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Voice of America, 97-03-18

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA (S) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)
  • [02] ALBANIA / RED CROSS (S ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)
  • [03] ALBANIA/U-S NAVY (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [04] ALBANIA (L) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)
  • [05] ALBANIAN CRISIS BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASH)
  • [06] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [08] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] SUPREME COURT/INTERNET BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)
  • [11] THE INTERNET AS LOCATOR BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [12] WEB BASED MASTERS DEGREE BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA (S) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211637
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AN 11-MEMBER EUROPEAN UNION DELEGATION HAS BEGUN LOOKING INTO WAYS TO HELP ALBANIA RE-ESTABLISH ORDER FOLLOWING WEEKS OF CIVIL UNREST. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM TIRANA, THE SPECIAL ASSESSMENT TEAM HELD TALKS IN TIRANA BEFORE HEADING TO THE PORT CITIES OF DURRES AND VLORE.

    TEXT: THE HEAD OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DELEGATION SAYS THE 11-MEMBER TEAM IS TOURING THE PORT CITIES TO ASSESS HOW EMERGENCY AID CAN BE BROUGHT INTO THE COUNTRY.

    AUTHORITIES ARE SLOWLY RESTORING ORDER IN ALBANIA FOLLOWING WEEKS OF ARMED ANARCHY. BUT FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES ARE IN INCREASINGLY SHORT SUPPLY.

    THE STATE-RUN ALBANIAN NEWS AGENCY SAYS PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA APPEALED TO THE DELEGATION FOR IMMEDIATE FOOD AND MEDICAL ASSISTANCE DURING A MEETING IN THE CAPITAL.

    THE HEAD OF THE EUROPEAN DELEGATION DECLINED TO DISCUSS THE MEETING WITH MR. BERISHA, WHO MANY ALBANIANS BLAME FOR THE CRISIS. HOWEVER, THE E-U DIPLOMATS SAY THEY WILL DO WHAT THEY CAN TO HELP THE COUNTRY.

    U-N OFFICIALS SAY MORE THAN 11-THOUSAND ALBANIANS HAVE NOW FLED THE POVERTY AND CHAOS TO ITALY AND GREECE. MANY OTHERS STILL DESPERATE TO LEAVE ARE WAITING IN PORT CITIES, HOPING TO FIND SOME WAY OUT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/MMK
    18-Mar-97 9:17 AM EST (1417 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBANIA / RED CROSS (S ONLY) BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211638
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS HAS LAUNCHED AN APPEAL FOR AROUND 11-MILLION DOLLARS TO AID VICTIMS OF THE CRISIS IN ALBANIA. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS A STATEMENT FROM THE ORGANIZATION'S GENEVA HEADQUARTERS SAYS ABOUT ONE-QUARTER- MILLION PEOPLE ARE IN NEED OF DIRECT ASSISTANCE.

    TEXT: THE RED CROSS STATEMENT SAYS ALBANIA REMAINS PRACTICALLY CUT OFF FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD, AND IS RECEIVING VIRTUALLY NO SUPPLIES OF FOOD OR MEDICINE. IT APPEALS TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO MOBILIZE ITS RESOURCES TO HELP RESTOCK THE COUNTRY'S FAST DWINDLING RESERVES. THE 11-MILLION DOLLARS REQUESTED BY THE I-C-R-C IS AIMED AT FILLING THE GAP OVER THE NEXT THREE MONTHS.

    THE FUNDS WOULD BE USED INITIALLY FOR THE PURCHASE OF FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES FOR ALBANIAN HOSPITALS AND OTHER PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, AS WELL AS FOR FOOD PARCELS TO BE DISTRIBUTED TO ABOUT 250-THOUSAND PEOPLE CONSIDERED TO BE PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE.

    THE RED CROSS STATEMENT VOICES DEEP CONCERN ABOUT THE CONTINUED LACK OF SECURITY IN ALBANIA WHICH IT SAYS IS EXPOSING A PART OF THE POPULATION TO HARASSMENT, ARREST AND ACTS OF REVENGE.

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY, MEANWHILE, IS CONTINUING TO KEEP TRACK OF ALBANIANS WHO HAVE FLED THE COUNTRY OVER THE PAST FEW WEEKS. SPOKESWOMAN PAM O'TOOLE SAYS MORE THAN SEVEN-THOUSAND ARE NOW IN ITALY AND FOUR-THOUSAND ARE IN GREECE. BUT SHE SAYS U-N-H-C-R HAS SO FAR RECEIVED NO REQUESTS FOR AID FROM THE GREEK OR ITALIAN GOVERNMENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DBR/JWH
    18-Mar-97 9:18 AM EST (1418 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] ALBANIA/U-S NAVY (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211644
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S NAVY SHIPS IN THE ADRIATIC HAVE RESCUED MORE ALBANIAN REFUGEES TRYING TO MAKE THE DANGEROUS PASSAGE TO ITALY IN A SMALL BOAT. THE U-S NAVAL TASK FORCE OFF ALBANIA, WHICH AIRLIFTED 800 AMERICANS AND OTHERS OUT OF THE COUNTRY, HAS OPENED A SECURITY DIALOGUE WITH ALBANIA'S NATIONAL UNITY GOVERNMENT. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: NAVY OFFICIALS SAY ANOTHER 20 ALBANIAN REFUGEES WERE PICKED UP IN THE ADRIATIC AFTER THE SMALL BOAT IN WHICH THEY WERE TRYING TO MAKE THE CROSSING TO ITALY BEGAN TAKING ON WATER.

    IT WAS THE THIRD BOATLOAD OF ALBANIANS TO BE RESCUED BY U-S FORCES OFF THE ALBANIAN COAST. ALL 105 OF THE REFUGEES HAVE BEEN TAKEN BY HELICOPTER TO THE ITALIAN PORT OF BRINDIZI AND HANDED OVER TO ITALIAN AUTHORITIES.

    NAVY SPOKESMAN COMMANDER BRIAN CULLIN TOLD V-O-A BY TELEPHONE FROM THE ADRIATIC, THE RESCUES ARE NOT PART OF THE STATED MISSION OF U-S FORCES -- BUT AN OBLIGATION UNDER SEAFARING RULES.

    /// CULLIN ACT ///

    OUR MISSION IS TO EVACUATE AMERICAN CITIZENS, BUT WE OPERATE BY THE LAW OF THE SEA AND IF THERE IS A VESSEL IN DISTRESS, WE WILL RESPOND, IF WE CAN, TO SAVE LIVES.

    /// END ACT ///

    COMMANDER CULLIN SAYS NO ADDITIONAL U-S OR OTHER FOREIGN NATIONALS WERE EVACUATED TUESDAY, AFTER MORE THAN 800 WERE TAKEN OUT IN THE FIRST FOUR DAYS OF THE OPERATION. HE SAID OFFICERS FROM THE TASK FORCE FLEW INTO TIRANA TO MEET OFFICIALS OF THE NATIONAL UNITY GOVERNMENT AND DISCUSS SECURITY FOR THE U-S EMBASSY AND PERSONNEL, AND SAID THE ALBANIANS WERE VERY COOPERATIVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RAE
    18-Mar-97 10:10 AM EST (1510 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] ALBANIA (L) BY KYLE KING (TIRANA)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211650
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AN 11-MEMBER EUROPEAN UNION DELEGATION IS TOURING ALBANIA TO TRY TO FIND WAYS OF HELPING THE STRIFE TORN BALKAN NATION RE-ESTABLISH ORDER FOLLOWING WEEKS OF CIVIL UNREST. MEANWHILE, AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM TIRANA, MANY OF THE COUNTRIES MOST VALUABLE INSTITUTIONS HAVE BEEN DESTROYED.

    TEXT: AS HE STANDS INSIDE THE GUTTED WRECKAGE OF AN OFFICE AT ALBANIA'S MAIN AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY IN TIRANA, THE OWNER OF THE BUILDING SAYS HE CANNOT BELIEVE THAT ARMED VANDALS LOOTED AND DESTROYED THE CAMPUS.

