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Voice of America, 96-09-27

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] COMPLEX KURDISH STRUGGLE BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK: KURDS CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (NORTHERN IRAQ)
  • [03] ROMANIA PRIVATIZATION BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] EDITORIAL: SUPPORTING A FREE MEDIA IN EASTERN EUROPE
  • [05] BOSNIAN MUSLIMS CRITICIZED (L) BY KAREN COLEMAN (SARAJEVO)
  • [06] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] NEWSPAPERS ON-LINE BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

  • [01] COMPLEX KURDISH STRUGGLE BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34504
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRODUCTION: OUTSIDERS SAY THEY CAN ONLY SPECULATE ABOUT WHAT IS HAPPENING IN NORTHERN IRAQ -- WHERE TWO CONTESTING KURDISH FACTIONS, IRAQI LEADER SADDAM HUSSEIN AND NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES ARE ALL SOMEHOW INVOLVED AND ENTANGLED. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: FLUX, CONFUSION AND CONTRADICTION. THOSE ARE THE WORDS USED BY MICHAEL AMITAY TO DESCRIBE THE SITUATION IN NORTHERN IRAQ. A STAFF MEMBER OF THE ORGANIZATION ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, MR. AMITAY SAYS IRAQ'S NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, AS WELL AS THE UNITED STATES, ARE STILL TRYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT IS GOING ON.

    ONE OF THE TWO MAJOR KURDISH GROUPS, THE K-D-P, HAS ANNOUNCED THAT IT HAS SET UP A REGIONAL GOVERNMENT, INDEPENDENT OF SADDAM HUSSEIN, AND THAT IT STILL WANTS U-S HELP. MR. AMITAY HAS HIS DOUBTS:

    // AMITAY ACTUALITY //

    SADDAM DOES NOT HAVE MASSIVE ARMOR AND GROUND TROOPS IN THE REGION, BUT I WOULD SAY IT IS A GOOD BET THAT THERE ARE PLENTY OF HIS AGENTS AND MANY TROOPS DISGUISED AS KURDISH FIGHTERS IN THE REGION -- AND THEY ARE CERTAINLY TRYING AS MUCH AS THEY CAN IN THAT LIMITED CAPACITY TO EXTEND BAGHDAD'S HOLD OVER THE REGION.

    // END ACT //

    ALTHOUGH THE OTHER MAIN KURDISH FACTION, THE P-U-K, IS IN SOME DISARRAY, MR. AMITAY SAYS IT REMAINS A CAPABLE FIGHTING FORCE THAT CAN COUNT ON SUPPORT FROM IRAN. IT WILL NOT BE EASY FOR THE RIVAL K-D-P TO EXTEND CONTROL OVER THE NORTH UNLESS BAGHDAD PROVIDES CONSIDERABLY MORE HELP.

    BAGHDAD'S INCURSION HAS CRIPPLED THE REGIME'S OPPONENTS WHO HAD BEEN OPERATING IN THE NORTH, ACCORDING TO ANN CLWYD, A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT AND A LEADER OF THE IRAQI OPPOSITION IN LONDON:

    // CLWYD ACTUALITY //

    CLEARLY, THE IRAQI OPPOSITION IS VERY MUCH WEAKENED BY SADDAM BEING ALLOWED TO INSTALL HIMSELF IN NORTHERN IRAQ ALL OVER AGAIN. OF COURSE, MANY, MANY PEOPLE STILL WANT TO GET RID OF SADDAM AND HAVE GIVEN THEIR LIVES TO THAT PURPOSE. AND MANY MORE PEOPLE WILL IN THE FUTURE, GIVEN THE TERRIBLE RECORD THAT HE HAS AGAINST THE KURDS, WHAT HE HAS DONE TO HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT LIVED TO TELL THE TALE.

    // END ACT //

    MICHAEL AMITAY NOTES THAT UNTIL IT WAS OVERCOME BY SADDAM, THE IRAQI OPPOSITION HAD MADE SOME HEADWAY. HE SAYS IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN IF THE VARIOUS GROUPS CAN CONTINUE:

    // AMITAY ACTUALITY //

    IN WHAT WAS A FAIRLY FORMIDABLE COLLECTION OF SHIITE, KURDISH AND OTHER IRAQI OPPOSITION FORCES THAT HAD A MILITARY ELEMENT THAT WAS MAKING PROGRESS AGAINST SADDAM, THERE HAD BEEN SOME VERY HIGH-LEVEL DEFECTIONS FROM THE IRAQI ARMY. THEY HAD BEEN ABLE TO MAINTAIN HOLD OF THEIR TERRITORY EVEN SOUTH OF THE PROTECTED ZONE, THE NO-FLY PARALLEL.

    // END ACT //

    ANN CLWYD SAYS THE CRISIS IN NORTHERN IRAQ COULD HAVE BEEN AVOIDED BY MORE TIMELY U-S ACTION. WHEN SHE WAS IN THE NORTH LAST JANUARY, SHE THOUGHT PEACE WAS AT HAND BETWEEN THE TWO KURDISH GROUPS:

    // CLWYD ACTUALITY //

    BOTH AT THAT TIME SAID THEY WERE WILLING TO SIGN A PEACE AGREEMENT, WERE WAITING TO COME TO WASHINGTON TO DO THAT. AND OF COURSE, WHAT HAPPENED BETWEEN JANUARY AND AUGUST ONLY THE AMERICANS CAN ANSWER FOR. AND I, IN MY 10 DAYS HERE, HAVE NOT FOUND A SATISFACTORY EXPLANATION AS TO WHY THAT AMOUNT OF TIME WAS ALLOWED TO ELAPSE WHEN PEACE MIGHT HAVE BEEN MADE BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES.

    // END ACT //

    BUT EDMUND GHAREEB, PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, SAYS THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO KURDISH GROUPS WOULD HAVE BEEN HARD TO RESOLVE BY A MORE ATTENTIVE UNITED STATES. HE ADDS THE CONFLICT IS COMPLICATED EVEN MORE BY THE KURDISH REBELLION ACROSS THE BORDER IN TURKEY, A STILL LARGER STRUGGLE FRAUGHT WITH DANGERS FOR THE REGION. (SIGNED).
    NEB/EW/RRM
    27-Sep-96 2:21 PM EDT (1821 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] REPORTER'S NOTEBOOK: KURDS CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (NORTHERN IRAQ)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25946
    TELEPHONE=619-2009 (EDITOR)
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=INSERTS IN AUDIO SERVIES

    INTRO: EVEN AFTER THE KURDISH DEMOCRATIC PARTY FACTION OF MASSOUD BARZANI CONSOLIDATED ITS CONTROL OF NORTHERN IRAQ, THE POLITICAL FUTURE OF THE KURDISH SAFE HAVEN REMAINS UNCERTAIN -- AS ONE U-N OFFICIAL DESCRIBED IT: "GRAY.". V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN WAS RECENTLY IN NORTHERN IRAQ AND SUMS UP HER IMPRESSIONS.

