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Voice of America, 97-06-04

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CLINTON/CYPRUS (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [02] HOLBROOKE CYPRUS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [03] TURKEY/ KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [04] TURKEY'S KURDS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] FRANCE CABINET (L) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [06] GERMAN / NO-CONFIDENCE (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [07] GERMANY / EURO (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [08] ALBRIGHT / BOSNIA (S/L) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] MARSHALL PLAN CONFERENCE BY FRANK RONALDS (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [12] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] CLINTON/CYPRUS (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215263
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS NAMING PROMINENT U-S DIPLOMAT RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO BE A SPECIAL ENVOY ON THE CYPRUS PROBLEM. MR. HOLBROOKE PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN NEGOTIATING THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORDS. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. HOLBROOKE WAS THE CENTRAL FIGURE IN THE U-S DIPLOMATIC PUSH FOR THE DAYTON ACCORDS ON BOSNIA TWO YEARS AGO. AND THE PRESIDENT'S DECISION TO TAP THE OUTSPOKEN 55-YEAR-OLD DIPLOMAT FOR THE CYPRUS ASSIGNMENT SIGNALS THE ADMINISTRATION'S INTENT TO MAKE THE ISSUE A TOP PRIORITY.

    MR. HOLBROOKE -- WHO HELD SENIOR STATE DEPARTMENT POSTS IN BOTH THE CARTER AND CLINTON ADMINISTRATIONS -- LEFT GOVERNMENT SERVICE LAST YEAR TO BECOME AN INVESTMENT BANKER IN NEW YORK.

    CYPRUS HAS BEEN EFFECTIVELY PARTITIONED SINCE 1974 WHEN TURKEY CAPTURED THE NORTHERN THIRD OF THE MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND IN THE WAKE OF AN ABORTIVE COUP BY GREEK-CYPRIOT ADVOCATES OF UNION WITH GREECE.

    THE SITUATION ON CYPRUS HAS OFTEN FLARED INTO VIOLENCE INCLUDING LETHAL CLASHES ALONG THE DIVIDING LINE LAST AUGUST, AND HAS BEEN A SERIOUS PROBLEM FOR NATO, TO WHICH BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY BELONG. MR. HOLBROOKE WILL REPLACE LAWYER RICHARD BEATTIE, WHO HAS BEEN THE U-S CYPRUS TROUBLE-SHOOTER SINCE 1994. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/TMD/KL
    04-Jun-97 10:46 AM EDT (1446 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] HOLBROOKE CYPRUS (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215283
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS APPOINTED VETERAN AMERICAN DIPLOMAT RICHARD HOLBROOKE AS HIS SPECIAL ENVOY FOR CYPRUS. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, A TOUGH MAN HAS BEEN APPOINTED FOR A TOUGH PROBLEM.

    TEXT: IN A SIGN OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S INTEREST IN MOVING THE INTRACTABLE CYPRUS PROBLEM TOWARD A SETTLEMENT, PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS CONVINCED RICHARD HOLBROOKE TO TAKE A BREAK FROM HIS INVESTMENT BANKING CAREER AND TO DEVOTE AT LEAST PART OF HIS TIME TO CYPRUS NEGOTIATIONS.

    IT WAS RICHARD HOLBROOKE AS ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE WHO PUSHED THE BALKAN PARTIES TOWARD DAYTON, OHIO AND AN EVENTUAL BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS MR. HOLBROOKE AND SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HAVE NO ILLUSIONS THAT CYPRUS IS READY TO YIELD TO MR. HOLBROOKE'S INTENSIVE STYLE OF NEGOTIATING.

    // BURNS ACT //

    NEITHER OF THEM BELIEVE THAT THE UNITED NATIONS OR THE UNITED STATES OR THE UNITED KINGDOM IS GOING TO BE ABLE TO PULL OFF A DIPLOMATIC COUP IN THE NEXT WEEK OR TWO. THIS IS GOING TO TAKE A CONCERTED EFFORT, PROBABLY OVER MANY MONTHS OR MAYBE MANY YEARS TO DEVELOP A STRATEGY FOR CYPRUS THAT ACTUALLY MOVES THE PARTIES TOWARD A RESOLUTION AFTER 23 YEARS OF STALEMATE AND SO WE DON'T APPROACH THIS WITH ANY DEGREE OR ANY ILLUSIONS ABOUT HOW EASY IT'S GOING TO BE. IT'S VERY TOUGH AND THAT'S WHY WE'RE BRINGING IN OUR TOUGHEST NEGOTIATOR.

    // END ACT //

    MR. HOLBROOKE LEFT THE STATE DEPARTMENT IN FEBRUARY, 1996 TO BECOME AN INVESTMENT BANKER FOR CREDIT SUISSE-FIRST BOSTON BANK. HE WILL REMAIN AN EMPLOYEE OF THE BANK BUT HE WILL DEVOTE AT LEAST A WEEK OF EVERY MONTH AS AN UNPAID DIPLOMAT OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    DEALING WITH THE TWO COMMUNITIES ON CYPRUS AS WELL AS THE GREEK AND TURKISH GOVERNMENTS.

    BEFORE LEAVING THE U-S GOVERNMENT LAST YEAR, MR. HOLBROOKE SPENT HIS LAST WEEK NEGOTIATING A SETTLEMENT BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY OVER OWNERSHIP OF AN UNINHABITED AEGEAN ISLAND. HE WILL REPLACE LAWYER RICHARD BEATTIE WHO HAS BEEN PRESIDENT CLINTON'S SPECIAL NEGOTIATOR FOR CYPRUS SINCE 1994. MR. BEATTIE WILL NOW LEAD THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S REORGANIZATION PLAN.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS MR. HOLBROOKE'S APPOINTMENT, EVEN PART-TIME, REPRESENTS NEW LIFE FOR THE CYPRUS NEGOTIATIONS.

    // BURNS ACT //

    THIS IS A RE-BIRTH AND A RENEWAL OF THE AMERICAN POLICY ON CYPRUS. SECRETARY ALBRIGHT WOULD NOT BE BRINGING DICK HOLBROOKE IN, IF WE DID NOT INTEND TO MAKE A VERY DETERMINED EFFORT TO MOVE FORWARD.

    // END ACT //

    CYPRIOT PRESIDENT GLAFCOS KLERIDES IS SUPPOSED TO MEET TURKISH CYPRIOT LEADER RAUF DENKTASH NEXT MONTH IN NEW YORK BUT THE SPOKESMAN SAYS MR. HOLBROOKE DOES NOT EXPECT TO TAKE PART IN CYPRUS NEGOTIATIONS THAT SOON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/TMD/CF
    04-Jun-97 3:53 PM EDT (1953 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] TURKEY/ KURDS (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215260
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A TURKISH COURT HAS SENTENCED MORE THAN 30 OFFICIALS FORM TURKEY'S MAIN PRO-KURDISH POLITICAL PARTY TO UP TO SIX YEARS IN PRISON ON CHARGES OF ACTING AS A FRONT FOR THE OUTLAWED SEPARATIST KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY, OR P-K-K. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: THE ANKARA STATE SECURITY COURT CONVICTED THE OFFICIALS FROM THE PRO-KURDISH PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY PARTY, OR HADEP, BECAUSE IN THE WORDS OF JUDGE ORHAN KARADENIZ -- A CLOSE LINK HAD BEEN DISCOVERED BETWEEN THE PARTY AND THE P-K-K.

