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Voice of America, 96-09-24

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TURKEY/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)
  • [02] TEST BAN SIGNING (L ONLY) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [03] BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT (L) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] BOSNIA REPORT (L-O) BY DAN ROBINSON (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] BOSNIA ELECTION ASSESSMENT BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)
  • [06] U-S/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] TUESDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TURKEY/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (CAIRO)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203559
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH TROOPS, BACKED BY BOMBERS AND HELICOPTERS, HAVE ATTACKED KURDISH SEPARATISTS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN TUNCELI (EDS: "TUN JELLY") PROVINCE. CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM OUR MIDDLE EAST BUREAU THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN FIGHTING REBELS OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY -- THE P-K-K -- FOR A DOZEN YEARS, AND HAS THREATENED TO SET UP A SECURITY ZONE ALONG ITS BORDER WITH IRAQ TO KEEP THE REBELS FROM USING NORTHERN IRAQ AS A REFUGE.

    TEXT: THE CLASHES IN TUNCELI LASTED ABOUT THREE HOURS. TURKISH SECURITY OFFICIALS TOLD REPORTERS ABOUT 250 P-K-K REBELS WERE SURROUNDED IN A FOREST IN THE AHVANOS VALLEY. THE OFFICIALS SAID AT LEAST SIX REBELS HAD BEEN KILLED.

    //OPT//

    TURKISH AUTHORITIES ARE USING GROUND FORCES, BOMBERS AND HELICOPTERS TO PURSUE THE KURDISH REBELS IN TUNCELI PROVINCE, WHICH IS CONSIDERED ONE OF THE P-K-K'S STRONGHOLDS. //END OPT//

    THE RENEWED FIGHTING IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY COMES ONLY A FEW WEEKS AFTER FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER THREATENED TO SEND TROOPS INTO NORTHERN IRAQ TO STOP THE P-K-K FROM USING THE KURDISH SAFE HAVEN THERE FOR REFUGE AND SUPPLY ROUTES. MRS. CILLER ALSO TALKED OF SETTING UP A SECURITY ZONE THAT WOULD PENETRATE SEVERAL KILOMETERS INTO NORTHERN IRAQ.

    SINCE THE IRAQI KURDISH FACTION, THE "KURDISH DEMOCRATIC PARTY", HAS CONSOLIDATED ITS CONTROL OF THE AREA, TURKISH OFFICIALS APPEAR TO BE TONING-DOWN THE THREAT OF A MILITARY INCURSION IN NORTHERN IRAQ. TURKISH OFFICIALS HAVE EXPRESSED SOME HOPES THE K-D-P FACTION OF MASSOUD BARZANI WILL BE ABLE TO POLICE ITS SIDE OF THE BORDER TO KEEP TURKEY'S KURDISH SEPARATISTS OUT.

    TURKEY'S KURDISH SEPARATISTS HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR MORE THAN A DOZEN YEARS TO GAIN AUTONOMY IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY, WHERE MOST OF THE COUNTRY'S KURDS ARE CONCENTRATED. MORE THAN 20-THOUSAND PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THE CLASHES.

    //REST OPT//

    TURKEY HAS BEEN SHARPLY CRITICIZED BY INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS FOR REFUSING ITS KURDS A SEPARATE CULTURAL OR POLITICAL IDENTITY. LAST WEEK THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS RULED TURKEY SHOULD COMPENSATE VILLAGERS WHOSE HOMES WERE BURNED OR DESTROYED IN THE MILITARY OFFENSIVES AGAINST THE P-K-K REBELS. (SIGNED).
    NEB/LK/PCF/RAE
    24-Sep-96 9:12 AM EDT (1312 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] TEST BAN SIGNING (L ONLY) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203576
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS THE FIRST NATIONAL LEADER TO SIGN THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY TODAY (TUESDAY) AT A CEREMONY AT UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE TREATY, ADOPTED EARLIER THIS MONTH (9/9) BY THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, REQUIRES SIGNATORIES TO REFRAIN FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING IN THE ATMOSPHERE, UNDERGROUND OR IN ANY OTHER PART OF THE ENVIRONMENT.

    AT THE SIGNING CEREMONY, UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI SAID THE TREATY IS A CLEAR SIGNAL THAT THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE IS COMING TO AN END. BUT HE ALSO OBSERVED THAT ACTIONS ARE ALWAYS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WORDS.

    ///BOUTROS-GHALI ACT///

    I APPEAL TO ALL SIGNATORY STATES TO ENSURE THAT THEIR ACTIONS ALWAYS CONFORM TO THE PURPOSE OF THE TREATY. THIS TREATY IS NOT AN END IN ITSELF, BUT PART OF THE PROCESS OF NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT AND NON-PROLIFERATION.

