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Voice of America, 97-03-10 (1 of 2)

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ALBANIA REACT (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] ALBANIA UNREST (L) BY BARRY WOOD (TIRANA)
  • [04] COHEN/NATO-RUSSIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [06] NATO CRITERIA BY MELISSA WINKLER (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/10/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10058
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY MARCH 10TH //

    INTRO: THE CONTINUING CONTROVERSY ABOUT THE GOLD AND OTHER VALUABLES THE SWISS BANKING INDUSTRY MAY HAVE TAKEN FROM JEWS DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR IS BACK IN THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS OF THE U-S PRESS THIS MONDAY. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE SENATE HOLDUP OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY; THE NEW REPUBLICAN CONGRESSIONAL AGENDA; THE BATTLE AGAINST DRUGS; AND BALANCING THE FEDERAL BUDGET. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST WRITES OF THE LATEST MOVE BY SWITZERLAND IN THE CONTINUING CONTROVERSY OVER THE WHEREABOUTS OF JEWISH WEALTH STORED THERE DURING THE WAR:

    VOICE: "[BEGIN OPT] UNCOMFORTABLE AS THEY ARE WITH THE PRESSURE AND PUBLICITY, THE SWISS ARE WORKING THEIR WAY THROUGH GRAVE MORAL DILEMMAS THEY AVOIDED DURING AND LONG AFTER WORLD WAR TWO. [END OPT] THE QUESTION IS AT WHOSE COST AND WHAT COST DID SWITZERLAND PURCHASE, FROM NAZI GERMANY, ITS SUCCESSFUL AND PROFITABLE WARTIME NEUTRALITY. THE MOST PAINFUL PART OF THE ANSWER IS: AT THE CONSIDERABLE COST OF IMPRISONED AND EVENTUALLY ANNIHILATED JEWS. THE ELECTORATE AS A WHOLE HAS YET TO REGISTER ITS FULL REACTION. HOWEVER, THE COUNTRY'S POLITICAL AND BANKING LEADERSHIP IS, WITH SOME BACKSLIDING, MOVING AHEAD."

    TEXT: THERE IS GROWING FRUSTRATION, EXPRESSED TODAY BY NEWSDAY ON LONG ISLAND, REGARDING THE SENATE'S FAILURE TO RATIFY THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS TREATY.

    VOICE: "MORE THAN 160 COUNTRIES HAVE SENSIBLY AGREED TO SWEAR OFF CHEMICAL WEAPONS UNDER A FORWARD-LOOKING TREATY SCHEDULED TO TAKE EFFECT APRIL 29TH. THE UNITED STATES NOT ONLY SIGNED THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BUT DECIDED PREVIOUSLY TO DESTROY ITS OWN 31-THOUSAND-TON STOCKPILE OF POISON GASES AND DELIVERY VEHICLES BY 2005. ...... YET INSTEAD OF GETTING CREDIT FOR INITIATIVE, THE UNITED STATES STANDS TO BE PENALIZED UNDER THE TREATY BECAUSE THE SENATE STILL HASN'T RATIFIED IT, FOUR YEARS AFTER IT WAS SIGNED BY THEN-PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH. UNLESS THE SENATE ACTS IN THE NEXT EIGHT WEEKS, AMERICANS WILL BE BARRED FROM THE INTERNATIONAL INSPECTION TEAMS THAT MONITOR .... COMPLIANCE .... BLAME ALL THIS ON [SENATOR] JESSE HELMS. THE STUBBORN NORTH CAROLINA REPUBLICAN WHO CHAIRS THE SENATE FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE SAYS IT CAN'T TAKE UP THE TREATY UNTIL IT HAS DEALT WITH HIS PLANS TO REORGANIZE THE STATE DEPARTMENT AND THE UNITED NATIONS."

    BEGIN OPT

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK POST IS NOT IMPRESSED WITH THE RECENTLY ANNOUNCED REPUBLICAN POLITICAL AGENDA FOR THE NEXT TWO YEARS.