    THE HADEP CHAIRMAN, MURAT BOZLAK, AND ONE OTHER PARTY MEMBER WERE SENTENCED TO SIX YEARS. A YOUTH WHO TORE DOWN A TURKISH FLAG DURING A HADEP CONVENTION WAS SENTENCED TO 22-AND-ONE- HALF YEARS. TWENTY-NINE OTHER HADEP MEMBERS RECEIVED FOUR-AND-ONE-HALF YEAR TERMS.

    DEFENSE LAWYER YUSUF ALATAS DESCRIBED THE VERDICT AS PURELY POLITICAL AND SAID THE DEFENSE WOULD APPEAL.

    WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAY THE OUTCOME OF THE TRIAL WILL LIKELY HAVE A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON TURKEY'S IMAGE ABROAD. TURKEY HAS BEEN STRONGLY CRITICIZED BY WESTERN GOVERNMENTS AND THE EUROPEAN UNION BECAUSE OF ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. MEANWHILE, TURKISH MILITARY FORCES ARE KEEPING UP THEIR THREE WEEK-LONG BATTLE AGAINST P-K-K REBELS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. A TURKISH HELICOPTER WAS REPORTED TO HAVE CRASHED OVER THE IRAQI KURDISH-CONTROLLED ENCLAVE WEDNESDAY, KILLING 11 MILITARY PERSONNEL, INCLUDING TWO HIGH-RANKING OFFICERS.

    THE SEMI-OFFICIAL ANATOLIAN NEWS AGENCY SAID THE HELICOPTER HAD SUFFERED A TECHNICAL FAILURE. BUT STATE-RUN TURKISH TELEVISION SAID THE REASONS FOR THE CRASH WERE NOT KNOWN.

    THE REBELS EARLIER CLAIMED THEY HAD SHOT DOWN TWO TURKISH MILITARY HELICOPTERS AND TAKEN THEIR CREW HOSTAGE.

    TURKISH MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY AT LEAST TWO-THOUSAND REBELS HAVE BEEN KILLED IN THE CROSS-BORDER INCURSION SO FAR. THE OPERATION, WHICH WAS LAUNCHED WITH AN ESTIMATED 40-THOUSAND TROOPS BACKED BY TANKS AND FIGHTER JETS, HAS BEEN STRONGLY CONDEMNED BY TURKEY'S ARAB NEIGHBORS. IRAQ, WHICH LOST CONTROL OVER ITS KURDISH NORTH AFTER ITS DEFEAT BY THE ALLIES IN THE GULF WAR, HAS CALLED FOR AN IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL OF TURKISH TROOPS. TURKEY SAYS IT WILL REMAIN IN NORTHERN IRAQ UNTIL -- IN THE WORDS OF TURKISH DEFENSE MINISTER TURHAN TAYAN -- THE REBELS AND THEIR BASES ARE COMPLETELY ELIMINATED.

    // OPT //

    IN A RELATED DEVELOPMENT, MASSOUD BARZANI, LEADER OF THE KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY OR K-D-P, THE IRAQI KURDISH FACTION WHICH IS FIGHTING ALONGSIDE TURKEY AGAINST THE TURKISH KURD REBELS, SAID TURKEY HAD NO PLANS TO SET UP A 15 KILOMETER DEEP BUFFER ZONE IN NORTHERN IRAQ AS ALLEGED IN ARAB MEDIA REPORTS.

    // OPT //

    HE ADDED THAT NEITHER HIS GROUP, WHICH CONTROLS NEARLY HALF OF NORTHERN IRAQ, NOR THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT WOULD AGREE TO SUCH A PLAN. TURKEY DENIES ANY INTENTIONS OF ESTABLISHING A PERMANENT MILITARY PRESENCE IN IRAQI KURDISTAN. // END OPT // (SIGNED) NEB/AZ/JWH/
    04-Jun-97 10:46 AM EDT (1446 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] TURKEY'S KURDS BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36574
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE CONTINUING TO SUPPRESS THE KURDISH SEPARATIST REVOLT IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY, THE TURKISH ARMY HAS NOW CROSSED THE BORDER TO ATTACK KURDISH REBELS IN NORTHERN IRAQ. BUT AS THE ARMY READILY ADMITS, FORCE ALONE WILL NOT SOLVE TURKEY'S KURDISH PROBLEM. IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK (WED.), A TURKISH PROFESSOR DESCRIBED A NEW ORGANIZATION THAT WILL WORK FOR CLOSER RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKS AND KURDS. V-O-A'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: WHO ARE YOU AND WHAT DO YOU WANT? FOR THE FIRST TIME IN TURKISH REPUBLICAN HISTORY, THE MINORITY KURDS WERE ASKED THESE QUESTIONS IN A NATIONAL SURVEY, ACCORDING TO DOGU ERGIL, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT ANKARA UNIVERSITY.

    AT A MEETING AT WASHINGTON'S CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, PROFESSOR ERGIL SAID THE ANSWERS TO HIS 1995 SURVEY SHATTERED MYTHS OF KURDISH REBELLION.

    NINETY PER CENT OF RESPONDENTS SAID THEY DO NOT WANT AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH STATE, THE PROFESSED GOAL OF THE KURDISH WORKERS PARTY OR PKK, WHICH IS AT WAR WITH THE GOVERNMENT. OVER TEN PER CENT OF THE KURDS QUERIED SAID THEY SUPPORT THE PKK, AT LEAST IN THEORY.

    PROFESSOR ERGIL SAID THIS SUPPORT IS UNDERSTANDABLE SINCE EXPRESSIONS OF KURDISHNESS HAVE BEEN SUPPRESSED IN TURKEY. DENIED A PEACEFUL OUTLET, SOME KURDS HAVE TURNED TO ARMED STRUGGLE:

    // ERGIL ACT //

    THE KURDISH PEOPLE LOOK AT THE PKK AS A TRAIN GOING TO A FINAL DESTINATION, WHERE ONLY THE PKK MEMBERS AND THEIR SYMPATHIZERS WANTED TO GO. BUT THE REST GOT ON THE TRAIN TO GET OFF AT DIFFERENT STATIONS: BETTER INCOME, BETTER EDUCATION, BETTER LIVING CONDITIONS, BEING LEFT ALONE. BEING RESPECTED AS A KURD WAS THE THREAD THAT RAN THROUGH ALL THE ANSWERS. YES, THE KURDS WANT TO LIVE IN TURKEY AS CITIZENS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY BUT AS KURDS.

    // END ACT //

    AS A RESULT OF HIS SURVEY, PROFESSOR ERGIL GOT HELP FROM TURKEY AND ABROAD TO ESTABLISH A FOUNDATION, COMPOSED OF TURKS AND KURDS, TO ADDRESS THIS BASICALLY CULTURAL PROBLEM. HE SAID HE IS SURE THE ORGANIZATION CAN FIND A WAY TO ACCOMMODATE KURDISH IDENTITY WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE INTEGRITY OF THE TURKISH STATE.