    ///END ACT///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON MADE NO FORMAL REMARKS AS HE SIGNED THE TREATY, BUT HE DID SPEAK OF IT A FEW MINUTES LATER AS HE ADDRESSED THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ///CLINTON ACT///

    THIS COMPREHENSIVE TEST BAN TREATY WILL HELP PREVENT THE NUCLEAR POWERS FROM DEVELOPING MORE ADVANCED AND MORE DANGEROUS WEAPONS. IT WILL LIMIT THE ABILITY OF OTHER STATES TO ACQUIRE SUCH DEVICES THEMSELVES. IT POINTS US TOWARD A CENTURY IN WHICH THE ROLES AND RISKS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS CAN BE FURTHER REDUCED AND ULTIMATELY ELIMINATED.

    ///END ACT///

    IT WILL TAKE SOME TIME FOR THE TREATY TO FORMALLY ENTER INTO FORCE. OF THE 44 GOVERNMENTS IN THE WORLD WITH A NUCLEAR WEAPONS POTENTIAL, INDIA HAS VOWED NEVER TO SIGN THE TREATY BECAUSE IT CONTAINS NO SCHEDULE FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ALL NUCLEAR ARSENALS. HOWEVER, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID THE TREATY IS VALUABLE BECAUSE IT CREATES WHAT HE CALLED AN "INTERNATIONAL NORM AGAINST NUCLEAR TESTING." (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/MMK
    24-Sep-96 12:09 PM EDT (1609 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT (L) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203590
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // REISSUE 2-203586. FIXES REFERENCE TO DAY OF WEEK IN INTRO (TUESDAY STED MONDAY) //

    INTRO: INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS MET WITH BOSNIA'S PRIME MINISTER TODAY / TUESDAY TO PROTEST A SECOND INCIDENT IN WHICH ARMED MUSLIMS ATTEMPTED TO SETTLE REFUGEES IN VILLAGES THEY HAD HELD BEFORE THE WAR. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: IT WAS THE SECOND SUCH STANDOFF BETWEEN AN ARMED GROUP OF MUSLIMS AND TROOPS FROM THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE -- I-FOR. LIKE THE PREVIOUS INCIDENT LAST MONTH IN THE SERB-HELD TOWN OF MAHALA, MUSLIM REFUGEES CROSSED A DIVIDING LINE AND ENTERED THE VILLAGE OF JUSICE [YOU-SEE-CHE].

    AN I-FOR SPOKESMAN, MAJOR BRETT BOUDREAU, SAID THIS SECOND INCIDENT HAS STRUCK A RAW NERVE WITH I-FOR AND HE HOPED THERE WOULD NOT BE A THIRD ONE.

    // BOUDREAU ACT //

    THEY WERE NOT JUST IMPOVERISHED REFUGEES MOVING BACK INTO VILLAGES WHERE THEY ONCE LIVED, WILLING TO REPLACE OR REPAIR SOME OF THE THOUSANDS OF HOMES BOSNIA NEEDS SO ITS CITIZENS CAN HAVE A DECENT PLACE TO SLEEP AND LIVE. THEY WERE MORE THAN THAT. THE MEN WHO SHOWED UP AT JUSICE WITH GUNS AND GRENADES TOLD OUR TROOPS THEY WERE SENT THERE BY THE FEDERATION GOVERNMENT.

    // END ACT //

    MAJOR BOUDREAU SAID THE DAYTON AGREEMENT PROHIBITS CIVILIANS FROM CARRYING ARMS INSIDE THE ZONE OF SEPARATION AND THAT IT CALLS FOR NOTIFICATION OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT. THE ARMS CONFISCATED FROM THE MUSLIMS BY I-FOR INCLUDED SEVERAL BOLT-ACTION RIFLES, ASSAULT RIFLES AND GRENADES.

    THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE UNITED NATIONS, ALEXANDER IVANKO, SAID THE PRESENCE OF SUCH ARMS WAS NOT ONLY A VIOLATION OF DAYTON BUT VERY ALARMING TO THE SERBS:

    // IVANKO ACT //

    AS YOU CAN IMAGINE THE SERBS WERE NOT EXTREMELY HAPPY WITH THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN JUSICE. THEY'VE POINTED OUT THEY DO NOT SEE A SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM. THE CHIEF OF POLICE, AND I QUOTE, TOLD US "THESE MUSLIMS CAME INTO THE VILLAGE AT NIGHT WITH WEAPONS. THEY DUG TRENCHES AND WERE OBVIOUSLY THERE TO DO BATTLE." WE BELIEVE, IN THE CURRENT SITUATION, THE REPUBLIKA SRPSKA AUTHORITIES DESERVE A PAT ON THE BACK FOR THE REMARKABLE RESTRAINT SHOWN IN JUSICE. THEY HAVE NOT ENTERED THE VILLAGE ALTHOUGH UNDER DAYTON THEY HAVE THE RIGHT TO DO SO AND TO CONDUCT LAW ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES IN TERRITORY THEY CONTROL.