    /// ALBANIAN ACT, FADE UNDER ///

    WHAT CAN I SAY, THIS MAN SAYS, THIS IS REAL VANDALISM. IN THE PAST WISDOM WAS ALWAYS PROTECTED, AND NOW WE ARE SUPPOSED TO BE IN THE 21ST CENTURY. ITS INCREDIBLE, I JUST DON'T HAVE WORDS. LAST WEEK, AS THE ANARCHY AND LAWLESS THAT BEGAN IN THE SOUTH OF ALBANIA SPREAD TO THE CAPITAL, ABOUT 150 TO 300 PEOPLE, MANY OF THEM CARRYING ASSAULT RIFLES, WENT ON A RAMPAGE THROUGH THE CAMPUS.

    THROUGH THE NIGHT AND INTO THE NEXT DAY THEY SYSTEMATICALLY LOOTED THE BUILDINGS, THEN OTHERS CAME AND DESTROYED WHAT WAS LEFT.

    /// SOUNDS OF BROKEN GLASS, FADE UNDER ///

    AT THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, WHICH WAS RENOWNED AS THE LARGEST AND MOST COMPREHENSIVE OF ITS KIND IN ALBANIA AND PERHAPS THE BALKANS, NEARLY ALL OF THE 130-THOUSAND BOOKS WERE BURNED.

    AS SHE STANDS NEXT TO THE STILL SMOLDERING RUBBLE, LIBRARIAN FLOURISH NASHO, SAYS 17 YEARS OF HER LIFE WAS DESTROYED IN THE ANARCHY.

    /// NASHO ACT IN ALBANIAN, FADE UNDER ///

    I'M REALLY UPSET, MS. NASHO SAYS ,FIGHTING BACK TEARS. ALL OF MY TRAINING IN FRENCH, GERMANY, THE UNITED STATES. I POURED MY LIFE INTO THIS WORK AND NOW ITS DESTROYED.

    WHY THE CAMPUS WAS RANSACKED AND BURNED REMAINS ANOTHER OF THE MANY QUESTIONS LEFT IN THE WAKE OF THE SPASM OF VIOLENCE THAT HAS SHAKEN THE NATION.

    NEARLY EVERYONE HAS A THEORY. SOME BLAME IMPOVERISHED LOCAL RESIDENTS. THE OWNER OF THE RECTORY BUILDING SAYS THE ANSWER WILL PROBABLY NEVER BE KNOW.

    /// ALBANIAN BUILDING OWNER, FADE UNDER ///

    THE REASON, HE SAYS, YOU CANNOT FIND, BECAUSE NO ONE HAS TAKEN RESPONSIBILITY.

    WHY POLICE CHOSE TO DO NOTHING TO HALT THE DESTRUCTION AT THE UNIVERSITY AND ELSEWHERE IN TIRANA IS ANOTHER QUESTION BEING ASKED BY PEOPLE LIKE PROFESSOR EDMUND SKENDERI.

    /// SKENDERI ACT ///

    A LOT OF POLICE AND A LOT OF GUARDS WERE HERE, BUT AT THE MOMENT WHEN THE BEASTS CAME -- AND I LIKE TO CALL THEM BEASTS -- WHEN THE BEASTS CAME, NO ONE WAS HERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE WOMAN, COLLECTING THE CHARRED REMAINS OF THE ARCHIVES WHERE SHE WORKED, SAYS WHAT PEOPLE NEED NOW IS OUTSIDE HELP.

    /// ARCHIVIST IN ALBANIAN, FADE UNDER ///

    I'M UPSET AND IN DESPAIR, SHE SAYS. BUT WE ARE TRYING TO GATHER UP WHAT IS LEFT AND WE HOPE WE CAN DO SOMETHING AND THAT OTHER NATIONS WILL HELP US.

    DESPITE HER SORROW, LIBRARIAN FLORESHA NASHO, SOMEHOW REMAINS OPTIMISTIC.

    /// NASHO ACT, IN ENGLISH ///

    I AM GOING TO TRY TO WRITE LETTERS AND TO DO SOMETHING FOR THE USERS. THEY WERE VERY INTERESTED AND THEY USED THE LIBRARY SO MUCH YOU CAN NOT IMAGINE.

    /// END ACT ///

    WITH THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT STILL TRYING TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO GET EMERGENCY FOOD AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES INTO THE NATION, UNIVERSITY OFFICIALS SAY THEY HAVE NOT YET HAD ANY RESPONSE TO THEIR APPEALS FOR HELP. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    18-Mar-97 11:35 AM EST (1635 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] ALBANIAN CRISIS BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASH)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CLOSE-UP
    NUMBER=4-09653
    TELEPHONE=619-3937
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // ACTUALITIES IN TAPE LIBRARY //
    (NOTE TO EDITORS: THE ALBANIANS SITUATION IS OBVIOUSLY FLUID, SO IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO UPDATE THIS SCRIPT, PRESUMABLY IN THE INTRO AND/OR OUTRO)

    INTRO: ABOUT ONE THOUSAND ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN FLEEING THEIR COUNTRY DAILY, MOST OF THEM ACROSS THE ADRIATIC SEA TO ITALY, EVEN THOUGH THE TURMOIL AT HOME SEEMS TO HAVE SOMEWHAT ABATED. PRIME MINISTER BASHKIM FINO, OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL RECONCILIATION, PLANS TO MEET WITH INSURGENTS WHO CONTROL MOST OF THE TOWNS IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA. AN ELEVEN-MEMBER ADVISORY COMMISSION FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS ARRIVED IN TIRANA, THE NATION'S CAPITAL, TO DISCUSS CIVIL RECONSTRUCTION ISSUES. PROBLEM NUMBER ONE: THE POLICE AND ARMY COLLAPSED, AND LEFT THEIR ARMS DEPOTS OPEN; WITH BACKGROUND, HERE IS FRANK RONALDS.

    HOST: OBSERVERS SAY THAT ALBANIA'S CURRENT CHAOS IS THE MORE TRAGIC IN THAT ITS ECONOMIC RECOVERY AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM WAS REMARKABLE, WITH A GROWTH RATE HIGHER THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY IN EASTERN EUROPE. NICHOLAS PANO IS A PROFESSOR OF HISTORY AT WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY AND THE AUTHOR OF MANY WORKS INCLUDING "THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA":

    TAPE CUT ONE -- PANO "DURING THE IMMEDIATE POST-COMMUNIST PERIOD IN ALBANIA THERE WAS ABOUT A YEAR OF UNREST, DISLOCATION WHICH WAS VERY SIMILAR TO WHAT WE HAVE NOW. BUT THEN FOLLOWING THE MARCH 1992 ELECTIONS, WITH THE DEMOCRATS OF SALI BERISHA WINNING A SMASHING VICTORY, THERE WAS A GREAT DEAL OF OPTIMISM IN THE COUNTRY. BERISHA PROCEEDED TO ACCELERATE THE TEMPO OF PRIVATIZATION, HE EFFECTED SOME MAJOR CHANGES IN THE BUREAUCRACY OF ALBANIA, BEGAN TO PURGE THE POLICE FORCES. WITHIN TWO YEARS HE WAS ABLE TO STEM THE HORRENDOUS RATE OF INFLATION. HE GRADUALLY BROUGHT ABOUT THE SALE OF SMALL INDUSTRIES, PRIVATIZED THESE, PRIVATIZED MEDIUM SIZED INDUSTRIES AND THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR REVIVED. THE SAME OCCURRED IN AGRICULTURE, WHERE THERE WAS THE REDISTRIBUTION OF LAND TO THE PEASANTS. BY 1994 AND 1995, FOREIGN AID COMING INTO ALBANIA WAS LARGELY FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND THERE WAS ALSO PRIVATE INVESTMENT COMING INTO ALBANIA."