    THIS IS AN ENCOURAGING DEVELOPMENT, SAYS MICHAEL GUNTER, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY AND AUTHOR OF A FORTHCOMING BOOK ON THE KURDS:

    // GUNTER ACT //

    WHAT WE NEED IS A RECOGNITION OF KURDISH RIGHTS AS KURDS TO PURSUE THEIR CULTURAL, INTELLECTUAL, LITERARY TRADITIONS WITHIN THE CONFINES OF THE PRE-EXISTING TURKISH UNITARY STATE, AND THAT WOULD SATISFY MOST KURDS LIVING IN TURKEY. BUT RIGHT NOW, KURDS LIVING IN TURKEY ARE JUST BARELY TOLERATED TO BE CALLED EVEN KURDS, LET ALONE TO PURSUE THEIR CULTURAL IDENTITY AS KURDS.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR GUNTER BELIEVES THE TURKISH STATE IS IN MORE DANGER FROM CONTINUING THE CONFLICT WITH THE KURDS RATHER THAN GRANTING THE CULTURAL AUTONOMY THEY SEEK. HE NOTES THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT ENCOURAGED KURDS TO JOIN THE ISLAMIST REFAH PARTY AS A FOIL TO THE PKK. NOW REFAH IS THE GREATER FEAR.

    PROFESSOR GUNTER SAYS TURKEY COULD SET AN EXAMPLE FOR ALL THE COUNTRIES IN THE REGION THAT HAVE KURDISH MINORITIES:

    // GUNTER ACT //

    ONE OF MY GREAT HOPES IS THAT TURKEY, BY GRANTING LEGITIMATE KURDISH DESIRES WITHIN TURKEY, WILL, AS IT WERE, CO-OP THE KURDISH MOVEMENT AND BECOME THE DEFENDER OF THE RIGHTS OF THE KURDS AND OFFER A MODEL TO THE NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES ON HOW BY PROGRESSIVE, ENLIGHTENED POLICIES TOWARD THE KURDS, IT IS POSSIBLE TO LARGELY SATISFY THE KURDISH DEMANDS WITHIN EXISTING BORDERS.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR GUNTER SAYS TURKEY IS CAPABLE OF SUCH IMAGINATIVE STATECRAFT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    04-Jun-97 6:05 PM EDT (2205 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] FRANCE CABINET (L) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215285
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE'S NEW SOCIALIST PRIME MINISTER LIONEL JOSPIN HAS APPOINTED THREE COMMUNISTS TO A 26-MEMBER MINISTERIAL TEAM. HIS CABINET INCLUDES EIGHT WOMEN, ONE OF THEM AN ECOLOGIST. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: FRENCH PRIME MINISTER LIONEL JOSPIN, KEEPING HIS PROMISE OF A SMALL GOVERNMENT TEAM, APPOINTED 14 FULL MINISTERS AND 12 JUNIOR MINISTERS.

    THE CABINET LIST WAS ANNOUNCED AFTER MR. JOSPIN, WHO WON PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS LAST SUNDAY, CONSULTED WITH THE CONSERVATIVE PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC. MR. CHIRAC, WEAKENED AFTER THE LEFT'S VICTORY, WILL RETAIN A ROLE IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND DEFENSE.

    AS FOREIGN MINISTER, MR. JOSPIN NAMED HUBERT VEDRINE, WHO WAS ONE OF THE MAIN FOREIGN POLICY ADVISERS TO THE LATE PRESIDENT FRANCOIS MITTERRAND. THE DEFENSE MINISTER WILL BE ALAIN RICHARD, A SOCIALIST MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT WHO HAS HAD LITTLE IF ANY NATIONAL EXPOSURE IN THE PAST.

    BUT MOST ATTENTION WILL GO TO THE PRESENCE OF COMMUNIST MINISTERS IN GOVERNMENT. MR. JOSPIN WAS ANXIOUS TO INCLUDE THEM TO BE SURE OF COMMUNIST SUPPORT IN PARLIAMENT. THE COMMUNISTS' OPPOSITION TO EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION COULD MAKE THEM DIFFICULT PARTNERS IN THE COMING MONTHS AS THE EUROPEAN UNION PREPARES THE CREATION OF THE CONTROVERSIAL SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY.

    MR. JOSPIN APPOINTED TWO COMMUNISTS TO THE TRANSPORT AND TO THE YOUTH AND SPORTS MINISTRIES. ANOTHER TOOK A JUNIOR POST. THE LEADER OF THE ECOLOGIST GREENS PARTY, DOMINIQUE VOYNET, WAS GIVEN A MINISTRY COMBINING THE ENVIRONMENT AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT.

    MRS. VOYNET IS ONE OF EIGHT WOMEN IN THIS GOVERNMENT. THE SECOND IN COMMAND OF THE CABINET IS MARTINE AUBRY, THE DAUGHTER OF JACQUES DELORS, THE FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. SHE HAS THE LABOR PORTFOLIO.

    OTHER POSTS THAT WENT TO WOMEN INCLUDED THE IMPORTANT JUSTICE MINISTRY AND THE CULTURE MINISTRY, AN INSTITUTION THAT FIERCELY GUARDS WHAT IS CALLED FRANCE'S CULTURAL EXCEPTION.

    THE INTERIOR MINISTRY WENT TO A MAN, THE DISSIDENT SOCIALIST JEAN-PIERRE CHEVENEMENT. HE IS THE MAIN CAMPAIGNER AGAINST EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION IN FRANCE'S NON-COMMUNIST LEFT AND HE SPLIT FROM THE MAINSTREAM SOCIALIST PARTY IN 1992 TO FOUND HIS OWN MOVEMENT. BEFORE THAT, MR. CHEVENEMENT RESIGNED AS DEFENSE MINISTER TO PROTEST FRANCE'S PARTICIPATION IN THE GULF WAR AGAINST IRAQ. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JN/GKT/CF
    04-Jun-97 3:56 PM EDT (1956 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] GERMAN / NO-CONFIDENCE (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215265
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMANY'S EMBATTLED FINANCE MINISTER HAS SURVIVED AN OPPOSITION ATTEMPT TO OUST HIM FROM HIS JOB. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN.

    TEXT: THE UNSUCCESSFUL EFFORT TO OUST FINANCE MINISTER THEO WAIGEL CAME ONE DAY AFTER HE BACKED DOWN FROM A CONTROVERSIAL PLAN TO REVALUE THE NATION'S GOLD RESERVES.

    THE GOLD REVALUATION PLAN -- AIMED AT HELPING GERMANY QUALIFY FOR THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY -- WAS STRONGLY OPPOSED BY THE POWERFUL CENTRAL BANK.

    BUT A MOTION BY THE OPPOSITION SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND GREENS TO OUST THE FINANCE MINISTER WAS REJECTED BY CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL'S CONSERVATIVE COALITION IN PARLIAMENT.

