT THE UTMOST VIGILANCE WILL BE NEEDED FROM THE I-FOR TROOPS TO ENSURE THAT THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD IS HONORED.

    NATO IS HOPING THAT WORK WILL PROCEED SMOOTHLY IN BRINGING INTO FORCE THE NEW FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS IN BOSNIA, SUCH AS THE PARLIAMENT, AND GOVERNMENT. PREPARATIONS MUST ALSO BE MADE FOR THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS, WHICH HAVE BEEN POSTPONED -- PROBABLY UNTIL NOVEMBER OR DECEMBER.

    THE HEAD OF NATO'S MILITARY COMMITTEE, GENERAL KLAUS NAUMANN, ADDED THAT IFOR NEEDS TO BE PREPARED FOR A FLARE-UP OF ETHNIC VIOLENCE AS WORK GETS UNDERWAY TO SET UP THE NEW INSTITUTIONS IN BOSNIA, AND TO PREPARE FOR THE MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. AS A RESULT, SAYS GENERAL NAUMANN, THERE IS LITTLE ROOM FOR A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN THE SIZE OF THE INTERNATIONAL FORCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/PCF/CF
    18-Sep-96 11:14 AM EDT (1514 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] ROMANIAN POLITICS (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (BUCHAREST)

    DATE=9/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203317
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA -- THE SECOND MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY IN POST-COMMUNIST EASTERN EUROPE, HOLDS PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS NOVEMBER THIRD. BARRY WOOD REPORTS FROM BUCHAREST THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE 1989 REVOLUTION, THERE ARE INDICATIONS THAT A GOVERNMENT LED BY FORMER COMMUNISTS MAY LOSE ITS GRIP ON POWER.

    ///SOUND OF PROTEST RALLY -- UNDER AND FADE///

    TEXT: THESE PROTESTING WORKERS IN BUCHAREST'S "REVOLUTION SQUARE" ARE NOT DEMONSTRATING IN FAVOR OF A POLITICAL PARTY. BUT, THEIR RALLY AGAINST GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION IS VERY MUCH PART OF THE CAMPAIGNING UNDERWAY THROUGHOUT ROMANIA.

    OPINION SURVEYS SUGGEST NO SINGLE PARTY WILL GAIN MORE THAN 35-PERCENT OF THE VOTE IN THE NOVEMBER ELECTION. BUT THERE ARE SIGNS THE MAIN OPPOSITION GROUP -- THE CENTER-RIGHT "DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION" -- MAY GET MORE VOTES THAN THE GOVERNING PARTY OF "SOCIAL DEMOCRACY". THAT PARTY HAS DOMINATED ROMANIAN POLITICS SINCE THE CEAUCESCU DICTATORSHIP WAS OVERTHROWN IN DECEMBER, 1989.

    EXPERTS SAY IF CURRENT TRENDS PERSIST, THE CENTER-RIGHT GROUP MAY EMERGE STRONGEST AND WILL BE ABLE TO FORM A NEW COALITION GOVERNMENT. THE "DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION" IS HEADED BY EMIL CONSTANTINESCU, WHO IS ALSO RUNNING FOR PRESIDENT AGAINST INCUMBENT ION ILIESCU -- A LEADER OF THE RULING PARTY. MR. ILIESCU IS PUT SLIGHTLY AHEAD IN OPINION POLLS. THE OPPOSITION'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN IS WEAKENED BY THE PRESENCE OF A THIRD CANDIDATE, PETRE ROMAN, THE HEAD OF ANOTHER OPPOSITION PARTY.

    //OPT//

    IN THE WESTERN ROMANIAN CITY OF TIMISOARA, FLORIN BOYCHEK A RECENT UNIVERSITY GRADUATE -- WILL BE VOTING FOR THE FIRST TIME. HE SAYS PRESIDENT ILIESCU IS NOT POPULAR IN HIS CITY.

    /// BOYCHEK ACT///

    IT IS MY OPINION, OF COURSE. TIMISOARA IS DIFFERENT IN THE 1990'S. A SPECIFIC IDENTIFICATION. HERE IT IS ILIESCU, NO. COMMUNISM, NO.

    ///END ACT//////END OPT//

    THE OPPOSITION CLAIMS THE GOVERNMENT IS CORRUPT AND NOT MOVING FAST ENOUGH ON ECONOMIC REFORM. EXPERTS SAY ROMANIA FACES THE PROSPECT OF A DIVIDED GOVERNMENT -- ONE WHERE THE CENTER-RIGHT COULD CONTROL PARLIAMENT, WHILE THE PRESIDENT REPRESENTS THE CENTER-LEFT.