    HOST: CONCERNED ABOUT MAINTAINING STABILITY IN THE BALKANS, PRESIDENT BERISHA WAS CAREFUL NOT TO STIR UP TROUBLE AMONG THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN ADJACENT STATES, ESPECIALLY AMONG THE TWO MILLION ALBANIANS WHO MAKE UP 90 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF THE NEIGHBORING YUGOSLAV PROVINCE OF KOSOVO. UNFORTUNATELY, NICHOLAS PANO SAYS, PRESIDENT BERISHA WAS NOT AS DEDICATED TO DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES AS HE WAS TO REGIONAL STABILITY AND A MARKET ECONOMY. HE BECAME MORE AND MORE AUTHORITARIAN, TOOK CONTROL OVER THE JUDICIARY, BEGAN TO CENSOR THE PRESS. ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR PANO, THESE TENDENCIES PEAKED IN THE PERIOD LEADING UP TO THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN MAY OF LAST YEAR:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- PANO "PRESIDENT BERISHA PULLED OUT ALL THE STOPS IN DEALING WITH THE OPPOSITION, ESPECIALLY THE SOCIALIST PARTY, AND USED THE POWER OF THE STATE TO MANIPULATE THE VOTING IN MANY REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY AND AS A RESULT YOU HAD AN ELECTION WHICH WAS GENERALLY ACKNOWLEDGED TO BE A FRAUD, AND WHICH PRODUCED A TREMENDOUS VICTORY FOR THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY. NOW WHAT WAS TRAGIC ABOUT THIS WAS, THAT THE DEMOCRATS MOST LIKELY WOULD HAVE WON THIS ELECTION WITHOUT RESORT TO ALL THE PRESSURES AGAINST THE OPPOSITION."

    HOST: THE WIDESPREAD RESENTMENT AT THESE TACTICS WAS GREATLY WORSENED BY THE COLLAPSE OF THE SO-CALLED PYRAMID SCHEMES, WHICH SUCCEEDED IN BILKING A POPULATION PREPARED TO BELIEVE THAT CAPITALISM MEANT GETTING RICH QUICK. PETER DICKENSON SPENT THREE YEARS BASED IN THE ALBANIAN CAPITAL TIRANA, WORKING FOR THE INTERNATIONAL REPUBLICAN INSTITUTE, WHICH PROVIDES ADVICE ON BUILDING DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- DICKENSON "THE CURRENT CRISIS HAS ITS BASE IN AN ECONOMIC CATASTROPHE OF PYRAMID OR PONZI SCHEMES WHICH, UNFORTUNATELY, OVER THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS, HAVE ENGULFED THE COUNTRY, TO A POINT WHERE ALMOST EVERY FAMILY IN THE COUNTRY HAS INVESTED MONEY IN ONE OF THESE FLY-BY-NIGHT SCAMS. PEOPLE WOULD DEPOSIT MONEY AND COLLECT INTEREST AT A VERY HIGH RATE -- INITIALLY 8, 10, GETTING UP TO AROUND 30, 40 OR EVEN 50 PERCENT PER MONTH. THESE OF COURSE COULD ONLY FLOURISH WITH THE ABILITY TO BRING IN NEW DEPOSITORS, IN A PYRAMID-STYLE FASHION. INEVITABLY, THEY WERE DESTINED TO COLLAPSE, WHICH THEY STARTED DOING AT THE END OF LAST YEAR, AND MORE RAPIDLY THIS YEAR. AND PARTICULARLY IN ONE OF THE CITIES IN THE SOUTH, IN VLORA, WHERE ALMOST ALL OF THE POPULATION HAD MONEY INVESTED IN ONE OF THESE SCHEMES, A COMPLETE COLLAPSE LED TO A WAVE OF POPULAR UNREST AND ANARCHY WITHIN THAT CITY."

    HOST: PRESIDENT BERISHA ATTEMPTED TO PUT DOWN THE DISTURBANCES WITH THE SECRET POLICE, WHICH HAD EARNED A MEASURE OF DISTRUST AND FEAR HARKING BACK TO COMMUNIST DAYS. ONE OF THE DANGERS NOW, MR. DICKENSON SAYS, IS THAT THE CHAOS -- AND THE ARMS -- MIGHT FIND THEIR WAY ACROSS THE BORDER INTO KOSOVO:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- DICKENSON "THE PUBLIC ORDER FORCES BROKE DOWN. THE MILITARY AND POLICE WERE LITERALLY LEAVING THEIR JOBS, AND IN THE MILITARY'S CASE, TURNING OVER THEIR WEAPONS AND WEAPONS DEPOTS. YOU NOW HAVE A HEAVILY ARMED POPULATION ON A SCALE THAT TOUCHES EVERY CORNER OF THE COUNTRY. SOME ESTIMATES ARE THAT THERE ARE A MILLION KALASHNIKOVS -- A-K 47S -- IN THE HANDS OF THE POPULATION. AND IT'S A CHALLENGE NOW, IN EFFECT, OF HOW TO DISARM THE POPULATION. THERE IS ALSO A VERY REAL DANGER THAT THESE WEAPONS COULD CREATE PROBLEMS IN NEIGHBORING KOSOVO PROVINCE, WHERE IN RECENT MONTHS THERE HAVE BEEN INCREASING ACTS OF VIOLENCE. SO ONE OF THE PRIMARY CONCERNS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS TO ENSURE THAT THE CHAOTIC SITUATION IN ALBANIA IS AT LEAST KEPT WITHIN ITS BORDERS AS IT IS RESOLVED, AND ISN'T ALLOWED TO SPILL OVER, BOTH WITH REFUGEES, WHICH IS A PROBLEM FOR SEVERAL COUNTRIES, BUT VERY POINTEDLY, WITH MILITARY HARDWARE, ESPECIALLY INTO THE PROVINCE OF KOSOVO."

    HOST: WHETHER THE POPULATION IS WILLING VOLUNTARILY TO TURN IN THEIR WEAPONS MAY DEPEND ON THE ACTIONS OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL RECONCILIATION. ALSO, PROFESSOR PANO SAYS, THE POLITICAL LEADERSHIP, PERHAPS WITH SOME INPUT FROM LEADERS OF THE INSURGENT FORCES IN THE SOUTH, MUST DECIDE WHETHER TO CALL ON PRESIDENT BERISHA TO RESIGN. IN HIS VIEW, THE ALBANIANS THEMSELVES MUST REESTABLISH A MINIMUM OF ORDER BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CAN HELP TO REBUILD THE COUNTRY'S SHATTERED ECONOMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FSR/NES
    18-Mar-97 4:11 PM EST (2111 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] BULGARIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211657
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WITH JUST FOUR-AND-A-HALF WEEKS TO GO BEFORE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, BULGARIA'S INTERIM GOVERNMENT IS WINNING ASSURANCES OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR ITS LONG-DELAYED, MARKET-BASED REFORMS THAT ARE NOW UNDERWAY. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS A TOP EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIAL HAS VISITED SOFIA TO CARRY THAT MESSAGE OF CONFIDENCE.

    TEXT: E-U EXTERNAL AFFAIRS COMMISSIONER HANS VAN DEN BROEK SAID THE INTERIM GOVERNMENT IS QUICKLY REGAINING WESTERN CONFIDENCE IN BULGARIA'S CAPACITY TO CARRY OUT MARKET REFORMS. FOLLOWING MEETINGS WITH THE PRESIDENT AND THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. VAN DEN BROEK SAID THE E-U WILL SUPPORT BULGARIA'S EFFORTS TO GET THE ECONOMY ON ITS FEET. HE SAID SUBSTANTIAL ASSISTANCE WILL BE CONSIDERED WHEN WESTERN AID DONORS HOLD A SPECIAL MEETING ON BULGARIA IN EARLY APRIL. HE SAID THE E-U IS GIVING SPECIAL ATTENTION TO SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS.

    MR. VAN DEN BROEK SAID THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL DO ALL IT CAN TO MOBILIZE FURTHER INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT FOR BULGARIA. THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF A BIG AID PROGRAM ARE FALLING INTO PLACE, NOW THAT THE INTERIM GOVERNMENT HAS HAD ITS REFORM PROGRAM APPROVED BY THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. THAT WAS CONCLUDED MONDAY, WITH THE I-M-F PROMISING 659 MILLION DOLLARS IN THE FORM OF BUDGETARY SUPPORT, AS WELL AS CASH FOR FOREIGN DEBT PAYMENTS. BULGARIA HAS BEEN ON BRINK OF A DEBT DEFAULT -- SOMETHING WHICH, HAD IT HAPPEN, WOULD HAVE MADE IT NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE FOR CREDITORS TO PROVIDE MORE ASSISTANCE. PRIME MINISTER STEFAN SOFIYANSKI IS HEADED FOR WASHINGTON WHERE HE HOPES TO OBTAIN MORE HELP.