    // END ACT //

    FINALLY THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR), MONS NYBORG, URGED ALL PARTIES TO COMPLY WITH U-N-H-C-R REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ORDERLY RESETTLEMENT OF REFUGEES DESPITE THE IMPATIENCE ON ALL SIDES WITH THE SLOWNESS OF THIS PROCESS. ASKED IF THERE HAVE BEEN ANY EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL RESETTLEMENTS OF REFUGEES, MR. NYBORG ADMITTED THERE HAVE NOT BEEN ANY AS YET. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/CF
    24-Sep-96 2:50 PM EDT (1850 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] BOSNIA REPORT (L-O) BY DAN ROBINSON (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203599
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AN INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION STUDYING THE BALKANS SAYS THE UNITED STATES SHOULD KEEP ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND TROOPS IN BOSNIA AS PART OF A CONTINUING INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE AFTER DECEMBER. THE COMMISSION -- MADE UP OF AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN EXPERTS -- RELEASED ITS REPORT IN WASHINGTON (TUESDAY) AND V-O-A'S DAN ROBINSON WAS THERE:

    TEXT: IN ITS RECOMMENDATIONS, THE EIGHT-MEMBER COMMISSION ON THE BALKANS SAYS NATIONS TRYING TO ENFORCE PEACE IN BOSNIA WILL HAVE TO MAINTAIN A MILITARY PRESENCE THERE FOR A LONG TIME AFTER THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE (IFOR) PULLS OUT IN DECEMBER.

    PANEL CHAIRMAN, LEO TINDEMANS, FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF BELGIUM, SAYS THE SUCCESS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS DEPENDS ON THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE WORKING TOGETHER. HE SAYS THE STAKES ARE HIGH, AND THAT MEANS A CONTINUING ROLE FOR U-S TROOPS AS PART OF A SMALLER "FOLLOW-ON" FORCE:

    /// TINDEMANS ACT ///

    NATO MEMBERS SHOULD RECOGNIZE THAT IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO DEMONSTRATE THEIR WILL WITH MILITARY FORCE. IT IS NOT A PLEASURE TO SAY SUCH A THING, YOU CAN IMAGINE, BUT I THINK AT THIS MOMENT THIS MUST BE SAID FOR PEACE IN FUTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE COMMISSION SAYS THE CURRENT NATO PRESENCE SHOULD BE REDUCED BY TWO-THIRDS, AND THAT ABOUT TWO-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS BE PART OF A NEW FORCE.

    WHEN HE SENT U-S TROOPS TO BOSNIA, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID ALL U-S FORCES WOULD BE HOME AFTER ONE YEAR. HOWEVER, WASHINGTON HAS NOT YET SAID HOW MANY U-S SOLDIERS MIGHT BE PART OF A CONTINUED MILITARY PRESENCE.

    THE COMMISSION SHARPLY CRITICIZES THE ETHNIC PARTITIONING OF BOSNIA. IN THE WORDS OF THE PANEL'S REPORT -- TO LEAVE AN ISLAMIC STATE SANDWICHED BETWEEN A GREATER SERBIA AND A GREATER CROATIA IS A RECIPE FOR INSTABILITY.

    AS EXPRESSED BY FORMER BRITISH M-P, JOHN ROPER, THE PANEL WARNS THAT KOSOVO -- THE ETHNIC ALBANIAN REGION IN SOUTHERN SERBIA -- COULD BE A DANGEROUS NEW FLASHPOINT:

    /// ROPER ACT ///

    IT (THE SITUATION IN KOSOVO) SEEMS TO BE GOING BACK VERY MUCH TO A COLONIAL ENVIRONMENT -- A COLONIAL ENVIRONMENT IN A RATHER BAD PERIOD. IT IS NOT HEALTHY FOR SERBIA TO HAVE THAT SITUATION ON ITS BORDERS. IT WOULD NOT BE A HEALTHY DEMOCRACY IN SERBIA, I WOULD ARGUE, UNTIL THERE HAS BEEN A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF KOSOVO.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE COMMISSION CALLS ON THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT TO LIFT MARTIAL LAW IN, AND RESTORE AUTONOMY TO KOSOVO, AND WITHDRAW TROOPS AND POLICE. IT SAYS THE KOSOVO ALBANIAN LEADERSHIP SHOULD ENTER NEGOTIATIONS WITHOUT PRE-CONDITIONS.