    THERE IS BROAD CONSENSUS AMONG THE MAIN PARTIES -- ALL FAVOR DEMOCRACY AND A MARKET ECONOMY, ALONG WITH EARLY ROMANIAN MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/RAE
    18-Sep-96 1:58 PM EDT (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] WHAT'S NEXT FOR BOSNIA? BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/18/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09343
    TELEPHONE=619-0934
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES

    ANNCR: BOSNIA'S MUSLIM LEADER ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC HAS WON BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA'S FIRST POST-WAR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION AND WILL BECOME THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNTRY'S NEW THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY. WHILE THE ELECTION RESULTS MUST STILL BE CERTIFIED, OBSERVERS ARE ASKING WHAT LIES AHEAD FOR BOSNIA? DETAILS FROM ......................... IN THIS REPORT PREPARED BY

    VOA'S ERICA BENIS.

    TEXT: THE SEPTEMBER 14 BOSNIAN ELECTIONS WERE HELD ACCORDING TO THE TIME FRAME SET BY THE DAYTON ACCORDS, WHICH STIPULATED THAT ELECTIONS MUST TAKE PLACE WITHIN SIX MONTHS FROM THE SIGNING OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT. THAT WAS TO ENSURE THE CREATION OF THE POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS NEEDED TO PROMOTE BOSNIA'S REUNIFICATION.

    BARNETT RUBIN IS DIRECTOR FOR THE CENTER FOR PREVENTIVE ACTION AT THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS IN NEW YORK. HE SAYS THAT ALTHOUGH THE WEEKEND VOTE MAY HAVE BEEN FLAWED, THERE IS NOW SOMETHING TO BUILD ON FOR THE FUTURE.

    TAPE: CUT ONE RUBIN "THERE WERE MANY, MANY ASPECTS OF THESE ELECTION WHICH WERE UNFAIR, BUT I THINK IT WILL BE CERTIFIED. AND THEN WE'VE HAVE TO MOVE ON FROM THERE. IT'S A FLAWED ELECTION, BUT IT PROVIDES A BASIS TO TRY TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION IN THE FUTURE."

    TEXT: THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (OSCE) AND THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL MUST CERTIFY THE ELECTIONS. [BEGIN OPT] OSCE SUPERVISED THE VOTING, HELPED BY THE MILITARY SECURITY UMBRELLA OF NATO'S IMPLEMENTATION FORCE (IFOR) TO DISCOURAGE POTENTIAL ACTS OF VIOLENCE. [END OPT]

    WITH ONLY MINOR INCIDENTS, HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM, CROATS AND SERBS VOTED FOR A THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY, A NATIONAL PARLIAMENT, TWO REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS, PRESIDENTS FOR THE MUSLIM, SERB, AND CROAT ENCLAVES, AS WELL AS PROVINCIAL COUNCILS.

    JAMES SCHEAR IS A FORMER ADVISOR TO THE UNITED NATIONS FOR BOSNIA. HE SAYS THAT IF THE ELECTIONS RESULTS YIELD EVEN A FEW SEATS IN THE NATIONAL AND REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS TO THE OPPOSITION PARTIES, THAT WILL MARK THE BEGINNING OF A POLITICAL PROCESS THAT EVENTUALLY COULD LEAD TO THE REBIRTH OF PLURALISM IN BOSNIA.

    TAPE: CUT TWO SCHEAR "I THINK IT WILL BE IMPORTANT TO MOVE AHEAD TOWARD THE EARLY CONVENING OF THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY AND THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY FOR BOSNIA. IF -- AS THE NEW DAYTON CONSTITUTION REQUIRES -- THE COLLECTIVE PRESIDENCY CAN WORK OUT A SLATE OF MINISTERS AND A CHAIR FOR THE NEW COUNCIL OF MINISTERS FOR THE COUNTRY, THAT WILL BE A VERY MAJOR STEP FORWARD."