    IN A TELEVISED ADDRESS TO HIS COUNTRY MONDAY NIGHT, THE PRIME MINISTER EXPLAINED THE IMPORTANCE OF THE I-M-F AGREEMENT AND WARNED PEOPLE THAT THE REFORMS WILL INITIALLY CAUSE MORE PAIN BEFORE RECOVERY BECOMES APPARENT. //OPT// AT LEAST 52-THOUSAND WORKERS ARE TO LOSE THEIR JOBS AS THE STATE HALTS SUBSIDIES TO UNPROFITABLE ENTERPRISES THAT HAVE NOT BEEN PRIVATIZED. MORE EFFICIENT ENTERPRISES ARE BEING PUT IN TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR AT A RAPID PACE. FIVE SUCH TRANSACTIONS HAVE BEEN COMPLETED IN THE PAST MONTH. //END OPT//

    NEWLY-ELECTED CONSERVATIVE PRESIDENT PETAR STOYANOV IS DETERMINED TO START THE REFORMS BEFORE ELECTIONS APRIL 19TH. HE SAYS BULGARIA HAS PAID A HUGE PRICE FOR WAITING SEVEN YEARS TO BEGIN REFORMS, AND THAT ONLY RADICAL AND PAINFUL MEASURES OFFER A SOLUTION TO BULGARIA'S CRISIS.

    //REST OPT//

    A TENTATIVE SIGN OF RISING CONFIDENCE IS A RECENT RISE IN THE FREE MARKET RATE OF BULGARIA'S BATTERED CURRENCY AGAINST THE DOLLAR. GOODS ARE AVAILABLE ON STORE SHELVES, BUT THE PRICES ARE TOO HIGH FOR MANY PEOPLE. BULGARIA'S ECONOMIC TAILSPIN TRIGGERED AN 11 PERCENT FALL IN OUTPUT LAST YEAR AND A FURTHER DECLINE THIS YEAR IS BELIEVED UNAVOIDABLE. INFLATION EXCEEDS 400 PERCENT AND IS NOT EXPECTED TO COME DOWN ANY TIME SOON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF
    18-Mar-97 1:02 PM EST (1802 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] YUGO WAR CRIMES (L-ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211663
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN SERB WOMAN WHO SAYS SHE WAS REPEATEDLY RAPED AT A MUSLIM-CROAT RUN PRISON CAMP COMPLETED TESTIFYING ON TUESDAY TO THE U-N'S YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL MEETING IN THE HAGUE. THE WOMAN -- WHO GAVE THE FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF RAPE TO THE TRIBUNAL -- WAS TESTIFYING IN THE TRIAL OF FOUR MEN -- THREE MUSLIMS AND A CROAT -- WHO ARE CHARGED WITH COMMITTING WAR CRIMES IN CENTRAL BOSNIA'S CELEBICI PRISON CAMP. FROM THE TRIBUNAL, GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS.

    TEXT: GROZDANA CECEZ CONTINUED HER TESTIMONY WITH A HARROWING ACCOUNT OF HER OWN RAPE AND RAPES SHE SAW COMMITTED ON OTHER WOMEN IN THE CELEBICI CAMP. SHE SAYS SHE WAS RAPED AT LEAST SIX TIMES, ONCE BY DEPUTY CAMP COMMANDER HAZIM DELIC. THINGS BECAME SO BAD, SHE SAID, THAT SHE HAD PLANNED TO COMMIT SUICIDE.

    //OPT//

    MRS. CECEZ SAYS SHE ALSO WITNESSED THE CRUEL TREATMENT METED OUT TO MALE DETAINEES. PRISONERS WERE HUMILIATED AND BEATEN, SHE TOLD JUDGES. SOMETIMES THEY FAINTED FROM THE PAIN.

    //END OPT//

    AFTER HER RELEASE -- AND BY THIS POINT (IN HER TESTIMONY) HER VOICE WAS BARELY A WHISPER -- MRS. CECEZ SAID SHE WAS FORCED TO IDENTIFY HER HUSBAND'S BODY IN A NEARBY MORTUARY. EVEN THE COURTROOM TRANSLATOR SEEMED AFFECTED BY WHAT THE WITNESS HAD TO SAY.

    ///CECEZ ACT///

    WHEN I SAW WHAT THEY HAD DONE TO HIM, THEY HAD GAUGED OUT HIS EYES, HIS NOSE, HIS EARS. I COULD RECOGNIZE HIM BY HIS SKULL, HIS TEETH. I LOOKED AT THOSE TEETH, AND THAT WAS THE ONLY WAY I COULD RECOGNIZE HIM.

    //END ACT///

    MRS. CECEZ CONTINUED TO LIVE IN A LOCAL VILLAGE WHERE SHE TALKED WITH ZRVAKO MUCIC, COMMANDER OF THE CELEBICI CAMP. HE SAID HE COULD NOT BELIEVE WHAT HAD HAPPENED TO HER, BUT HE DID ADMIT TO READING DAILY REPORTS OF EVENTS IN THE CAMP, WRITTEN BY MR. DELIC. IT WAS MR. MUCIC, SHE TOLD JUDGES, WHO HAD LATER HELPED HER ESCAPE TO SERB-HELD TERRITORY.

    WHILE THIS COULD WORK IN HIS FAVOR, HIS SEEMING KNOWLEDGE OF WHAT WAS GOING ON IN THE CAMP CAN ONLY BOLSTER THE PROSECUTION'S CASE.

    //REST OPT//

    CROSS-EXAMINING A WITNESS LIKE MRS. CECEZ WAS ALWAYS GOING TO BE A DELICATE TASK -- MADE ALL THE MORE SO BY THE SHEER NUMBERS OF LAWYERS INVOLVED. THE COURTROOM TRANSLATOR READ OUT THE LIST.

    ///TRANSLATOR ACT///

    MR. THOMAS MORAN FROM THE TEAM OF THE DEFENSE COUNSEL OF DELIC, HAZIM. MS MCMURRAY FROM THE TEAM OF THE DEFENSE OF MR ESAD LANDZO. EDINA RESIDOVIC FROM THE TEAM OF THE DEFENSE OF MR ZENIJL DELALIC AND MR TAPUSKOVIC FROM THE TEAM OF THE DEFENSE OF MR ZRVAKO MUCIC. THANK YOU.

    ///END ACT///

    IN THE END, THERE WAS GREAT ATTENTION TO DETAILS AND WHAT THE LAWYERS POINTED TO AS INCONSISTENCIES IN MRS. CECEZ'S STATEMENT. YET NONE OF THEM, NOT EVEN MR. MORAN, WHOSE CLIENT IS ACCUSED OF A VICIOUS RAPE, EVEN MENTIONED THE ALLEGED ATTACKS. COURT OBSERVERS ARE, AT THE VERY LEAST, PUZZLED BY THE OMISSION. THE QUESTION THEY ARE ASKING IS WHY? (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/KL
    18-Mar-97 2:40 PM EST (1940 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-211660
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TUESDAY WAS ANOTHER DOWN DAY FOR MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE. FOR THE CLOSING NUMBERS, HERE'S VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON.

    TEXT: IN BRITAIN, MARKET ANALYSTS SAY WORRIES OVER THE FUTURE COURSE OF THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY FOLLOWING UPCOMING ELECTIONS IS CAUSING SOME JITTERS AMONG INVESTORS. THE KEY MARKET BAROMETER INDEX IN LONDON, "THE FINANCIAL TIMES" 100, LOST 16 AND A HALF POINT AT THE CLOSE OF TRADING. IN PARIS, THE "CAC 40" STOCK INDEX LOST ABOUT 14 AND A HALF POINTS. BUT IN GERMANY, CONCERNS OVER THE COUNTRY'S POSSIBLE INABILITY TO MEET STANDARDS TO JOIN THE THE ANTICIPATED EUROPEAN COMMON CURRENCY CAUSED INVESTORS THERE TO DUMP STOCKS. THE FRANKFURT "DAX 30" INDEX LOST ALMOST 60 POINTS TUESDAY.

