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Voice of America, 97-03-13

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA POL (L UPDATE) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)
  • [02] ALBANIA'S TRAGIC TRANSITION BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] U-S/ALBANIA MILITARY (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [04] ALBANIA / PYRAMIDS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [05] ALBANIA/U-N REACT (S ONLY-CQ) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [06] ALBANIA UNREST (S UPDATE) BY KYLE KING
  • [07] ALBANIA-EVACUATION (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [08] THE ALBANIAN CONFLICT GROWS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] ALBANIA EVACUATION (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)
  • [10] TURKEY / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [11] U-S-MONTENEGRO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [12] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [13] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

  • [01] ALBANIA POL (L UPDATE) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211362
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // REISSUES 2-211361 UPDATES WITH FORMATION OF INTERIM GOVERNMENT. NEW VERSION NOT VOICED //

    INTRO: ALBANIA'S NEW PRIME MINISTER HAS FORMED AN EMERGENCY GOVERNMENT AS REBELS APPROACHED THE CAPITAL CITY. VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS GROWING TENSION IN TIRANA WHERE DIPLOMATS ARE SENDING THEIR FAMILIES AWAY.

    TEXT: WELL ARMED GANGS OF ANGRY CIVILIANS ARE ROAMING THROUGH LARGE PARTS OF THE COUNTRY, LOOTING STORES AND SHOOTING OFF THEIR NEWLY CAPTURED WEAPONS. LOOTERS STORMED AN ARMS DEPOT NEAR THE INDUSTRIAL CITY OF ELBASON, JUST ABOUT 50 KILOMETERS AWAY FROM TIRANA.

    EYEWITNESSES SAID SOME WEAPONS WERE ALSO CARTED AWAY FROM A MILITARY ACADEMY IN THE CAPITAL, BUT IT IS NOT CLEAR IF THEY WERE STOLEN BY CIVILIANS OR TAKEN BY ALBANIAN SECRET POLICE.

    THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER WESTERN EMBASSIES IN TIRANA HAVE ORDERED NON-ESSENTIAL PERSONNEL AND FAMILY MEMBERS OUT OF THE COUNTRY.

    ALBANIA'S NEW PRIME MINISTER FORMED AN EMERGENCY GOVERNMENT TO RUN THE COUNTRY UNTIL ELECTIONS CAN BE HELD. PRIME MINISTER BASHKIM FINO SAYS LEADERS OF THE ARMED REVOLT IN THE SOUTH SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE DIALOGUE, ALTHOUGH, HE SAYS IT IS CRITICAL FOR THE REBELS TO GIVE UP THEIR WEAPONS.

    THE REBELS, MOSTLY CIVILIANS BEGAN ARMING THEMSELVES IN ANGER AT THE GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA AND NOW CONTROL ABOUT ONE THIRD OF THE COUNTRY.

    THEY WANT PRESIDENT BERISHA TO STEP DOWN AND THEY ALSO WANT THE GOVERNMENT TO REIMBURSE PEOPLE WHO LOST MONEY IN COLLAPSED INVESTMENT SCHEMES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/NEBCF
    13-Mar-97 3:18 AM EST (0818 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA'S TRAGIC TRANSITION BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35930
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ALBANIA'S INABILITY TO COPE WITH THE SUDDEN LEAP FROM COMMUNISM INTO FREE-MARKET CAPITALISM HAS SENT THE COUNTRY SPINNING INTO CHAOS. WHEN FRAUDULENT PYRAMID SCHEMES COLLAPSED EARLIER THIS YEAR, THOUSANDS OF PROTESTERS RESPONDED WITH STREET DEMONSTRATIONS DEMANDING THEIR MONEY BACK. THIS QUICKLY ESCALATED INTO DEMANDS FOR A NEW GOVERNMENT, AND THE LOOTING OF ARMS DEPOTS WHICH SPARKED FEARS OF CIVIL WAR. PAMELA TAYLOR LOOKS AT THE HISTORY OF THE COUNTRY.

    TEXT: EXPERTS WHO KNOW ALBANIA SAY THEY ARE NOT SURPRISED BY CURRENT EVENTS IN THE COUNTRY THAT HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN IGNORED AND ISOLATED. ALBANIA HAD BARELY EMERGED FROM FEUDALISM AND CENTURIES OF OCCUPATION BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS WHEN THE EVENTS OF WORLD WAR TWO SEALED ITS DOORS AGAIN.

    JONAS ROLETTE, THE CHIEF OF THE ALBANIAN DESK AT THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTE IN WASHINGTON D-C, SAYS ALBANIA'S ISOLATION UNDER THE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP OF ENVER HOXHA WAS NEARLY TOTAL:

    /// ACT ONE/ROLETTE ///

    ALBANIA HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE DARK CORNER OF EUROPE, AND ESSENTIALLY IT CAN BE THOUGHT OF AS THE RIP VAN WINKLE OF COUNTRIES. IT WENT TO SLEEP IN LOTS OF WAYS RIGHT AROUND THE END OF WORLD-WAR TWO AND DID NOT WAKE UP TO THE MODERN WORLD UNTIL THE EARLY 1990'S.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ROLETTE SAYS GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD EVENTS HAVE WORKED AGAINST ALBANIA, A COUNTRY THAT HAD A BRIEF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY IN THE 1920'S AND A MONARCHY UNTIL WORLD-WAR TWO. HE SAYS OTHER BALKAN COUNTRIES ARE ETHNICALLY MIXED, BUT ALBANIA HAS A MORE HOMOGENEOUS POPULATION DESCENDED FROM THE ANCIENT ILLYRIANS WHO LIVED IN THE AREA DURING ROMAN TIMES.

    /// ACT TWO/ROLETTE ///

    THERE ARE A COUPLE OF ETHNIC DIVISIONS, OR TRIBES. THERE ARE THE GEGS IN THE NORTH AND THE TOSKS IN THE SOUTH, BUT THOSE DIVISIONS ARE RATHER MINOR. ABOUT 70-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IS MUSLIM, ABOUT 20-PERCENT IS ORTHODOX AND ABOUT 10-PERCENT CATHOLIC.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. ROLETTE SAYS THIS HOMOGENEITY GIVES ALBANIA MORE UNITY THAN OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE BALKANS. SOUTHERN ALBANIA DOES HAVE A LARGE GREEK MINORITY WHICH HAS NOT ALWAYS BEEN HAPPY UNDER ALBANIAN RULE, BUT MR. ROLETTE SAYS ALL ETHNIC GROUPS APPEAR UNITED IN THEIR OPPOSITION TO PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA.

    AN ALBANIAN JOURNALIST WITH THE DAILY SEMI-INDEPENDENT NEWSPAPER "GAZETA SHQIPTARE "(SHIP-TAR-EH), ANDREA STEFANI, AGREES. MR. STEFANI, WHO IS CURRENTLY IN THE UNITED STATES, SAYS PRESIDENT BERISHA ALSO LACKS THE SUPPORT OF THE ARMED FORCES.

