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Voice of America, 96-09-25

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] TURKEY/IRAQ/US BY DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] TURKEY / IRAQ / KURDS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)
  • [03] U-S/IRAQ KURDS (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: ROMANIA AND BULGARIA'S ETHNIC MINORITIES BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] NATO / BOSNIA (S & L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [06] BOSNIA ELECTION DEBATE (L-ONLY) BY PAM TAYLOR (SARAJEVO)
  • [07] U-N/ BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)
  • [08] U-S / BOSNIA REACT (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (BEATTIE)
  • [09] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] TURKEY/IRAQ/US BY DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CLOSEUP (UPDATE)
    NUMBER=4-09357
    TELEPHONE=619-1874
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // VOICER & TAPE INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVICES //
    [ED'S NOTE: ADDS PHRASE IN TEXT PRECEDING TAPE CUT FOUR]

    INTRO: THE IRAQI MILITARY PRESENCE IN NORTHERN IRAQ HAS THROWN INTO QUESTION THE FUTURE OF OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT -- THE U-S-LED COALITION'S EFFORT TO PROTECT THE KURDS LIVING THERE. THE NEW REALITY ON THE GROUND HAS ALSO PUT ADDED PRESSURE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND ITS NATO ALLY TURKEY, WHICH HAS SINCE 1991 SERVED AS THE BASE OF OPERATIONS FOR THE

    HUMANITARIAN MISSION IN NORTHERN IRAQ. AS VOA'S

    ____________ REPORTS, RECENT EVENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT TURKEY'S INTERESTS IN THE REGION SOMETIMES ARE AT ODDS WITH THOSE OF THE UNITED STATES.

    TEXT: AT THE END OF THE GULF WAR IN 1991, THE UNITED STATES AND ITS WAR ALLIES SET UP A HUMANITARIAN EFFORT IN NORTHERN IRAQ TO PROTECT THE KURDS FROM SADDAM HUSSEIN'S VENGEANCE. TURKEY PROVIDED THE BASE OF OPERATIONS FOR THE RELIEF MISSION, KNOWN AS OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT, AND ALSO FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF A "NO-FLY ZONE" TO KEEP IRAQI AIRCRAFT FROM FLYING OVER THE ALLIED-PROTECTED AREA.

    BUT TURKEY HAS HAD PROBLEMS WITH ITS OWN KURDISH POPULATION. THE KURDISH WORKERS' PARTY, KNOWN AS THE P-K-K, HAS BEEN WAGING A GUERRILLA WAR AGAINST TURKEY FOR 12 YEARS, HOPING TO ESTABLISH A SEPARATE HOMELAND WITHIN TURKEY'S BORDERS. AND THE GUERRILLA GROUP MAINTAINS BASES IN NORTHERN IRAQ FOR CROSS-BORDER ATTACKS INTO SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY. ALAN MAKOVSKY OF THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY SAYS TURKEY'S TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY IS ITS PRIMARY CONCERN.

    TAPE: CUT ONE - MAKOVSKY "THERE IS ESSENTIALLY AN AUTHORITY VACUUM WHICH ALLOWS THE P-K-K TO ATTACK TURKEY. IT IS USING NORTHERN IRAQ AS A BASE FROM WHICH TO ATTACK THE TURKS. AND BRINGING THE P-K-K UNDER CONTROL IS A NUMBER ONE PRIORITY FOR TURKEY. CONSEQUENTLY, THE TURKS WOULD REALLY BE QUITE PLEASED TO SEE ANY CONCEIVABLE AUTHORITY EMERGE IN NORTHERN IRAQ THAT COULD CONTROL THE P-K-K. IF THAT WERE SADDAM HUSSEIN, FROM THE STANDPOINT OF TURKISH INTERESTS, THAT WOULD BE FINE WITH ANKARA. WHAT COMPLICATES LIFE FOR ANKARA IS THAT IT CANNOT LOOK AT THIS PROBLEM STRICTLY FROM ITS OWN NARROW INTERESTS. IT ALSO HAS TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES BECAUSE THE UNITED STATES IS TURKEY'S PRIMARY ALLY AND A MAJOR POLITICAL SUPPORTER IN THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY."

    TEXT: IRAQ'S ARMY REENTERED THE DEFACTO AUTONOMOUS REGION IN NORTHERN IRAQ ON AUGUST 31ST AT THE INVITATION OF AN IRAQI KURDISH GROUP -- A GROUP WHICH OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT WAS SUPPOSED TO PROTECT FROM SADDAM HUSSEIN'S FORCES. THE PRESENCE OF AN IRAQI MILITARY APPARATUS IN THE NORTH THROWS INTO DOUBT THE FUTURE OF THE HUMANITARIAN EFFORT.

    TURKEY HAS INDICATED A WILLINGNESS TO SEE SADDAM REGAIN CONTROL OF NORTHERN IRAQ BECAUSE IT HOPES TO FIND HELP IN CLEARING THE BORDER REGION OF P-K-K GUERRILLAS. THE PROBLEM FOR TURKEY IS THAT THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT WANT A RETURN OF SADDAM HUSSEIN'S RULE IN NORTHERN IRAQ. TURKEY HAS OTHER DIFFICULTIES WITH U-S POLICY IN THE REGION. IT HAD HOPED THAT UNITED NATIONS SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAQ WOULD EASE SOON SO THAT IT COULD REINTEGRATE ITS ECONOMY WITH IRAQ'S. AGAIN, ALAN MAKOVSKY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO - MAKOVSKY "TURKEY, BECAUSE OF THE U-N SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAQ, HAS LOST A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF MONEY. AND THE SOUTHEASTERN PART OF TURKEY, WHICH IS THE HOME OF P-K-K TERRORISM AND INSURGENCY, HAS REALLY BEEN THE AREA WHICH HAS BEEN HARDEST HIT. AND THAT HAS PLAYED INTO P-K-K HANDS."