    ON THE LONDON MONEY MARKETS, THE DOLLAR LOST NEARLY A CENT AND A HALF AGAINST THE MARK BUT REMAINED VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD LOST MORE THAN THREE DOLLARS IN THE LONDON FIX, CLOSING AT 347-DOLLARS AND A NICKLE AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/KL
    18-Mar-97 1:54 PM EST (1854 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=03/18/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10072
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON TUESDAY MARCH 18TH //

    INTRO: THE CIVIL WAR IN ZAIRE AND THE INSURRECTION IN ALBANIA ARE POPULAR TOPICS IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF U-S PAPERS THIS TUESDAY.

    OTHER SUBJECTS DRAWING ATTENTION INCLUDE: KING HUSSEIN'S ACT OF CONTRITION IN ISRAEL; THE ARGUMENT ABOUT CLONING AND THE FIRST STEPS OF U-N REFORM.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _____________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES IS TITLED: "A TYRANT'S CRISIS IN ZAIRE", AND SAYS, IN PART:

    VOICE: "FOR MORE THAN 30 YEARS ZAIRE'S PRESIDENT, MOBUTU SESE SEKO, MADE HIMSELF ONE OF AFRICA'S RICHEST AND MOST POWERFUL MEN BY RELYING ON A SIMPLE, CYNICAL FORMULA. HE CRUSHED, CORRUPTED OR CO-OPTED DOMESTIC DISSENT, MADE SURE HIS ARMY WAS TOO WEAK TO THREATEN HIS RULE AND CULTIVATED THE WEST WITH A MILITANTLY ANTI-COMMUNIST FOREIGN POLICY, THEREBY INSURING OUTSIDE MILITARY HELP TO PUT DOWN THE OCCASIONAL ARMED REVOLT. NOW, HOWEVER, MR. MOBUTU'S REGIME IS IN SERIOUS MILITARY TROUBLE, AND NO FOREIGN FRIENDS ARE RUSHING TO BAIL IT OUT. THAT IS FOR THE BEST."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ACROSS THE CONTINENT, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ADDS:

    VOICE: "ZAIRE IS AT A TURNING POINT, SEIZED BY AN ESCALATING INTERNAL WAR THAT MIGHT OVERTHROW THE DICTATORIAL REGIME OF MOBUTU SESE SEKO BUT LEAVE AFRICA'S SECOND-LARGEST NATION LAWLESS AND ADRIFT. ONLY STRONG INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE FROM AFRICA AND THE WEST CAN EFFECT A CEASEFIRE, AND THAT IS A LONGSHOT [VERY UNLIKELY]."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST THE U-S PRESS TALKED OF JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN AND HIS "COURAGEOUS DISPLAY OF COURAGE AND CONTRITION". THE KING MADE A PERSONAL VISIT TO ASK FORGIVENESS FROM THE FAMILIES OF THE SEVEN ISRAELI SCHOOL GIRLS KILLED BY A CRAZED JORDANIAN SOLDIER. THE WASHINGTON POST COMMENTS IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL:

    VOICE: "THAT WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY GESTURE BY JORDAN'S KING HUSSEIN IN GOING LITERALLY ON BENDED KNEE TO BEG FORGIVENESS FROM THE FAMILIES OF THE .... ISRAELI SCHOOLGIRLS ...... WITH HIS EXAMPLE OF PERSONAL GRACE, HE WAS INTERRUPTING WHAT IS BOTH AN ARAB-ISRAELI HABIT OF COLDNESS TO THE OTHER'S LOSSES AND A PHASE OF SURPASSING DIFFICULTY AND DANGER IN ARAB-ISRAELI TALKS. HIS MISSION TO THE BEREAVED WAS CARRIED LIVE AND WITH AN EMOTIONALLY SHATTERING IMPACT ON ISRAELI TELEVISION. WERE ITS SPIRIT TO PREVAIL, THE POLITICS OF THE MIDDLE EAST WOULD BE TRANSFORMED. BUT DON'T COUNT ON IT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ADDS NEWSDAY:

    VOICE: "KING HUSSEIN OF JORDAN, THE CONSUMMATE SURVIVOR, IS TAKING A RISK BY PLUNGING INTO THE MORASS OF THE MIDEAST PEACE PROCESS AT THIS SENSITIVE MOMENT. ONE MISSTEP AND THE PALESTINIAN POPULATION OF HIS KINGDOM - - AT LEAST 65 PERCENT OF ALL JORDANIANS - - COULD TURN AGAINST HIM AND HIS MINORITY HASHEMITE RULE."

    [END OPT

    TEXT: MOVING ON TO YET ANOTHER TROUBLE SPOT, THE ANARCHIC EUROPEAN BALKAN STATE OF ALBANIA, WHERE A MODICUM OF CALM RETURNED MONDAY, THE ORLANDO SENTINEL HAS THIS WARNING FOR WASHINGTON ON THE CRISIS IN THE ADRIATIC.

    VOICE: "ALTHOUGH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT HAS NO PLANS FOR NOW TO INTERVENE IN ALBANIA'S CIVIL UNREST, THAT NOT GOOD ENOUGH. PRESIDENT CLINTON SHOULD DECLARE CATEGORICALLY THAT, BEYOND RESCUING AMERICANS, THERE'S NO REASON FOR THE UNITED STATES TO BE INVOLVED. ..... IT WOULD BE NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO DEFINE A SENSIBLE MILITARY MISSION, EVALUATE RISKS OR DO ANY OTHER REASONABLE PLANNING. IN LIGHT OF THAT VIRTUALLY UNLIMITED CERTAINTY, THE BEST U-S POLICY IS CLEAR: STAY OUT!"

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST ADDS:

    VOICE: "THE ANARCHY THAT HAS DESCENDED ON THE IMPOVERISHED BALKAN NATION JUST NORTH OF GREECE, AND ACROSS THE ADRIATIC FROM ITALY, SHOULD MAKE US APPRECIATE THE RELATIVELY SMOOTH TRANSITIONS THAT MOST OF THE OTHER NATIONS OF THE FORMERLY COMMUNIST WOULD HAVE MANAGED TO ACCOMPLISH. .... A TRANSITION 'GOVERNMENT OF RECONCILIATION' IS NOW IN PLACE; IT NEEDS WESTERN SUPPORT. THE WEST, PARTICULARLY THE EUROPEAN UNION, SHOULD PROVIDE THAT SUPPORT ....."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: USA TODAY CONTINUES THE DEBATE OVER CLONING IN THE WAKE OF THE CREATION OF THE CLONED SCOTTISH SHEEP, "DOLLY". THE PAPER SUGGESTS THAT RATHER THAN AN OUTRIGHT BAN ON FURTHER FEDERAL CLONING EXPERIMENTS IN THIS COUNTRY, SUCH EXPERIMENTS SHOULD BE CONTROLLED AS WERE EARLIER, SIMILAR ATTEMPTS.

    VOICE: "..... THERE'S A BETTER WAY TO HANDLE THE MATTER, AND IT'S ALREADY BEEN TESTED. IN THE EARLY 1970S, BREAKTHROUGHS IN GENETIC ENGINEERING SPARKED SIMILAR UNEASINESS AMONG LAWMAKERS, CONSUMERS AND SCIENTISTS. ..... NONE OF THOSE FEARS CAME TRUE, AND TODAY WE ENJOY THE BENEFITS OF GENETIC ENGINEERING IN EVERYTHING FROM TOMATOES TO INSULIN. THAT'S BECAUSE INSTEAD OF OVERREACTING, LAWMAKERS AND THE SCIENTIFIC ESTABLISHMENT CREATED A FEDERAL ADVISORY PANEL TO ESTABLISH BIOSAFETY STANDARDS AND REVIEW APPLICATIONS FOR NEW EXPERIMENTS. THE PUBLIC WAS REASSURED AND THE SCIENCE MARCHED ON. THAT MODEL CAN WORK TODAY, WITH SIMILAR BENEFITS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN THE MIDST OF MONDAY'S SAINT PATRICK'S DAY FESTIVITIES IN NEW YORK CITY, THERE WAS A SOMBER MOMENT OF SILENCE FOR THOSE WHO DIED IN THE FAMED IRISH POTATO FAMINE, CAUSING THIS COMMENT FROM THE NEW YORK DAILY NEWS.