    /// ACT THREE/STEFANI ///

    THERE ARE A LOT OF REPORTS THAT OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS WILL NOT AGREE TO FIGHT AGAINST THE ARMED PEOPLE. THEY HAVE DISOBEYED (ORDERS TO) USE FORCE. EVEN NOW THE OPPOSITION PARTIES THAT HAVE PREVIOUSLY BEEN ACCUSED OF MANIPULATING THE PEOPLE AND INCITING THEM TO GET ARMS, NOW WE SEE THAT THEY ARE NOT ABLE TO DOMINATE (RULE) THE PEOPLE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. STEFANI SAYS IT BECAME OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE TO THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE TO TAKE POSSESSION OF AS MANY WEAPONS AS POSSIBLE TO INSURE A REPRESSIVE GOVERNMENT WOULD NEVER AGAIN BE ABLE TO DOMINATE THEM BY FORCE OF ARMS.

    /// OPT ACT FOUR/STEFANI ///

    /// OPT ///

    IN THE BEGINNING, WHEN THE PEOPLE STARTED TO PROTEST, IN SOME CITIES, THE GOVERNMENT TRIED NOT TO ALLOW THEM TO PROTEST, IN TIRANA FOR EXAMPLE. AND THERE WERE A LOT OF CLASHES BETWEEN THE PEOPLE AND THE POLICE FORCES. BUT IN THE SOUTH, AFTER SOME EFFORTS TO ORGANIZE THE PROTESTS, THE PEOPLE DECIDED TO USE FORCE AGAINST ANY ATTEMPT BY THE STATE TO PREVENT THEM FROM DEMONSTRATING.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    MR. STEFANI IS HOPEFUL THERE WILL NOT BE CIVIL WAR, BUT HE SAYS THERE COULD BE FURTHER VIOLENCE IF THE ARMS FALL INTO THE HANDS OF CRIMINALS.

    MR. ROLETTE AGREES OUTRIGHT CIVIL WAR IS UNLIKELY, BUT HE FEARS A VIOLENT INSURRECTION IF PRESIDENT BERISHA REFUSES TO STEP DOWN. HE SAYS IT WILL BE A VERY LONG TIME BEFORE AVERAGE ALBANIANS EMERGE FROM THE ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION THEY HAVE BEEN PLUNGED INTO BY THEIR GOVERNMENT AND THE FAILED PYRAMID SCHEMES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/RAE
    13-Mar-97 10:21 AM EST (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] U-S/ALBANIA MILITARY (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211407
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS NAVY SHIPS ON STANDBY IN THE ADRIATIC IN CASE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION DECIDES TO EVACUATE AMERICANS FROM ALBANIA. DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAYS THE PENTAGON IS MONITORING ALBANIAN DEVELOPMENTS CLOSELY. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: PENTAGON OFFICIALS SAY A NAVY GROUP HEADED BY THE HELICOPTER CARRIER U-S-S NASSAU IS ON STANDBY IN THE ADRIATIC TO BE USED IF AN EVACUATION OF AMERICANS IS ORDERED.

    THE NAVY GROUP, WHICH INCLUDES A FORCE OF TWO THOUSAND U-S MARINES, HAD BEEN TAKING PART IN A MULTI-LATERAL EXERCISE AND HAS BEEN TOLD TO REMAIN IN THE AREA FOR THE TIME BEING.

    AT A NEWS CONFERENCE IN RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA, DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN SAID THE PENTAGON IS CLOSELY WATCHING WHAT HE CALLED A DETERIORATING SITUATION IN ALBANIA:

    ///COHEN ACTUALITY///

    WE WILL TAKE WHATEVER MEASURES ARE NECESSARY TO MAKE SURE THAT THOSE AMERIANS WHO WANT TO LEAVE, OR NEED TO LEAVE, WILL BE SAFELY EVACUATED SO WE'RE FOLLOWING IT ON A VERY CLOSE BASIS. AND WE HAVE THE CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY TO PROVIDE FOR THEIR EVACUATION AND WILL DO SO AT THE REQUEST OF THE AMBASSADOR.

    ///END ACT///

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT WEDNESDAY ORDERED ABOUT 160 U-S GOVERNMENT EMPLOYES AND DEPENDENTS TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY ON COMMERCIAL AND CHARTER AIRLINES. BUT THAT PROCESS HAS BEEN COMPLICATED BY THE CLOSURE OF THE TIRANA AIRPORT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/KL
    13-Mar-97 1:09 PM EST (1809 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] ALBANIA / PYRAMIDS BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35935
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TRAGIC, RAPID COLLAPSE OF CIVIL AUTHORITY IN ALBANIA BEGAN INNOCENTLY ENOUGH WITH MASS DEMONSTRATIONS TWO-MONTHS AGO BY CITIZENS WHO BLAMED THE GOVERNMENT FOR THE COLLAPSE OF PYRAMID INVESTMENT SCHEMES THAT WIPED OUT THEIR LIFE SAVINGS. BARRY WOOD REPORTS WHILE MANY PEOPLE KNEW THE GET-RICH-QUICK SCHEMES WOULD FAIL, FEW BELIEVED THE WAVE OF PUBLIC ANGER WOULD SWEEP AWAY ALL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY.

    TEXT:

    /// SOUND OF PROTESTERS SHOUTING, FADE UNDER. ///

    NO ONE WHO HAS BEEN IN ALBANIA RECENTLY GOES AWAY UN-AWARE OF JUST HOW ANGRY PEOPLE ARE.

    ALBANIA IS A COUNTRY THAT ENDURED 45 YEARS OF ABSOLUTE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP. ITS THREE-AND-ONE-HALF-MILLION PEOPLE COULD NOT TRAVEL ABROAD. RELIGION AND PRIVATE CARS WERE BANNED. COMMUNISM LASTED IN ALBANIA UNTIL 1991, LONGER THAN ANYWHERE ELSE IN EASTERN EUROPE.

    AFTER FOUR-AND-ONE-HALF DECADES OF ISOLATION, IT IS NOT SURPRISING MOST ALBANIANS WOULD NOT UNDERSTAND THE WORKINGS OF A MARKET ECONOMY. GET-RICH-QUICK SCHEMES ARE NOT UNIQUE TO ALBANIA. BUT WHAT IS UNIQUE IS THEIR PERVASIVENESS AND THE LENGTH OF TIME THEY FLOURISHED. ALBANIANS, WHERE MOST PEOPLE EARN ABOUT 60-DOLLARS A MONTH, HAVE BEEN GETTING BY SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM ON A MIXTURE OF REMITTANCES FROM RELATIVES WORKING ABROAD, FOREIGN ASSISTANCE, AND A GROWING SERVICE ECONOMY.

    IN THIS RAW FRONTIER OF CAPITALISM, SHADY FINANCIAL OPERATIONS EASILY TOOK ROOT. CALLING THEMSELVES CHARITIES, FOUNDATIONS, OR TRADING COMPANIES, THE GET-RICH-QUICK SCHEMES PROMISED CASH RETURNS ON DEPOSITS OF FIVE TO 15-PERCENT A MONTH.

    THESE NEW INVESTMENT COMPANIES, SOME DATING TO 1993, HAD STATUS AND RESPECTABILITY. THEIR OWNERS WERE ALBANIA'S BUSINESS ELITE. OFTEN, TAKING DEPOSITS WAS ONLY PART OF A BROADER BUSINESS.