    TEXT: THE GOVERNOR OF IRBIL, KHORSHID SHERA, REMEMBERS VERY CLEARLY THE DAY HE WAS THROWN OUT OF HIS OFFICE BY THE RIVAL KURDISTAN PATRIOTIC UNION FACTION. IT WAS DECEMBER 20, 1994, HE SAYS, AT TEN IN THE MORNING. HE ALSO REMEMBERS VERY WELL WHEN HE RETURNED TO IRBIL -- THIS AUGUST 31ST AT TWO IN THE AFTERNOON, JUST BEHIND THE FORCES OF THE KURDISH DEMOCRATIC PARTY, THE K-D-P, WHEN THEY TOOK CONTROL OF THE CITY.

    TAPE CUT ONE: SHERA KURDISH AND ENGLISH-

    THE ONLY THING, THERE WERE SOME OF THE TABLES THAT WERE OLD AND I PAINTED THEM. OTHERWISE EVERYTHING THE SAME. AND NOW THERE ARE A FEW MORE PROBLEMS.

    TEXT: I WATCH WORKMEN PAINTING OVER THE P-U-K HEADQUARTERS TOO -- ALL IN K-D-P'S TRADEMARK YELLOW. THE K-D-P REGAINED CONTROL OF IRBIL AND THE REST OF THE KURDISH SAFE HAVEN AFTER PUSHING OUT THE P-U-K FORCES -- WITH MILITARY HELP FROM BAGHDAD.

    THAT ALLIANCE, EVEN TEMPORARY, HAS RAISED ALARM BELLS. KURDS TELL ME THEY TRUST NOBODY ANY MORE, NOT EVEN THEIR LEADERS. AND THEY FEAR THEY HAVE SQUANDERED WORLD SYMPATHY AND NOW HAVE BEEN ABANDONED.

    AS I CROSS NORTHERN IRAQ FROM THE TURKISH TO THE IRANIAN BORDER, I DRIVE PAST SUN-PARCHED FIELDS AND VILLAGES DOTTED WITH GRAVEYARDS -- ANOTHER GRIM REMINDER OF PAST TRAGEDIES -- FROM SADDAM HUSSEIN'S BOMBS AND GAS ATTACKS, IRANIAN AND TURKISH INCURSIONS, AND THE KURDS' OWN FEUDS.

    THE MONEY CHANGERS ARE UPSET TOO. THE UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE FUTURE IS DRIVING DOWN THE PRICE OF THE DINAR. THERE ARE NO BANKS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. SO BANKING IS UP TO THE MONEY CHANGERS. THEY'RE EASY TO SPOT IN THE MARKET TOWNS. LOOK FOR THE GROUPS OF MEN AND BOYS HUDDLED TOGETHER WITH FISTFULS OF MONEY -- READY TO POUNCE ON A PROSPECTIVE CUSTOMER.

    TAPE CUT TWO: SOUND OF MONEY CHANGERS IN FULL, THEN FADE UNDER TEXT - UP IN FULL AGAIN AT ***, FADE OUT AT ***

    TEXT: THEY COMPLAIN THAT BUSINESS IS BAD. BUT ONE TELLS ME HE HAS NO OTHER WORK AND, BESIDES, HE WHISPERS TO ME, AS LONG AS THERE ARE KURDS WHO WANT TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY, HE'LL ALWAYS HAVE A JOB. ***

    TEXT: MOST YOUNG KURDS I TALK TO SAY THEY WANT TO LEAVE. WIDESPREAD UNEMPLOYMENT FEEDS DESPAIR. SO DOES UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE FUTURE. ***

    I SEARCHED FOR A YOUNG KURD I'D MET TWO YEARS AGO. HIS FRIENDS TELL ME HE SCRAPED TOGETHER FOUR THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR A FRAUDULENT PASSPORT AND IS NOW LIVING IN GERMANY. THEY SAY THEY'RE JEALOUS.

    EVEN K-D-P OFFICIALS ACKNOLWEDGE ALMOST EVERYONE WANTS TO LEAVE.

    TAPE CUT THREE: KURDISH OFFICIAL

    IF THE UNITED STATES, AUSTRALIA AND EUROPEAN COUNTRIES OPENED THEIR BORDERS FOR THE IRAQI PEOPLE, MAYBE YOU CANNOT FIND MORE THAN A MILLION PEOPLE IN IRAQ AND KURDISTAN. THE MOST PEOPLE ARE INTERESTED TO GO TO EUROPE AND AMERICA AND CANADA.

    TEXT: BUT SOME IRAQIS SEE A BRIGHT SIDE TO THE LATEST CRISIS. AFTER THE K-D-P CONSOLIDATED ITS CONTROL OF NORTHERN IRAQ, SADDAM HUSSEIN DECLARED AN AMNESTY AND ENDED HIS TRADE BOYCOTT OF THE NORTH. SO IRAQI ARABS ARE VENTURING NORTH TO VISIT AND TAKE A LOOK. (OPT) TAPE CUT FOUR: ARABIC UP IN FULL, THEN FADE UNDER TEXT//

    TEXT: FADEL SAYS IT WAS LIKE A PARTY IN HIS CAB FROM KIRKUK TO THE KURDISH TOWN OF IRBIL. HE SAYS PASSENGERS CLAPPED WITH JOY AND BROUGHT SWEET DATES AS GIFTS FOR RELATIVES AND FRIENDS THEY HAVE NOT SEEN SINCE THE 1991 GULF WAR. (END OPT)

    (OPT) THE END OF THE BOYCOTT ALSO BRINGS WITH IT A DROP IN FUEL PRICES. A TAXI DRIVER EXPLAINS THAT A LITER OF GAS COSTS THE EQUIVALENT OF SIX AMERICAN CENTS. BUT WHEN BAGHDAD BEGINS TO SELL MORE OIL TO THE NORTH, HE SAYS THE PRICE WILL BE CUT IN HALF. IT SOUNDS INCREDIBLE TO A WESTERNER WHO PAYS SEVERAL DOLLARS A LITER IN EUROPE. BUT REMEMBER, A WELL-PAID JOB IN NORTHERN IRAQ -- AS A KURDISH FIGHTER -- PAYS ONLY ABOUT 20 DOLLARS A MONTH. (END OPT)

    THE MERCHANTS IN IRBIL SAY THEY ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO MORE BUSINESS. AND THE CONSOLIDATION OF POWER MAY ALSO CONSOLIDATE THE CONTRABAND MARKET.