    VOICE: "WITH HEADS BOWED, 150-THOUSAND MARCHERS AND A MILLION OR MORE SPECTATORS REFLECTED ON IRELAND'S GREAT HUNGER, BLACK '47, THE POTATO FAMINE THAT CLAIMED A MILLION AND A HALF LIVES AND TOUCHED OFF THE TIDAL WAVE OF IRISH IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. .... THE LESSONS OF THAT TERRIBLE TIME 150 YEARS AGO WILL NOT FADE LIKE THE GREEN STRIPE ON FIFTH AVENUE. FOR BEGINNING NEXT FALL, ALL NEW YORK PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN WILL BE TAUGHT ABOUT THE IRISH FAMINE. JUST AS THEY ARE TAUGHT ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST AND SLAVERY. THAT THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT CONTINUES TO DENY ITS ROLE IN THE FAMINE .... SHOWS HOW NECESSARY IT IS TO TEACH IT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: REGARDING THE FORTHCOMING SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON AND RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELTSIN IN HELSINKI, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS, "SOOTHING RUSSIAN FEARS [ABOUT NATO] WILL BE [THE] KEY TO [THE] SUMMIT." AND THE PAPER POINTS OUT:

    VOICE: "WESTERN OFFICIALS THINK [PRESIDENT] YELTSIN HAS ACCEPTED NATO'S EXPANSION AS INEVITABLE AND IS CONTINUING TO PROTEST IN HOPES OF WRINGING MORE CONCESSIONS FROM THE ALLIANCE. IN FACT, A MAJOR NEW GESTURE TO MOSCOW, HAS JUST BEEN OFFERED, WITH NATO'S ANNOUNCEMENT THAT IT DOES NOT PLAN TO PERMANENTLY STATION FOREIGN GROUND FORCES ON THE TERRITORY OF NEW MEMBERS STATES."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THE ISSUE OF UNITED NATIONS REFORMS, ANNOUNCED MONDAY BY THE NEW SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN, THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS:

    VOICE: "THE PLANS ..... ARE A STRONG SIGN THAT HE [MR. ANNAN] WANTS TO DELIVER ON HIS COMMITMENT TO REFORM. . .... HIS PROPOSALS FOR A LARGER RESTRUCTURING OF THE U-N WILL COME LATER, BUT THESE MEASURES ARE A SOUND START AND SHOULD BE REWARDED WITH FULL PAYMENT OF AMERICA'S BACK DUES."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    18-Mar-97 10:41 AM EST (1541 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] SUPREME COURT/INTERNET BY JIM MALONE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35968
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE SUPREME COURT IS TO HEAR ORAL ARGUMENTS WEDNESDAY IN A CASE WHICH COULD PRODUCE A LANDMARK RULING ON THE ISSUE OF FREE SPEECH IN COMPUTER CYBERSPACE. THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION AND OTHER FREE SPEECH ADVOCATES ARE CHALLENGING A LAW PASSED BY CONGRESS LAST YEAR WHICH MAKES IT A CRIME TO TRANSMIT SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL OVER THE INTERNET TO PEOPLE UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN. V-O-A NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT JIM MALONE HAS BEEN FOLLOWING THE STORY AND HAS A REPORT.

    TEXT:

    /// OPENS WITH ACT. OF COMPUTER KEYS ///

    THE INTERNET HAS OPENED A NEW WORLD OF COMMUNICATION AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION. BUT THERE ARE PROBLEMS AS WELL. FOR EXAMPLE, HOW CAN YOU PREVENT CHILDREN FROM ACCESSING SOME OF THE PORNOGRAPHIC WEBSITES ON THE INTERNET? CONGRESS PASSED A LAW LAST YEAR CALLED THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT WHICH MADE IT A CRIME TO TRANSMIT INDECENT OR PATENTLY OFFENSIVE MATERIAL THROUGH THE INTERNET TO CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF EIGHTEEN.

    BUT FREE SPEECH GROUPS LIKE THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION ARE CHALLENGING THE LAW, SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE MOST SIGNIFICANT SUPREME COURT RULING YET ON WHETHER AND HOW COMPUTER CYBERSPACE SHOULD BE REGULATED.

    CHRISTOPHER HANSEN IS A LAWYER FOR THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION WHO WILL ARGUE BEFORE THE COURT ON WEDNESDAY. HE SAYS LAST YEAR'S CONGRESSIONAL EFFORT AT REGULATING PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET WAS TOO SWEEPING.

    /// HANSEN ACT. ///

    IT IS NOT POSSIBLE FOR MOST SPEAKERS ON THE INTERNET TO COMPLY WITH THE LAW. IT IS TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPOSSIBLE UNLESS THE ENTIRE INTERNET IS TURNED INTO A CHILD-FRIENDLY SPEECH ZONE, WHICH THE SUPREME COURT HAS SAID IS INAPPROPRIATE. THAT IS, IT IS WRONG TO RESTRICT ADULT SPEECH TO ADULTS IN THE NAME OF PROTECTING CHILDREN, AND THAT IS WHAT THE LAW WOULD REQUIRE.

    /// END ACT. ///

    A FEDERAL COURT IN PENNSYLVANIA AGREED WITH THAT ASSESSMENT LAST YEAR AND DECLARED THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT UNCONSTITUTIONAL. CHRISTOPHER HANSEN OF THE A-C-L-U ALSO SAYS MUCH OF THE SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL AVAILABLE ON THE "WORLD WIDE WEB" ORIGINATES OUTSIDE OF THE UNITED STATES.

    /// HANSEN ACT. ///

    IN ADDITION, THE LAW WILL BE INEFFECTIVE IN ACHIEVING THE GOALS THAT CONGRESS IS TRYING TO ACHIEVE. UP TO FIFTY PERCENT OF ALL THE SITES ON THE INTERNET THAT PROVIDE MATERIAL THAT IS SEXUALLY EXPLICIT ARE OVERSEAS. THOSE SITES ARE JUST AS EASY AND JUST AS CHEAP AS DOMESTIC SITES, AND WOULD BE COMPLETELY UNAFFECTED BY THIS LAW.

    /// END ACT. ///

    CRITICS OF THE LAW MAINTAIN THAT A COMBINATION OF PARENTAL SUPERVISION AND SPECIAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE THAT SCREENS OUT ADULT MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET ARE BETTER WAYS TO TACKLE THE PROBLEM.

    ANTI-PORNOGRAPHY ADVOCATES DISAGREE. THEY SEE THE EASY AVAILABILITY OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET AS A THREAT TO CHILDREN, AND THEY SUPPORT THE COMMUNICATIONS DECENCY ACT. DONNA RICE HUGHES IS WITH AN ANTI-PORNOGRAPHY GROUP BASED IN VIRGINIA CALLED "ENOUGH IS ENOUGH".

    /// RICE-HUGHES ACT. ///

    THE TECHNOLOGY CAN BE USED CONSTRUCTIVELY OR DESTRUCTIVELY. AND IN THE CASE OF PORNOGRAPHY, IT IS A DESTRUCTIVE MISUSE WHEN PORNOGRAPHY IS MADE AVAILABLE TO CHILDREN ON THE INTERNET. WHAT ARE THE HARMS TO KIDS ON-LINE (ON THE INTERNET)? THERE ARE TWO PRIMARY HARMS. FIRST OF ALL IS THAT CHILDREN HAVE EASY ACCESS TO PORNOGRAPHY; AND SECONDLY, PEDOPHILES (ADULTS WHO SEXUALLY PREY ON CHILDREN) HAVE EASY ACCESS TO CHILDREN.

    /// END ACT. ///

    IN AN EFFORT TO DEMONSTRATE TO REPORTERS JUST HOW EASY IT IS TO ACCESS X-RATED WEBSITES, MS. HUGHES TAPPED IN A FEW COMMANDS ON HER COMPUTER AND WAS IMMEDIATELY CONNECTED TO A WEBSITE FEATURING PICTURES OF WOMEN IN VARIOUS TYPES OF SEXUAL BONDAGE.