    /// OPT ///

    IN THE 1996 ELECTION CAMPAIGN, THE INVESTMENT COMPANIES WERE THE BIGGEST FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTORS, PARTICULARLY TO THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA. WITH THE INVESTMENT COMPANIES SO CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE GOVERNMENT, IT IS HARDLY SURPRISING MOST CITIZENS BELIEVED THE PRESIDENT APPROVED OF THEIR OPERATIONS.

    /// OPT ///

    MIMI SHEHU RUNS A TOY SHOP IN TIRANA. MR. SHEHU SAYS THE GOVERNMENT MADE A FATAL MISTAKE LAST YEAR IN NOT WARNING CITIZENS OF THE RISKS OF INVESTING IN THE PYRAMID SCHEMES.

    /// OPT // SHEHU ACT ///

    FOR FIVE YEARS THESE COMPANIES WERE OPERATING IN ALBANIA, AND NO ONE TOLD THE PEOPLE IT WAS DANGEROUS TO PUT MONEY THERE. FOR THIS REASON PEOPLE ARE ANGRY AT THE GOVERNMENT, AND NOW THEY LOSE FAITH IN THE GOVERNMENT.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    WHILE THE BOGUS INVESTMENT COMPANIES BEGAN OPERATING IN ALBANIA A LONG TIME AGO, THE REAL FRENZY OF TAKING DEPOSITS DID NOT HAPPEN UNTIL MID-1996. THEN, SEVERAL OF THE COMPANIES COMPETED TO OFFER THE HIGHEST RATES OF RETURN. ALMOST EVERYONE KNEW SOMEONE WHO HAD WON BIG FROM THE PYRAMIDS.

    IT WAS THEN FAMILIES BEGAN SELLING THEIR APARTMENTS AND LIVESTOCK IN ORDER TO GET MONEY TO INVEST. MANY FARMERS STOPPED WORKING THE FIELDS. THE WORD WENT OUT SMART PEOPLE PLAYED THE PYRAMIDS AND LIVED A LIFE OF LEISURE.

    /// OPT ///

    LAST OCTOBER, THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND TOLD THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT UNLESS THE PYRAMIDS WERE CLOSED, THE COUNTRY COULD FACE FINANCIAL CALAMITY. THE FINANCE MINISTER WENT ON TELEVISION WITH THE NEWS. HE WAS IMPLICITLY CONTRADICTED WITHIN DAYS BY THE PRESIDENT. RUMORS BEGAN TO CIRCULATE THE I-M-F WOULD CLOSE THE PYRAMIDS. /// END OPT /// FOR YEARS, ONE INFLUENTIAL ALBANIAN HAS BEEN WAGING A QUIET, BUT FUTILE, CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE PYRAMIDS. HE IS KRISTAQ LUNIKU, THE GOVERNOR OF THE BANK OF ALBANIA. MR. LUNIKU HAS BEEN TELLING PRESIDENT BERISHA EVERY MONTH FOR THE PAST TWO YEARS THE THE INVESTMENT COMPANIES WERE FRAUDULENT AND NEEDED TO BE CLOSED. A SHY, MODEST MAN, MR. LUNIKU SAYS HE TRIED TO PUT THE PYRAMIDS OUT OF BUSINESS IN 1994 BY PROPOSING REVISIONS TO THE ALBANIAN BANKING LAW.

    /// LUNIKU ACT ///

    WE PUT IN SOME VERY IMPORTANT ARTICLES LIKE, NOBODY HAS THE RIGHT TO COLLECT DEPOSITS BESIDE BANKS WHICH ARE LICENSED BY THE CENTRAL BANK. AND WE DID THIS BECAUSE WE WANTED THESE ACTIVITIES (PYRAMIDS) TO BE CONSIDERED ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES THAT SHOULD BE STOPPED IMMEDIATELY.

    /// END ACT ///

    PRESIDENT BERISHA REFUSED TO APPROVE THE NEW BANKING LAWS. MR. LUNIKU IS NOT SURPRISED THE PYRAMID COMPANIES BEGAN TO COLLAPSE AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS YEAR.

    BUT OTHER OBSERVERS -- LIKE THE MAN WHO DIRECTED THE PRIVATIZATION OF ALBANIAN STATE ENTERPRISES, VIKTOR GLOZENY -- SAY IT WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN EASY FOR PRESIDENT BERISHA TO TAKE ACTION AGAINST THE PYRAMIDS.

    /// GLOZENY ACT ///

    IF YOU ASK SOMEONE ON THE STREETS, NOT NOW, BUT SIX MONTHS AGO, WHY DID THE GOVERNMENT NOT INTERVENE TO STOP TO THE PYRAMIDS? THEY WOULD SAY, OH, THE GOVERNMENT IS STEALING FROM US, THEY DO NOT WANT US TO BE RICH, ETC; ETC. AND NOW THEY BLAME THE GOVERNMENT, WHY DID NOT THE GOVERNMENT INTERVENE? SO IT WAS A VERY DIFFICULT MOMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT WITH THE ADVANTAGE OF HINDSIGHT, AS DIFFICULT AS IT WOULD HAVE BEEN TO TAKE ACTION LAST OCTOBER, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN FAR EASIER THAN WAITING THE FRENZIED ANGER, LOOTING, AND ANARCHY OF MARCH, 1997. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    13-Mar-97 2:07 PM EST (1907 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ALBANIA/U-N REACT (S ONLY-CQ) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211412
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RERUNNING TO CORRECT LOG NUMBER //

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL IS CONSULTING URGENTLY TODAY (THURSDAY) ON THE GROWING TENSIONS IN ALBANIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS THE COUNTRY'S U-N AMBASSADOR HAS ASKED THE COUNCIL -- THE MAIN U-N BODY FOR MATTERS OF PEACE AND SECURITY -- TO ISSUE A STATEMENT TO REASSURE THE ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    TEXT: ALBANIAN AMBASSADOR PELLUMB KULLA SAYS AN EXPRESSION OF CONCERN -- OR MORAL SUPPORT -- FROM THE SECURITY COUNCIL COULD HAVE A POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT. HE HAS NOT RULED OUT POSSIBLE U-N MEDIATION BUT SAYS A COUNCIL STATEMENT IS MOST IMPORTANT FOR NOW:

    // KULLA ACT //

    THE COUNTRY IS OUT OF CONTROL AND THE PEOPLE THROUGH THIS STATEMENT SHOULD HAVE A SOURCE OF OPTIMISM FOR THE FUTURE. SO WE HOPE TO HAVE A BETTER SITUATION IN THE FUTURE BUT NOW THIS STATEMENT IS REQUESTED VERY MUCH.

    // END ACT //

    AT THE REQUEST OF ITALY, SECRETARY-GENERAL KOFI ANNAN WENT TO THE COUNCIL TO DISCUSS THE MATTER. THE ITALIAN AMBASSADOR TOLD REPORTERS HIS GOVERNMENT FEARS A MASSACRE IN ALBANIA.

    THE ALBANIAN FOREIGN MINISTRY WANTS THE COUNCIL TO APPEAL FOR CALM, TO CALL ON ALBANIAN CITIZENS TO SURRENDER IMMEDIATELY THE WEAPONS THEY SEIZED AND TO STRESS THE NEED FOR A PEACEFUL SOLUTION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EJ/MMK
    13-Mar-97 2:17 PM EST (1917 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] ALBANIA UNREST (S UPDATE) BY KYLE KING

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211415
    DATE LINE=TIRANA CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// EDS: SUBS AND UPDATES CR 2-211384 ///

    INTRO: A GROWING SENSE OF PANIC HAS SWEPT THROUGH THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT KYLE KING IN TIRANA REPORTS LOOTERS HAVE RAIDED FOOD WAREHOUSES IN THE CITY AND ARMED CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN FIRING WILDLY INTO THE AIR WITH RECENTLY SEIZED WEAPONS.