    DURING THE SOMETIMES EMOTIONAL DEBATE, CHANCELLOR KOHL VOWED GERMANY WOULD MEET THE STRICT CRITERIA TO JOIN THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY ON TIME, SAYING A DELAY WOULD HAVE AN ENORMOUS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL MARKETS AND THE GERMAN ECONOMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/KL
    04-Jun-97 11:14 AM EDT (1514 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] GERMANY / EURO (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215268
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL HAS TOLD SKEPTICAL MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT THAT HE WILL DO EVERYTHING HE CAN TO ENSURE THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY IS LAUNCHED ON TIME. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM BONN THERE ARE DOUBTS.

    TEXT: CHANCELLOR KOHL SAYS A DELAY IN THE 1999 LAUNCH DATE FOR THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY WOULD HAVE AN ENORMOUS IMPACT ON FINANCIAL MARKETS AND COULD KILL THE PROJECT.

    SPEAKING TO A SOMETIMES STORMY SESSION OF PARLIAMENT, HE REPEATED HIS LONG-STANDING CONTENTION THAT THE COMMON CURRENCY IS ESSENTIAL FOR EUROPEAN PEACE AND STABILITY.

    HE SAID HE WAS CERTAIN GERMANY WOULD BE ABLE TO RESOLVE ITS BUDGET PROBLEMS AND BE A FOUNDING MEMBER. BUT HOW THE GOVERNMENT WILL BE ABLE TO LOWER ITS DEBT TO THE THREE PERCENT LIMIT SET BY THE MAASTRICHT TREATY IS AN OPEN QUESTION. TUESDAY, FINANCE MINISTER THEO WAIGEL WAS FORCED TO RETREAT FROM A CONTROVERSIAL PLAN TO RAISE MONEY BY REVALUING THE NATION'S GOLD RESERVES. THE PLAN, WHICH WAS STRONGLY OPPOSED BY THE GERMAN CENTRAL BANK, SPARKED AN UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPT BY OPPOSITION MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT TO FORCE MR. WAIGEL'S RESIGNATION.

    MR. WAIGEL SAYS HE AND THE BUNDESBANK HAVE NOW AGREED ON A PLAN TO REVALUE THE NATION'S GOLD, BUT THE PROFITS WOULD BE APPLIED LATER THAN THE GOVERNMENT HAD WANTED.

    SOME ECONOMISTS SAY THAT COULD WELL DOOM GERMANY'S CHANCE OF QUALIFYING FOR THE CURRENCY ON TIME.

    GERMAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SPOKESMAN PHILIP VON WALDERDORF SAYS MANY BUSINESS LEADERS WOULD RATHER SEE A DELAY IN THE LAUNCH OF THE NEW CURRENCY THAN CHANGE THE TOUGH RULES FOR ADMISSION. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGES A DELAY COULD FURTHER DIMINISH ALREADY WEAK SUPPORT FROM THE GERMAN PUBLIC.

    // VON WALDERDORF ACT //

    YOU SEE PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR THE EURO IS NOT VERY HIGH. IF YOU CONDUCTED A POLL IN GERMANY, I THINK 60 PERCENT OR 70 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION WOULD BE AGAINST IT BECAUSE THEY DON'T TRUST IN THE EURO. THEY THINK WHEN IT COMES, IT WILL BE A WEAK CURRENCY. WITH THE (GERMAN) MARK EVERYBODY KNOWS IT IS A STRONG CURRENCY.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE CONCERNS ABOUT THE STRENGTH OF THE NEW CURRENCY, MR. VON WALDERDORF SAYS MANY BUSINESS LEADERS BELIEVE THE EURO WILL BE LAUNCHED ON TIME IN 1999.

    FOR CHANCELLOR KOHL, THE CHALLENGE NOW WILL BE FINDING WAYS TO MEET THE TOUGH CRITERIA TO TAKE PART IN THE MONETARY UNION, WITHOUT DEEPLY UNPOPULAR CUTS IN SOCIAL SPENDING THAT HELPED DRIVE CONSERVATIVES FROM OFFICE IN FRANCE. (SIGNED) NEB/KBK/JWH/
    04-Jun-97 11:40 AM EDT (1540 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] ALBRIGHT / BOSNIA (S/L) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215243
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT IS CONFIDENT WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA WILL NOT BREAK OUT ONCE U-S TROOPS -- PART OF THE NATO STABILIZING FORCE -- ARE WITHDRAWN NEXT YEAR. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS MS. ALBRIGHT, WHO VISITED THE BALKANS LAST WEEK, ADMITS MUCH WORK IS NEEDED TO ENSURE PEACE PREVAILS. STILL, SHE INSISTS PROGRESS IS BEING MADE:

    TEXT: APPEARING ON THE A-B-C TELEVISION PROGRAM "NIGHTLINE," MS. ALBRIGHT SAID U-S TROOPS WILL BE OUT OF BOSNIA, AS PLANNED, BY JUNE OF 1998. SHE SAYS, AT PRESENT, SHE BELIEVES OTHER NATO TROOPS WILL LEAVE ABOUT THE SAME TIME.

    ACKNOWLEDGING AN INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE WILL BE NEEDED BEYOND NEXT JUNE, MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS IT WILL BE A DIPLOMATIC AND ECONOMIC INVOLVEMENT, NOT MILITARY. THE SECRETARY SAYS A NUMBER OF MEASURES HAVE BEEN TAKEN TO ENSURE A TIMELY DEPARTURE OF NATO TROOPS:

    ///ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY///

    WE HAVE -- AS PART OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS -- DEVELOPED A MILITARY BALANCE. THAT'S WHAT WE'RE WORKING TOWARDS SO THERE WON'T BE THE KIND OF SITUATION THAT EXISTED THERE BEFORE, WHERE THE SERB FORCES HAD AN OVERWHELMING STRENGTH AND WERE ABLE TO JUST ROLL RIGHT OVER THE MUSLIMS.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MS. ALBRIGHT SAYS -- AMONG THE HARD WORK AHEAD FOR NATO FORCES -- IS THE TRAINING AND EQUIPPING OF AN INDIGENOUS POLICE FORCE, ESTABLISHING JOINT INSTITUTIONS AND ENSURING THAT REFUGEES ARE PROPERLY REPATRIATED.

    ///REST OPTIONAL///

    THE SECRETARY SAYS SHE FOUND PROGRESS BEING MADE IN CREATING A MORE PEACEFUL AND SAFE CAPITAL OF SARAJEVO:

    ///ALBRIGHT ACTUALITY///

    SARAJEVO IS A SIGN OF WHAT CAN HAPPEN. I'M NOT DENYING THERE'S A GREAT DEAL OF WORK TO BE DONE. WE HAVE TO BE THERE, THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS TO BE THERE. WE HAVE TO COMMIT OURSELVES TO A LONGER TERM PROCESS OF RECONSTRUCTION IN BOSNIA.