    /// RICE HUGHES ACT. ///

    BUT THIS IS JUST A TYPICAL PICTURE FROM A (SEXUAL) BONDAGE BOARD THAT ANY CHILD COULD SEE, FREE AND EASY, NO AGE RESTRICTIONS, NO PASSWORDS (FOR ACCESS), NO NOTHING. IT IS RIGHT OUT THERE.

    /// END ACT. ///

    THE SUPREME COURT IS EXPECTED TO ISSUE A RULING ON THE INTERNET CASE BY JULY. IRONICALLY, MANY OF THE SUPREME COURT JUSTICES STILL PREFER TO WRITE OUT THEIR OPINIONS IN LONGHAND, AND WILL RELY ON YOUNGER LAW CLERKS TO BRING THEM UP TO SPEED (GIVE THEM THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE) ON THE PERILS AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE COMPUTER AGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JBM/MMK
    18-Mar-97 11:28 AM EST (1628 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] THE INTERNET AS LOCATOR BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES
    NUMBER=3-26951
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=
    (PHONE QUALITY INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: IN THE 1960S, A GOVERNMENT PROJECT IN THE UNITED STATES MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR COMPUTERS AT VARIOUS SITES TO BE LINKED TOGETHER. THE EFFORT WAS FINANCED BY AN AGENCY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THE ORIGINAL NETWORK WAS USED FOR COMPUTER-SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROJECTS. AS DAN NOBLE REPORTS, WHAT STARTED AS A SMALL OPERATION FOR SPECIALISTS HAS TURNED INTO THE VAST ELECTRONIC WORLDWIDE, ELECTRONIC SUPERHIGHWAY KNOWN AS THE INTERNET.

    VOICE: BY THE MIDDLE OF THIS DECADE, NEARLY EVERY FOUR-YEAR COLLEGE IN AMERICA, AND OVER 1000 SECONDARY SCHOOLS BECAME CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET. MANY INDIVIDUALS AND COMPANIES ARE LINKED BY SUBSCRIBING TO VARIOUS INTERNET PROVIDERS. THE INTERNET IS BECOMING A VALUABLE BUSINESS TOOL, A PLACE FOR STUDENTS TO SEARCH FOR INFORMATION, AND AS A SOURCE OF ENTERTAINMENT NOW, A SURVEY INVOLVING MORE THAN 9,000 SUBSCRIBERS OF AT&T'S WORLDNET SERVICE, FINDS THAT "NEARLY 40 PERCENT OF THE RESPONDENTS USE THE INTERNET TO LOCATE SOMEONE FROM THEIR PAST."

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- DAN ODETTE (0:13) "WHAT WE SUSPECTED WAS THAT THERE WAS A TREND DEVELOPING IN WHICH PEOPLE WERE USING THE INTERNET TO LOCATE OTHER PEOPLE OR MAKE CONTACTS WITH RELATIVES OR FRIENDS WHO THEY HADN'T SEEN IN A LONG TIME."

    VOICE: THIS IS DAN ODETTE, DIRECTOR OF CONTENT SERVICES AT AT&T WORLDNET'S HEADQUARTERS IN BRIDGEWATER, NEW JERSEY.

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- DAN ODETTE (0:28) "I THINK IF YOU LOOK AT A NUMBER OF SOURCES, YOU'LL SEE THAT ONE OF THE LARGEST HOBBIES THAT THE INTERNET IS USED FOR IS GENEALOGY, THE SEARCH FOR PEOPLE'S ROOTS, OR MAKING CONTACT WITH RELATIVES WHO THEY MAY NOT HAVE SEEN IN YEARS. THEY ARE TRYING TO DO JUST RESEARCH ON FAMILY HISTORY. WE FOUND THAT IT GOES A LITTLE FURTHER AS WELL. IT'S PEOPLE TRYING TO FIND OLD BUDDIES THAT THEY HAD IN THE MILITARY, OR LONG LOST FRIENDS."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO MR. ODETTE, USING THE INTERNET TO LOCATE FRIENDS AND FAMILY IS FAR SIMPLER THAN USING EXISTING RESEARCH SOURCES SUCH AS LIBRARIES.

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- DAN ODETTE (0:19) "BECAUSE IT IS ELECTRONIC AND THE NUMBER OF SITES YOU CAN GO TO, TO SEARCH FOR THIS INFORMATION IS LARGE, YOU FIND THAT IT IS MORE LIKE HAVING A RESEARCH LIBRARY AT YOUR FINGER TIPS. THE VOLUME OF INFORMATION THAT IS OUT THERE IS MUCH LARGER THAN YOU WOULD HAVE USING TRADITIONAL OR MANUAL TECHNIQUES."

    TEXT: STARTING THIS MONTH (FYI - MARCH 17), AT&T IS OFFERING USERS INFORMATION ABOUT SITES AND OTHER RESOURCES ON THE WORLDWIDE WEB PORTION OF THE INTERNET ON HOW TO CONDUCT SEARCHES.

    (///OPT///)

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- DAN ODETTE (0:27) "THEY CAN GO TO OUR WEB PAGE WHICH CAN BE FOUND AT THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS: WWW.ATT.NET. WE'VE JUST MADE IT AVAILABLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. (///OPT///) THERE ARE WEB SITES, FOR EXAMPLE, WHERE YOU CAN GO AND TRACE YOUR ROOTS DEFINITELY BACK TO EUROPE, AND I'M SURE, TO OTHER AREAS." (///END OPT///)

    (///END OPT///)

    TEXT: BUT, NOTES DAN ODETTE, PRIVACY REMAINS AN IMPORTANT ISSUE. THE AT&T EXECUTIVE SAYS THAT THE SO-CALLED WHITE PAGES SECTION -- WHICH LISTS INDIVIDUALS -- HAS CERTAIN SAFEGUARDS WHEN PUT INTO ELECTRONIC FORM.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE -- DAN ODETTE (0:59) "FOR EXAMPLE, WE ONLY USE SCANNED WHITE PAGE DATA TO CREATE OUR WHITE PAGES LIST. LET ME GIVE AN EXAMPLE. IF YOU ARE TRYING TO LOOK UP THE NAME OF A WOMAN. LET'S SAY HER NAME IS 'ANN SMITH', BUT SHE ONLY WANTS TO BE LISTED AS 'A. SMITH', THAT IS EXACTLY HOW WE WILL PRESENT THIS ON OUR DIRECTORY, 'A. SMITH'. THE REASON IS WE BELIEVE THAT PERSON HAS MADE A CONSCIOUS DECISION ON HOW THEY WANT TO BE PRESENTED -- THEIR NAME, THEIR ADDRESS -- IN THIS DATABASE. SO, WE WILL HONOR THAT. (///OPT///) THAT IS NOT TRUE WITH ALL OF THE OTHER SERVICES, NECESSARILY, THAT ARE AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET. IN SOME CASES PEOPLE USE WHAT'S CALLED COMPILED INFORMATION, OR DATA, AND IN THAT CASE ACTUALLY 'ANN SMITH' COULD APPEAR AS THE FULL NAME AS OPPOSED TO THE ORIGINAL CHOICE SHE HAD MADE. THAT'S ONE DIFFERENCE WITH OUR WHITE PAGES." (///END OPT///)

    TEXT: THE ABILITY TO LOCATE PEOPLE IS JUST ONE OF THE NEW WAYS THAT THE INTERNET IS BEING USED. WHAT WAS ONCE A TOOL FOR A FEW INDIVIDUALS, IS NOW AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE WHO HAS ACCESS TO A PERSONAL COMPUTER.
    18-Mar-97 3:22 PM EST (2022 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] WEB BASED MASTERS DEGREE BY ROSANNE SKIRBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=3/18/97
    TYPE=WORLDWIDE ENGLISH FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-16933
    EDITOR=LAPIDUS
    CONTENT=
    (VOICED VERSION AND INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES)

    INTRO: THE INTERNET HAS BECOME A POWERFUL TOOL. YOU CAN USE THE GLOBAL NETWORK TO DO RESEARCH... SEND MESSAGES... BUY THINGS. NOW, YOU CAN GO ON-LINE TO GET A MASTERS DEGREE FROM AN AMERICAN COLLEGE. OHIO UNIVERSITY OFFERS A MASTERS DEGREE PROGRAM IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION OVER THE INTERNET. TWENTY-NINE CORPORATE EXECUTIVES FROM FIVE STATES PARTICIPATE IN ITS ON-LINE CLASSES, WHICH JUST BEGAN THIS WEEKEND. (FYI: MARCH 16, 1997)

    SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY IN SPRINGFIELD LOGGED ON IN JANUARY WITH ITS ON-LINE MASTERS OF SCIENCE

    PROGRAM. AS VOA'S ROSANNE SKIRBLE REPORTS, EDUCATORS

    SAY MORE AND MORE STUDENTS WILL TAKE CLASSES ON A VIRTUAL CAMPUS IN THE FUTURE, RE-DEFINING THE AMERICAN COLLEGE EXPERIENCE.