    TEXT: TRACER BULLETS FROM HEAVY MACHINE-GUNS LIT UP THE SKY AS DARKNESS FELL ON THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL (THURSDAY), AND U-S MILITARY HELICOPTERS BEGAN EVACUATING AMERICAN CITIZENS.

    /// ACT OF GUNFIRE ///

    IN NEARLY EVERY CORNER OF THE CITY, ARMED CIVILIANS WERE FIRING INTO THE AIR, SPREADING A GROWING SENSE OF PANIC IN AN ALREADY JITTERY CAPITAL.

    DURING THE DAY, LOOTERS RANSACKED GRAIN WAREHOUSES AND SHOPS, AS THE INSURGENCY AGAINST PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA SPREAD NORTH, EAST AND WEST.

    SEVERAL HUNDRED PRISONERS FLED THE CAPITAL'S CENTRAL JAIL WHEN GUARDS LEFT THEIR POSTS. POLICE HAVE VIRTUALLY DISAPPEARED FROM THE STREETS OF THE CITY.

    BREAD SUPPLIES ARE SHORT BECAUSE OF PANIC-BUYING.

    MANY FOREIGNERS ORDERED BY THEIR EMBASSIES TO LEAVE (ALBANIA) ARE NOW TRAPPED BECAUSE TIRANA'S AIRPORT REMAINS CLOSED AND TRAVEL BY ROAD IS DANGEROUS. AT LEAST 12 PEOPLE THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY WERE REPORTED KILLED THURSDAY AS MORE ARMY WEAPONS DEPOTS WERE RAIDED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/RRM
    13-Mar-97 2:51 PM EST (1951 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] ALBANIA-EVACUATION (S) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211416
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    ///EDS: THIS REPLACES CR2-211407, ALBANIA MILITARY (S UPDATE), WHICH IS OUT OF DATE ///

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS BEGUN EVACUATING ITS CITIZENS FROM ALBANIA. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: FOUR AMERICAN HELICOPTERS FLEW INTO TIRANA FROM THE THREE-SHIP TASK FORCE IN THE IONIAN SEA. THEY DELIVERED ADDITIONAL MARINE GUARDS FOR THE U-S EMBASSY AS WELL AS COMMUNICATION GEAR TO PERMIT AMBASSADOR MARISA LINO TO COMMUNICATE DIRECTLY WITH THE NAVY COMMANDERS.

    THE HELICOPTERS THEN BEGAN EVACUATING MAINLY CHILDREN OF AMERICAN EMBASSY STAFF IN A PROCESS THAT WILL PERMIT 170 AMERICAN GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES TO LEAVE THE CHAOTIC CONDITIONS. STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE CLOSING OF TIRANA'S AIRPORT FORCED (THE EVACUATION).

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THE SITUATION IN THE COUNTRY IS SUFFICIENTLY DIFFICULT AND DISORDER IS SUCH THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY THAT WE FELT IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE TO BRING AMERICAN CITIZENS OR EMPLOYEES OUT EITHER VIA SEA ON THE ADRIATIC OR BY LAND ROUTES AND WE FELT THAT AN EVACUATION BY AMERICAN MILITARY AIRCRAFT WAS THE SAFEST WAY TO BRING AMERICAN CITIZENS OUT.

    ///END ACT///

    THE UNITED STATES IS CONSULTING WITH ITS NATO ALLIES TO SEE IF ANY OTHER MILITARY INTERVENTION IN ALBANIA WILL BE NECESSARY TO BRING PEACE IN THE STREETS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/GKT/KL
    13-Mar-97 3:47 PM EST (2047 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] THE ALBANIAN CONFLICT GROWS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/13/97
    TYPE=WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10067
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: AS THIS WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP IS BEING WRITTEN, U-S WARSHIPS IN THE ADRIATIC ARE SENDING HELICOPTERS INTO THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL OF TIRANA TO EVACUATE U-S WOMEN AND CHILDREN FROM THE CHAOS IN THE NATION.

    MEANWHILE, ALBANIAN PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA AND LEADERS OF ALL THE POLITICAL PARTIES IN ALBANIA ARE CALLING FOR OUTSIDE MILITARY INTERVENTION BY EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO HELP RESTORE ORDER. THAT PLEA COME AS MORE AND MORE ALBANIANS CONTINUED TO RAID ARMS DEPOTS AROUND THE COUNTRY.

    MAKING MATTERS WORSE, PANIC BUYING OF FOOD AND OTHER STAPLES IS REPORTED IN THE TIRANA AND THE CITY'S INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT IS CLOSED.

    FOREIGN NEWSPAPERS ARE INCREASINGLY CONCERNED ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF THIS LATEST BALKAN VIOLENCE ONLY A FEW KILOMETERS AWAY FROM THE YUGOSLAVIAN BORDER.

    WE GET SOME REACTION NOW FROM _____________ IN THIS WEEK'S WORLD OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: ALBANIA BORDERS TWO OF THE LAST REMAINING REGIONS THAT MAKE UP PRESENT-DAY YUGOSLAVIA--THE REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO AND KOSOVO PROVINCE, WHERE MANY ETHNIC ALBANIANS LIVE. THERE IS A GOOD DEAL OF CONCERN THE INSURRECTION NOW GRIPPING ALBANIA COULD SPILL OVER THE BORDER INTO KOSOVO PROVINCE, WHICH IS OF GREAT HISTORIC AND EMOTIONAL IMPORTANCE TO SERBIA. A FAMOUS ANCIENT BATTLE THERE IN WHICH THE SERBS AND ALBANIANS LOST TO THE OTTOMAN TURKS MAKES THE PROVINCE ALMOST HOLY IN THE MINDS OF MANY, ALTHOUGH ONLY A MINORITY OF SERBS NOW LIVE THERE, GOVERNING THE 90-PERCENT ALBANIAN POPULATION. THERE IS ALSO A SIZABLE ALBANIAN POPULATION IN NEIGHBORING MONTENEGRO.

    WITH THAT BACKGROUND AND WITH NEWS REPORTS FROM THE COUNTRY ITSELF SOUNDING MORE ALARMING, WE TURN FIRST TO NEIGHBORING ITALY AND ROME'S "LA REPUBBLICA," WHICH HAS PLENTY OF BLAME FOR EVERYONE:

    VOICE: "THE CRITICISM OF ITALIAN DIPLOMACY FOR FAILING TO RESOLVE THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN TIRANA SO FAR SHOULD BE RECONSIDERED ..... ONCE AGAIN, THE ITALIANS WERE TOO OPTIMISTIC IN ASSUMING THEIR SOLUTION TO THE CRISIS WOULD PREVAIL. BUT MISTAKES WERE MADE IN THE PAST, AND NOT ONLY BY THE ITALIANS. THE AMERICANS HAVE ALSO ALWAYS SUPPORTED PRESIDENT BERISHA, EVEN WHEN SIGNS OF A COLLAPSE OF POPULAR SUPPORT BEGAN TO EMERGE. [OPT] ..... ALBANIA IS A VERY PECULIAR COUNTRY, WITH A HISTORY OF CHRONIC ISOLATION, OF ALMOST TOTAL ESTRANGEMENT FROM EUROPE, AND OF INCREDIBLE POVERTY. IT IS A COUNTRY WHICH SHOULD HAVE RECEIVED MUCH MORE SUPPORT AND ATTENTION IN ITS TRANSITION TOWARD FREEDOM AND THE MODERN WORLD." [END OPT]

    TEXT: MEANWHILE, IN "LA STAMPA" FROM TURIN, THERE IS AN ASSESSMENT OF NATO'S PLANS AND CAPABILITIES.