    TEXT: BEFORE THE IRAQI INVASION OF KUWAIT, WHICH SPARKED THE GULF WAR AND LED TO U-N SANCTIONS, IRAQ WAS TURKEY'S SECOND LARGEST EXPORT MARKET. MOST OF THAT TRADE HAS BEEN KILLED BY THE U-N SANCTIONS. IRAQ ALSO PUMPED MOST OF ITS EXPORTED OIL THROUGH A PIPELINE THAT CROSSES TURKEY. UNTIL THE MOST RECENT IRAQI INCURSION INTO THE PROTECTED NORTHERN AREA, PLANS HAD BEEN MADE TO PARTIALLY LIFT THE U-N SANCTIONS, WHICH WOULD HAVE ALLOWED SOME OIL TO BEGIN FLOWING THROUGH TURKEY AGAIN. ACCORDING TO JAMES PLACKE, THE WASHINGTON-BASED DIRECTOR OF CAMBRIDGE ENERGY RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, TURKEY AT ONE TIME EARNED SEVERAL HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS A YEARS IN TRANSIT FEES FROM IRAQ'S USE OF THE PIPELINE.

    TAPE: CUT THREE - PLACKE "A ROUGH ESTIMATE, THAT WOULD PROBABLY NET TURKEY ON THE ORDER OF 300 MILLION DOLLARS A YEAR, WHICH GIVEN TURKEY'S ECONOMIC NEEDS THAT'S SIGNIFICANT. I THINK TURKEY WAS HOPING TO BENEFIT TO SOME EXTENT AT LEAST FROM INCREASED TRADE WITH IRAQ, IN TERMS OF SO-CALLED HUMANITARIAN RELIEF SUPPLIES THAT WOULD BE PURCHASED WITH THESE FUNDS THROUGH UNITED NATIONS SUPERVISION. TURKEY MAKES THE ARGUMENT QUITE FORCEFULLY THAT THEY HAVE BEEN THE ONE THAT HAS BEEN CALLED UPON TO MAKE THE GREATEST ECONOMIC SACRIFICE IN ORDER TO KEEP THE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS OPERATING ON IRAQ."

    TEXT: THE PLANNED EASING OF THE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS HAS BEEN CANCELLED FOR NOW. WHILE TURKEY MAY NOT BE ABLE TO REINTEGRATE WITH IRAQ'S ECONOMY, STEPHEN PELLETIERE, OF THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE IN PENNSYLVANIA, SAYS IT DOES HAVE A STRONG ARGUMENT FOR ENDING ITS SUPPORT FOR OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR - PELLETIERE "I THINK THERE HAVE BEEN PLENTY OF INDICATIONS THROUGH U-S POLICYMAKERS THAT THE TURKS WERE NOT MARCHING IN STEP WITH US. THE TURKS HAVE BEEN SIGNALING FROM DAY ONE OF OPERATION PROVIDE COMFORT THAT THEY DON'T LIKE IT; THEY WANTED IT CLOSED DOWN, AND IT WAS ONLY BY CONSISTENTLY OVERRULING THEIR OBJECTIONS THAT WE WERE ABLE TO GO ON WITH THIS THING. NOW IT SEEMS TO ME THE TURKS ARE IN AN ADMIRABLE POSITION. THEY CAN SAY TO US, 'OK, CLOSE IT DOWN. IT'S OUTLIVED ITS USEFULNESS. IT PERFORMS NO USEFUL FUNCTION, THEREFORE STOP IT.' AND WHAT IN FACT CAN WE SAY TO THE TURKS? IT DOESN'T SEEM THAT WE'VE GOT MUCH THAT WE CAN. EVENTS HAVE SIMPLY OVERTAKEN US."

    TEXT: THERE ARE OTHER CHALLENGES TO THE U-S RELATIONSHIP WITH ANKARA. ALAN MAKOVSKY SAYS TURKEY'S FOREIGN POLICY IS SOMEWHAT MUDDLED BY THE FACT THAT THERE ARE VARIOUS POWER CENTERS -- ONE CONTROLLED BY TURKEY'S NEW ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, ANOTHER BY ITS FOREIGN MINISTER, TANSU CILLER.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE - MAKOVSKY "AND THERE IS THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, WHICH IS HALF MILITARY AND HALF CIVILIAN. CONSTITUTIONALLY, IT IS AN ADVISORY BODY, BUT HISTORICALLY ITS DECISIONS HAVE RARELY BEEN OVERRULED. AND I WOULD SAY AT THIS POINT PROBABLY THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL IS THE FOCUS OF FOREIGN POLICY AND SECURITY POLICY DECISIONS IN TURKEY RIGHT NOW. BUT THERE ARE ENOUGH DISCORDANT VOICES THAT I THINK IT PRESENTS SOMEWHAT OF A CHALLENGE TO TURKEY'S PARTNERS TO FIGURE OUT EXACTLY WHO DOES SPEAK FOR TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY AT THIS TIME."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO MR. MAKOVSKY, THAT CHALLENGE IS A CAUSE OF SOME CONCERN TO THE UNITED STATES.

    TAPE: CUT SIX - MAKOVSKY "I THINK TURKISH/U-S RELATIONS ARE BASICALLY ON TRACK, BECAUSE I THINK THE U-S FEELS THAT THE TRADITIONAL PRO-SECULAR FORCES IN TURKEY REMAIN THE PRIMARY FACTOR IN TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY DECISION-MAKING AT THIS POINT. BUT THERE'S ALSO A LOT OF CONCERN ABOUT MR. ERBAKAN AND EVERY TIME HE MAKES A TRIP TO IRAN OR ANNOUNCES A TRIP TO LIBYA OR HOLDS SECRET MEETINGS WITH THE IRAQI OR IRANIAN AMBASSADORS, IT CAUSES CONCERNS. SO I THINK THE U-S IS WATCHING THE RELATIONSHIP VERY CAREFULLY AND THEY ARE MOST CONCERNED ABOUT MR. ERBAKAN."

    TEXT: ALAN MAKOVSKY OF THE WASHINGTON INSTITUTE FOR NEAR EAST POLICY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DC/PCH
    25-Sep-96 11:16 AM EDT (1516 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] TURKEY / IRAQ / KURDS (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203651
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER SAYS HER COUNTRY WILL CARRY THROUGH WITH ITS PLAN TO SET UP A SECURITY ZONE IN NORTHERN IRAQ TO REDUCE TERRORIST ACTS CARRIED OUT BY KURDISH SEPARATISTS. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS MS. CILLER REAFFIRMED TURKEY'S POLICY ON THE ISSUE AT A NEWS CONFERENCE (WEDNESDAY) AT THE UNITED NATIONS IN NEW YORK.

    TEXT: MS. CILLER TOLD REPORTERS TURKEY'S PLAN TO SET UP A SECURITY ZONE STRETCHING ABOUT 10-KILOMETERS INSIDE IRAQI TERRITORY IS A RESPONSE TO AN INCREASE IN TERRORISM ALONG THE BORDER BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES.