    VOICE: "LAST THURSDAY, TWO MONTHS INTO THE 105TH CONGRESS, HOUSE MAJORITY LEADER DICK ARMEY OF TEXAS FINALLY UNVEILED THE HOUSE GOP AGENDA. WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS, ITS ITEMS ARE UNLIKELY TO INSPIRE MUCH ENTHUSIASM AMONG THOSE WHO SPENT DECADES LOOKING FORWARD TO A REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED HOUSE. THE BALANCED-BUDGET AMENDMENT IS STILL THERE, EVEN THOUGH IT WAS EFFECTIVELY KILLED IN THE SENATE LAST WEEK ..... [MR.] ARMEY SAYS THE GOP WILL TRY TO BALANCE THE BUDGET WITHOUT THE AMENDMENT - - AND SO IT SHOULD. A PROPOSAL TO BAN PARTIAL-BIRTH ABORTION WAS INCLUDED, WHICH IS ENCOURAGING. ... AND MEASURES SEEKING TO CUT OR ELIMINATE THE CAPITAL-GAINS TAX ALSO MAKE SENSE - - AS DO MEDICAL SAVINGS ACCOUNTS AND TORT REFORM. ..... BUT THE REST OF THE GOP LIST IS UNINSPIRING. ... IF THE GOP IS TO SOLIDIFY ITS POSITION AS THE MAJORITY PARTY IN CONGRESS, IT WILL HAVE TO DO BETTER."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES HOWEVER, OPPOSES THE IDEA OF ENDING THE CAPITAL GAINS TAX, IN TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL.

    VOICE: "SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE BUSH ADMINISTRATION, DEMOCRATS HAVE MANAGED TO CONTAIN THE REPUBLICAN OBSESSION WITH CUTTING THE TAX ON CAPITAL GAINS. ..... THE DEMOCRATS SHOULD HOLD THEIR GROUND. A MAJOR ACHIEVEMENT OF THE 1986 TAX REFORM BILL, STILL MOSTLY INTACT, WAS TO TAX ALL TYPES OF INCOME, INCLUDING CAPITAL GAINS, AT THE SAME RATE. IT MAKES NO SENSE TO DISCARD THIS HARD-FOUGHT VICTORY. ..... THE BUDGET .... CANNOT AFFORD A NEEDLESS GIVEAWAY THAT DRIVES UP THE DEFICIT AND CREATES A LOOPHOLE CONGRESS RIGHTLY CLOSED TEN YEARS AGO."

    END OPT

    TEXT: TODAY'S MIAMI HERALD CRITICIZES THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FOR INCONSISTENCY IN CERTIFYING MEXICO AS A VALID ANTI-DRUG ALLY BUT NOT COLOMBIA, BUT THE NEWSPAPER ALSO FINDS COLOMBIA'S REACTION JUVENILE.

    VOICE: "COLOMBIA'S TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF FLIGHTS TO ERADICATE DRUG CROPS AND ITS THREAT TO PENALIZE U-S FIRMS THAT ALLEGEDLY DO BUSINESS WITH COLOMBIAN DRUG TRAFFICKERS, THOUGH UNDERSTANDABLE, IS WRONGHEADED. ..... WHAT IS LOST IN THESE HISTRIONICS IS THE COMMON GOAL THAT COLOMBIA AND THE UNITED STATES SHARE. THEY'RE FIGHTING AGAINST A DRUG EMPIRE SO POWERFUL THAT IT WIELDS THE ECONOMIC AND MILITARY CLOUD OF A FAIR-SIZED NATION. THAT OUGHT TO BE MOTIVATION ENOUGH FOR EACH NATION TO REFOCUS ITS ATTENTION ON THE ONLY FIGHT THAT REALLY MATTERS. .... IF THERE IS A RATIONAL PURPOSE IN [PRESIDENT ERNESTO] .... SAMPER'S SUSPENSION OF CROP-SPRAYING FLIGHTS, IT ELUDES US."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] AGAIN WITH DOMESTIC ISSUES, AND THE BIGGEST ONE OF ALL, FEDERAL BUDGET BALANCING, TODAY'S BALTIMORE SUN OPINES:

    VOICE: "NOW THAT THE CONSTITUTION HAS AGAIN BEEN SPARED A BALANCED BUDGET AMENDMENT THAT WOULD HAVE PUT FISCAL POLICY IN A STRAITJACKET, CONGRESS AND THE WHITE HOUSE OUGHT TO GET DOWN TO THE BUSINESS OF ACTUALLY BALANCING THE BUDGET. FORTUNATELY, A GOLDEN RING [I.E. A SOLUTION] IS AVAILABLE IF ONLY POLITICIANS IN BOTH PARTIES WILL GRAB IT. ALL THEY HAVE TO DO IS INSIST THAT THE GOVERNMENT USE ACCURATE FIGURES IN COMPUTING THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX. THE C-P-I TRACKS THE INFLATION RATE USED IN CALCULATING COST-OF-LIVING ADJUSTMENTS FOR SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS AND TAX BRACKET ADJUSTMENTS. ..... REALITY SUGGESTS THAT UNLESS THE C-P-I GOLDEN RING IS SEIZED, ALL THE WASHINGTON YAK-YAK [TALK] ABOUT BALANCED BUDGETS WILL SIGNIFY NOTHING."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM MONDAY'S U-S PRESS. NEB/'ANG/GE
    10-Mar-97 10:30 AM EST (1530 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA REACT (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/9/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211172
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AN EXPERT ON ALBANIA SAYS IT WAS PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA WHO, AGREEING TO A NINE-POINT ACCORD WITH THE OPPOSITION, CONCEDED THE MOST IN AN EFFORT TO END AN ARMED INSURGENCY. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS PROFESSOR NICK PANO OF WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY SAYS MR. BERISHA MAY HAVE ALSO CONCLUDED THE COST OF PUTTING THE REBELLION DOWN WAS TOO HIGH:

    TEXT: PROFESSOR PANO SAYS THE PRESIDENT, FACED WITH INCREASING INSURGENT CONTROL OF THE SOUTH AND SECURITY FORCES RELUCTANT TO PUT DOWN THE UNREST HAD LITTLE CHOICE TO AVERT GROWING BLOODSHED. MR. PANO SAYS THE PRESIDENT ALSO FELT GROWING INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE TO SEEK A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION OF THE CRISIS SPARKED BY COLLAPSED HIGH-RISK INVESTMENT SCHEMES:

    /// PANO ACTUALITY ///

    I THINK THIS EXTERNAL PRESSURE COUPLED WITH THE REALITIES OF THE INTERNAL SITUATION IN ALBANIA HAVE FINALLY CAUSED PRESIDENT BERISHA TO MAKE THESE ESSENTIAL CONCESSIONS.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    MR. PANO SAYS THE PRESIDENT HAS BEEN ON WEAK POLITICAL GROUND SINCE LAST MAY'S TAINTED PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS:

    /// PANO ACTUALITY ///

    BUT, ONCE THE CRISIS CONCERNING THE PYRAMID SCHEMES EVOLVED, IT WAS APPARENT THAT THESE ECONOMIC GRIEVANCES WOULD PROVIDE THE OPPORTUNITY TO GIVE THE OPPOSITION THE CHANCE TO RAISE THESE CONCERNS AND THE PUBLIC, OF COURSE, RESPONDED.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    PROFESSOR PANO SAYS MR. BERISHA'S ABILITY TO QUICKLY IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT INCLUDING A GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY AND NEW ELECTIONS WILL DETERMINE WHETHER THE CRISIS IS DEFUSED. HE SAYS ALBANIA'S LONG-TERM STABILITY WILL DEPEND ON COMPENSATING THOSE HARMED BY THE PYRAMID SCHEMES, ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION AND A PERMANENT CONSTITUTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/VB/LWM
    09-Mar-97 7:32 PM EST (0032 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBANIA UNREST (L) BY BARRY WOOD (TIRANA)

    DATE=3/10/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211194
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TALKS ARE UNDERWAY IN TIRANA ON FORMING A NATIONAL UNITY GOVERNMENT IN ALBANIA TO END THE COUNTRY'S UNREST AND ORGANIZE NEW PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS BY JUNE. MEANWHILE, AS V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS FROM TIRANA, ARMED RESISTERS IN THE SOUTH ARE SEIZING MORE TERRITORY.

    TEXT: THE ARMED PROTESTERS IN THE SOUTH MONDAY IGNORED THE RENEWED CALL FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION TO SURRENDER THEIR WEAPONS IN RETURN FOR AMNESTY.

    THE LATEST AMNESTY OFFER LASTS UNTIL THE END OF THE WEEK.