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MS. ALBRIGHT WARNS OUTSIDE AID WILL BE INCREASINGLY CONDITIONED ON COMPLIANCE WITH THE 1995 DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, INCLUDING THE APPREHENSION OF INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS. ON HER TALKS LAST WEEK WITH BALKAN LEADERS, THE SECRETARY SAYS SHE BELIEVES HER TOUGH WORDS ABOUT COMPLIANCE HAD AN IMPACT ON CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN. HOWEVER, SHE DESCRIBES SERB LEADER SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AS LIVING IN A "DREAM WORLD" WHEN HE INSISTS SERBIA'S ECONOMY IS THRIVING. SHE SAYS MR. MILOSEVIC HAS TWO CHOICES; EITHER HE COOPERATES WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY OR HE WILL TAKE HIS COUNTRY DOWN WHAT SHE CALLS A "RATHOLE," IF HE REFUSES TO COMPLY. (SIGNED).
    NEB / WD
    04-Jun-97 1:37 AM EDT (0537 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] MARSHALL PLAN CONFERENCE BY FRANK RONALDS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36569
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // ATTENTION ECON SHOWS //

    INTRO: GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, IN WASHINGTON D-C, HAS JUST HELD A CONFERENCE TO COMMEMORATE THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE MARSHALL PLAN. A LARGE NUMBER OF AMERICANS WHO TOOK PART IN CONCEIVING AND IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN, EITHER WITHIN THE ECONOMIC COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION (THE E-C-A), BASED IN WASHINGTON, OR THE ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION (THE O-E-E-C), BASED IN PARIS, WERE INVITED TO TAKE PART. V-O-A'S FRANK RONALDS WHO ATTENDED THE CONFERENCE -- REPORTS THAT MANY PARTICIPANTS EXPLAINED ESSENTIAL ASPECTS OF THE MARSHALL PLAN THAT ARE NOT GENERALLY UNDERSTOOD.

    TEXT: IN THE 1930'S, AMERICAN ECONOMIST SIMON KUZNETS DEVELOPED A METHOD FOR CALCULATING GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT, FOR WHICH HE LATER RECEIVED THE NOBEL PRIZE IN ECONOMICS. HIS G-N-P MODEL WAS OF GREAT USE IN AMERICA'S MOBILIZATION OF ITS ECONOMY TO FIGHT WORLD WAR TWO. ACCORDING TO THOMAS SCHELLING, THIS METHOD WAS ALSO USED BY THE 16 COUNTRIES THAT TOOK PART IN THE MARSHALL PLAN. DURING THE FOUR YEARS THAT THE MARSHALL PLAN WAS IN EFFECT, FROM 1948 THROUGH 1951, MR. SCHELLING WAS ECONOMIC ADVISER TO AVERELL HARRIMAN, AMERICA'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE TO THE O-E-E-C IN PARIS.

    // SCHELLING ACT //

    THE USE OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS BY THE O-E-E-C COUNTRIES WAS ESSENTIALLY THE FIRST AMBITIOUS USE OF THIS NEW ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK THAT HAD BEEN DEVELOPED DURING THE WAR YEARS. I WILL CALL IT 'RECIPROCAL SCRUTINY.' EACH COUNTRY SUBMITTED ITS OWN ESTIMATES OF WHAT IT WOULD NEED, OF WHAT ITS EXPORT EARNINGS WOULD BE, OF WHAT ITS IMPORT REQUIREMENTS WOULD BE, OF WHAT IT COULD OBTAIN THROUGH INTRA-EUROPEAN TRADE, WHAT LEVEL OF PRODUCTIVITY IT ANTICIPATED, HOW IT WAS GOING TO KEEP INFLATION UNDER CONTROL, AND EACH OF THESE, IN A COMMON FORMAT, WENT TO BE SCRUTINIZED BY ALL THE OTHER PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES IN THE O-E-E-C IN PARIS. THESE NATIONAL ESTIMATES WOULD BE SCRUTINIZED, CROSS-EXAMINED, WITH CANDOR, TRUST, COOPERATIVENESS AND PERSONAL INTIMACY OF A KIND I DON'T BELIEVE EVER EXISTED IN WORLD DIPLOMACY AND HASN'T EVER EXISTED ANYWHERE ELSE BUT IN THE O-E-E-C OR IN NATO.

    // END ACT //

    IN THIS MANNER, IT WAS DECIDED HOW THE MARSHALL PLAN DOLLAR AID WAS DIVIDED UP. BUT AS THEODORE GEIGER EXPLAINS, THE ACTUAL DOLLARS WERE NOT TURNED OVER TO THE GOVERNMENTS IN QUESTION. NOW A PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON, MR. GEIGER THEN WORKED WITHIN THE ECONOMIC COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION (THE E-C-A) IN WASHINGTON.

    // GEIGER ACT //

    THE TWO INNOVATIONS ON WHICH I WILL COMMENT ARE THE PROCUREMENT AUTHORIZATION PROCEDURE AND THE COUNTERPART FUNDS. PROCUREMENT AUTHORIZATIONS WERE DOCUMENTS ISSUED TO RECIPIENT GOVERNMENTS WHICH THEY USED TO PAY FOR SPECIFIC GOODS AND SERVICES PURCHASED IN THE UNITED STATES UNDER THEIR APPROVED AID PROGRAMS. P-A'S WERE DEPOSITED BY THE RECIPIENT GOVRNMENTS IN U-S BANKS, WHICH THEN PAID THE DOLLARS DIRECTLY TO THE SUPPLIERS AND WERE REIMBURSED BY THE TREASURY. THUS, NO DOLLARS PASSED THROUGH THE HANDS OF FOREIGN BUREAUCRATS OR POLITICIANS, THEREBY MINIMIZING OPPORTUNITIES FOR CORRUPTION AND PLEASING THE U-S CONGRESS.

    // END ACT //

    THE COUNTERPART FUNDS, MR. GEIGER SAYS, DOUBLED THE IMPACT OF THE DOLLAR AID ON THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY.

    // GEIGER ACT //

    THE COUNTERPART FUNDS WERE THE LOCAL CURRENCY FUNDS OBTAINED BY THE RECIPIENT GOVERNMENTS WHEN THEY SOLD E-C-A FINANCED IMPORTS TO MANUFACTURERS, CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES AND OTHER CONSUMERS IN THEIR COUNTRIES. FIVE PERCENT OF THE COUNTERPART FUNDS WERE RESERVED FOR THE EXPENSES OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT IN THE COUNTRY. NINETY-FIVE PERCENT WERE THE PROPERTY OF THE RECIPIENT GOVERNMENT BUT COULD ONLY BE USED FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES APPROVED BY THE E-C-A, THEREBY ALSO HELPING TO INHIBIT WASTE AND CORRUPTION AND ENSURING THAT THE USE OF COUNTERPART FUNDS WOULD CONTRIBUTE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY TO THE RECOVERY EFFORT.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR SCHELLING AND MR. GEIGER REGRET THAT THESE TECHNIQUES HAVE NOT BEEN APPLIED TO THE ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF MONEY GIVEN, ON A BILATERAL OR MULTILATERAL BASIS, TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND TO EMERGING DEMOCRACIES IN EASTERN EUROPE. HOWEVER, TREASURY SECRETARY ROBERT RUBIN, WHO ALSO ADDRESSED THE CONFERENCE, SAYS THAT CURRENT U-S AID STRATEGY IS, IN MOST RESPECTS, SIMILAR TO THAT LAID OUT BY THEN-SECRETARY OF STATE GEORGE MARSHALL 50 YEARS AGO.