    /// CILLER ACT ///

    ON A DAILY BASIS OUR SOLDIERS ARE BEING KILLED ON THOSE BORDERS THAT WE HAVE (WITH IRAQ), WHICH IS A VERY MOUNTAINOUS AREA. IT GIVES MY PEOPLE A LOT OF PAIN AND NEEDS TO BE STOPPED. WE ARE DETERMINED TO DO THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    TURKEY BLAMES THE VIOLENCE ON KURDISH SEPARATIST GROUPS, WHICH IT SAYS HAVE BASES IN NORTHERN IRAQ. MS. CILLER SAYS THE SECURITY ZONE WILL BE TEMPORARY. SHE SAYS THE SITUATION IN NORTHERN IRAQ IS PARTICULARLY UNSTABLE AT THIS TIME BECAUSE OF THE PRESENCE OF WHAT SHE DESCRIBES AS A POWER VACUUM.

    /// CILLER ACT ///

    THERE NEEDS TO BE A BUFFER AREA RIGHT NEXT TO OUR BORDERS AND WE ARE DETERMINED TO CREATE ONE. THAT IS NOT TO SAY THAT WE DO NOT RESPECT THE TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF IRAQ, BUT WE ARE DETERMINED TO PROTECT OUR BORDERS, AND PREVENT THE INFILTRATION OF THESE TERRORISTS THROUGH OUR BORDERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    EARLIER THIS WEEK, TURKEY'S POLICIES TOWARD IRAQ CAUSED SOME ANXIETY AMONG UNITED STATES OFFICIALS. BOTH COUNTRIES LATER DISMISSED AS A MISUNDERSTANDING REPORTS TURKEY HAD SIGNALED A WILLINGNESS TO WORK WITH IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN IN CRACKING DOWN ON SOME KURDISH SEPARATIST GROUPS.

    DURING HER VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES THIS WEEK TO ADDRESS THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MS. CILLER HAS REAFFIRMED HER COUNTRY'S OPPOSITION TO BAGHDAD'S ASSERTION OF AUTHORITY IN NORTHERN IRAQ. BUT ANALYSTS SAY THEY DO NOT RULE OUT THE POSSIBILITY TURKEY'S INTERESTS IN THE AREA WILL, AT TIMES, CONFLICT WITH U-S INTERESTS, AND LEAD TO FURTHER MISUNDERSTANDINGS OR DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND ANKARA. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/RAE
    25-Sep-96 1:51 PM EDT (1751 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] U-S/IRAQ KURDS (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203658
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARING FOR THE EVACUATION OF THOUSANDS MORE KURDS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ PUT AT RISK BY SADDAM HUSSEIN'S INTERVENTION IN FIGHTING IN THE REGION A MONTH AGO. MORE THAN TWO THOUSAND KURDS HAVE ALREADY BEEN TAKEN TO GUAM AND ARE EXPECTED TO BE GIVEN U-S POLITICAL ASYLUM. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS NO FINAL DECISIONS HAVE BEEN MADE BUT THAT U-S OFFICIALS ARE LIKELY TO ACT FAVORABLY ON APPEALS FROM PRIVATE RELIEF GROUPS TO EVACUATE THEIR KURDISH EMPLOYEES AND FAMILY MEMBERS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ.

    THOSE INVOLVED WERE ADMINISTERING AID PROGRAMS IN WHAT HAD BEEN A KURDISH "SAFE-HAVEN" BEFORE IRAQ TROOPS MOVED IN AT THE END OF AUGUST.

    THE UNITED STATES HAS ALREADY EVACUATED MORE THAN 21-HUNDRED KURDS AND DEPENDENTS WHO WORKED DIRECTLY FOR U-S AGENCIES. THEY WERE FLOWN, A WEEK AGO, FROM THE TURKISH BORDER TO THE PACIFIC ISLAND OF GUAM FOR PROCESSING AND ARE EXPECTED TO BE GRANTED POLITICAL ASYLUM IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ABOUT FOUR THOUSAND KURDS COULD BE INVOLVED IN THE SECOND EVACUATION, EXPECTED TO OCCUR IN MATTER OF DAYS. SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER DISCUSSED THE ISSUE MONDAY IN NEW YORK WITH TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTER TANSU CILLER, WHO IS UNDERSTOOD TO HAVE GIVEN HER GOVERNMENT'S APPROVAL.

    MOST IRAQI TROOPS WHO INTERVENED IN THE KURDISH CONFLICT HAVE PULLED BACK, BUT THE BAGHDAD GOVERNMENT IS SAID TO HAVE LEFT BEHIND A SECRET POLICE PRESENCE MENACING THOSE WHO HELPED ADMINISTER THE SAFE-HAVEN, SET UP AFTER THE GULF WAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/LWM
    25-Sep-96 3:49 PM EDT (1949 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: ROMANIA AND BULGARIA'S ETHNIC MINORITIES BY JUDITH LATHAM (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9-25-96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25923
    TELEPHONE=619-3464
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT= (TAPE CUTS IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: IN MID-SEPTEMBER [9/16], ROMANIA AND HUNGARY SIGNED A HISTORIC TREATY AFTER FIVE YEARS OF TOUGH NEGOTIATIONS OVER THE STATUS OF ROMANIA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS. THE TREATY WAS HAILED AS A STEP TOWARD HISTORIC RECONCILIATION BETWEEN EX-COMMUNIST NEIGHBORS. AND WESTERN LEADERS PRAISED ROMANIA AND HUNGARY FOR CONCLUDING A PACT THAT WAS VITAL TO THEIR PROSPECTS FOR JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO. WITHIN A WEEK OF THE TREATY SIGNING, DUKE UNIVERSITY HELD A CONFERENCE ON "ETHNIC MINORITIES IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA," WHICH FOCUSED ON THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MAJORITY AND MINORITY

    POPULATIONS IN EASTERN EUROPE. VOA'S JUDITH LATHAM

    TALKED WITH PARTICIPANTS AT THE CONFERENCE. HERE'S _____ WITH THE DETAILS.

    TEXT: MICHAEL NEWCITY, COORDINATOR OF THE CENTER FOR SLAVIC, EURASIAN AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES AT DUKE UNIVERSITY IN NORTH CAROLINA, SAYS THERE ARE SOME STRIKING SIMILARITIES IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MAJORITY AND MINORITY POPULATIONS IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA.