    TAPE CUT FIVE: SOUND OF MARKET - ESTABLISH AND FADE UNDER TEXT

    TEXT: IN MY WALK THROUGH THE BAZAARS OF ZAKHO AND SULAIMANIYA I NOTICE A BIG DIFFERENCE IN WHAT'S OFFERED. IT DEPENDS ON THE BORDER YOU'RE NEAR. IN K-D-P-CONTROLLED ZAKHO NEAR TURKEY, THE MARKETS ARE OVERFLOWING WITH SMUGGLED EUROPEAN PRODUCTS, WITH PEPSI COLA AND AMERICAN CIGARETTES. NOW THEY'RE ALSO FILLED WITH SUPPLIES STOLEN FROM A MILITARY WAREHOUSE IN ZAKHO. IT WAS ABANDONED WHEN THE OFFICERS FLED IN AUGUST -- AFTER THE IRAQI MILITARY MOVED INTO NORTHERN IRAQ.

    THERE ARE STACKS OF ARMY SLEEPING BAGS, JACKETS, PAPER PLATES AND TOILET PAPER TOO. A PAIR OF BRAND NEW AMERICAN ARMY BOOTS SELLS FOR ABOUT 12 DOLLARS.

    IN THE SOUK OF SULAMANYA AT THE OTHER END OF THE KURDISH SAFE HAVEN, I FIND A DIFFERENT QUALITY OF GOODS. THE TOWN USED TO BE CONTROLLED BY THE P-U-K, WHICH ALSO CONTROLLED THE SMUGGLING ROUTES TO IRAN. THERE ARE FEWER EUROPEAN GOODS HERE AND NO PEPSI, JUST IRAN'S VERSION OF A COLA DRINK. THE MERCHANTS SAY THE GOOD STUFF WILL COME HERE TOO, NOW THAT THE K-D-P IS IN CONTROL.

    BUT POVERTY IS RAMPANT IN NORTHERN IRAQ. VERY FEW OF THOSE WHO BROWSE IN THE MARKET CAN AFFORD THE SMUGGLED GOODS. STILL, CHILDREN HERE FIND ENTERPRISING WAYS TO BRING HOME SOME MONEY. AT LEAST ONE YOUNG BOY IS PROFITTING FROM THE K-D-P VICTORY. WHILE I WAIT AT A MAKESHIFT GAS STATION IN SALAHUDDIN FOR THE MAN TO FILL THE CAR TANK FROM A JERRY CAN OF CHEAP GAS, A YOUNG BOY NUDGES ME UNTIL I TURN AROUND. THEN HE SHOVES A PILE OF SNAPSHOTS OF K-D-P LEADER MASSOUD BARZANI INTO MY HANDS. I LOOK THEM OVER AND HE OFFERS ME A SPECIAL TWO-FOR-ONE PRICE. BUSINESS, HE SAYS, HAS NOT BEEN SO GOOD LATELY. (SIGNED) NEB/LK/NES*
    27-Sep-96 4:51 PM EDT (2051 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] ROMANIA PRIVATIZATION BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34500
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA FRIDAY OPENED AN ELECTRONIC TRADING MARKET WHERE THE SHARES OF SOME FOUR THOUSAND NEWLY PRIVATIZED STATE ENTERPRISES WILL BE BOUGHT AND SOLD. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS.

    TEXT: ROMANIA IS JUST COMPLETING ITS MUCH DELAYED MASS PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM INVOLVING MEDIUM AND LARGE SIZE STATE ENTERPRISES.

    EARLIER THIS YEAR, ROMANIAN CITIZENS CHOSE FROM A LIST OF SEVERAL THOUSAND STATE COMPANIES THOSE THEY WOULD LIKE TO INVEST IN AND BECOME PART OWNERS. THE VOUCHERS, AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE, HAVE NOW BEEN EXCHANGED INTO SHARES. WHILE TRADING OFFICIALLY BEGAN ON FRIDAY, MOST SHARES WILL NOT BE TRADED UNTIL LATER IN THE YEAR.

    THE ELECTRONIC MARKET IS CALLED RASDAQ. IT IS MODELED AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL NASDAQ SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES, WHICH COMPETES WITH THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE. THERE IS NO TRADING FLOOR IN THIS KIND OF OVER-THE-COUNTER MARKET -- ALL TRADES ARE ARRANGED ELECTRONICALLY.

    THE ROMANIAN MARKET HAS BEEN CREATED WITH HELP FROM THE AMERICAN NASDAQ AND THE U-S AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. ROMANIA'S ONLY OTHER STOCK EXCHANGE OPENED LAST NOVEMBER AND OPERATES ONLY TWO DAYS PER WEEK. ONLY 13 COMPANIES ARE TRADED ON THE BUCHAREST EXCHANGE.

    ROMANIA HAS PURSUED A GRADUAL APPROACH TO BUILDING A MARKET ECONOMY. THE MASS PRIVATIZATION WAS TO HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT IN 1992, BUT IT WAS DELAYED BECAUSE OF POLITICAL OPPOSITION AND DISAGREEMENT OVER THE KIND OF PRIVATIZATION TO BE IMPLEMENTED. ROMANIA HAS BEEN SLOW IN ATTRACTING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT WHICH HAS ONLY REACHED TWO BILLION DOLLARS. SOUTH KOREA IS THE LARGEST FOREIGN INVESTOR.

    ECONOMISTS AND POLICY MAKERS EXPECT THE PACE OF REFORM TO QUICKEN AFTER THE NOVEMBER PARLIAMENTARY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA. SEVERAL FOREIGN BANKS HAVE RECENTLY ESTABLISHED OFFICES IN BUCHAREST AND THE PACE OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IS PICKING UP.