    // RUBIN ACT //

    AT THAT TIME, TO CONFRONT THE ECONOMIC ISSUES OF EUROPE, MARSHALL LAID OUT A THREE-PART STRATEGY: PROVIDING MUCH-NEEDED CAPITAL TO RECONSTRUCT DEVASTATED NATIONS; ACCOMPANYING THAT ASSISTANCE WITH PROPOSALS FOR KEY ECONOMIC POLICY REFORMS; AND INTEGRATING EUROPE INTO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. THOSE POLICY PROPOSALS, AND THE VISION OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION, ARE NOW SOMETIMES OVERLOOKED, BUT THEY WERE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE MARSHALL PLAN. THE STRATEGY FOR PROMOTING GROWTH AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING, IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF TODAY'S ECONOMY IS VERY SIMILAR: SUPPORTING SOUND AND SENSIBLE ECONOMIC POLICIES IN CONJUNCTION WITH PROVIDING ASSISTANCE WHICH IS NOW ACCOMPLISHED PRIMARILY THROUGH INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR POLICIES OF CONDITIONALITY; BREAKING DOWN BARRIERS TO ECONOMIC INTEGRATION, AND PROVIDING CAPITAL, THOUGH IN TODAY'S WORLD, THAT HAS INCREASINGLY TAKEN PLACE NOT BY GOVERNMENT AID, OR AID FROM INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS, THOUGH THAT IS STILL IMPORTANT, BUT RATHER, IN VAST FLOWS OF PRIVATE CAPITAL.

    END ACT //

    AMONG THE PARTICIPANTS AT THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY CONFERENCE, THERE WAS GENERAL AGREEMENT THAT THE AMOUNT OF AID MONEY WAS LESS IMPORTANT THAN THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH THAT AID WAS PROVIDED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FR/RRM
    04-Jun-97 12:51 PM EDT (1651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215274
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO OF THE THREE MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE WEDNESDAY CLOSED HIGHER. AND WORRY OVER THE FUTURE OF A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY HELPED THE DOLLAR. PAUL FRANCUCH IN OUR LONDON OFFICE HAS THE CLOSING FIGURES.

    TEXT: ONLY LONDON CLOSED ON THE DOWN-SIDE WEDNESDAY, WITH THE "FOOTSIE" 100 INDEX SHEDDING JUST UNDER ONE POINT AT THE CLOSE. SOME ANALYSTS THINK AN ANTICIPATED ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE BANK OF ENGLAND FRIDAY TO RAISE INTEREST RATES MAY HAVE BEEN A FACTOR IN THE SLIGHT MARKET DECLINE. MEANWHILE, IN PARIS AND FRANKFURT, PRICES WERE UP SMARTLY. THE GERMAN "DAX 30" CLOSED UP MORE THAN 36 POINTS FOR THE DAY IN RELATIVELY THIN TRADING. PARIS TRADERS ON THE "CAC 40" INDEX OF STOCKS ENJOYED A GAIN OF JUST UNDER 11 POINTS. THE PARIS MARKET HAS POSTED GAINS THE ENTIRE THREE-DAY HISTORY OF THE NEW SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT, ELECTED ON SUNDAY.

    WORRIES ABOUT A SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY GOING INTO EFFECT ON SCHEDULE IN 1999 HELPED THE DOLLAR GAIN ABOUT A HALF PFENNIGE AGAINST THE MARK AND ALMOST A CENT AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD WAS DOWN 50-CENTS AN OUNCE -- AND PRICED IN THE LONDON CLOSING FIX AT 342-DOLLARS-35 CENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF
    04-Jun-97 1:32 PM EDT (1732 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215288
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AS INFLATION CONCERN RESURFACED. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 72 HUNDRED 69, DOWN 42 POINTS. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 840, DOWN FIVE POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY INFLATION FEARS WERE RE-AWAKENED AFTER THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED U-S FACTORY ORDERS ROSE BY ONE POINT TWO PERCENT IN APRIL, FASTER THAN HAD BEEN EXPECTED. IT WAS THE FOURTH STRAIGHT MONTH OF INCREASE IN FACTORY ORDERS.

    BUT THE AUTO INDUSTRY IS NOT GROWING AT THE MOMENT. AS EXPECTED, THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY REPORTED A DECLINE IN U-S CAR AND TRUCK SALES LAST MONTH. HOWEVER, FORD'S THREE PERCENT DROP WAS FAR LESS THAN THE 16 PERCENT DECLINE REPORTED BY CHRYSLER AND THE EIGHT PERCENT DROP IN U-S SALES OF GENERAL MOTORS VEHICLES.

    /// REST OPT ///

    THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HAS EXTENDED, FOR ANOTHER SIX MONTHS, THE AGREEMENT WHEREBY IRAQ MAY SELL UP TO TWO BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF OIL TO RAISE MONEY FOR HUMANITARIAN PURPOSES.

    THE BELEAGUERED AMERICAN TOBACCO INDUSTRY SCORED A VICTORY WHEN A FEDERAL JUDGE RULED THAT A LAWSUIT ON BEHALF OF ALL ADDICTED SMOKERS IN THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA COULD NOT PROCEED. THE JUDGE RULED THERE ARE TOO MANY INDIVIDUAL ISSUES TO TRY THE CASE EFFICIENTLY.

    THE MCDONALD'S RESTAURANT CHAIN SAYS IT WILL ABANDON ITS SPECIAL 55 CENT HAMBURGER PROMOTION IN THE UNITED STATES. MANY MCDONALD'S FRANCHISE OWNERS SAID THE PROMOTION DID NOT CREATE ENOUGH NEW SALES TO OFFSET LOST PROFITS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LWM
    04-Jun-97 5:18 PM EDT (2118 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/04/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10195
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY JUNE 4TH, ESPECIALLY WATCH FOR UPDATES ON THE TIMOTHY MCVEIGH SENTENCING //

    INTRO: THE CANADIAN ELECTION, WITH A NARROW VICTORY FOR THE GOVERNING LIBERAL PARTY OF PRIME MINISTER JEAN CHRETIEN, TOPS THE LIST OF TOPICS IN WEDNESDAY'S NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS.

    OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION ARE THE TIMOTHY MCVEIGH TRIAL, NOW IN ITS PENALTY PHASE; THE SITUATION IN SIERRA LEONE AND WHAT IT SAYS ABOUT AFRICA'S FUTURE; THE WARMING RELATIONS BETWEEN UKRAINE AND RUSSIA AND HOW BRITAIN'S NEW LABOR GOVERNMENT IS TACKLING THE QUESTION OF NORTHERN IRELAND.

    NOW HERE IS ____________WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST, CONTAINING A CLOSER LOOK AT SOME OF THESE COMMENTARIES AND A QUOTE OR TWO.