    AMONG OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS, THE COMMISSION SAYS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS SHOULD BE TRIED IN ABSENTIA BY THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE -- IF THEY ARE NOT APPREHENDED UNDER TERMS OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    // REST OPT//

    THE COMMISSION ON THE BALKANS WAS SET UP LAST YEAR BY THE CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, AND THE ASPEN INSTITUTE. ITS MEMBERS INCLUDED LLOYD CUTLER, A FORMER U-S PRESIDENTIAL COUNSEL, SIMONE VEIL -- FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, AND POLISH HISTORIAN BRONISLAW GEREMEK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAR/PT
    24-Sep-96 5:28 PM EDT (2128 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIA ELECTION ASSESSMENT BY ERICA BENIS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09355
    TELEPHONE=619-0934
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // VOICER & TAPE INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    ANNCR: BOSNIA'S FIRST POST-WAR ELECTIONS TO CHOOSE A PRESIDENCY AND PARLIAMENT PRODUCED FEW REAL SURPRISES. AS EXPECTED, THE LEADERS OF ALL THREE NATIONALIST PARTIES -- MUSLIM, SERB, AND CROAT -- WON BY LARGE MARGINS, THOUGH NEITHER OF THEM HAS EXHIBITED A REAL COMMITMENT TO A MULTI-ETHNIC, UNIFIED BOSNIA. YET, MANY PEOPLE INSIDE AND OUSIDE THE REGION TOOK SOME HOPE FROM THE UNANTICIPATED STRONG SHOWING OF THE SO-CALLED OPPOSITION PARTIES. THESE RELATIVELY SMALL POLITICAL PARTIES DESIRE REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION AS OPPOSED TO THE SEPARATIST AGENDA OF THE RULING PARTIES. ANALYSTS SAY THE REAL CHALLENGE NOW IS WHETHER THE ELECTION RESULTS HAVE LAID THE POLITICAL FOUNDATION FOR REBUILDING THE COUNTRY'S INFRASTRUCTURE AND ECONOMY TO PRE-WAR LEVELS. ___________ LOOKS AT THESE CONCERNS IN THIS REPORT

    PREPARED BY VOA'S ERICA BENIS.

    TEXT: SOME ANALYSTS ARGUE THAT THE RE-ELECTION OF NATIONALISTS WILL NOT ONLY PERPETUATE BOSNIA'S ETHNIC DIVISIONS, BUT THAT SERB AND CROAT HARD-LINERS WILL OPENLY SABOTAGE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE COUNTRY'S POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. THESE INCLUDE THE THREE-MEMBER PRESIDENCY, HEADED BY MUSLIM LEADER ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, THE NATIONAL PARLIAMENT, THE TWO REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS, THE PROVINCIAL COUNCILS, AND A SCORE OF LOCAL OFFICES. THE SKEPTICS QUESTION WHETHER THESE INDEPENDENT BODIES CAN WORK TOGETHER FOR BOSNIA'S REINTEGRATION.

    OTHERS SEE A DIFFERENT PICTURE EMERGING. AMONG THEM IS RUTH WEDGWOOD, A PROFESSOR AT THE YALE LAW SCHOOL AND A BALKAN EXPERT. SHE SAYS THE FACT THAT 30 PERCENT OF THE VOTE IN THE SERB-OCCUPIED TERRITORY OF REPUBLICA SERBSKA WENT TO THE OPPOSITION PARTIES IS AN UNDENIABLE INDICATION THAT REGIONALISM IS ALMOST AS STRONG A FORCE IN BOSNIA AS IS NATIONALISM.

    TAPE: CUT ONE WEDGWOOD "THE MOST INTERESTING RESULT OF THE ELECTIONS OF COURSE IS THAT THE OPPOSITION PARTIES DID SO WELL. I THINK IT WAS A MORE TELLING MITIGATION OF NATIONALIST SENTIMENT THAN ANYBODY EXPECTED. WHAT SPLIT THE VOTE IS THAT THE PECULIAR GEOGRAPHY OF BOSNIA MEANS THAT PEOPLE SEE THEIR SELF-INTEREST NOT SIMPLY IN LIGHT OF THEIR ETHNICITY BUT IN THEIR ECONOMIC NEIGHBORS. AND I HOPE THAT WHAT THEY BRING TO THE TABLE WILL BE A CONTINUING PRESSURE ON THE RULING PARTIES TO MITIGATE THEIR NATIONALIST EDGE."