    TEXT: MARY HUTCHESON LIVES IN DAYTON, OHIO, BUT ONLY HAS TO TRAVEL AS FAR AS HER COMPUTER TO TAKE CLASSES AT SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY, LOCATED MORE THAN SIX HUNDRED KILOMETERS AWAY. THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGER AND MOTHER OF A NINE YEAR OLD SON IS ONE OF 15 STUDENTS FROM FIVE STATES WHO ARE ENROLLED IN THE ON-LINE COMPUTER SCIENCE PROGRAM.

    TAPE CUT ONE: MARY HUTCHENSON/GREG JONES (:16) MARY HUTCHENSON: "OBVIOUSLY, I CAN GET IN TO THE CLASS WORK ITSELF ON THE WEB PAGE AT ALL HOURS OF THE DAY AND NIGHT. AND, I HAVE DONE THAT ... AT TWO O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING, AT THREE O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING, TEN O'CLOCK AT NIGHT, WHENEVER I CAN FIND SOME TIME TO DO THAT." GREG JONES: "THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE SEMESTER WE WILL GET TOGETHER FOR A VERY RIGOROUS WEEK."

    TEXT: GREG JONES IS A TWENTY-EIGHT YEAR OLD SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MANAGER, WHO LIVES IN AUSTIN, TEXAS. HE SAYS THE WEB-BASED PROGRAM KICKS OFF EACH SEMESTER WITH ONE WEEK OF INTENSIVE CLASSES AT THE UNIVERSITY'S SPRINGFIELD CAMPUS.

    TAPE CUT TWO: GREG JONES/MARY HUTCHENSON/SKIRBLE/DURAND (1:22) GREG JONES: "WE WILL START EACH OF OUR THREE COURSES FOR THE SEMESTER DURING THAT PERIOD. AND, THE MEMBERS WHO ARE IN THE COHORT, WHICH IS WHAT THEY CALL OUR GROUP, WILL GET TOGETHER AND WE WILL INTERACT IN THE SAME ROOM FOR EIGHT, NINE, TEN HOURS A DAY GOING THROUGH ALL THOSE COURSES, AND WE GET TO KNOW EACH OTHER VERY WELL." MARY HUTCHENSON: "SO, WHEN WE LEFT THE CLASSROOM AND SEE THE POSTINGS ON THE WEB PAGE WE ALREADY KNOW WHO WE ARE DEALING WITH, AND IT IS VERY PERSONABLE AS FAR AS I FEEL." SKIRBLE: "HOW DO YOU KEEP UP WITH THE ASSIGNMENTS? HOW DO YOU KNOW YOU ARE ON THE SAME PAGE WITH EVERYONE ELSE ON THE ASSIGNMENTS?" GREG JONES: "OUR INSTRUCTOR WILL COMMUNICATE TO US OUR ASSIGNMENTS VIA E-MAIL ACROSS THE INTERNET, AND THAT USUALLY INVOLVES SOME TEXTBOOK READING OR SOME CASE STUDIES THAT WE NEED TO READ, AND THEN HE OR SHE WILL SUBMIT SOME QUESTIONS FOR US TO THINK ABOUT AND DISCUSS, AND THOSE ARE THE QUESTIONS THAT WE GET ON TO THE DISCUSSION THREAD ABOUT. WE WILL LOG ON TO THE INTERNET, AND WE WILL POST OUR IDEAS, AND OTHER PEOPLE WILL RESPOND TO OUR POSTING, AND WE DISCUSS IT IN THAT MANNER." DOUG DURAND: "YOU DON'T HAVE TO ARRIVE AT A CLASSROOM OR SIGN ON AT A SPECIFIC HOUR SIMULTANEOUSLY, BUT RATHER IT IS KIND OF LIKE AN EXTENDED E-MAIL CONVERSATION."

    TEXT: DOUG DURAND HEADS SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE'S DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER INFORMATION SYSTEMS. HE SAYS THE INTERNET-BASED PROGRAM -- WITH ITS SCHEDULE OF ASSIGNMENTS AND READINGS -- IS ESPECIALLY DEMANDING ON THE PROFESSORS.

    TAPE CUT THREE: DOUG DURAND/SKIRBLE (1:13) DOUG DURAND: "EACH INDIVIDUAL WHO ASKS A QUESTION OR MAKES A COMMENT WILL GET AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT FROM THE PROFESSOR. IN AN ELECTRONIC CLASSROOM OR ONE WHERE WE ARE DOING THIS OVER THE INTERNET YOU HAVE TO RESPOND TO EACH PERSON, AND EVERYONE DOES HAVE THEIR TIME. EVERYONE IN EFFECT IS TREATED IN KIND OF A TUTORIAL FASHION. SO THAT, RATHER THAN GETTING A MASS EDUCATION, YOU ARE REALLY GETTING AN INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION AND THE QUALITY REPORTED BY THE STUDENTS SEEMS TO GO UP." SKIRBLE: "HOW DOES OFFERING A COURSE ON THE INTERNET CHANGE THE CONCEPT OF HOW EDUCATION IS DELIVERED? DOUG DURAND: "IT KIND OF REDEFINES IN MANY WAYS WHAT UNIVERSITIES ARE. HISTORICALLY, STUDENTS HAVE COME TO CAMPUS FOR ACCESS TO LIBRARIES OR PROFESSORS OR LABORATORIES. AND, AS IT TURNS OUT, WE CAN DELIVER MOST OF THAT TO THE PERSON'S HOME OR BUSINESS WHICH MEANS THEY DO NOT HAVE TO COME TO THE SAME CENTRAL LOCATION FOR THE ENTIRE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE."

    TEXT: AND THAT EXPERIENCE IS MEETING THE EXPECTATIONS OF LONG-DISTANCE LEARNERS MARY HUTCHESON AND GREG JONES. THEY SAY THEY CAN LEARN AT THEIR OWN PACE, IN THEIR OWN TIME AND WITH THEIR OWN LEARNING STYLE.

    TAPE CUT FOUR:MARY HUTCHENSON/GREG JONES (:25) MARY HUTCHENSON: "YOU KNOW, YOU'RE IN THE TRENCHES AND YOU ARE WORKING IN THE REAL WORLD, AND I FEEL THAT THAT HAS REALLY HELPED WITH THE COURSE WORK. IT ALSO FILLS IN THE PIECES THAT YOU DON'T NECESSARILY GET EXPOSED TO, AND WE GET VERY SPECIALIZED IN OUR WORK SOMETIMES, AND YOU DON'T REALLY KNOW WHAT IS BEYOND THE HORIZON." GREG JONES: "THE MATERIALS THAT WE'RE LEARNING FIT IN EXACTLY WITH WHAT I NEED TO LEARN BEING A BEGINNING MANAGER IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY. IT'S JUST EXCELLENT."

    TEXT: SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR DOUG DURAND CREATED THE 2-YEAR INTERNET-BASED DEGREE PROGRAM. WHILE IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST IN THE NATION TO GO ON-LINE, HE SAYS HE EXPECTS MANY OTHER U-S SCHOOLS WILL FOLLOW. HE PREDICTS THAT WITHIN TEN YEARS, TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT OF ALL COLLEGE CLASSES WILL BE OFFERED ON THE INTERNET OR THROUGH OTHER DISTANT LEARNING VEHICLES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RS/FIL
    18-Mar-97 3:46 PM EST (2046 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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