    TEXT: THE NARROW VICTORY OF THE LIBERAL PARTY IN MONDAY'S CANADIAN ELECTION HAS CAUGHT THE ATTENTION OF A PRESS THAT ALL TOO OFTEN IGNORES EVENTS NORTH OF THE U-S BORDER. IN USA TODAY, THERE IS COMMENT ON BOTH THE RECENT FRENCH AND CANADIAN ELECTIONS.

    VOICE: "IT'S TOUGH TO SELL AUSTERITY TO A NATIONA WALLOWING IN UNEMPLOYMENT. JUST ASK FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC OR CANADIAN PRIME MINISTER JEAN CHRETIEN, BOTH FRESH FROM ELECTORAL BLISTERINGS THIS WEEK. EACH HAS SPENT THE PAST FEW YEARS CONFRONTING THE DILEMMA FACED BY EVERY INDUSTRALIZED DEMOCRACY: AS THE POPULATION AGES, THE REVENUES AREN'T THERE TO PAY FOR AS MUCH GOVERNMENT AS WAS PROMISED. DEFICITS AND ECONOMIC STAGNATION FOLLOW. ..... [MR.] CHIRAC, CONFIDENT THAT HE'D BE REWARDED FOR MOVING HIS NATION TOWARD FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY, CALLED EARLY ELECTIONS. BUT WITH UNEMPLOYMENT HAVING RISEN TO 13 PERCENT, VOTERS OVERWHELMINGLY REPUDIATED HIM. ..... IN CANADA, WHERE UNEMPLOYMENT IS STUCK AT NINE PERCENT, [MR.] CHRETIEN NARROWLY ESCAPED A SIMILAR FATE. BUT HIS AUSTERITY PLAN ALREADY IS SO FAR ALONG THAT CANADIANS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN 29 YEARS FACE THE PLEASANT CHOICES THAT ACCOMPANY A BUDGET SURPLUS: SHOULD THEY CUT TAXES, IMPROVE SOCIAL PROGRAMS, OR PAY DOWN THE DEBT THEY'VE RUN UP?"

    [OPT]

    TEXT: COMMENTING ONLY ON THE CANADIAN VOTE, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR SAYS MR. CHRETIEN HAS SOME TOUGH GOING AHEAD.

    VOICE: "THOUGH HE WON MONDAY'S TALLY, HE LOST ON ...BROADER COUNTS. THE LIBERALS' MAJORITY IN PARLIAMENT SHRANK TO A SLIM 155 OUT OF 301 SEATS, AND THE GAINS BY THREE OTHER PARTIES - - THE WESTERN-BASED REFORM PARTY, THE LEFT-LEANING NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY, AND THE NEARLY EXTINCT PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVES - - PRESAGE FRACTIOUS POLITICS AHEAD."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE REBELLION IN WESTERN CANADA'S PRAIRIE PROVINCES IS THE FOCUS OF AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY NEW YORK TIMES.

    VOICE: ".... THE MOST INTERESTING RESULT WAS THE REVOLT THAT SWEPT THE WESTERN PROVINCES, GIVING THE RIGHT-WING REFORM PARTY 60 SEATS, THUS MAKING PRESTON MANNING THE OFFICIAL OPPOSITION LEADER IN PARLIAMENT. THE EVANGELICAL MR. MANNING HAS TAPPED RESENTMENT AGAINST QUEBEC, HIGH TAXES AND BIG GOVERNMENT, BUT HIS DECADE-OLD PARTY DRAWS MOST OF ITS SUPPORT FROM ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA AND HAS VIRTUALLY NO PRESENCE EAST OF MANITOBA. FOR MUCH OF THIS CENTURY THE CANADIAN WEST HAS SERVED AS A TAKEOFF PLATFORM FOR YEASTY, ODDBALL AND GENUINELY RADICAL POLITICAL MOVEMENTS THAT SOMEHOW SPUTTER OUT ON THE LONG VOYAGE EASTWARD."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MAJOR DOMESTIC ISSUE, THE BOMBING TRIAL OF TIMOTHY MCVEIGH, WHICH RESULTED IN A GUILTY VERDICT, THERE IS THIS PRAISE FROM THE PROVIDENCE [RHODE ISLAND] JOURNAL-BULLETIN FOR HOW THE TRIAL WAS CONDUCTED.

    VOICE: "THE JURY'S VERDICT WAS NOT UNEXPECTED, BUT MANY PEOPLE WERE SURPRISED - - AND IMPRESSED - - BY THE CALM AND EXPEDITIOUS MANNER IN WHICH THE TRIAL WAS CONDUCTED. THE THREE-RING [LARGE] CIRCUS ATMOSPHERE OF THE O-J SIMPSON TRIAL HAD SPREAD DISILLUSIONMENT ABOUT THE NATION'S CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM; MANY FEARED THAT EVEN WORSE SHENANIGANS [FOOLISHNESS] WOULD TAKE PLACE AT THE MCVEIGH TRIAL, INVOLVING THE SINGLE MOST HEINOUS ACT OF TERRORISM ON AMERICAN SOIL. .....THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING WAS A GREAT TRAGEDY; FORTUNATELY, THE DIGNITY OF THE TRIAL HONORED THE MEMORY OF THE VICTIMS."

    [BEGIN OPT]

    TEXT: NOW, ON TO THE OMAHA WORLD-HERALD WHICH SUGGESTS THAT TIMOTHY MCVEIGH BADLY MISREAD THE POLITICAL MOOD OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE.

    VOICE: "TRIAL TESTIMONY INDICATED THAT [MR.] MCVEIGH EXPECTED THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING TO BE FOLLOWED BY SIMILAR DOMESTIC UPRISINGS AROUND THE COUNTRY. HOW WRONG HE WAS...[MR.] MCVEIGH GROSSLY MISJUDGED THE VAST MAJORITY OF HIS FELLOW AMERICANS. THEY DON'T WANT TO DESTROY THEIR GOVERNMENT OR THEIR TOLERANT SOCIETY. RATHER, HIS ATTEMPT TO SHRED THE NATION'S SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FABRIC MOTIVATED A GOOD MANY PEOPLE TO REASSERT THEIR BELIEF IN AN AMERICAN COMMUNITY THAT EMBRACES ALL COLORS AND CREEDS. HOW GALLING THAT MUST BE TO MCVEIGH."

    TEXT: THE KANSAS CITY {MISSOURI] STAR WONDERS IN AN EDITORIAL CALLED "THE MESSAGE FROM DENVER", ABOUT THE MIND OF A TERRORIST.

    VOICE: "TO BELIEVE ONE'S CAUSE CAN B ADVNACED BY SLAUGHTERING INNOCENTS IS PERHAPS THE ULTIMATE EXPRESSION OF SELF-OBESSION. IT IS NECESSARILY BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT CONSUMMATING ONE'S RAGE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANYONE'S RIGHT TO LIVE. IN THAT RESPECT, ALL TERRORISTS STAND ON COMMON GROUND. THE ROOT IDEA--ALWAYS ATTRACTIVE TO WEAK MINDS--IS THE FAMILIAR DELUSION THAT THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS." [END OPT] TODAY'S [6/4] PENALTY-PHASE JURY DELIBERATIONS, OF WHETHER MR. MCVEIGH SHOULD BE SENTENCED TO DEATH OR LIFE IN PRISON, DRAWS THIS SUGGESTION FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES, WHICH SUGGESTS THE LATTER.