    // REST OPTIONAL //

    THIS WEEK, SIX INTERNATIONAL CONSORTIA MADE BIDS FOR TWO LICENSES TO OPERATE DIGITAL CELLULAR PHONE SYSTEMS. INVESTMENT IN THE FIELD OF CELLULAR TELEPHONES COULD REACH 400 MILLION DOLLARS. WITH POOR QUALITY AND LOW DENSITY PHONE SERVICE, CELLULAR PHONE TECHNOLOGY IS EXPECTED TO BE A GROWTH INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/ADEN/MMK
    27-Sep-96 12:19 PM EDT (1619 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] EDITORIAL: SUPPORTING A FREE MEDIA IN EASTERN EUROPE

    DATE= SEPTEMBER 30, 1996
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-06981
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE FIRST OF TWO EDITORIALS BEING RELEASED FOR
    BROADCAST SEPTEMBER 30, 1996.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS.

    VOICE:

    NO SOCIETY CAN BE TRULY FREE WITHOUT A LIVELY AND INDEPENDENT PRESS. SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE, ONE PRIORITY HAS BEEN TO ESTABLISH FREE MEDIA. OVER THE PAST SIX YEARS, A GREAT DEAL OF PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE. THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY, AN INDEPENDENT U.S. GOVERNMENT-FUNDED ORGANIZATION, HAS BEEN CRUCIAL TO THIS EFFORT.

    IN ROMANIA, THE MEDIA'S DISTORTION OF INFORMATION ENCOURAGES POLITICAL EXTREMISM AND XENOPHOBIA. ACADEMIA CATAVENCU IS TRYING TO COUNTER THIS TREND. THE BUCHAREST-BASED ORGANIZATION IS DEDICATED TO REFORMING JOURNALISTIC PRACTICES AND FIGHTING COMMUNIST-STYLE DISINFORMATION IN THE ROMANIAN MEDIA. ACADEMIA CATAVENCU RECEIVES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY FUNDING. WITH THIS SUPPORT, IT HAS ORGANIZED A NATIONWIDE NETWORK OF MEDIA MONITORS AND PUBLISHES A MONTHLY BULLETIN. IN 1995, ACADEMIA CATAVENCU ANALYZED ARTICLES IN THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL PRESS DEALING WITH CORRUPTION, POLITICAL PARTIES, AND INTER-ETHNIC RELATIONS. IT FOUND A HIGH DEGREE OF MANIPULATION AND DISTORTION. A COMPILATION OF THESE ANALYSES WAS CIRCULATED IN FOURTEEN DAILIES AND WEEKLIES. THE IMPACT WAS IMMEDIATE.

    ELSEWHERE IN THE REGION, GRANT MONEY HAS BEEN GIVEN TO BETA NEWS AGENCY IN SERBIA/MONTENEGRO TO ENABLE THIS INDEPENDENT NEWS AGENCY TO CONTINUE DISSEMINATING HIGH-QUALITY, UNBIASED INFORMATION. ANOTHER NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY GRANT HELPS ENSURE THE SURVIVAL OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN SERBIA, MONTENEGRO AND KOSOVO BY ORGANIZING THE DELIVERY OF NEWSPRINT AND EQUIPMENT.

    FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IS ESSENTIAL TO ANY FREE SOCIETY. THANKS TO NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY SUPPORT, FLEDGLING INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN EASTERN EUROPE ARE GROWING STRONGER.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL REFLECTING AMERICAN IDEALS AND INSTITUTIONS. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE HEARD ON THIS ISSUE, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, VOICE OF AMERICA, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO SEND US A FAX AT (202) 619-1043. YOUR COMMENTS MAY BE USED ON THE AIR.
    27-Sep-96 11:10 AM EDT (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] BOSNIAN MUSLIMS CRITICIZED (L) BY KAREN COLEMAN (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-203787
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NATO-LED PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE IN BOSNIA -- "I-FOR" -- HAS ACCUSED THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT OF STANDING IN THE WAY OF A FUTURE, PEACEFUL RESETTLEMENT OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES. IT CRITICIZED THE REFUSAL OF MUSLIMS TO LEAVE THE SERB VILLAGE OF JUSICI, WHICH THEY ENTERED RECENTLY. KAREN COLEMAN REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER HASAN MURATOVIC HAD PROMISED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT HE WOULD ASK THE MUSLIMS TO LEAVE JUSICI. THOSE ELIGIBLE TO LIVE THERE WOULD THEN BE IDENTIFIED BY THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES AND COULD RETURN TO REBUILD THEIR HOMES IN AN ORDERLY FASHION. BUT PRIME MINISTER MURATOVIC HAS NOT FOLLOWED THROUGH ON THOSE PROMISES, AND THE VILLAGERS ARE STAYING ON.

    I-FOR SPOKESMAN, MAJOR SIMON HASELOCK, CRITICIZED THE BOSNIAN AUTHORITIES FRIDAY FOR NOT FULFILLING THEIR PROMISES. HE SAID EVERYONE ACCEPTS THE NEED TO CREATE HOUSING, BUT NOT AT THE COST OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    // HASELOCK ACT //

    WE SAID YESTERDAY ... THEY PROMISED TO ASK THE GROUP TO LEAVE JUSICI, IF THOSE WHO ARE ELIGIBLE TO LIVE THERE COULD HAVE THEIR PAPERS PROCESSED AND RETURN TO THE VILLAGE WITH THAT AUTHORITY IN A REASONABLE SPACE OF TIME. NOW THEY APPEAR TO BE BALKING AT THAT AND WE BELIEVE ... THAT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS STANDING IN THE WAY OF A FUTURE, PEACEFUL RESETTLEMENT FOR TENS OF THOUSANDS OF REFUGEES.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    U-N REFUGEE AGENCY OFFICIALS FRIDAY VISITED JUSICI WITH THE BOSNIAN MINISTER OF REFUGEES TO TRY AND PERSUADE THE PEOPLE TO GO PEACEFULLY. MANS NYBERG IS THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY'S SPOKESMAN.

    // NYBERG ACT //

    THE PURPOSE OF THE VISIT IS TO BRIEFLY TO KEEP UP OUR CONTACT WITH THE REFUGEE RETURNEES AND, ONCE AGAIN, TO PERSUADE THEM TO LEAVE THE VILLAGE TEMPORARILY FOR THE TIME OF THE APPLICATION PERIOD. IN THIS CONTEXT, WE EXPECT THE MINISTER TO TALK TO THE RETURNEES AND, BY PERSUADING THEM TO LEAVE TEMPORARILY, DIFFUSE THE SITUATION.