    TEXT: MR. SCHEAR SAYS THAT -- IN CONSTITUTIONAL TERMS -- THESE INSTITUTIONS REFLECT SOME OF THE STRUCTURES THAT USED TO EXIST IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. BUT MAKING THEM WORK COULD BE QUITE DIFFICULT, HE SAYS, BECAUSE OF THE LOOSELY DECENTRALIZED STRUCTURE THAT THE DAYTON CONSTITUTION MANDATES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE SCHEAR "THE HARDEST JOB, I THINK, WILL BE TO PUT TOGETHER A COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, WHICH IS ACCEPTABLE TO ALL THREE COMMUNITIES AND TO RESTRUCTURE THE EXISTING FEDERAL MINISTRIES THAT WILL CONTINUE TO EXIST UNDER THE NEW GOVERNMENT -- FOR EXAMPLE THE FOREIGN AFFAIRS MINISTRY, AND THE BUREAUCRACIES THAT SUPPORT INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE AND FINANCE AND SO FORTH. RIGHT NOW THESE OFFICES ARE RUN BY THE EXISTING WAR TIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE (MUSLIM) ISETBEGOVIC GOVERNMENT. FOR THEM TO BE TRULY REFLECTIVE OF BOSNIA THEY MUST BEGIN TO INCLUDE SOME NUMBERS OF CROATS AND SERBS IN ADDITION TO MUSLIMS."

    TEXT: BARNETT RUBIN SAYS THAT ALTHOUGH MR. IZETBEGOVIC -- THE WINNER OF THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF BOSNIA'S THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY -- STANDS FOR AN INTEGRATED, MULTI-ETHNIC BOSNIA, NONE OF THE THREE ETHNIC GROUPS HAS SO FAR SHOWN THE TOLERANCE OR THE COOPERATION ENVISIONED IN THE PEACE ACCORDS SIGNED IN DAYTON, OHIO LAST YEAR.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR RUBIN "THE DOMINANT SERB LEADERSHIP HAS ADOPTED A REAL RACIST AND EXCLUSIVIST IDEOLOGY. THEY ONLY WANT ONE ETHNIC GROUP IN THEIR STATE. AND I THINK THAT'S ALSO TRUE OF THE NATIONALIST LEADERSHIPS OF THE OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS. THE CROATIANS IN BOSNIA, THEIR LEADERSHIP BY AND LARGE HAS STILL NOT ACCEPTED THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. AND THE DOMINANT MUSLIM LEADERSHIP HAS NOT REALLY ACCEPTED THAT BOSNIA IS GOING TO HAVE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT ENTITIES IN IT AND WILL NOT BE A UNIFIED STATE UNDER THEIR FULL LEADERSHIP."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, IFOR'S MISSION IS SCHEDULED TO END DECEMBER 20TH. [BEGIN OPT] MR. RUBIN SAYS, HOWEVER, THAT INTERNATIONAL MONITORS AND A CERTAIN MEASURE OF MILITARY FORCE MUST REMAIN IN BOSNIA IN ORDER TO PREVENT HARDLINERS FROM THE THREE MAJOR GROUPS FROM HINDERING THE CREATION OF DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS. [END OPT]

    COMPLICATING THE PROGESS OF DISCUSSIONS ON THE POSSIBLE EXTENTION OF THE IFOR MISSION, SAYS MR. RUBIN, IS THE NOVEMBER FIFTH U-S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE RUBIN "AND OF COURSE THERE ARE NOW DISCUSSIONS TAKING PLACE ABOUT EXTENDING OR MODIFYING THAT MISSION. OBVIOUSLY OUR [U-S] PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS COMPLICATES THAT. I DON'T KNOW IF THIS IS TRUE, BUT [U-S] POLITICIANS BELIEVE THAT THE MOOD IN THE UNITED STATES IS AGAINST THIS TYPE OF INVOLVEMENT. SO UNFORTUNATELY THESE DISCUSSIONS ARE GOING ON MORE OR LESS IN PRIVATE, AND THE DECISION WILL BE MADE AFTER THE (U-S PRESIDENTIAL) ELECTIONS." TEXT; ONE NOTE OF ENCOURAGEMENT, SAYS MR. RUBIN, COMES FROM THE FACT THAT THE SIGNATORIES OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT DON'T WANT A RETURN TO ARMED CONFLICT:

    TAPE: CUT SIX RUBIN "I THINK THE REGIONAL STATES NOW DON'T WON'T IT ANYMORE. THEY'VE CONCLUDED THAT THEY'VE GOTTEN WHAT THEY'RE GOING TO GET. AND THEY'RE GOING TO TRY TO LIVE WITH THIS AGREEMENT, WORK WITH IT, WORK AROUND IT, IF NEED BE, BUT USE IT IN SOME WAY OTHER THAN REKINDLING VIOLENT CONFLICT AND WAR."