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- NEWCITY (0:33) "IN BOTH ROMANIA AND BULGARIA YOU HAVE THE PHENOMENON IN WHICH THERE IS A VERY SIGNIFICANT MINORITY POPULATION THAT REPRESENTS A FORMER IMPERIAL RULING GROUP. IN ROMANIA, THAT'S THE HUNGARIAN POPULATION, WHICH WAS AT ONE TIME THE IMPERIAL DOMINANT POPULATION. IN BULGARIA, YOU HAVE THE TURKISH MINORITY. AND THEN, OF COURSE, IN BOTH COUNTRIES YOU HAVE THE ISSUE OF THE TREATMENT OF THE ROMA. (BEGIN OPT) SO THERE ARE VERY INTERESTING SIMILARITIES IN THE ETHNIC RELATIONS ISSUES IN ROMANIA AND BULGARIA THAT HAVE PROMPTED OUR CONFERENCE." (END OPT)

    TEXT: THE ROMA [ROH-MAH], OR GYPSIES, CONSTITUTE THE LARGEST ETHNIC MINORITY IN EUROPE. (BEGIN OPT) IN ROMANIA, FOR EXAMPLE, THE ROMA MAKE UP ABOUT 10 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION. THEY ARE THE LARGEST MINORITY GROUP AFTER THE ETHNIC HUNGARIANS, ESTIMATED AT 11 PERCENT. (END OPT) BUT, PROFESSOR NEWCITY SAYS, OTHER CONFERENCES ON ETHNIC PROBLEMS IN EASTERN EUROPE HAVE TYPICALLY IGNORED THE SITUATION OF THE ROMA, WHO ARE OFTEN THE VICTIMS OF VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- NEWCITY (0:37) "(BEGIN OPT) IT'S AN ISSUE THAT RESONATES IN A LOT OF DIFFERENT AREAS BECAUSE IT IS AN AREA OF CONCERN TO THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE HELSINKI ACCORDS ORGANIZATIONS, THE O-S-C-E, IN CONNECTION WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTIONS THAT ARE AFFORDED TO THE ROMA IN COUNTRIES SUCH AS ROMANIA AND BULGARIA. (END OPT) THE ROMA ARE, I THINK, VERY MUCH IN THE POSITION OF THE EUROPEAN JEWS PRIOR TO WORLD WAR II. AND IT'S ALSO A CHALLENGE TO WESTERN EUROPE WITH RESPECT TO HOW STRONGLY THEY'VE LEARNED THE LESSONS OF THE PAST IN NOT ALLOWING GROUPS LIKE THE ROMA TO BE VICTIMIZED."

    TEXT: ANOTHER CONFERENCE PARTICIPANT, LAZLO KURTI [LAZ-LOH KOR-TEE], IS DIRECTOR OF THE EUROPEAN CENTER FOR TRADITIONAL CULTURE IN BUDAPEST. A SPECIALIST IN HUNGARIAN AND ROMANIAN RELATIONS, DR. KURTI SAYS THE RECENT TREATY HAS IMPLICATIONS BEYOND THE TREATMENT OF THE ETHNIC HUNGARIAN MINORITY POPULATION IN ROMANIA.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- KURTI (0:11) "THE LANGUAGE IS VERY GENERAL. IT WAS PHRASED SO THE ROMA, THE SWABS, THE GERMANS, THE UKRAINIANS, THE SLOVAKS, THEY CAN ALL FEEL THAT THIS TREATY ALSO SPEAKS TO THEM."

    TEXT: LAZLO KURTI SAYS PEOPLE IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD SOMETIMES HAVE DIFFICULTY UNDERSTANDING THAT THE ISSUE OF NATIONALITY -- OR ETHNIC IDENTITY -- OFTEN TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER THAT OF CITIZENSHIP. (OPT)

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- KURTI (0:26) "WE IN EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE PAY MORE ATTENTION TO NATIONALITY AND TO OUR ETHNICITY. THERE IS A LONG, LONG LEGACY OF PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO NATIONALITY, AND NATIONALITY IS JUST AS IMPORTANT AS CITIZENSHIP, OR EVEN MORE IMPORTANT THAN CITIZENSHIP. I'D SAY MOST EAST EUROPEANS LEARN THEIR LANGUAGE TOGETHER WITH THEIR NATIONAL IDENTITY."(END OPT)

    TEXT: THE DIRECTOR OF THE EUROPEAN CENTER FOR TRADITIONAL CULTURE SAYS HE THINKS THAT INTERETHNIC VIOLENCE CAN ERUPT WHEN EXTREMIST GROUPS MANIPULATE ORDINARY CITIZENS. EKATERINA NIKOVA [EH-KAH-TE-REE-NAH NEK-OH-VAH] OF THE BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AGREES, ALTHOUGH SHE SAYS THE SITUATION IN BULGARIA, PARTICULARLY WITH RESPECT TO THE TURKISH MINORITY, HAS IMPROVED. (BEGIN OPT) SHE BELIEVES MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE SINCE THE ASSIMILATION CAMPAIGN WHEN THE GOVERNMENT TRIED TO FORCE BULGARIAN TURKS TO TAKE SLAVIC NAMES. (END OPT)

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- NIKOVA (0:41) "ALL THE CIVIL AND HUMAN RIGHTS OF THE BULGARIAN TURKS HAVE BEEN RESTORED. (BEGIN OPT) BULGARIA AVOIDED, UNLIKE ITS BALKAN NEIGHBORS, BLOODSHED AND VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL UNREST. THE TURKS ARE REPRESENTED IN THE PARLIAMENT. (END OPT) ALTHOUGH I CANNOT BE OPTIMISTIC AND POSITIVE BECAUSE WHAT WE ARE SEEING, ESPECIALLY DURING THIS LAST YEAR, IS THE CONTINUATION OF THE EXODUS OF THE TURKS. THE TURKS ARE LEAVING BULGARIA QUIETLY, IN MANY CASES ILLEGALLY, AND THIS TIME THEY ARE DRIVEN, NOT BY TERROR OR VIOLATION OF RIGHTS, BUT BY HUNGER, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND INSECURITY."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR NIKOVA SAYS, CONTRARY TO THE POPULAR IMPRESSION CREATED BY THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, THE BALKANS TRADITIONALLY HAVE PROVIDED A MODE OF COHABITATION AMONG MINORITIES THAT RESPECTED THEIR "OTHERNESS." HOWEVER, SHE DESCRIBES THE POVERTY AND DESPAIR OF BULGARIAN ROMA AS "HORRIFYING." HISTORIAN DAVID CROWE OF ELON COLLEGE IN NORTH CAROLINA SAYS HATRED TOWARD THE ROMA THROUGHOUT EASTERN EUROPE HAS DEEPENED SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM.