    // END ACT //

    THE PROBLEM HAS DEEPENED FOLLOWING THREATS FROM SERBS IN A NEARBY VILLAGE TO ENTER JUSICI AND REMOVE THE MUSLIMS BY FORCE. SO FAR, THOUGH, THE LOCAL SERB POLICE OFFICERS HAVE ACTED WITH RESTRAINT. BUT THERE'S A DANGER THAT, IF THE SITUATION CONTINUES AND THE MUSLIMS STAY, VIOLENCE COULD STILL ERUPT. (SIGNED).
    NEB/KC/PCF/RRM
    27-Sep-96 12:44 PM EDT (1644 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] U-N WEEK-IN-REVIEW BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34509
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATIONAL LEADERS BEGIN THEIR TRADITIONAL VISITS TO A NEW SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY; KABUL FALLS TO ISLAMIC MILITANTS, A FORMER AFHGAN RULER IS MURDERED AND THE U-N SAYS IT WAS HELPLESS TO PREVENT IT; AND NEW CLASHES BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS EVOKE CONCERN AND ANGER -- DIRECTED MOSTLY TOWARD ISRAEL. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE MAIN DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PAST WEEK:

    TEXT: EXCEPT FOR A LANDMARK GLOBAL TREATY BANNING NUCLEAR TEST EXPLOSIONS THAT WAS OPEN FOR SIGNATURE THIS PAST WEEK, THE 51ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY SPARKED LITTLE CELEBRATION AMONG WORLD LEADERS. THE U-N'S FINANCIAL PROBLEMS, PROMPTED BY THE FAILURE OF THE UNITED STATES TO PAY ITS U-N DEBT, DOMINATED HIGH-LEVEL SPEECH-MAKING. PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON BLAMED THE CRISIS ON HIS REPUBLICAN OPPONENTS IN THE U-S CONGRESS:

    //CLINTON ACT//

    THEY HAVE MADE IT DIFFICULT FOR THE UNITED STATES TO MEET ITS FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS TO THE UNITED NATIONS. BUT LET ME ASSURE YOU THE VAST MAJORITY OF AMERICANS SUPPORT THE UNITED NATIONS -- NOT ONLY BECAUSE IT REFLECTS OUR IDEALS BUT BECAUSE IT REINFORCES OUR INTERESTS.

    //END ACT//

    PRESIDENT CLINTON PROMISED HE WOULD PAY U-S ARREARS -- OVER ONE BILLION DOLLARS. BUT GOVERNMENTS SIGNALLED THEIR WEARINESS WITH AMERICA'S INTERNAL POLITICS. MALAYSIA'S PRIME MINISTER MAHATHIR MOHAMMED -- IN HIS U-N REMARKS -- QUESTIONED WASHINGTON'S RIGHT TO BE THE WORLD'S LEADER:

    //MAHATHIR ACT//

    THE UNITED NATIONS IS ON THE VERGE OF BANKRUPTCY, BEING HELD TO RANSOM BY ITS MAJOR DONOR COUNTRY -- THE WEALTHIEST NATION IN THE WORLD. THAT COUNTRY REFUSES TO MEET ITS ASSESSED AND LEGALLY DUE CONTRIBUTIONS, YET INSISTS ON MAINTAINING ITS HEGEMONY ON GLOBAL MANAGEMENT.

    //END ACT//

    MEANWHILE, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI SAID AGAIN THIS PAST WEEK THAT HE HAS LED REFORMS AT THE U-N. THE UNITED STATES HAS THREATENED TO VETO HIS BID FOR RE-ELECTION, SAYING HE IS A RELUCTANT REFORMER:

    //BOUTROS ACT///

    WE HAVE CUT COSTS, INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, EXTENDED ACCOUNTABILITY AND ENHANCED REFORMS. WE HAVE MOVED TOWARD A MISSION-DRIVEN INSTITUTION READY TO ACCEPT AND IMPLEMENT CHANGE.

    //END ACT//

    MR. BOUTROS-GHALI'S FIVE-YEAR TERM EXPIRES IN DECEMBER.

    -0-

    WHAT THE U-N HAS FEARED HAS COME TO PASS IN AFGHANISTAN. ISLAMIC MILITANTS PLUNGED INTO KABUL, FOUND THE AFGHAN COMMUNIST LEADER WHO WENT INTO HIDING IN 1992 AND MURDERED HIM . NAJIBULLAH HAD BEEN HIDING OUT AT THE U-N COMPOUND IN THE COUNTRY.

    NAJIBULLAH PHONED U-N OFFICIALS IN NEW YORK JUST BEFORE THE TAKEOVER. A U-N SPOKESMAN SAID THERE WAS NOTHING THE U-N COULD DO AT THAT POINT -- WITHOUT SOLDIERS OF ITS OWN. U-N OFFICIALS CALLED ON THE RED CROSS, WHICH SAID IT TOO WAS HELPLESS.

    THE U-N HAS BEEN TALKING RECENTLY TO ALL AFGHAN FACTIONS, INCLUDING THE TALEBAN ISLAMIC MILITIAS THAT SEIZED KABUL, TO URGE A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT.

    -0-

    THE U-N HAS BEEN SEIZED WITH CONCERN OVER THE NEW VIOLENCE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS THAT ERUPTED AFTER ISRAEL OPENED A TOURIST TUNNEL THIS WEEK NEAR A MUSLIM HOLY SITE IN JERUSALEM. THE FEAR IS THAT THE ENTIRE PEACE PROCESS WILL COLLAPSE.

    THE SECURITY COUNCIL HELD A FORMAL DEBATE, WHILE DIPLOMATS OUTSIDE TRIED HIGH-LEVEL CONTACTS TO DEFUSE THE CRISIS. ARAB LEADERS HAVE CONDEMNED THE ISRAELI ACTION, ACCUSING THE NEW RIGHT-WING GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL OF TRYING TO SABOTAGE THE PEACE PROCESS.