    VOICE: "ACCORDING TO WHAT NATO SOURCES HAVE TOLD ANSA [THE LEADING ITALIAN NEWS AGENCY] NATO IS NOT CONSIDERING ANY MILITARY INTERVENTION IN ALBANIA, NOT EVEN IN THE CASE OF A DETERIORATION OF THE CRISIS. ..... A NEW MILITARY OPERATION IN THE BALKANS, AT A TIME WHEN NATO IS ABOUT TO BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS ON EXPANSION EASTWARD, WOULD RISK COMPLICATING ALREADY DIFFICULT RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA."

    TEXT: AND IN MILAN, "CORRIERE DELLA SERA" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: "NOW COMES THE DIFFICULT TASK ... ONE THING IS TO AGREE ON A POLITICAL SOLUTION, ANOTHER IS TO REGAIN THE CONTROL OF A COUNTRY, FORTY PERCENT OF WHICH HAS BEEN LIVING IN ..... TOTAL ILLEGALITY AND ANARCHY FOR SIX WEEKS.

    TEXT: TURNING TO BRITAIN, THIS REPORT FROM "THE GUARDIAN'S" CORRESPONDENT IN TIRANA IS NOT MORE ENCOURAGING.

    VOICE: "PARTY LEADERS IN TIRANA APPEALED FOR CALM ..... AS THE TIDE OF ANARCHY GRIPPING MUCH OF ALBANIA SEEPED INTO THE COUNTRY'S NERVOUS CAPITAL .... ALARMING QUANTITIES OF MILITARY HARDWARE ARE NOW IN THE HANDS OF THE PROTESTERS."

    TEXT: REPORTING FROM SOUTHERN ALBANIA, "THE TIMES" OF LONDON'S CORRESPONDENT FILED THIS FROM TEPELENE.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT BERISHA'S ATTEMPTS TO QUELL THE ARMED INSURRECTION IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA APPEARED IN RUINS YESTERDAY (3/10) AS REBELS DECISIVELY REJECTED HIS OFFER FOR POLITICAL CONCESSIONS... THIS IS NOT A REBELLION THAT HAS AN EASILY DISCERNED AIM. ..... IT IS A CURIOUS KIND OF PEASANT REVOLT IN REVERSE - - THE ARMS HAVE COME BEFORE THE AGENDA."

    TEXT: THE DANGER OF THIS CONFLICT SPREADING OUTSIDE ALBANIA'S BORDERS IS RAISED IN GERMANY, IN THIS EDITORIAL FROM MUNICH'S "SUEDDEUTSCHE ZEITUNG."

    VOICE: "WESTERN AMBASSADORS ARE INCREASINGLY CONCERNED THAT MACEDONIA COULD BE DESTABILIZED, BECAUSE THE ALBANIAN REVOLTS COULD SPREAD TO MACEDONIA, TOO..... AND THE CITIES OF BAJRAM [,] CURRI [,] AND KUKES [,] IN NORTHEASTERN ALBANIA, WHERE ARMY DEPOTS WERE LOOTED, ARE CLOSELY SITUATED ON THE BORDER TO [WE WOULD TRANSLATE THAT: "OF"] KOSOVO [PROVINCE OF YUGOSLAVIA]."

    TEXT: IN FRANCE, "LE MONDE" IN PARIS, EDITORIALIZES:

    VOICE: "A EUROPEAN NATION IS GOING UNDER [COLLAPSING] .... AND EUROPE JUST WATCHES PERPLEXED. .... BEYOND THE FATE OF THE TEN MILLION ALBANIANS, WHAT IS AT STAKE ONCE AGAIN IS STABILITY IN THE BALKANS, JUST WHEN BOSNIA HAS BARELY ADJUSTED TO PEACE ....."

    TEXT: TURNING EASTWARD, IN HUNGARY, THE BUDAPEST DAILY "MAGYAR HIRIAP" COMMENTS ALONG THE SAME LINE:

    VOICE: "THE OLD CONTINENT ... ONCE AGAIN CLOSES ITS EYES, AND PRETENDS NOTHING HAS HAPPENED. ...... WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM THIS [ALL THE NEWS DISPATCHES] IS THAT ALBANIA NEEDS HELP. EUROPEAN UNION, WEU, THE MUCH-ADVERTISED OSCE, THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE SHOULD FINALLY DO SOMETHING - - TOGETHER AND IN CONCERT. EUROPE SHOULD HAVE LEARNED FROM THE SOUTHERN SLAV [YUGOSLAVIA] LESSON. OTHERWISE, THE UNITED STATES MIGHT EASILY COME TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE REFLEXES OF OLD EUROPE HAVE WEAKENED."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, TO INDIA, WHERE "THE STATESMAN" IN CALCUTTA DISCUSSES THE COLLAPSE OF THE NATION'S PYRAMID FINANCIAL SCHEMES WHICH PRECIPITATED THE PRESENT CRISIS. THE PAPER SUGGESTS THAT PERHAPS SOME OF THE RESPONSIBILITY LIES WITH THE ALBANIAN PEOPLE THEMSELVES.

    VOICE: "... HAD THEY KEPT A CLOSE WATCH ON NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES, SIMILAR FRAUDS PERPETRATED IN RUSSIA, SERBIA, ROMANIA AND BULGARIA WOULD NOT HAVE ESCAPED THEIR NOTICE. INDEED, ALBANIA MAY WELL BE THE LAST, SINCE, ALTHOUGH IT IS STILL WITHOUT THE REGULATORY PROTECTION THAT OBTAINS IN THE WEST, PEOPLE ARE NO LONGER SO GULLIBLE...."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF WORLD OPINION REGARDING THE CURRENT INSURRECTION IN ALBANIA.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    13-Mar-97 4:25 PM EST (2125 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] ALBANIA EVACUATION (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211426
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS BEGUN A MILITARY EVACUATION OF ITS CITIZENS FROM ALBANIA TO ESCAPE THE CHAOTIC CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTRY. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE ORIGINAL PLAN WAS TO HAVE OFFICIAL AMERICANS (U-S GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES) IN ALBANIA LEAVE ON COMMERCIAL OR CHARTER AIRLINES, BUT THE CLOSURE OF TIRANA'S AIRPORT FORCED A CHANGE. FOUR CHINOOK HELICOPTERS FROM A THREE-SHIP AMERICAN TASK FORCE IN THE IONIAN SEA FLEW INTO THE EMBASSY HOUSING COMPLEX TO BEGIN EVACUATING MAINLY CHILDREN OF EMPLOYEES. SOME 170 NON-ESSENTIAL AMERICANS -- PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS, AID WORKERS AND OTHER EMPLOYEES -- ARE GETTING PRIORITY IN LEAVING ALBANIA. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS DEVOTING ITS MAIN ATTENTION TO ITS CITIZENS.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WE ARE WATCHING THE SITUATION VERY CLOSELY IN ALBANIA. WE HAVE BEGUN AN EVACUATION PROCESS. OUR MOST IMPORTANT PRIORITY IS TO GET OUR CITIZENS OUT OF HARM'S WAY AND WE HAVE A PROCESS OF GETTING OUT THE NON-ESSENTIAL PERSONNEL AND SOME OF THE DEPENDENTS AND THAT HAS STARTED. WE WANT VERY MUCH TO SEE A PEACEFUL RESOLUTION THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS AND DIALOGUE AND A RETURN TO STABILITY IN ALBANIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES IS CONSULTING WITH ITS NATO ALLIES IN BRUSSELS ABOUT WHAT OTHER MILITARY STEPS MIGHT HAVE TO BE TAKEN TO BRING A RETURN TO STABILITY. FOR NOW, THE SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS THE UNITED STATES WILL DEPEND ON THE MISSION LED BY FORMER AUSTRIAN CHANCELLOR FRANZ VRANITZSKY.