    TAPE: CUT SIX -- CROWE (0:25) "IT'S A VERY SCARY SITUATION, AND IT'S NOT SOMETHING THAT JUST CAME SINCE 1989. IT'S SOMETHING THAT HAS BEEN THERE FOR CENTURIES AND CENTURIES. AS A SOUTHERNER WHO WAS INVOLVED IN THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN THIS COUNTRY AND ALSO HAVING WORKED AND PUBLISHED AS A JEWISH SCHOLAR FOR YEARS AND YEARS, I'VE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING AS BAD AS THE SITUATION OF THE ROMA IN EASTERN EUROPE TODAY. IT'S A CRIME THAT THE WORLD COMMUNITY IS NOT DOING MORE, I THINK."

    TEXT: THE RECENT CONFERENCE AT DUKE UNIVERSITY ON "ETHNIC MINORITIES IN ROMANIA AND BUGARIA" IS PART OF A GENERAL TREND AMONG SCHOLARS THAT FOCUSES ON SUCH ISSUES AS A WAY TO REDUCE CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE.
    25-Sep-96 3:35 PM EDT (1935 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] NATO / BOSNIA (S & L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203631
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS MEETING IN NORWAY HAVE AGREED SOME TYPE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE WILL PROBABLY BE NECESSARY IN BOSNIA AFTER THE CURRENT MISSION EXPIRES IN DECEMBER. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS ALLIANCE DEFENSE CHIEFS HAVE BEEN MEETING INFORMALLY TO LOOK AT THE OPTIONS.

    TEXT: NATO OFFICIALS AT THE MEETING IN THE NORWEGIAN PORT CITY OF BERGIN SAY NONE OF THE 16 MINISTERS AT THE TWO DAY SESSION IS AGAINST KEEPING TROOPS IN BOSNIA.

    OFFICIALS SAY A CONSENSUS THAT SOME TYPE OF FORCE WILL BE NECESSARY IN THE FUTURE MEANS PLANNING FOR THE SIZE AND SCOPE OF THE NEW MISSION CAN NOW BEGIN IN EARNEST.

    OFFICIALS SAY THEY DO NOT EXPECT ANY NEW FORCE TO BE AS LARGE AS THE CURRENT PEACEKEEPING CONTINGENT, WHICH HAS ABOUT 53-THOUSAND TROOPS -- INCLUDING 15 THOUSAND HEAVILY ARMED AMERICANS.

    GERMAN OFFICIALS SAY THEY EXPECT THEIR TROOPS TO PLAY A LARGER ROLE IN ANY NEW PEACEKEEPING FORCE, WHICH WOULD ALSO HAVE TO BE BACKED BY A NEW UNITED NATIONS MANDATE.

    U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAID IT WAS STILL TOO EARLY TO SAY WHAT A FUTURE FORCE MIGHT LOOK LIKE. HE SAID THE UNITED STATES WOULD NOT TAKE A POSITION UNTIL A FORMAL REQUEST FOR NATO TROOPS HAS BEEN MADE.

    // OPT //

    MEANWHILE, A SPOKESMAN FOR NATO PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN BOSNIA SAYS WITHDRAWAL OF THE FORCE WILL NOT BEGIN UNTIL AFTER MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS, WHICH ARE NOW EXPECTED TO BE HELD IN LATE NOVEMBER.

    // OPT //

    A NATO SPOKESMAN SAID THE DELAY WILL PROBABLY MEAN THE CURRENT FORCE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO WITHDRAW BY DECEMBER 20TH, THE DAY NATO'S PEACEKEEPING MANDATE EXPIRES.

    // OPT //

    OFFICIALS SAY NATO IS COMMITTED TO PROVIDING SECURITY FOR THE ELECTIONS, EVEN IF IT MEANS THE BULK OF NATO TROOPS HAVE TO REMAIN IN THE COUNTRY A LITTLE LONGER THAN EXPECTED.

    // OPT //

    MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA WERE POSTPONED EARLIER THIS MONTH BECAUSE OF IRREGULARITIES IN VOTER REGISTRATION AND CHARGES THE MAIN PARTIES WERE TRYING TO MANIPULATE THE PROCESS TO THEIR OWN ADVANTAGE. // END OPT // (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/ADEN/CF
    25-Sep-96 10:51 AM EDT (1451 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] BOSNIA ELECTION DEBATE (L-ONLY) BY PAM TAYLOR (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203641
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS THAT MONITORED THE RECENT ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WERE TOLD THAT JUST UNDER THREE-MILLION PEOPLE WERE ELIGIBLE TO VOTE. AFTER THE VOTING, HOWEVER, THE FIGURE WAS RE-ADJUSTED UPWARD BY A FEW HUNDRED THOUSAND. THAT IS RAISING QUESTIONS AMONG SOME OF THE ELECTION MONITORS, AS V-O-A'S PAM TAYLOR REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE -- THE O-S-C-E -- ACKNOWLEDGES THE SEPTEMBER 14TH ELECTIONS WERE NOT WHOLLY FREE AND FAIR. BUT THE ORGANIZATION SAYS THE ELECTIONS WERE VALID AND THAT THE DISCREPANCIES FOUND IN VOTER REGISTRATION LISTS ARE NOT SUFFICIENT TO PROVE FRAUD.

    FOR THE PAST SEVERAL DAYS, THE O-S-C-E HAS BEEN UNAVAILABLE FOR COMMENT TO REPORTERS WHO WERE SEEKING EXPLANATIONS FOR THE UPWARDLY REVISED VOTER FIGURES. BUT THE SPOKESMAN FOR THE UNITED NATIONS IN SARAJEVO, ALEXANDER IVANKO, ATTEMPTED TO CLARIFY THE SITUATION BY EXPLAINING THAT THE ORIGINAL FIGURE CAME FROM THE UNITED NATIONS.

    // IVANKO ACT //

    ALL I CAN SAY IS THE NUMBER WE CAME UP WITH IS TWO- POINT-NINE (MILLION) ELECTORATE, AND IT SEEMS ON SEPTEMBER 16TH, AS FAR AS I CAN SEE, THESE ELECTORATE ESTIMATES WERE AGREED TO BY ALL THE MAJOR PLAYERS IN BOSNIA.