    ISRAEL SAID THE PALESTINIANS OVER-REACTED TO THE TUNNEL OPENING AND REFUSED TO ACCEPT BLAME FOR THE VIOLENCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/KL
    27-Sep-96 5:14 PM EDT (2114 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/27/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09803
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 27TH //

    INTRO: OVERWHELMINGLY, AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS THIS FRIDAY ARE SPEAKING OUT ABOUT THE LATEST VIOLENCE BETWEEN THE ISRAELIS AND THE PALESTINIANS, AND ON HOW THE ISRAELI GOVERNMENT IS REACTING TO THE CRISIS. OTHER EDITORIAL SUBJECTS TODAY INCLUDE THE KOREAN SUBMARINE SPY INCIDENT; SECURITY ON THE INTERNET; THE FINAL WEEKS OF THE 104TH CONGRESS; U-S POLICY ON EXPLORING MARS AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S HEALTH. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: LEADING MOST EDITORIAL COLUMNS IS COMMENT ON THE FIGHTING IN AND AROUND ISRAEL AFTER THE ISRAELIS OPENED A TUNNEL NEAR JERUSALEM'S TEMPLE MOUNT, A HOLY SITE SACRED TO BOTH MUSLIMS AND JEWS. THE MIAMI HERALD CALLS IT "A FAILURE OF LEADERSHIP" BY BOTH ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIM NETANYAHU AND PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT", ADDING:

    VOICE: "THE WEEK'S TRAGIC VIOLENCE IN ISRAEL AND THE WEST BANK SHOULD NOT HAVE SURPRISED ANYONE WHO HAS PAID ATTENTION FOR THE LAST 101 DAYS. SSADDENED, YES, AND ANGERED. BUT NOT SURPRISED... FROM GAZA, PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY PRESIDENT YASSER ARAFAT SEIZED EVERY OPPORTUNITY TO RATCHET UP THE TENSIONS AND INCITE THE ALREADY-ANGRY PALESTINIANS. AND MR. NETANYAHU, UNFORTUNATELY, SEEMED INTENT ON PROVIDING MR. ARAFAT WITH AS MANY OF THOSE OPPORTUNITIES AS POSSIBLE. ... MR. ARAFAT AND MR. NETANYAHU NEED TO SUMMON EVERY TRACE OF STATESMANSHIP IN THEM, EVERY BIT OF GOODWILL, AND MOVE QUICKLY TO A SUBSTANTIVE, DIRECT DIALOGUE."

    TEXT: IN BOSTON, THE GLOBE TITLE'S ITS LEAD EDITORIAL "TUNNEL VISION IN JERUSALEM," AND SAYS THE FIGHTING BETWEEN PALESTINIAN POLICE AND ISRAELI TROOPS "SIGNIFIES A RESUMPTION OF THE INTIFADA THAT THE OSLO PEACE AGREEMENT WAS MEANT TO END..."

    VOICE: "...THE DIFFERENCE TODAY IS THAT THERE ARE 30-THOUSAND ARMED PALESTINIAN POLICE IN THE WEST BANK AND GAZA, AND SOME OF THEM HAVE REACTED TO SCENES OF BLOODSHED BY FIRING AT ISRAELI SOLDIERS..., SHOOTING ... THAT ISRAELI ARMY RADIO ... DESCRIBED ... AS 'A PICTURE OF WAR.' THIS PREMONITION OF TRUE WARFARE DOES NOT HAVE A SPONTANEOUS CAUSE. POLITICAL LEADERS CAUSED IT -- BY WHAT THEY DID AND WHAT THEY FAILED TO DO... BUT ULTIMATELY, IT WAS NOT THE OPENING OF THE TUNNEL THAT INDUCED VIOLENCE. IT WAS [MR.] NETANYAHU'S THWARTING OF THE PEACE PROCESS."

    TEXT: IN GEORGIA, THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION SAYS, "REIN IN ISRAELI PROVOCATION," ADDING CAUSTICALLY:

    VOICE: "BENJAMIN NETANYAHU TOOK OFFICE AS ISRAEL'S PRIME MINISTER A LITTLE MORE THAN 100 DAYS AGO VOWING TO PUT HIS COUNTRYMEN'S SECURITY ABOVE ALL OTHER CONSIDERATIONS. RUBBISH. WHAT KIND OF SECURITY IS IT WHEN ISRAEL'S SOLDIERS ARE UNDER ATTACK BY FURIOUS PALESTINIANS THROUGHOUT THE WEST BANK AND GAZA AND PARTS OF JERUSALEM, AND WHEN TALK OF RENEWED WAR WITH SYRIA IS TAKEN SERIOUSLY? FOR THIS, [MR.] NETANYAHU HAS NO ONE TO BLAME BUT HIMSELF. [OPT] HE HAS SQUANDERED THE GOOD WILL EARNED BY HIS PREDECESSORS, SHIMON PERES AND YITZHAK RABIN."[END OPT]

    TEXT: AND ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, NEWSDAY IS ASKING, INCREDULOUSLY:

    VOICE: "WHY NOW? WHAT POSSESSED ISRAELI AUTHORITIES TO AUTHORIZE A MIDNIGHT DIG TO OPEN A NARROW, TWO-THOUSAND YEAR OLD TUNNEL IN THE OLD CITY OF JERUSALEM RUNNING ALONGSIDE THE AL-AQSA MOSQUE -- A HOLY SITE TO MUSLIMS? A MIND-BOGGLING DECISION ... HAS SPARKED AN ARMED CONFRONTATION BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS SO INTENSE IT RESEMBLES WAR... UNLESS ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU AND PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT MOVE EFFECTIVELY TO REIN IN THEIR FORCES AND CLAM THEIR RESPECTIVE POPULATIONS, THE FRAGILE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS ... WILL SHATTER."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES IS EQUALLY GRIM IN ITS ASSESSMENT OF MR. NATANYAHU'S STATESMANSHIP.

    VOICE: "... PRIME MINISTER ... NETANYAHU ... SUDDENLY FACES A TURNING POINT FOR HIS GOVERNMENT AND HIS COUNTRY. ... IF HE ENCOURAGES PEACE, HE MAY BE ABLE TO QUELL THE VIOLENT CLASHES THAT HAVE ROCKED ISRAEL THE LAST TWO DAYS AND REBUILD THE MUTUAL TRUST THAT HAS BEEN SHATTERED. IF HE ABANDONS THE PEACE EFFORT, ISRAEL AND THE MIDDLE EAST WILL ALMOST CERTAINLY SLIP BACK INTO VIOLENCE AND ENMITY... MR. NETANYAHU HAS BEEN ARTICULATE IN CRITICIZING THE ACCORDS HIS PREDECESSORS REACHED WITH MR. ARAFAT. HE HAS BEEN LESS SKILLFUL IN OUTLINING AN ALTERNATIVE ... HE NO LONGER HAS THE LUXURY OF HESITATION OR DELAY."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN OTHER COMMENTARIES TODAY, THE PORTLAND MAINE PRESS HERALD, TAKING NOTE OF THE NORTH KOREAN SUBMARINE THAT WENT AGROUND OFF SOUTH KOREA, APPARENTLY DISGORGING SPIES WHEN IT'S ENGINES FAILED, SAYS:

    VOICE: "SOUTH KOREA, THE COUNTRY WE SAVED FROM THE COMMUNIST NORTH IN THE 1950S AND STILL DEFEND TODAY, HIT THE [U-S] FRONT PAGES TWICE THIS WEEK. FIRST, ITS SOLDIERS HAD TO HUNT DOWN DOZENS OF ARMED NORTH KOREAN AGENTS WHO LANDED BY SUBMARINE. SECOND, IT REPORTEDLY SUBORNED (UNLAWFULLY INDUCED) A KOREAN-AMERICAN U-S INTELLIGENCE SPECIALIST INTO SPYING FOR HIS FORMER COUNTRY AGAINST HIS ADOPTED ONE. THE TWO EVENTS ARE RELATED. SOUTH KOREA IS RIGHTLY WARY OF THE NORTH, WHICH IS IN DESPERATE ECONOMIC STRAITS BUT STILL MAINTAINS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF TROOPS WITHIN EASY STRIKING DISTANCE. HOWEVER, THAT'S NO EXCUSE FOR PAYING AN AMERICAN TO SPY ON HIS COUNTRY -- OR FOR ANY AMERICAN TO BECOME A TRAITOR."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, IN THE U-S CAPITAL, THE WASHINGTON TIMES IS CRITICAL OF AMERICAN POLICY TOWARD NORTH KOREA.

    VOICE: "BY NOW IT'S DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE WHAT THE NORTH KOREANS CAN DO TO PROVOKE THE UNITED STATES. AN ARMED INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA, PERHAPS? WHO KNOWS IF EVEN THAT WOULD GET A RISE OUT OF [A REACTION FROM] A CLINTON WHITE HOUSE WHOSE DETERMINED MEEKNESS IN THE FACE OF EVER MORE BRAZEN ACTS BY THE PYONGYANG REGIME IS TRULY A MARVEL TO BEHOLD... LIKE A SLEW OF OTHER FOREIGN POLICY PROBLEMS ... OUR POLICY ON NORTH KOREA IS IN A HOLDING PATTERN, WHERE THE WHITE HOUSE WOULD MUCH PREFER IT TO REMAIN UNTIL AFTER THE ELECTION."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST IS STILL NOT SATISFIED WITH CHANGES CONGRESS IS MAKING WITH THE LARGE IMMIGRATION REFORM BILL WORKING ITS WAY TOWARD THE WHITE HOUSE.

    VOICE: "TO GIVE CREDIT WHERE IT IS DUE, REPUBLICANS HAVE MADE SOME IMPORTANT REVISIONS. THEY AGREED TO SEPARATE OUT THE ... AMENDMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF THE CHILDREN OF ILLEGAL ALIENS. THEY ADDED A RIGHT TO REVIEW BY AN IMMIGRATION JUDGE OF INITIAL DECISIONS TO DENY ASYLUM TO THOSE COMING TO THIS COUNTRY WITH FALSE PAPERS OR THROUGH COUNTRIES WHERE THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN SAFE. AT THE SAME TIME, HOWEVER, THEY HAVE INSISTED ON HARSH PROVISIONS RELATING TO LEGAL ALIENS... THAT A COMPROMISE STILL IS BEING CONSIDERED IS A GOOD SIGN; UNLESS SOME CHANGES ARE MADE, THE BILL SHOULD NOT BECOME LAW."

    TEXT: TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION IS CONCERNED ABOUT HOW THE INTERNET, THE GLOBAL PERSONAL COMPUTER NETWORK, HAS BECOME A CONDUIT FOR RUMORS, PARTICULARLY A FALSE REPORT THAT A DATABASE COMPANY WAS COLLECTING PERSONAL INFORMATION ON EVERY SINGLE AMERICAN.

    VOICE: "IT WAS ONLY A RUMOR. BUT ON THE INTERNET, RUMORS SPREAD SO QUICKLY THAT THE DAMAGE IS OFTEN DONE BEFORE THE SUBJECT OF THE RUMOR EVEN KNOWS IT EXISTS. LEXIS-NEXIS, THE ONLINE DATABASE COMPANY, FELL VICTIM TO THAT REALITY RECENTLY. ITS STORY IS A CASE STUDY IN THE DANGERS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE INTERNET, AND THE FEAR IT INSPIRES FOR REASONS REAL AND IMAGINED. [OPT] ACCORDING TO THE RUMOR ... LEXIS-NEXIS WAS OFFERING TO SELL PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT MILLIONS OF AMERICANS... THE STORY, AS IT TURNED OUT, WAS FALSE. [END OPT] ... UNTIL NOW, FEW POLITICAL LEADERS HAVE BEEN WILLING TO INVEST THE TIME AND ENERGY NEEDED TO UNDERSTAND THE PRIVACY ISSUES RAISED BY THE INTERNET. THAT ATTITUDE IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY DANGEROUS."

    TEXT: REGARDING RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S REDUCED WORK LOAD, DUE TO HIS HEALTH PROBLEMS, THE WASHINGTON POST REMARKS:

    VOICE: "ON A HUMAN LEVEL, IT IS DIFFICULT NOT TO SYMPATHIZE WITH MR. YELTSIN. HE ROUSED HIMSELF FROM A YEAR OR MORE OF DECLINING HEALTH -- INCLUDING TWO HEART ATTACKS - - TO MOUNT A SUPERHUMAN REELECTION BATTLE, ONLY TO SUFFER ANOTHER ATTACK ON THE EVE OF HIS JULY VICTORY... BUT CAN RUSSIA PROSPER WITH A MOSTLY ABSENT LEADER? ... MR. YELTSIN (WORKING) 15 MINUTES A DAY IS CERTAINLY BETTER FOR RUSSIA THAN A 24-HOUR-A-DAY GENNADY ZYUGANOV, THE COMMUNIST RUNNER-UP IN JULY'S ELECTION WHO WOULD SEEK TO YANK RUSSIA BACK TO THE PAST."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, A WELCOME HOME EDITORIAL IN THE LOS ANGELES TIMES FOR ASTRONAUT SHANNON LUCID, WHO WAS ALOFT IN THE MIR SPACE STATION FOR ALMOST SIX MONTHS.