    TEXT: BARNETT RUBIN IS DIRECTOR FOR THE CENTER FOR PREVENTIVE ACTION AT THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS IN NEW YORK. IN HIS VIEW, THE ELECTION WILL PRODUCE LITTLE OR NO CHANGE IF NATO DOES NOT SHOW THE HARDLINERS, IN ALL THREE PARTIES, THAT IT IS READY TO ENFORCE THE CIVILIAN PROVISIONS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS. HE POINTS TO SEVERAL AREAS OF DIFFICULTY:

    TAPE: CUT TWO RUBIN "THE LACK OF FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT OF REFUGEES TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. THE LACK OF ACCESS TO INDEPENDENT AND FREE MEDIA IN EACH OF THE THREE AREAS, ALTHOUGH IT'S SOMEWHAT WORSE IN THE SERBIAN AND CROATIAN AREAS THAN IT IS IN THE MUSLIM AREA. THE CONTINUING CONTROL OF ARMED FORCES -- DE FACTO IF NOT DE JURE -- BY WAR CRIMINALS. THE LACK OF INVESTMENT IN ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCUTRE WHICH CAN GIVE PEOPLE -- AND IN PARTICULAR YOUNG MEN -- SOME WAY TO LIVE OTHER THAN PARTICIPATING IN ARMED FORCES."

    TEXT: RUTH WEDGWOOD -- WHO VISITED BOSNIA JUST BEFORE THE ELECTIONS -- SAYS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON ACCORD PROVISIONS BY THE RULING NATIONALIST PARTIES WILL REQUIRE A LOT OF ATTENTION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.

    TAPE: CUT THREE WEDGWOOD "THEY ARE OLD-FASHIONED COMMUNIST PARTIES, IN THE SENSE THAT THEIR SENSIBILITY IS HEGEMONIC; THEY'RE USED TO USING THE ECONOMY AS A WAY OF REWARDING SUPPORTERS AND PUNISHING DISSENTERS. SO TO OPEN UP THE ECONOMY IT'S GOING TO BE DIFFICULT. WHEN WE WERE ON THE GROUND FOR TWO WEEKS AT THE END OF AUGUST, THERE WERE THREE TROUBLING PROBLEMS: ONE IT'S THAT THERE'S STILL NO BANKING SYSTEM. SO PEOPLE STILL HAVE TO DEAL IN CASH, AND POLICE SKIM OFF ONE PERCENT WHEN YOU GO THROUGH ROADBLOCKS. SECOND, I WAS STRUCK BY THE NUMBER OF STORIES OF QUITE RAMPANT GOVERNMENT CORRUPTION. AND THIRD, THAT THERE STILL WAS A SENSIBILITY THAT FIGHTING MIGHT BREAK OUT AT SOMETIME IN THE FUTURE. AND THAT IS COMPLETELY SPOOKING FOREIGN CAPITAL."

    TEXT: ONE HAS TO HOPE -- ADDS PROFESSOR WEDGWOOD -- THAT THE CONDITIONS IMPOSED BY INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS LENDING MONEY FOR BOSNIA'S RECONSTRUCTION WILL PERSUADE THE PARTIES TO ACT RATIONALLY.

    SOME OBSERVERS SAY THAT FOR BOSNIA TO MOVE FORWARD, ALL THE POLITICAL PARTIES, AS WELL AS THE SURROUNDING STATES, MUST ACCEPT THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON ACCORD. BARNETT RUBIN OF THE U-S COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS SAY THAT IS STILL NOT CLEAR. HOWEVER, HE SAYS ONE VERY POSITIVE POST-ELECTION SIGN IS THE OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT THAT PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC AND HIS SERBIAN COUNTERPART, SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, WILL MEET IN PARIS FOR THE FIRST TIME ON OCTOBER 3RD. AND THIS, HE SAYS, WILL SEND A MESSAGE TO BOSNIAN SERBS.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR RUBIN "IT MEANS THAT HE (MILOSEVIC) WILL START HAVING REGULAR STATE-TO-STATE RELATIONS. THEY WILL PROBABLY ENGAGE IN MORE DIRECT AND LEGAL TRADE. AND IN GENERAL IT WILL PROVIDE -- IF HE REALLY DOES THAT -- A STRONG SIGNAL TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS THAT SERBIA PROPER IS NOT PURSUING THE AIM OF 'GREATER SERBIA.' JUST AS WHEN SERBIA AND CROATIA MUTUALLY RECOGNIZED EACH OTHER, AND PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MET WITH PRESIDENT TUDJMAN, I BELIEVE IN CAIRO, TO SEND A STRONG SIGNAL TO THE SERBS IN EASTERN SLAVONIA THAT THEY WOULD HAVE TO NEGOTIATE THEIR FUTURE WITHIN CROATIA AND NOT AS PART OF 'GREATER SERBIA' OR AS A SEPARATE REGION."