    THE PROTESTERS HAVE MOVED INTO MORE TERRITORY INCLUDING THE TOWN OF PERMET NEAR GJIROCASTRA WHERE A CLASH SUNDAY LEFT AS MANY AS FIVE PEOPLE DEAD. THE ARMY WITHDREW FROM PERMET AND MOVED FURTHER NORTH WITH THE PROTESTERS USING ABANDONED MILITARY EQUIPMENT TO THEMSELVES ADVANCE NORTHWARDS.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR IF OPPOSITION POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE ANY INFLUENCE OVER THE DISPARATE GROUPS OF REBELS, WHICH CONTINUE TO CALL FOR PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA'S RESIGNATION.

    IN THE CAPITAL, TALKS CONTINUE ON THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL UNITY GOVERNMENT TO ORGANIZE NEW ELECTIONS, WHICH HAS BEEN A PRINCIPAL DEMAND OF THE OPPOSITION. THE LARGEST OPPOSITION GROUP, THE SOCIALISTS, HAVE ENDORSED SUNDAY'S ALL PARTY AGREEMENT, SAYING IT MARKS A NEW BEGINNING IN ALBANIAN POLITICAL LIFE.

    IN THE FIRST SUBSTANTIAL PERSONNEL CHANGE SINCE THE CRISIS ERUPTED LAST MONTH, THE HEAD OF ALBANIAN STATE TELEVISION ANNOUNCED HIS RESIGNATION. RADIO AND TELEVISION ARE WIDELY REGARDED AS NOT OBJECTIVE IN THEIR NEWS REPORTING, AND THEIR CREDIBILITY WITH ORDINARY PEOPLE IS LOW.

    THE LATEST WEST EUROPEAN DIPLOMAT TO VISIT TIRANA TO PROMOTE A PEACEFUL OUTCOME OF THE CRISIS WAS ITALIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LAMBERTO DINI. HE HELD TALKS SUNDAY NIGHT WITH BOTH PRESIDENT BERISHA AND THE OPPOSITION.

    HE SAID BEFORE DEPARTING THAT ALL SIDES HAD ASKED ITALY TO BE A GUARANTOR OF THE ELECTORAL ACCORD AND THAT IT WAS WILLING TO PLAY THAT ROLE. BOTH ITALY AND GREECE ARE PLAYING MAJOR ROLES TO RESOLVE THE CRISIS AND AVOID A REPEAT OF THE MASSIVE ALBANIAN REFUGEE CRISIS OF 1991. MR. DINI SAID THE REBELS IN THE SOUTH H AVE NO LEGITIMACY.

    EXPERTS SAY A NEW GOVERNMENT COULD BE FORMED WITHIN DAYS. IN ADDITION TO ORGANIZING NEW ELECTIONS, THE INTERIM GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE TO PRESENT A BUDGET AND WIN BACKING FROM INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH
    10-Mar-97 8:55 AM EST (1355 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] COHEN/NATO-RUSSIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/10/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211211
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS HE IS OPTIMISTIC THAT NATO AND AND RUSSIA CAN REACH AN UNDERSTANDING ON THE ALLIANCE'S EASTWARD EXPANSION. BUT HE SAYS ANY CHARTER NEGOTIATED WITH MOSCOW WILL NOT MEAN SECOND-CLASS STATUS FOR NEW NATO MEMBERS. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: MR. COHEN SAYS THE PROCESS OF NATO EXPANSION -- AND DISCUSSIONS WITH MOSCOW ON A RUSSIA-NATO CHARTER -- ARE ON SEPARATE TRACKS, AND THAT NATO WILL TAKE NEW MEMBERS REGARDLESS OF WHETHER A DEAL IS STRUCK WITH MOSCOW.