    VISITING POLISH FOREIGN MINISTER DARIUSZ ROSATI TOLD REPORTERS THE ALBANIA SITUATION REPRESENTS A PERFECT OPPORTUNITY FOR A NEW, ENLARGED NATO THAT POLAND HOPES TO JOIN.

    /// ROSATI ACT ///

    THERE ARE SOMETIMES DOUBTS EXPRESSED ABOUT THE REASONS FOR NATO ENLARGEMENT AND ACTUALLY FOR NATO EXISTENCE -- AND ARGUMENTS GO LIKE ... 'THE COLD WAR IS OVER AND PERHAPS THERE IS NO NEED TO ENLARGE.' BUT ALBANIA PROVIDES AN EXAMPLE OF A RISK OR OF A DANGER OF INSTABILITY WHICH HAS TO BE SOMEHOW ADDRESSED.

    /// END ACT ///

    ALTHOUGH THE UNITED STATES IS USING MILITARY AIRCRAFT TO EVACUATE ITS CITIZENS, THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS NO AMERICANS HAVE BEEN INJURED OR THREATENED BY THE WEEKS OF DEMONSTRATIONS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT SPARKED BY THE FAILURE OF (PYRAMID INVESTMENT) FINANCIAL PLANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    13-Mar-97 5:23 PM EST (2223 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKEY / POLITICS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211402
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S ISLAMIST LED-COALITION GOVERNMENT HAS VOWED TO CRACK DOWN ON ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN COMPLIANCE WITH A LIST OF MEASURES DEMANDED BY THE COUNTRY'S POWERFUL PRO-SECULAR MILITARY. AMBERIN ZAMAN IN ANKARA REPORTS THE ANNOUNCEMENT WAS MADE FOLLOWING A CABINET MEETING THURSDAY

    TEXT: SPEAKING TO REPORTERS AFTER THE MEETING, CABINET SPOKESMAN LUTFU ESENGUN SAID THE GOVERNMENT WOULD START WORKING TO CARRY OUT THE GENERAL'S DIRECTIVES, ENDING WEEKS OF SPECULATION TURKEY'S ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN WOULD NOT COMPLY WITH THE MILITARY'S DEMANDS.

    TENSIONS BETWEEN MR. ERBAKAN AND HIS ISLAMIST WELFARE PARTY AND THE MILITARY FIRST SURFACED TWO-WEEKS AGO DURING A MEETING OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL WHICH INCLUDES THE PRESIDENT, KEY MINISTERS, AND THE COUNTRY'S TOP GENERALS.

    DURING THE MEETING THE GENERALS PROPOSED A SERIES OF MEASURES THAT WOULD EFFECTIVELY CRACK DOWN ON THE SPREAD OF ISLAMIC RADICALISM. THESE INCLUDE CUTTING DOWN ON THE NUMBER OF ISLAMIC CLERICAL TRAINING SCHOOLS AND INTRODUCING RESTRICTIONS ON RADICAL ISLAMIC PUBLICATIONS AND BROADCASTS. THE DIRECTIVES ALSO CALL FOR ENFORCING A STRICT BAN ON ISLAMIC STYLE HEADSCARVES IN STATE INSTITUTIONS AND UNIVERSITIES AND CURBS ON THE SALE OF FIREARMS.

    MEMBERS OF THE OPPOSITION HAVE ACCUSED MR. ERBAKAN'S SUPPORTERS OF ARMING THEMSELVES TO ALLEGEDLY HOLD ONTO POWER BY FORCE IF NECESSARY.

    DEFENSE MINISTER TURHAN TAYHAN SAID THE DIRECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL WOULD IN HIS WORDS BE FOLLOWED TO THE LETTER. ANALYSTS SAY MR. ERBAKAN'S DECISION TO GO ALONG WITH THE MEASURES, WHICH LARGELY CONTRADICT HIS PARTY'S PRO- ISLAMIC PLATFORM, REFLECT HIS DESIRE TO AVOID A FULL-SCALE CONFRONTATION WITH THE MILITARY WHICH HAS SEIZED POWER THREE TIMES IN THE PAST.

    TENSIONS BETWEEN THE ISLAMISTS AND THE COUNTRY'S PRO-SECULAR MILITARY CAME TO A HEAD FOLLOWING MOVES BY MR. ERBAKAN TO LEGALIZE THE ISLAMIC HEADSCARF IN STATE INSTITUTIONS AND TO PERMIT CIVIL SERVANTS TO TAKE TIME OFF FOR FRIDAY PRAYERS.

    SUCH MOVES ARE WIDELY PERCEIVED BY THE PRO-SECULARISTS AS A CLEAR ATTEMPT TO REVERSE THE PRO-WESTERN PRINCIPLES LAID DOWN BY THE FOUNDER OF MODERN TURKEY, KEMAL ATATURK. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    13-Mar-97 11:44 AM EST (1644 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] U-S-MONTENEGRO (L ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211405
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO HAS COMPLETED HIS FOURTH VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES, MEETING WHITE HOUSE AND STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS AS WELL AS REPRESENTATIVES OF THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THERE ARE LIMITS TO MONTENEGRO'S EFFORTS TO CARVE OUT A SEPARATE IDENTITY FROM SERBIA.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER MILO DJUKANOVIC RETURNS TO MONTENEGRO FEELING ENCOURAGED. THE STATE DEPARTMENT HAS TOLD HIM THE UNITED STATES WILL START PROCEEDINGS TO RETURN FIVE SHIPS TO MONTENEGRO THAT WERE SEIZED IN 1992 AS PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS DECLARED AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA BECAUSE OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA.

    THIS WAS THE PRIME MINISTER'S FOURTH VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES AND HE TELLS REPORTERS, WITH HIS INTERPRETER, HE IS STARTING TO HAVE SOME SUCCESS IN CREATING A SEPARATE IDENTITY FOR MONTENEGRO FROM ITS SISTER REPUBLIC OF SERBIA.