    TEXT: WHILE NINE MONTHS OF PEACE HAVE HELPED EASE TENSIONS ON THE GROUND, AND EVEN AMONG BOSNIA'S POLITICAL LEADERS, RUTH WEDGWOOD SAYS RESTARTING THE ECONOMY IS PERHAPS THE MOST CRUCIAL CHALLENGE.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE WEDGWOOD "THERE'S AN 85 PERCENT UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AT THE MOMENT. IT'S VERY DIFFICULT TO DEMOBILIZE PEOPLE. IF YOU DON'T GET THE ECONOMY GROWING, YOUR HYPERACTIVE ADULT MALE WILL HAVE NOTHING TO DO BUT FIGHT. SO I DO THINK THAT'S CRUCIAL. AND FOR THAT, TOO, DEMINING IS CRUCIAL TO GET PEOPLE BACK TO THEIR VILLAGES AND ABLE TO FUNCTION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR WEDGWOOD CONCLUDES THAT WITHOUT ECONOMIC GROWTH AND STABILITY, FIGHTING AMONG BOSNIA'S NATIONALIST FACTIONS COULD BE EXPECTED TO RESUME.
    NEB/EB/PCH
    24-Sep-96 2:07 PM EDT (1807 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] U-S/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/23/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203543
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT WILL AWAIT CERTIFICATION OF THE SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA BEFORE DECIDING WHETHER TO SUPPORT THE LIFTING OF SANCTIONS AGAINST SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS WASHINGTON SAYS SANCTIONS KEEP LEVERAGE ON BELGRADE TO RESOLVE SUCH OUTSTANDING ISSUES AS WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS:

    TEXT: U-S STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN GLYNN DAVIES SAYS ONCE THE RESULTS OF THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS ARE CERTIFIED LATER THIS WEEK WASHINGTON WILL DEAL WITH THE SANCTIONS ISSUE. HE SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST HAVE LEVERAGE ON BELGRADE UNTIL POST-WAR ISSUES ARE RESOLVED:

    ///DAVIES ACTUALITY///

    THERE IS THE SO-CALLED OUTER WALL OF SANCTIONS THAT PERTAINS TO SERBIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. THE OUTER WALL IS LINKED TO, AMONG OTHER THINGS, PERFORMANCE ON WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL ISSUES. THAT LEVERAGE WILL REMAIN.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. DAVIES' COMMENTS FOLLOW A WASHINGTON POST REPORT THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES EASING SANCTIONS NOW REMOVES ANY INCENTIVE FOR BOSNIAN SERBS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY. THE U-S POSITION IS REPORTEDLY AT ODDS WITH ITS EUROPEAN PARTNERS IN THE SO-CALLED INTERNATIONAL CONTACT GROUP ON BOSNIA. MR. DAVIES INSISTS THOSE DISAGREEMENTS ARE OVERSTATED.

    THE SANCTIONS AGAINST BELGRADE, IMPOSED TO PUNISH SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA FOR ITS MILITARY SUPPORT OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WERE SUSPENDED AFTER PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SIGNED THE DAYTON ACCORDS LAST YEAR, BUT THE MOVE AWAITS U-N ACTION. UNDER THE ACCORDS, THE SANCTIONS ARE TO BE LIFTED 10 DAYS AFTER BOSNIAN ELECTIONS. (SIGNED).
    NEB/VB/KL
    23-Sep-96 10:54 PM EDT (0254 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] TUESDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/24/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09796
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 24TH //

    INTRO: TAKING A QUICK LOOK AT TUESDAY'S MAJOR U-S DAILIES, ONE FINDS A WIDE RANGE OF EDITORIAL TOPICS, INCLUDING BORIS YELTSIN'S PENDING HEART OPERATION; THE U-S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN; POSSIBLE GOVERNMENT SLIPUPS IN THE T-W-A FLIGHT 800 INVESTIGATION; PROBLEMS WITH MEXICO'S FREE PRESS, AND NORTHERN ITALY'S SECESSION MOVEMENT. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _____________AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: BOTH THE PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD AND THE NEW YORK TIMES EXPLORE SOME POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS IF BORIS YELTSIN HAS HEART BYPASS SURGERY AND THE POWER VACUUM IT COULD CAUSE. FIRST THE PRESS HERALD:

    VOICE: "THE POSSIBLE POSTPONEMENT OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S HEART BYPASS OPERATION FOR A MONTH OR TWO BRINGS UP AN AREA OF CONCERN FOR THAT COUNTRY'S INFANT DEMOCRACY: SUCCESSION IN AN EMERGENCY... THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER WESTERN NATIONS HAVE TO BE PREPARED FOR THE POSSIBILITY THAT [PRESIDENT] YELTSIN WILL NOT BE ABLE TO RESUME HIS DUTIES IMMEDIATELY... GOOD RELATIONS DON'T DEPEND ON WHO IS IN CHARGE; THEY DEPEND ON MUTUAL INTERESTS AND DESIRES FOR PEACE. THE ODDS ARE THAT WON'T CHANGE."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS THIS IS A "POTENTIALLY VOLATILE PERIOD OF POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY" IN RUSSIA AND SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "IT IS NOT TOO SOON FOR MR. YELTSIN AND HIS AIDES TO DEVELOP A LONG-TERM STRATEGY FOR GOVERNING RUSSIA UNDER AN INFIRM PRESIDENT. THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION PROVIDES FOR THE PRIME MINISTER TO FILL IN FOR AN INCAPACITATED OR DEAD PRESIDENT FOR THREE MONTHS, AT WHICH TIME NEW ELECTIONS MUST BE HELD... [OPT] WASHINGTON'S RELATIONS WITH MOSCOW ARE ALREADY PARTLY PARALYZED BY THE POWER VOID IN THE KREMLIN, AND THAT WILL ONLY GET WORSE IF LINES OF AUTHORITY ARE NOT MORE CLEARLY DEFINED AND MR. CHERNOMYRDIN FAILS TO EXERCISE THE NEW AUTHORITY HE HAS." [END OPT]

    TEXT: DOMESTICALLY, THE BIG STORY IS POLITICS, AND IN TODAY'S WALL STREET JOURNAL THERE IS A CAUSTIC COMMENT ON HOW THE 104TH CONGRESS IS REACTING TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S POWER IN THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN.

    VOICE: "IS NEWT GINGRICH STILL SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE? HAS ANYONE SEEN [HOUSE REPUBLICAN LEADER] DICK ARMEY LATELY? HAS TRENT LOTT [SENATE REPUBLICAN LEADER] SUDDENLY TAKEN ILL? WE'RE ONLY ASKING BECAUSE THE FINAL DAYS OF THE 104TH CONGRESS SURE DON'T LOOK TO US LIKE ANYTHING THESE GUYS WOULD HAVE TOLERATED IF THEY WERE STILL IN CHARGE. WE JOKE, OF COURSE, BECAUSE THESE FELLOWS ARE AT LEAST STILL IN NOMINAL CONTROL OF THE CONGRESS. BUT THE DEPRESSING TRUTH IS THAT IN POLITICAL TERMS PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS BEEN IN COMMAND FOR SOME TIME NOW... [BLACKMAILING] REPUBLICANS INTO ACQUIESCING TO HIS PRIORITIES."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO BOB DOLE'S ELECTION CAMPAIGN, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR COMMENTS ON THE REPUBLICAN CANDIDATE'S EFFORTS TO ATTRACT BLACK VOTERS:

    VOICE: "IS THERE A DOWNSIDE TO THE NEWFOUND REPUBLICAN ZEAL TO VIE FOR AFRICAN-AMERICAN VOTES? NOT IF THE RESULT IS BREAKING STEREOTYPES INSTEAD OF CAMPAIGNING ON THEM... THE DISMAYING ALTERNATIVE COULD BE CRASS APPEALS TO PRESUMED INTERESTS OF A BLOC RATHER THAN GENUINE OUTREACH TO ALL VOTERS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE IS CONCERNED ABOUT PLANS TO EXCLUDE REFORM PARTY CANDIDATE ROSS PEROT FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES:

    VOICE: "EXCLUDING ... ROSS PEROT FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES WILL NOT MAKE THE ISSUE OF REFORMING THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM GO AWAY, AND CANDIDATES BILL CLINTON AND BOB DOLE ARE BOTH UNDER ADDED PRESSURE TO ADDRESS IT... IF ... THE EXCLUSION STICKS [IS UPHELD], SOME OF [MR.] PEROT'S KEY POSITIONS WILL ALSO RECEIVE DIMINISHED ATTENTION... BUT POLITICAL REFORM, A CORE ISSUE FOR [MR.] PEROT ... SHOULD ACTUALLY GAIN ALTITUDE, AT LEAST AMONG A LARGE SEGMENT OF HIS FOLLOWING."

    TEXT: TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES COMMENTS ON WHAT IT CALLS THE FRUSTRATINGLY SLOW PROGRESS OF FINDING A CAUSE OF THE T-W-A CRASH OFF NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND AND POINTS TO THE LACK OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN FEDERAL AGENCIES. THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION LASE WEEK REVEALED THAT SHORTLY BEFORE THE CRASH, THE PLANE WAS USED IN A TEST OF BOMB-SNIFFING DOGS AND HAD REAL EXPLOSIVES ABOARD FOR THAT PURPOSE. THAT, SAYS THE LOS ANGELES TIME,S RAISES A WHOLE NEW AIR SAFETY ISSUE.

    VOICE: "THERE MAY BE HUNDREDS OF AMERICAN AIRLINERS FLYING TODAY THAT ARE CARRYING TRACES OF RESIDUE FROM EXPLOSIVES. IF NO ONE THOUGHT BEFORE ABOUT HOW THAT MIGHT COMPLICATE AN INVESTIGATION LIKE THIS, IT OUGHT TO BE THOUGHT ABOUT NOW."