    NATO IS EXPECTED TO ANNOUNCE ITS SELECTION OF NEW MEMBERS AT ITS JULY SUMMIT IN MADRID, AND U-S OFFICIALS ARE HOPEFUL TO COMING TO A POLITICAL UNDERSTANDING WITH MOSCOW DEALING WITH RUSSIAN CONCERNS BEFORE THAT. BUT IN A TALK WITH RADIO REPORTERS AT THE PENTAGON, MR. COHEN INSISTED THERE IS NO FIRM CONNECTION BETWEEN THEM:

    ///COHEN ACTUALITY///

    THE TWO TRACKS WE ARE PROCEEDING ALONG ARE SEPARATE, AND INDEPENDENT AS SUCH. WE ARE GOING FORWARD WITH NATO ENLARGEMENT. WE ARE ALSO GOING FORWARD WITH DISCUSSIONS ON HOW WE CAN NEGOTIATE A RUSSIAN-NATO CHARTER. BUT ONE IS NOT CONDITIONED UPON THE PASSAGE OF THE OTHER, THE ADOPTION OF THE OTHER. NATO ENLARGEMENT WILL IN FACT GO FORWARD. AND WE'RE HOPING -- AND I FRANKLY AM OPTIMISTIC -- THAT WE WILL ACHIEVE A RUSSIAN-NATO CHARTER. BUT IF WE ARE NOT ABLE TO DO THAT, IT'S NOT TO SAY THAT YOU WON'T GO FORWARD WITH THE NATO ENLARGEMENT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. COHEN DECLINED TO GIVE DETAILS OF SECURITY ASSURANCES THAT NATO MAY BE PREPARED TO GIVE MOSCOW IN CONNECTION WITH EXPANSION. BUT UNDER QUESTIONING, HE SAID NEW MEMBERS OF THE ALLIANCE WILL NOT BE SECOND-CLASS IN TERMS OF EITHER THEIR OBLIGATIONS TO THE ALLIANCE OR NATO'S COMMITMENTS TO THEM:

    ///COHEN ACT TWO///

    OBVIOUSLY, IF WE'RE GOING TO HAVE NEW ACCESSIONS, OR NEW ADMISSIONS INTO NATO, THEY ARE NOT GOING TO BE SECOND-RATE NATO MEMBERS, OR SECOND TIER, OR IN ANY WAY INFERIOR. THEY HAVE TO MAKE THE KIND OF INFRUSTUCTURE CHANGES THAT WOULD ALLOW THEM TO BE FULL-FLEDGED MEMBERS OF NATO AND TO BE ABLE TO CARRY OUT ARTICLE FIVE (MUTUAL DEFENSE) REQUIREMENTS. THERE ARE WAYS IN WHICH WE CAN ASSURE THE RUSSIANS THAT NO OFFENSIVE THREAT IS AIMED AT RUSSIA. BUT AS FAR AS THE REQUIREMENTS THAT THE MEMBERS WHO DO GAIN ADMISSION INTO NATO, THEY ARE GOING TO BE REQUIRED MAKE THE KIND OF CHANGES THAT WOULD ALLOW THEM TO CARRY OUT ARTICLE FIVE REQUIREMENTS.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. COHEN EXPRESSED HOPE THE RUSSIAN PARLIAMENT WILL RATIFY THE START TWO STRATEGIC ARMS ACCORD, WHICH HAS BEEN HELD UP FOR MONTHS IN THE DUMA IN PART TO OPPOSITION TO NATO EXPANSION. HE SAID FAILURE TO ENACT THE ARMS CUTS WOULD BE COSTLY FOR BOTH SIDES -- BUT MORE COSTLY SO FOR THE RUSSIANS. HE REITERATED THAT UPON DUMA RATIFICATION, THE UNITED STATES IS READY TO NEGOTIATE EVEN LOWER WEAPONS LEVELS IN A START-THREE ACCORD THAT WOULD ADDRESS TERMS OF START-TWO RUSSIAN LAWMAKERS CONSIDER DISADVANTAGEOUS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/MMK
    10-Mar-97 1:16 PM EST (1816 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=3/10/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211214
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES SET NEW RECORD CLOSING HIGHS IN TRADING MONDAY ON EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES ONCE AGAIN ROSE TO NEW RECORD CLOSING HIGHS IN FRANKFURT, LONDON, AND PARIS. ANALYSTS SAY TRADERS WERE ENCOURAGED BY A STRONG OPENING ON WALL STREET, AND BY INDICATIONS THERE WILL NOT BE ANY EARLY INCREASE IN INTEREST RATES IN EITHER EUROPE OR THE UNITED STATES..