    // END ACT //

    ... INCLUDING THE O-S-C-E, SAYS MR. IVANKO. A FEW DAYS LATER, HOWEVER, THE O-S-C-E UNILATERALLY REVISED THE VOTING POPULATION FIGURE UPWARD, WITHOUT EXPLANATION.

    ONE OF THE INTERNATIONAL GROUPS THAT MONITORED BOSNIA'S ELECTIONS IS THE LONDON-BASED "INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP" -- OR I-C-G. EARLIER THIS WEEK, I-C-G RELEASED A HIGHLY CRITICAL REPORT OF OF THE O-S-C-E'S HANDLING OF THE ELECTIONS. JOHN FAWCETT, DIRECTOR OF THE I-C-G'S SARAJEVO OFFICE, EXPLAINS WHY HE THINKS THE O-S-C-E DECIDED THAT THE ORIGINAL FIGURE FOR AN ELIGIBLE VOTING POPULATION WAS TOO LOW.

    // FAWCETT ACT //

    WHEN THEY (O-S-C-E) SAW THE TURNOUT WAS ACTUALLY TWO-POINT-FIVE MILLION OR TWO-POINT-SIX MILLION, THEY STARTED TO PANIC A BIT. I THINK THEY UNDERESTIMATED THE MANIPULATION BY THE LOCAL PARTIES OF VOTER TURNOUT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. FAWCETT SAYS THERE WERE SIMPLY TOO MANY REPORTED INCIDENTS OF BALLOT BOX STUFFING IN ALL PARTS OF BOSNIA -- AND, IN SOME CASES, THERE WERE REPORTS OF VOTER TURNOUTS OF MORE THAN 100 PERCENT. HE BELIEVES O-S-C-E IGNORED THIS IN THE INTEREST OF MEETING THE DEADLINES OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD.

    MR. FAWCETT SAYS UNTIL THE O-S-C-E EXPLAINS THE VOTER TURNOUT DISCREPANCY, THE ELECTIONS SHOULD BE DECLARED NULL AND VOID. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/PCF/RRM
    25-Sep-96 12:52 PM EDT (1652 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] U-N/ BOSNIA (L-ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=9/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203662
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC HAS WARNED THAT THE BALKAN PEACE ACCORDS COULD FAIL UNLESS MORE IS DONE TO ENSURE WARRING FACTIONS COMPLY WITH THE ACCORD'S PROVISIONS. V-O-A'S MAX RUSTON REPORTS ON THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT'S SPEECH TODAY (WEDNESDAY) TO THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY IN NEW YORK.

    TEXT: IN HIS SOLEMN 20 MINUTE SPEECH, THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SAID HIS COUNTRY HAS ENDED ITS PHASE OF WAR AND IS NOW IN A PHASE OF PEACE. HE PRAISED THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT, WHICH ENDED THE BOSNIAN WAR LAST YEAR, BUT SAID IT IS NOT BEING FULLY IMPLEMENTED. HE WARNED THAT INSTABILITY COULD RETURN IF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY DOES NOT STEP UP MEASURES TO ENSURE THAT ALL PARTIES ABIDE BY ITS PROVISIONS.

    /// IZETBEGOVIC ACT ///

    IT IS GOOD BECAUSE IT HAS STOPPED THE KILLING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND BECAUSE A BETTER PLAN DOES NOT EXIST. THE MAIN DEFICIENCY IS NOT IN ITSELF, BUT IN ITS IMPLEMENTATION. ALL OF THE BAD ASPECTS OF THE AGREEMENT COULD BE IMPROVED IF IT IS VERY COMPLETELY AND CONSISTENTLY IMPLEMENTED. UNFORTUNATELY, THAT IS NOT THE CASE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. IZETBEGOVIC CALLED FOR A THREE-POINT PROGRAM TO HELP SUPPORT PEACE IN BOSNIA. HE SAID ADHERENCE TO THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD SHOULD BE REQUIRED OF ALL SIGNATORIES, FREEDOM OF THE MEDIA SHOULD BE ESTABLISHED AND PROTECTED, AND WAR CRIMINALS SHOULD BE VIGOROUSLY PROSECUTED.

    /// IZETBEGOVIC ACT ///

    AND FOR THAT ROAD TOWARDS RECONCILIATION TO BE OPENED, THE CRIMINALS MUST BE PUNISHED. THAT IS WHY THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED. BUT, AS IT IS WELL KNOWN, NEITHER THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR NOR THE PRESIDENT OF THE TRIBUNAL ARE SATISFIED WITH WHAT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS DOING.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN HIS SPEECH, THE BOSNIAN LEADER ECHOED CALLS FROM SEVERAL OTHER NATIONS FOR REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS. HE SAID REFORM IS NEEDED BOTH IN THE BODY'S STRUCTURE AND PSYCHOLOGY.

    IN A REFERENCE TO U-N INVOLVEMENT IN BOSNIA, MR. IZETBEGOVIC STRESSED THAT THE UNITED NATIONS SHOULD NEVER UNDERTAKE OBLIGATIONS THAT IT CANNOT CARRY OUT. AS AN EXAMPLE, HE SAID THE PEOPLE IN HIS COUNTRY PAID AN INFINITELY HIGH PRICE FOR WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS UNITED NATIONS IRRESPONSIBILITY WHEN PEACE KEEPING TROOPS FAILED TO MAINTAIN THE INTEGRITY OF SAFE-HAVENS. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/LWM
    25-Sep-96 5:00 PM EDT (2100 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] U-S / BOSNIA REACT (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (BEATTIE)

    DATE=9/24/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203614
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS ARE MEETING IN BERGEN, NORWAY BEGINNING TODAY (WEDNESDAY) TO DISCUSS -- AMONG OTHER THINGS -- EXTENDING THE PEACEKEEPING PRESENCE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE TALKS FOLLOW AN INDEPENDENT PANEL'S CALL FOR A CONTINUED NATO PRESENCE BEYOND THE PLANNED DECEMBER WITHDRAWAL. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS A DEFENSE ANALYST DESCRIBES THAT AS A TEST OF THE POLITICAL FEASIBILITY OF A CONTINUED U-S PRESENCE:

    TEXT: NATO'S 16 DEFENSE MINISTERS WILL DISCUSS WAYS TO PREVENT WAR IN BOSNIA. IT IS THEIR FIRST SESSION SINCE THE SEPTEMBER 14TH BOSNIAN ELECTIONS. THE DEFENSE CHIEFS WILL PRESENT THEIR VIEWS TO THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL WHICH MEETS IN DECEMBER.

    DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY TOLD REPORTERS TUESDAY A JUDGMENT ON A CONTINUED NATO PRESENCE IS PREMATURE. MR. PERRY SAYS NO DECISION WILL BE MADE DURING THE TWO-DAY SESSION IN NORWAY.

    TUESDAY IN WASHINGTON, AN INDEPENDENT SEVEN-MAN COMMISSION OF AMERICANS AND EUROPEANS CALLED FOR A CONTINUED 20 THOUSAND NATO TROOP PRESENCE BEYOND DECEMBER. THE PROPOSED FORCE WOULD INCLUDE TWO THOUSAND AMERICANS.

    FRANK GAFFNEY -- A FORMER ASSISTANT DEFENSE SECRETARY UNDER PRESIDENT REAGAN -- SAYS THE TIMING, SIX WEEKS BEFORE THE U-S ELECTION, SUGGESTS IT IS A TRIAL BALLOON TO TEST AMERICAN OPINION, INCLUDING THAT OF REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BOB DOLE:

    ///GAFFNEY ACTUALITY///

    I THINK THEY'LL BE WATCHING VERY CAREFULLY TO SEE WHAT SENATOR DOLE SAYS ABOUT IT, TO SEE WHAT MEMBERS OF CONGRESS SAY, TO SEE HOW THE PUBLIC REACTS TO THE IDEA OF KEEPING A MINIMAL PRESENCE, AS I'M SURE IT WILL BE DESCRIBED, BUT NONETHELESS KEEP AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA FOR THE INDEFINITE FUTURE.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    A DECISION ON A FUTURE U-S PEACEKEEPING ROLE IN BOSNIA IS NOT EXPECTED UNTIL AFTER THE NOVEMBER FIFTH U-S ELECTION. (SIGNED).
    NEB / WOD
    25-Sep-96 12:06 AM EDT (0406 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/25/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09798
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 25TH //

    INTRO: GLANCING THROUGH SOME OF AMERICA'S MAJOR NEWSPAPERS THIS WEDNESDAY, ONE WILL FIND EDITORIALS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS. AMONG THEM ARE COMMENTS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON ABOUT WHITEWATER FIGURE SUSAN MCDOUGAL; THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD'S DECISION NOT TO RAISE INTEREST RATES; THE IMMIGRATION REFORM BILL CONTROVERSY, AND PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT TO THE UNITED NATIONS AND U-S POLICY TOWARD THE WORLD BODY. [OPT] A FEW PAPERS ALSO COMMENT ON BORIS YELTSIN'S HEALTH AND THE ISSUE OF SUCCESSION AT THE KREMLIN, AND U-S ASTRONAUT SHARON LUCID'S RETURN TO EARTH. [END OPT] NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: IN A NATIONALLY TELEVISED INTERVIEW WITH PUBLIC TELEVISION THIS WEEK, PRESIDENT CLINTON SUGGESTED THAT WHITEWATER INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR IS CONDUCTING A CAMPAIGN, OR VENDETTA, AGAINST HIM RATHER THAN A FAIR AND IMPARTIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ARKANSAS LAND DEAL AND RELATED MATTERS. AND THE PRESIDENT DID NOT RULE OUT PARDONING MS. MCDOUGAL, WHO IS CURRENTLY IN FEDERAL PRISON FOR CONTEMPT OF COURT FOR REFUSING TO TESTIFY BEFORE A GRAND JURY INVESTIGATING THE AFFAIR. USA TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL IS ENTITLED: "CLINTON TALKS TOO MUCH, MCDOUGAL NOT ENOUGH."

    VOICE: "FORMER CLINTON BUSINESS PARTNER SUSAN MCDOUGAL, THE WHITEWATER SCANDAL'S MOST RELUCTANT WITNESS, SHOULD DO ONE THING: START TALKING TO THE GRAND JURY. PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD DO ANOTHER. DON'T EVEN SUGGEST POSSIBLE PARDONS FOR MCDOUGAL OR OTHER CONVICTED WHITEWATER DEFENDANTS."

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL IS EQUALLY UPSET BY THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS, BUT TAKES A DIFFERENT TRACK.

    VOICE: "IN SOME EXTRAORDINARY STATEMENTS ... PRESIDENT CLINTON STOKED SUSAN MCDOUGAL'S HOPES OF A PRESIDENTIAL PARDON, AND STEPPED UP THE WHITE HOUSE CAMPAIGN AGAINST INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR. BEFORE THE VOTERS GO TO THE POLLS IN NOVEMBER, IT SEEMS TO US, MR. CLINTON OWES THEM A FORTHRIGHT EXPLANATION ABOUT WHAT HE WOULD DO ABOUT BOTH OF THESE ISSUES IN A SECOND TERM."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON TIMES ALSO HAS SOME DEFINITE THOUGHTS ON THE SUBJECT:

    VOICE: "IN LIGHT OF THE REPORT JUST RELEASED BY THE INSPECTOR GENERAL OF THE FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (F-D-I-C) [NATIONAL BANK INSURANCE] ABOUT HILLARY CLINTON'S ROLE IN THE SHAM [PHONY, ARKANSAS] REAL-ESTATE DEAL KNOWN AS CASTLE GRANDE, THE PRESIDENT'S LATEST ATTEMPT TO IMPUGN MR. STARR'S HONOR AND ATTACK HIS IMPARTIALITY IS PARTICULARLY OUTRAGEOUS... [OPT] THE F-D-I-C REPORT WAS MAKING IT CRYSTAL CLEAR THAT THERE IS A VERY SOUND BASIS FOR A THOROUGH INVESTIGATION OF HILLARY CLINTON'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE SEAMIER SIDE OF ARKANSAS BUSINESS AND POLITICS -- AN INVOLVEMENT HER HUSBAND MADE POSSIBLE." [END OPT]

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ON THE RELATED F-D-I-C REPORT, CRITICAL OF HILLARY CLINTON'S DEALINGS WHILE A PRACTICING ATTORNEY IN ARKANSAS, TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST ADDS THIS:

    VOICE: "THE WHITE HOUSE IS DISMISSIVE OF THE WHOLE REPORT. MRS. CLINTON HAS SAID UNDER OATH THAT SHE CANNOT RECALL WORKING ON ANY SHAM [PHONY] TRANSACTIONS... HER ATTORNEY ... NOTES THAT THE INSPECTOR GENERAL'S REPORT DOESN'T ALLEGE ANY WRONGDOING ON MRS. CLINTON'S PART OR KNOWLEDGE OF ANY UNLAWFUL INTENTIONS. THE WHITE HOUSE CHALKS UP [ATTRIBUTES] THE REPORT TO REPUBLICAN ELECTION-YEAR PRESSURES. THE FINDINGS, HOWEVER, ARE SERIOUS. MRS. CLINTON, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOW SPEAK OPENLY AND DIRECTLY FOR HERSELF."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD, NOTING THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD'S DECISION TUESDAY NOT TO RAISE INTEREST RATES, SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "GOOD SENSE -- OR, PERHAPS, A PENDING ELECTION -- CARRIED THE DAY WHEN THE ... BOARD MET TUESDAY TO CONSIDER RAISING INTEREST RATES... KEEPING RATES LOW HELPS KEEP PEOPLE WORKING, AND THAT'S THE MOST IMPORTANT THING."

    TEXT: THE MIAMI HERALD, CITING RESTRICTIONS AGAINST LEGAL IMMIGRANTS AND ASYLUM-SEEKERS, SAYS THE IMMIGRATION BILL ABOUT TO BE PASSED BY THE CONGRESS IS "TOO HARSH", ADDING:

    VOICE: "IT IS EVERY COUNTRY'S DUTY TO CONTROL ITS BORDERS AND TO INSIST ON ORDERLY IMMIGRATION, BUT THIS BILL OVERSTEPS DUTY. IT'S XENOPHOBIC PROVISIONS SUBVERT CHERISHED AMERICAN TRADITIONS, INCLUDING THE OFFER OF ASYLUM TO THE PERSECUTED AND THE GUARANTEE OF EQUAL RIGHS TO ALL... THE IMMIGRATION REFORM IS CERTAINLY NOT THE BEST WE CAN DO, AND WE SHOULD NOT SETTLE FOR IT."

    TEXT: ADDS THE LOS ANGELES TIMES:

    VOICE: "[OPT] ... CONGRESS IS FINALLY ON THE VERGE OF ENACTING CHANGES IN U-S IMMIGRATION LAW. THERE IS NO DENYING THAT THIS COUNTRY MUST TRY TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS POSED BY ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. BUT THE MEASURE NOW GOING TO THE HOUSE AND SENATE HAS SOME KEY FLAWS. [END OPT] ... THE OVERALL MEASURE, AS IT STANDS AFTER A HOUSE-SENATE CONFERENCE, GOES FAR BEYOND ANY REASONABLE MEANS OF CONTROLLING ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION... THE CURRENT BILL HAS TOO MANY FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS TO BE ACCEPTABLE."

    TEXT: PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VISIT TO THE UNITED NATIONS YESTERDAY AND HIS SIGNING OF THE NUCLEAR TEST BAN ACCORD DRAWS A COMMENT FROM NEWSDAY ON LONG ISLAND, WHICH FEELS BOTH MR. CLINTON AND REPUBLICAN BOB DOLE SHOULD REFRAIN FROM THEIR CRITICISM OF THE WORLD BODY.

    VOICE: "THE REALITY IS THAT THE UNITED NATIONS IS NOW AT THE LOWEST EBB IN PRESTIGE, FISCAL RESOURCES AND POLITICAL CLOUD IN ITS 50-YEAR HISTORY. BUT NO OTHER ORGANIZATION CAN FILL ITS ROLE. INTERNAL ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS ARE BADLY OVERDUE, NOT LEAST A DRASTIC SLIMMING OF THE U-N BUREAUCRACY. BUT IT DESERVES BETTER FROM BOTH PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES."

    TEXT: TODAY'S OMAHO [NEBRASKA] WORLD-HERALD FOCUSES, INSTEAD, ON THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING BAN SIGNED BY THE PRESIDENT AND OTHER ATOMIC POWERS, SAYING:

    VOICE: "LEADERS OF MORE THAN 60 NATIONS HAVE GIVEN THE WORLD A FITTING SYMBOL OF PEACE AND HOPE TO MARK THE APPROACH OF A NEW CENTURY."

    TEXT: IN DISCUSSING THE HEALTH OF BORIS YELTSIN, TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD CALLS HIS RULE; "THE POTEMKIN PRESIDENCY," ADDING THE SITUATION IS REALLY IN A KIND OF MEDICAL NO-MAN'S LAND.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT YELTSIN IS NOT ILL ENOUGH TO TRIGGER THE RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION'S PROVISIONS FOR PRESIDENTIAL INCAPACITATION. IN THAT EVENT, THE CONSTITUTION CALLS FOR THE PRIME MINISTER TO TAKE OVER PENDING AN ELECTION TO BE HELD WITHIN THREE MONTHS. BUT MR. YELTSIN 'IS' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] TOO ILL TO BE ABLE TO FUNCTION NORMALLY. BESIDES HIS HEART CONDITION, MR. YELTSIN SUFFERS FROM KIDNEY AND LIVER PROBLEMS. .... WHILE MR. YELTSIN HUSBANDS HIS STRENGTH AND PENDING THE MEDICAL CONSULTANTS' CONCLUSIONS ON THE WISDOM OF SURGERY, THE KREMLIN IS ASWIRL WITH DISSEMBLING AND INTRIGUE... BUT IT IS OF GREAT MOMENT, BECAUSE POLITICS, LIKE NATURE, ABHORS A VACUUM."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, WELCOMING BACK FROM SPACE ASTRONAUT SHANNON LUCID FROM AN EXTENDED STAY IN SPACE, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REMINDS:

    VOICE: "WILBUR WRIGHT WAS AT THE CONTROLS WHEN THE FIRST WOMAN WENT UP IN AN AIRPLANE -- A FOUR-MINUTE FLIGHT IN 1909. WHEN SHANNON LUCID COMES HOME FROM THE RUSSIAN SPACE STATION MIR ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, SHE WILL HAVE SPENT 188 DAYS IN ORBIT, LONGER THAN ANY OTHER WOMAN AND ANY OTHER AMERICAN. IT'S ONE WAY TO HINT AT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FIRST DECADE OF THE CENTURY AND THE LAST... DR. LUCID -- WELCOME HOME !"

    TEXT: ON THAT HISTORIC NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    25-Sep-96 10:19 AM EDT (1419 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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