    ///DJUKANOVIC SERBIAN ACT W/ INTERPRETER///

    ABOUT MONTENEGRO THE UNITED STATES KNEW VERY LITTLE. MOST OF THE AMERICANS THINK THAT IT IS JUST AN INTEGRAL PART OF SERBIA. THAT'S WHY WE WANTED TO PRESENT MONTENEGRO IN THE REAL PICTURE AND I THINK THAT WE ARE REALIZING SOME RESULTS. OF COURSE, THEY ARE NOT TOTALLY SATISFACTORY BUT I'VE GOT THE IMPRESSION THAT AFTER EACH VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES THEY ARE GETTING BETTER AND BETTER.

    ///END ACT///

    THE PRIME MINISTER EXPLAINED HIS REPUBLIC'S POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORMS IN ALL HIS WASHINGTON MEETINGS. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK OFFICIALS GAVE HIM SOME TECHNICAL ADVICE ABOUT PUBLIC SPENDING AND DEBT SERVICE. HOWEVER, MORE USEFUL HELP FROM THE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IS IMPOSSIBLE.

    BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED AMERICAN SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, THE UNITED STATES BLOCKS ALL INTERNATIONAL LOANS AND CREDITS FOR YUGOSLAVIA. MONTENEGRO TRIES TO DISTANCE ITSELF FROM SERBIA'S POLICIES TOWARD KOSOVO OR SERBIA'S REFUSAL TO COOPERATE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. AT THE SAME TIME, MONTENEGRO IS A CONSTITUENT PART OF FEDERAL YUGOSLAVIA THAT IS DOMINATED BY SERBIA AND HAS NO PLANS FOR INDEPENDENCE.

    WHILE THE STATE DEPARTMENT MADE A GESTURE WITH THE RETURN OF THE SHIPS TO ENCOURAGE MONTENEGRO, OFFICIALS HERE ARE OPENLY SKEPTICAL ABOUT MONTENEGRO'S CLAIMS OF POLITICAL REFORM.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT SAYS IN MONTENEGRO THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF SOCIALISTS ENJOYS AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY AND IN BOTH SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, THE RULING PARTIES HAVE EFFECTIVELY BLOCKED LEGISLATION THAT WOULD LOOSEN THEIR CONTROL OVER THE STATE-RUN MEDIA. MR. DJUKANOVIC DID CRITICIZE SERBIA LAST YEAR FOR TRYING TO CANCEL LOCAL ELECTIONS.

    ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE JOHN KORNBLUM COMPLAINED TO MR. DJUKANOVIC ABOUT THE CIVIL SUIT FILED AGAINST MONTENEGRIN OPPOSITION LEADER NOVAK KILIBARDO FOR SLANDER AGAINST THE REPUBLIC PRESIDENT (MOMIR BULATOVIC). THE PRIME MINISTER SAYS THE OPPOSITION HAS FILED ITS OWN CASE BUT HE TAKES THE AMERICAN WARNING SERIOUSLY.

    ///DJUKANOVIC ACT W/ INTERPRETER///

    DURING THE DISCUSSIONS I HAD WITH THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION I HAVE BEEN TOLD SEVERAL TIMES THAT THIS IS MAYBE NOT THE MOST FAVORABLE TIMING OF DOING TRIALS. I HAVE ACCEPTED THAT IMMEDIATELY AFTER RETURNING TO MONTENEGRO TOGETHER WITH MY COLLEAGUES I WILL HAVE A TALK ABOUT THIS WARNING ABOUT THE RECIPROCAL TRIALS BETWEEN US AND THE LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION.

    ///END ACT///

    AMERICAN OFFICIALS SAY MR. DJUKANOVIC IS "SMOOTHER" THAN SERBIAN OFFICIALS BUT MONTENEGRO, LIKE SERBIA, IS A REPUBLIC WHERE ONE PARTY DOMINATES THE MEDIA AND THE ECONOMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/GKT/KL
    13-Mar-97 12:16 PM EST (1716 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/13/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10064
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY MARCH 13TH//

    INTRO: THE PROPOSED JEWISH SETTLEMENTS IN EAST JERUSALEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ISRAELI-ARAB RELATIONS IS A TOPIC IN MANY U-S EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS THURSDAY.

    OTHER TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE RIFT BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE F-B-I; PROGRESS IN THE PERUVIAN HOSTAGE SITUATION AND IN SOUTH KOREA'S CONVERSION TO FULL DEMOCRACY.

    ALSO UNDER THE MICROSCOPE ARE: THE IDEA OF SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA'S GOVERNMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR IN ALBANIA.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IS _________________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS HAVE COMMENTED ON THE EXCHANGE OF PUBLIC AND CRITICAL CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN AND ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU. IN IT, THE KING DECRIES ISRAEL'S DECISION TO BUILD NEW HOUSING FOR JEWS IN THE PREDOMINANTLY ARAB EAST JERUSALEM. TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, FOR EXAMPLE, SAYS:

    VOICE: "THEIR BLUNT EXCHANGE OF LETTERS THIS WEEK LENDS A HIGH NOON [A REFERENCE TO A CLASSIC, VERY TENSE, WESTERN FILM IN WHICH A SHERIFF, PLAYED BY GARY COOPER, HAS TO FACE AN OUTLAW GANG ALL BY HIMSELF] QUALITY TO THE GROWING CONFRONTATION OVER MR. NETANYAHU'S DECISION TO, IN ESSENCE, COLONIZE THE ARAB QUARTER IN EAST JERUSALEM. ..... NOW [KING] HUSSEIN HAS THROWN DOWN THE GAUNTLET: RETREAT FROM YOUR CHESS MOVE IN EAST JERUSALEM OR LOSE ALL THE GAINS FOR PEACE AND PROSPERITY UNDER WAY WITH YOUR NEIGHBORS. ..... BUT HOW CAN [MR.] NETANYAHU BACK OFF WITHOUT UNDERMINING HIS ALREADY SHAKY GOVERNMENT COALITION?"

    TEXT: TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES ADDS:

    VOICE: "MR. ARAFAT AND MR. NETANYAHU NEED TO STEP BACK AND RECOVER A LARGER VISION. IDEALLY, MR. ARAFAT AND MR. NETANYAHU SHOULD TALK DIRECTLY, AND REGULARLY. BUT GIVEN THEIR APPARENT INABILITY TO DO SO, THE UNITED STATES MUST STEP IN MORE ACTIVELY TO SHEPHERD THE PEACE. [OPT] .....DOMESTIC CALCULATIONS SOMETIMES INFLUENCE MR. NETANYAHU'S AND MR. ARAFAT'S DECISIONS. .... BUT BOTH MEN HAVE DEMONSTRATED ... THEY CAN OVERCOME THESE OBSTACLES TO PEACE. THEY MUST DO SO AGAIN." [END OPT]

    TEXT: WHILE ACROSS MANHATTAN, THE NEW YORK POST HAS THIS VIEW OF THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: "SATURDAY'S BIZARRE SCHEDULED MEETING IN GAZA BETWEEN YASSER ARAFAT AND VARIOUS U-S, EUROPEAN, AND ARAB ENVOYS .... MAY ONE DAY BE REMEMBERED AS THE WAKE FOR THE ISRAELI-PLO PEACE PROCESS. AT THE MOMENT, THE PROCESS ..... IS IN SHAMBLES. ..... THE PEACE PROCESS, IF IT IS TO HAVE ANY SUBSTANCES AT ALL, WILL PROCEED AT THE PACE DETERMINED BY THE TWO PRIMARY PARTIES, ISRAEL AND THE PLO. WASHINGTON SHOULD TREAT THE GAZA MEETING AS A DANGEROUS DETOUR."