    PRICES IN LONDON SET A NEW RECORD HIGH FOR THE FIFTH STRAIGHT DAY. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED UP 17 POINTS, ABOUT FOUR-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX WAS UP LESS THAN ONE POINT. BUT THAT WAS ENOUGH TO SET A RECORD HIGH FOR THE FOURTH STRAIGHT DAY.

    STOCK PRICES ALSO WERE UP IN FRANKFURT. THE DAX-30 INDEX ENDED UP ALMOST 60 POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-EIGHT-TENTHS PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR LOST VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND THE JAPANESE YEN. BUT IT GAINED IN VALUE AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWH/MMK
    10-Mar-97 1:27 PM EST (1827 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] NATO CRITERIA BY MELISSA WINKLER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/10/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35901
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWELVE EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN NATIONS HAVE FORMALLY APPLIED FOR MEMBERSHIP TO NATO, THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION. ALTHOUGH THERE IS NO OFFICIAL CHECKLIST OF REQUIREMENTS FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP, THE ALLIANCE HAS UN-WRITTEN STANDARDS IT WANTS COUNTRIES TO MEET BEFORE JOINING. V-O-A'S MELISSA WINKLER HAS MORE ON THE QUALIFICATIONS.

    TEXT: U-S AMBASSADOR TO NATO ROBERT HUNTER SAYS WHEN THE 16 NATO MEMBERS MEET IN JULY IN MADRID TO DISCUSS EXPANDING THE ALLIANCE, THEY WILL EACH HAVE TO JUDGE WHICH PROSPECTIVE NATIONS, IN HIS WORDS, CAN SHOULDER THE FULL RESPONSIBILITY OF MEMBERSHIP.

    THERE IS NO CHECKLIST OF REQUIREMENTS, BUT THE AMBASSADOR TOLD V-O-A THE ALLIANCE HAS INFORMED EACH CANDIDATE WHAT IT SHOULD DO TO DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR NATO PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES.

    /// HUNTER ACT ///

    WE HAVE OBVIOUSLY MADE CLEAR THAT WE ARE INTERESTED IN BRINGING IN COUNTRIES THAT ARE DEMOCRACIES, THAT SUBSCRIBE TO THE VALUES OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION. WE ARE INTERESTED IN COUNTRIES WHICH DO NOT HAVE TERRITORIAL OR OTHER CLAIMS AGAINST THEIR NEIGHBORS. THAT DOES NOT MEAN THAT IF A COUNTRY IS TRYING TO PATCH UP RELATIONS WITH A NEIGHBOR AND IT IS NOT RECIPROCATED, THAT THEY WILL BE PENALIZED, BUT WE WANT THEM TO MAKE THE EFFORT.

    /// END ACT ///

    AMBASSADOR HUNTER SAYS NATO HAS HAD TO REGULARLY REFORM ITSELF TO KEEP UP WITH GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS, BUT HE SAYS IT REMAINS, FIRST AND FOREMOST, A DEFENSE ALLIANCE. HE SAYS ASPIRING STATES WILL GRADUALLY HAVE TO RESTRUCTURE THEIR MILITARIES SO THEY ARE A BENEFIT, NOT A BURDEN TO NATO.

    /// HUNTER ACT ///

    WE WANT COUNTRIES TO HAVE THEIR OFFICERS ACQUIRE A NATO LANGUAGE, TO HAVE GOOD CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY, TO START ADAPTING AND ADOPTING NATO STANDARDS IN THE KINDS OF EQUIPMENT THEY BUY -- TO BECOME MORE READY TO WORK WITH NATO THROUGH COMMUNICATIONS, THROUGH WHAT WE CALL INTER-OPERABILITY, NAMELY THE CAPACITY OF MILITARY FORCES OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TO WORK WITH ONE ANOTHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    // OPT //

    THE U-S OFFICIAL NOTES THESE MILITARY REFORMS HAVE A DIFFERENT MOTIVATION TODAY, SINCE THE COLD WAR HAS ENDED AND THERE IS NO COMMON EXTERNAL THREAT TO ANY OF THE ALLIED STATES.

    /// HUNTER ACT - OPT ///

    WE ARE ASKING THEM TO PREPARE THEMSELVES TO DEAL WITH SECURITY CHALLENGES OF THE FUTURE, WHICH FRANKLY ARE PRIMARILY TODAY IN PEACEKEEPING, RATHER THAN THE CHALLENGES OF THE PAST, WHICH HAD TO DO WITH CONFRONTING AN ENEMY. THERE IS NO ENEMY TODAY EXCEPT INSTABILITY.