    VOICE: "THERE'S NO PLACE LIKE HOME. JUST ASK SHANNON LUCID. SHE'S BACK FROM 188 DAYS IN SPACE -- AN AMERICAN RECORD -- AND SHE'S

    HANKERING [LONGING] FOR CONTACT WITH HER FAMILY, A SHOWER AND JUNK FOOD... THE HOOPLA [CELEBRATION] THAT GREETED HER RETURN WAS REMINISCENCE OF SOME OF AMERICA'S EARLY SPACE ENDEAVORS. SAID DANIEL GOLDIN, THE NASA ADMINISTRATOR: 'SHE HAS A TOUGHNESS AND SHE HAS AN ABILITY TO PERFORM. SHE STUCK WITH IT. SHE'S MY HERO.'

    TEXT: THAT CONCLUDES THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/PCH
    27-Sep-96 11:20 AM EDT (1520 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] NEWSPAPERS ON-LINE BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=9/27/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-34502
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// FOR WEEKEND NEWSLINE USE ///

    INTRO: ALTHOUGH THE TRADITIONAL DAILY NEWSPAPER IN THE UNITED STATES IS NOT ABOUT TO DISAPPEAR, SOME NEWSPAPER PUBLISHERS ARE STARTING TO WONDER IF THEY CAN COMPETE WITH THE ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES OF THE FUTURE. IN NEW YORK, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS ON ONE PUBLISHER WHO IS TRYING TO ESTABLISH HIS NEWSPAPER AS A FORCE IN ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS.

    TEXT: AFTER SEVERAL DECADES IN WHICH MANY AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS WENT OUT OF BUSINESS OR MERGED WITH OTHER PAPERS, THE NEWSPAPER BUSINESS IN THE UNITED STATES IS NOW RELATIVELY HEALTHY, WITH CIRCULATION AT ABOUT 60-MILLION COPIES EACH DAY. BUT SOME PUBLISHERS ARE CONCERNED THAT MOST DAILY NEWSPAPERS DO NOT APPEAL TO YOUNGER PEOPLE -- WHO APPEAR TO BE TURNING ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY TO TELEVISION FOR NEWS AND INFORMATION. MORE ALARMING TO SOME PUBLISHERS HAS BEEN THE RISE OF COMPUTER ON-LINE ADVERTISING SERVICES, ESPECIALLY IN THE AREA OF CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING.

    CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING -- THOSE SMALL ADS FOR JOBS, SALES, SERVICES AND SO FORTH -- IS CRITICALLY IMPORTANT TO MOST AMERICAN DAILY NEWSPAPERS AS A MAJOR SOURCE OF REVENUE. PAT PURCELL, THE PUBLISHER OF THE BOSTON "HERALD," USED TO WORRY BECAUSE HIS PAPER WAS LAGGING IN CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING BEHIND THE BOSTON "GLOBE," HIS CHIEF COMPETITOR. THREE MONTHS AGO, MR. PURCELL'S NEWSPAPER BEGAN AN EXTENSIVE EMPLOYMENT CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING SERVICE ON THE INTERNET COMPUTER SERVICE. BUT UNLIKE MOST NEWSPAPERS, THE BOSTON HERALD DOES NOT JUST DUPLICATE ON THE INTERNET THE ADVERTISING THAT IS IN THE NEWSPAPER.

    /// PURCELL ACT ///

    WHEN YOU ADVERTISE IN A PAPER, YOU ARE LIMITED BY THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE NEWSPAPER AND YOU ARE LIMITED ECONOMICALLY, BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO PAY FOR NEWSPRINT AS PART OF THE ADVERTISING RATE AND MUST PAY BY THE LINE. THAT IS NOT THE CASE ON-LINE BECAUSE SPACE IS VIRTUALLY LIMIT-LESS AND YOU CAN PUT AS MUCH INFORMATION ON AS YOU LIKE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PURCELL SAYS THERE ARE CURRENTLY ABOUT 10-THOUSAND JOBS ADVERTISED ON THE BOSTON HERALD'S ON-LINE SITE -- WHICH IS CALLED "JOB FIND."

    HE SAYS THE SYSTEM OFFERS A GREAT DEAL OF FLEXIBILITY AND DIRECT COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN EMPLOYERS AND JOB SEEKERS.

    /// PURCELL ACT ///

    PEOPLE CAN ACTUALLY APPLY FOR JOBS ON-LINE. THEY CAN E-MAIL THEIR RESUME TO A PROSPECTIVE EMPLOYER ONCE THEY SEE AN AD THEY ARE INTERESTED IN. THE OTHER ADVANTAGE IS, IF THEY DO NOT FIND SOMETHING THAT MATCHES THEIR QUALIFICATIONS ON A PARTICULAR DAY, THEY CAN LEAVE THEIR RESUME ON FILE. AS NEW ADS COME IN, THE SYSTEM WILL REVIEW THE ADS THAT ARE NOW ON FILE AGAINST THE RESUMES ON FILE. W HEN A MATCH DOES OCCUR, WE WILL E-MAIL THE INDIVIDUAL TO LET THEM KNOW THAT A JOB HAS COME ON THE SYSTEM THAT THEY MAY BE INTERESTED IN.

    /// END ACT ///

    BOSTON HERALD PUBLISHER PAT PURCELL SAYS HIS NEWSPAPER PLANS TO EXPAND ITS COMPUTER CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING TO INCLUDE REAL ESTATE AND AUTOMOBILE ADS IN THE COMING MONTHS. HE BELIEVES IF NEWSPAPERS DO NOT STAKE OUT A COMMERCIAL PRESENCE ON THE INTERNET NOW, THEY MAY REGRET IT LATER.

    /// PURCELL ACT ///

    WE HAVE TO GET ESTABLISHED IN THESE OTHER AREAS OR SOMEBODY ELSE WILL. THE COST OF ENTRY IS TOO CHEAP AND THE OPPORTUNITIES ARE ENORMOUS. IF PEOPLE FIND IT EASIER AND MORE EFFICIENT TO FIND A JOB, A HOUSE OR AN AUTOMOBILE THIS WAY, THAT IS WHERE THEY ARE GOING TO GO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PURCELL SAYS, IN THE SHORT-TERM, HE DOES NOT EXPECT CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING TO DISAPPEAR FROM PRINTED NEWSPAPERS. HOWEVER IN THE FUTURE, AS MORE AMERICANS BECOME ADEPT AT USING COMPUTERS, ON-LINE CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING MAY WELL BECOME DOMINANT -- AND NEWSPAPERS THAT HAVE NOT ESTABLISHED THEMSELVES IN THAT MEDIUM WILL BE IN TROUBLE. (SIGNED). NEB/NY/BA/LSF/RRM
    27-Sep-96 1:37 PM EDT (1737 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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