    TEXT: JAMES RUBIN CONCLUDES THAT IT WILL REQUIRE A LOT OF OUTSIDE PRODING AND ENCOURAGEMENT FOR ALL PARTIES IN THE REGION TO MOVE FORWARD.
    NEB/EB/GE
    18-Sep-96 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] YUGO WAR CRIMES JUDGE (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=9/18/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203315
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AT THE HAGUE IN THE NETHERLANDS, THE OUTGOING CHIEF PROSECUTOR AT THE UNITED NATION'S YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL WARNS THAT THE CREDIBILITY OF THE WHOLE INSTITUTION IS AT STAKE UNLESS MORE SUSPECTS ARE ARRESTED. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS, JURIST RICHARD GOLDSTONE TOLD NEWS JOURNALISTS THAT THE RELATIVELY-SMALL NUMBER OF ARRESTS WAS FRUSTRATING AND DISAPPOINTING.

    TEXT: SOUTH AFRICAN JURIST RICHARD GOLDSTONE HAS LESS THAT TWO WEEKS LEFT AS CHIEF PROSECUTOR AT THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. IN A FAREWELL SPEECH TO REPORTERS, HE SAID HIS BIGGEST FRUSTRATION ON LEAVING WAS THE RELATIVELY SMALL NUMBER OF ARRESTS WHICH HAD BEEN MADE.

    THE TRIBUNAL HAS CHARGED 74 PEOPLE WITH WAR CRIMES, BUT ONLY SEVEN ARE IN CUSTODY. MR. GOLDSTONE SAID THE NEXT FEW MONTHS WOULD BE CRUCIAL, AND UNLESS MORE SUSPECTS ARE BROUGHT TO THE HAGUE, THEN THE TRIBUNAL WOULD NOT BE DOING WHAT IT WAS SET UP TO DO. YET AGAIN, SAID MR. GOLDSTONE, IT WAS THE VICTIMS OF WAR CRIMES WHO SUFFERED.

    /// GOLDSTONE ACT ///

    THERE'S A HUGE INTERNATIONAL FORCE WITH HUGE ARMOR BEHIND IT AND INTELLIGENCE, AND THEY MAKE PUBLIC STATEMENTS LIKE "IT'S NOT WORTH THE BLOOD OF ONE IFOR (INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING IMPLEMENTATION FORCE) SOLDIER TO GO AND MAKE ARRESTS." IMAGINE HOW THE VICTIMS MUST HAVE FELT AGAIN, FOR THE SECOND IMPORTANT TIME BETRAYED? AND WHAT COULD BE MORE CRUEL THAN THAT? IT GRIEVES ME THAT THOSE POLICES ARE PUT TOGETHER BY PEOPLE WHO, I DON'T BELIEVE, CAN BE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT, REALLY, THE POSITION AND INTERESTS AND FEELINGS OF VICTIMS WHO ARE REALLY BEING PLAYED WITH ... IN A WAY, WHO ARE BEING TOYED WITH ... IN THIS UNACCEPTABLE MANNER.

    ///END ACT///

    BUT DESPITE THIS, MR. GOLDSTONE SAID HE WOULD NOT BE LEAVING HIS POST WITH ANY BITTERNESS -- BUT INSTEAD WITH A SENSE OF HAVING ACHIEVED WHAT WAS POSSIBLE. HE ALSO HAD WORDS FOR BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC. BOTH HE AND HIS MILITARY CHIEF RATKO MLADIC HAVE BEEN INDICTED TWICE ON GENOCIDE CHARGES.

    ///SECOND GOLDSTONE ACT///

    THE ONLY POINT I'M MAKING IS THAT HE HAS NO FREEDOM TO MOVE IN HIS OWN COUNTRY AND THE ELECTIONS WON'T CHANGE THAT -- THE ELECTIONS WON'T CHANGE THAT AT ALL. SO HE'S BECOME A PRISONER IN A FAIRLY SMALL AREA AROUND PALE ... SO THIS IS ALREADY A LESSON TO POTENTIAL WAR CRIMINALS -- THAT IT'S NOT GOING TO BE SO EASY POSSIBLY IN THE FUTURE AS IT HAS BEEN IN THE PAST.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. GOLDSTONE PROMISED THAT THE PROSECUTION WOULD ISSUE MORE INDICTMENTS BY THE END OF THIS YEAR, ALTHOUGH HE DECLINED -- IN LINE WITH TRIBUNAL POLICY -- TO SAY WHICH AREAS OF THE CONFLICT WERE BEING INVESTIGATED.

    // REST OPT //

    MR. GOLDSTONE LEAVES HIS POST AT THE BEGINNING OF OCTOBER AND WILL BE REPLACED BY A CANADIAN JUDGE, LOUISE ARBOUR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/MMK
    18-Sep-96 1:34 PM EDT (1734 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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