    TEXT: TURNING TO DOMESTIC AFFAIRS, THE U-S PRESS HAS NOTED THE PUBLIC DISPUTE WHICH FLARED BRIEFLY BETWEEN THE WHITE HOUSE AND THE F-B-I OVER THE ISSUE OF ALLEGED CHINESE POLITICAL DONATIONS. TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE LAMENTS:

    VOICE: "DURING THE PAST FEW DAYS, THE PUBLIC HAS WITNESSED THE RARE SPECTACLE OF THE F-B-I AND THE WHITE HOUSE CALLING EACH OTHER LIARS. ..... THE DUST-UP [RIFT] BETWEEN [MR.] CLINTON AND THE F-B-I WAS THE GAUDIEST POSSIBLE DISPLAY OF THE CONFLICT OF INTEREST INHERENT IN THE BUREAU'S TASK OF INVESTIGATING ITS OWN ULTIMATE SUPERIOR. ..... THERE IS SOMETHING PROFOUNDLY WRONG IF THE GOVERNMENT'S LAW ENFORCEMENT ARM DID NOT WANT THE PRESIDENT TO KNOW HE WAS THE TARGET OF CHINESE INFLUENCE-BUYING BECAUSE HE WAS ALSO A TARGET OF ITS INVESTIGATION."

    TEXT: STILL WITH TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE, ANOTHER COMMENTARY SUGGESTS SOME PROGRESS IS BEING MADE IN THE PERUVIAN HOSTAGE SITUATION AT THE JAPANESE AMBASSADOR'S LIMA HOME.

    VOICE: "IN THE PREVAILING CLIMATE, [PRESIDENT] FUJIMORI WILL NOT BE REGARDED AS SOFT ON TERRORISM IF, TO PROCURE RELEASE OF THE HOSTAGES, HE AGREES TO IMPROVE PRISON CONDITIONS AND REVIEW THE SENTENCES OF IMPRISONED MEMBERS OF THE TUPAC AMARU."

    TEXT: TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST IS PLEASED THAT A COMPROMISE APPEARS TO BE TAKING SHAPE IN SOUTH KOREA BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND OPPOSITION LAWMAKERS OVER THE QUESTIONABLE PASSAGE, DURING A SECRET PARLIAMENT MEETING, OF A CONTROVERSIAL LABOR LAW AND A STRICT INTERNAL SECURITY STATUTE. SAYS THE POST:

    VOICE: "THE PATH FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY, NOW BEING ATTEMPTED BY SO MANY NATIONS, TURNS OUT TO BE LONG AND TORTUOUS EVEN IN THE BEST OF CASES. ..... SOUTH KOREA'S DEMOCRACY IS BETTER ESTABLISHED THAN MOST, YET THAT ASIAN NATION TOOK A GIANT STEP BACKWARD ELEVEN WEEKS AGO - - AND CAUGHT HELL FOR IT, AT HOME AND ABROAD. NOW IT HAS TAKEN TWO STEPS FORWARD. .....WEEKS OF STRIKES, PROTESTS AND CONDEMNATION, HOWEVER, PROVED TOO MUCH. [PRESIDENT KIM YOUNG SAM HAS] ...AGREED TO ALLOW THE FULL PARLIAMENT, INCLUDING OPPOSITION LEGISLATORS, TO RECONSIDER BOTH PIECES OF LEGISLATION. ..... MR. KIM TRIED TO GET THINGS DONE THE OLD WAY, THE GENERALS' WAY. SOUTH KOREANS SHOWED THEY WON'T STAND FOR THAT ANYMORE."

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN BURMA, TODAY'S WASHINGTON TIMES IS SUGGESTING THE TIME IS NOW, ACCORDING TO U-S LAW, FOR SANCTIONS.

    VOICE: "....THE LAW IS THE LAW. CLEARLY - - AND UNFORTUNATELY FOR THE BURMESE PEOPLE - - THE CONDITIONS REQUIRED FOR THE IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS AGAINST BURMA HAVE BEEN MET AND SURPASSED. THE SLORC [STATE LAW AND ORDER RESTORATION COUNCIL] WILL NOT BE MOVED BY ECONOMIC ENTICEMENTS; RATHER, SUCH ENTICEMENTS ONLY FURTHER ITS RESOLVE TO REGAIN ITS HOLD ON POWER. ..... PRESIDENT CLINTON, THE TIME FOR SANCTIONS HAS COME."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE BALTIMORE SUN DISCUSSES THE CIVIL WAR IN ALBANIA.

    VOICE: "THE TROUBLE IS THAT THE INSURGENTS WHO OVERRAN ARMY BASES AND TOWNS IN THE SOUTH, AT FIRST ON THE COAST AND THEN BY MOVING INLAND, DON'T SPEAK FOR THE WHOLE COUNTRY. SMALL AS IT IS, ALBANIA IS DEEPLY DIVIDED BY REGION AND CLAN AND HAD A HARD TIME BEHAVING AS A NATION EVEN AFTER IT WAS DEEMED TO BE ONE IN THIS CENTURY. ..... [ALBANIAN PRESIDENT SALI] BERISHA, WHO CALLS HIMSELF A DEMOCRAT AND FREE MARKET CHAMPION, HAS MORE AUTHORITY IN THE NORTH, WHERE UNREST HAS JUST BEGUN. ALTHOUGH SOLDIERS WILL NOT FIGHT FOR HIM IN THE SOUTH, IT IS NOT CLEAR THAT SOCIALIST OPPONENTS WOULD FARE BETTER IN THE NORTH. ..... IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF MR. BERISHA STEPPED DOWN AND IF THE REBELS OF THE SOUTH DECLARED VICTORY, HANDED IN THEIR WEAPONS AND WENT HOME."

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    13-Mar-97 10:30 AM EST (1530 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=3/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211408
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES DROPPED IN TRADING THURSDAY IN MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES WERE DOWN IN ALL THE MAJOR EUROPEAN MARKETS. ANALYSTS SAID THE EUROPEAN MARKETS WERE INFLUENCED BY THE NEGATIVE OPENING ON WALL STREET.

    SHARE PRICES FELL SHARPLY IN FRANKFURT. THE TRADING DAY ENDED WITH THE DAX-30 INDEX OFF MORE THAN 65-POINTS, MORE THAN ONE-AND-NINE-TENTHS PERCENT. THE DOWNWARD TREND CONTINUED IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING.

    PRICES ALSO DROPPED IN LONDON. THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX CLOSED DOWN ALMOST ALMOST 25-POINTS, MORE THAN ONE-HALF PERCENT. IN PARIS, THE CAC-40 INDEX FINISHED OFF ALMOST 10-POINTS, ABOUT THREE-TENTHS-PERCENT LOWER.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE IN VALUE AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK AND THE JAPANESE YEN, BUT IT DROPPED A BIG AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/RAE
    13-Mar-97 1:06 PM EST (1806 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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