    /// END ACT - OPT ///

    NATO COUNTRIES HAVE YET TO BEGIN THE PROCESS OF EVALUATING THE PROSPECTIVE STATES, BUT ARE ENGAGED IN DIALOGUE WITH THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED. MOST DEFENSE EXPERTS BELIEVE THE FIRST GROUP INVITED TO JOIN WILL INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC -- THOSE THREE HAVING COME CLOSEST TO MEETING NATO CRITERIA.

    GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY EASTERN-EUROPEAN SPECIALIST CHARLES KUPCHAN SAYS HE BELIEVES THERE IS A COMPLICATED MIXTURE OF FACTORS DETERMINING WHO GETS IN THAT GOES BEYOND THE STANDARDS OUTLINED BY AMBASSADOR HUNTER.

    /// KUPCHAN ACT ///

    THESE COUNTRIES ARE ALSO BEING SELECTED BECAUSE OF THEIR STRATEGIC VALUE, NAMELY THAT THEY LIE IN THE CENTER OF EUROPE AND OCCUPY THE MAIN STRATEGIC CORRIDOR BETWEEN EASTERN EUROPE AND WESTERN EUROPE AND THEREFORE THEY ARE OF MORE STRATEGIC VALUE THAN SAY, THE BALTICS, OR COUNTRIES IN SOUTHERN EUROPE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KUPCHAN ACKNOWLEDGES THE THREE NATIONS REPORTEDLY TO BE THE FIRST TO BE ADDED ARE FURTHER ALONG THE ROAD TO DEMOCRATIC AND ECONOMIC REFORM THAN OTHER STATES IN THE REGION. HE SAYS THEY HAVE GREATLY IMPROVED THEIR MILITARY INFRASTRUCTURES. BUT HE BELIEVES GEOPOLITICAL FACTORS ARE TAKING PRECEDENT.

    /// KUPCHAN ///

    IF YOU WERE BEING STRICT ABOUT IT, SLOVENIA IS AT LEAST AS FAR ALONG THE PATH OF DEMOCRATIC REFORM AS POLAND, HUNGARY, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC, BUT SLOVENIA IS NOT ON THE TOP OF ANYBODY'S LIST, BECAUSE SLOVENIA IS NOT AS MUCH STRATEGIC VALUE TO NATO.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KUPCHAN SAYS THE SAME HOLDS TRUE FOR THE BALTIC NATIONS BECAUSE THE PROBLEMS RELATING TO THEIR PROXIMITY AND HISTORICALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA, OUTWEIGH THEIR ADHERENCE TO NATO CRITERIA.

    /// OPT - KUPCHAN ACT ///

    ONE OF THE BIG PROBLEMS PLAGUING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NATO ENLARGEMENT IS THAT THE RUSSIANS DO NOT LIKE IT. IT BRINGS NATO TROOPS, FORCES AND INFRASTRUCTURE CLOSER TO THEIR TERRITORY AND SORT OF STICKS IN THEIR FACES THAT THEY ARE NO LONGER THE DOMINANT POWER IN EUROPE AND TO BRING THE BALTICS INTO NATO WOULD EXACERBATE THAT SENSE OF INJURY AND THE BALTICS WOULD ALSO BE VERY DIFFICULT TO DEFEND BECAUSE OF THEIR BORDER WITH RUSSIA.

    /// END ACT & OPT ///

    THOSE COUNTRIES INVITED TO JOIN NATO WILL OFFICIALLY BECOME PART OF THE WESTERN ALLIANCE IN APRIL 1999 WHEN THE ORGANIZATION CELEBRATES ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY.

    FOR THOSE WHO DO NOT GET IN DURING THE FIRST WAVE, U-S AMBASSADOR ROBERT HUNTER STRESSED NATO'S DOOR WILL ALWAYS BE OPEN TO EUROPEAN DEMOCRACIES ABLE TO FURTHER NATO'S PRINCIPLES AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE SECURITY OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC AREA. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MJW/RAE
    10-Mar-97 11:24 AM EST (1624 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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