    TEXT: TURNING TO MEXICO, TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD SAYS WITH ALL ITS PROBLEMS, THE LAST THING THE COUNTRY NEEDS IF INTIMIDATION OF THE PRESS. THE FLORIDA PAPER REFERS TO THE CASE OF REGIONAL OPPOSITION NEWSPAPER EDITOR RAZHY GONZALEZ, WHO WAS KIDNAPPED EARLIER THIS MONTH BY SUSPECTED GOVERNMENT SECRET POLICE SEEKING INFORMATION ON REBELS IN THE AREA. SAYS THE HERALD:

    VOICE: "JUST WHEN GUERRILLA INSURGENCY AND ECONOMIC TURMOIL MAKE THE NEED FOR AN UNFETTERED PRESS MOST ACUTE IN MEXICO COME WORRYING REMINDERS OF THE PERILOUS STATE OF JOURNALISM THERE... FROM THE START, EVEN AS A GOVERNMENT SPOKESMAN TRIED TO SHRUG OFF [MR. GONZALEZ'] DISAPPEARANCE AS A MERE CRIMINAL KIDNAPPING, ALARMED OAXACA JOURNALISTS HAD WORRIED ABOUT OFFICIAL INVOLVEMENT. THE GOVERNOR OF OAXACA HAS PROMISED A FULL INVESTIGATION. THAT IS THE LEAST ... HE CAN DO. THERE IS NO ROOM FOR INTIMIDATION -- OR WORSE -- IN A DEMOCRACY."

    TEXT: THE LOS ANGELES TIMES, MEANWHILE, TAKING NOTE OF THE RASH OF KILLINGS OF MEXICO'S FEDERAL NARCOTICS AGENTS, SAYS THAT WITH U-S AID, "MEXICO ... MUST PRESS ON DESPITE LOSS OF DRUG AGENTS," BUT WARNS:

    VOICE: IMMEDIATE POSITIVE RESULTS IN THIS WAR SHOULD NOT BE EXPECTED. MEXICO'S STRUGGLE AGAINST DRUGS HAS BEEN UNDERWAY FOR DECADES. UNDOUBTEDLY IT WILL TAKE YEARS MORE TO BRING THE PROBLEM UNDER CONTROL."

    TEXT: ITALY'S CURRENT MINORITY CAMPAIGN BY UMBERTO BOSSI TO BREAK AWAY THE COUNTRY'S NORTHERN PROVINCES TO FORM A NEW NATION CALLED PADANIA DRAWS THIS COMMENT FROM THE BOSTON GLOBE.

    VOICE: "COMMON SENSE WON A BIG VICTORY OVER THE FORCES OF REGIONAL DIVISION IN ITALY THIS MONTH... NORTHERN LEAGUE LEADER UMBERTO BOSSI, IN A BIZARRE AND DESTRUCTIVE EFFORT TO CREATE A NEW NATION, 'PADANIA,' OUT OF THE NORTHERN PROVINCES, MARCHED ALONG THE PO RIVER TO VENICE, BUT WITH MORE FLAMBOYANCE THAN COMPANY. A DAMPING OF [MR.] BOSSI'S SEPARATIST DISTRACTION WOULD BE HELPFUL TO THE NEW GOVERNMENT ... NOW ENTERING ITS FIFTH MONTH [WHICH] HAS WEIGHTIER ISSUES TO DEAL WITH..."

    TEXT: THE BALTIMORE SUN, COMMENTING ON THE HUGE CACHE OF I-R-A EXPLOSIVES FOUND BY POLICE IN LONDON THIS WEEK, COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "ANYONE WHO WANTS PEACE AND OPPORTUNITY IN NORTHERN IRELAND HAS A STAKE IN SHUTTING DOWN THE I-R-A CAMPAIGN IN BRITAIN FOR GOOD."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION SPEAKS OUT AGAINST THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES VOTE LAST WEEK TO OVERRIDE PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VETO OF A MEASURE BANNING CONTROVERSIAL LATE-TERM ABORTIONS. SAYS THE CONSTITUTION:

    VOICE: "GOVERNMENT HAS NO ROLE, HOWEVER, IN THE VERY PRIVATE, OFTEN WRENCHING DECISIONS THAT WOMEN MAKE ABOUT THEIR REPRODUCTION. WITH THE VOTE IN THE HOUSE, THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT HAS SCORED A BIG WIN IN ITS BATTLE TO STRIP WOMEN OF THEIR RIGHT TO CHOOSE. IT'S UP TO THE SENATE TO TURN BACK THE EXTREMIST FORCES."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL OPINION ON SOME OF THE LEADING TOPICS OF THE DAY FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    24-Sep-96 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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