    VOICE: "WE UNDERSTAND FULLY THE FEELING OF MANY, PERHAPS MOST, AMERICANS THAT THIS, OF ALL CRIMES, WAS SURELY ONE THAT MERITS A DEATH SENTENCE. BUT NEITHER OUR OWN RECOIL AT THE HEINOUS DEED NOR OUR SYMPATHY FOR THE BLAST'S MANY VICTIMS ALTERS THE BASIC CONCERN THAT HAS LONG DRIVEN THIS PAGE'S OPPOSITION TO THE DEATH PENALTY. WE SEE CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, WHICH IS STATE-SPONSORED KILLING, AS MORALLY WRONG AND AGAINST THE CONSTITUTION'S BAN ON CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENTS. ..... MOREOVER, EXECUTING THIS DEFENDANT WOULD GREATLY DIMINISH THE CHANCE OF LATER DISCOVERING WHETHER WE KNOW THE FULL STORY OF THE BOMBING AND WHETHER THERE WERE OTHERS INVOLVED WHO ARE NOT YET KNOWN."

    TEXT: THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION'S EDITORIAL PAGE EDITOR, CYNTHIA TUCKER, WEIGHS IN ON THE SAME SUBJECT, DEPLORING THE EXPECTED EMOTIONAL TESTIMONY OF RELATIVES AND FRIENDS OF THE DECEASED.

    VOICE: "THIS IS NO LAMENT FOR [MR.] MCVEIGH, A VICIOUS AND HOLLOW SOUL WHO ENJOYED THE FREEDOM AND PROSPERITY OF A GREAT COUNTRY ONLY TO TURN AROUND AND TRY TO DESTROY IT. IF THERE IS A HELL, SURELY THERE IS A RESERVATION FOR HIM THERE. THIS IS, INSTEAD, A PLEA FOR OUR COUNTRY AND ITS SYSTEM OF JUSTICE; WHICH IS SUPPOSED TO HONOR ALL VICTIMS EQUALLY. IT HAS NEVER BEEN PERFECT IN DOING THAT. BUT OVER TWO CENTURIES, PRODDED ALONG BY THE 'RIGHTS REVOLUTION' OF THE 1960S, THE AMERICAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM HAS COME CLOSER TO THE IDEAL - - CLOSER TO PROVIDING ALL CITIZENS EQUAL STANDING BEFORE THE BAR OF JUSTICE ....NO MATTER WHETHER RICH OR POOR, LOVED OR UNLOVED, FAMOUS OR INFAMOUS. THE CAMPAIGN FOR 'VICTIMS' RIGHTS' THREATENS TO MOVE US BACKWARD. .... WE OUGHT TO GRIEVE WITH THE VICTIMS OF TERRIBLE CRIMES - - ESPECIALLY THE OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING ..... BUT WE SHOULD NOT ALLOW THEM TO SWAY THE JURY WITH THEIR SUFFERING."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING NOW TO OVERSEAS EVENTS, AND TO THE RECENT MILITARY COUP IN SIERRA LEONE, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES LAMENTS:

    VOICE: "DESPITE REBEL TROOPS' OUSTER OF THE ELECTED PRESIDENT, DEMOCRACY MAY NOT BE DEAD IN THE WEST AFRICAN COUNTRY OF SIERRA LEONE. AT THE REQUEST OF PRESIDENT AHMAD TEJAN KABBAH, .... A FORMER U-N OFFICER .... TROOPS FROM NIGERIA, GHANA AND GUINEA HAVE COME IN TO TURN THE TIDE. THIS POWERFUL INTERVENTION, NOW THE RULE RATHER THAN THE EXCEPTION IN THE TROUBLED REGION, COULD ULTIMATELY RESTORE CIVILIAN RULE, WHICH WOULD BE AN IRONY BECAUSE NIGERIAN LEADER SANI ABACHA HIMSELF IS A MILITARY DICTATOR. [OPT] NEVERTHELESS, [GENERAL] ABACHA AND HIS ARMY GET CREDIT FOR SUPPRESSING CIVIL CONFLICTS ALONG THE BULGE OF WEST AFRICA. NIGERIAN TROOPS WERE DOMINANT IN THE AFRICAN FORCE THAT QUELLED LIBERIA'S VICIOUS CIVIL WAR, FOR INSTANCE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ACROSS THE GLOBE, A RECENT VISIT BY BORIS YELTSIN TO UKRAINE EARNS THIS COMMENT FORM THE WASHINGTON POST, WHICH SAYS THE WEST SHOULD WATCH AND BE WARY.

    VOICE: "MUCH ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED LAST WEEK ON RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN'S TRIP TO PARIS, WHERE HE SIGNED A COOPERATION AGREEMENT WITH WESTERN NATIONS OF THE NATO MILITARY ALLIANCE. BUT A TRIP HE SUBSEQUENTLY MADE TO UKRAINE MAY CARRY JUST AS MUCH SIGNIFICANCE FOR FUTURE PEACE IN EUROPE. ..... MANY RUSSIANS FOUND THEIR LOSS OF EMPIRE IN GENERAL TO BE DIFFICULT, BUT THE DIVORCE FROM UKRAINE .... A FRANCE-SIZED COUNTRY .... WAS PARTICULARLY WRENCHING. ... MANY ... RUSSIANS ... SAW - - AND SOME STILL SEE - - UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE AS A TEMPORARY ABERRATION. SO WHEN MR. YELTSIN FINALLY SIGNED, ON SATURDAY, A TREATY RECOGNIZING THE SOVEREIGNTY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF UKRAINE, HE TOOK A SIGNIFICANT STEP. [OPT] RUSSIA RENOUNCED ALL BORDER CLAIMS. ....ONE PRESIDENTIAL VISIT, EVEN WITH A SOLEMN TREATY SIGNING, WILL NOT CHANGE RUSSIA'S MENTALITY OR END ITS DEBATE ABOUT UKRAINE'S NATION HOOD. .... BUT THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINE AGREEMENT IS ANOTHER VINDICATION OF NATO'S STRATEGY OF REACHING EASTWARD TO FORMER NATIONS OF THE SOVIET BLOC. ..... THOSE TIES [UKRAINE'S TIES WITH NATO] ...HELPED CONVINCE RUSSIA THAT IT IT WANTS TO RETAIN ANY INFLUENCE AT ALL IT SHOULD TREAT UKRAINE AS A SOVEREIGN NATION, NOT A VASSAL STATE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES AND WASHINGTON POST RECENTLY PRAISED SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT FOR WHAT THEY DESCRIBED AS "CANDOR AND EXTREMELY TOUGH TALK" DURING HER RECENT TRIP TO THE BALKANS. BUT TODAY, NEWSDAY [LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK], HAS A DIFFERENT INTERPRETATION OF THE SECRETARY'S RHETORIC.

    VOICE: "IT MAY HAVE BEEN IMPORTANT FOR SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT TO CHASTISE CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS ON HER RECENT TRIP TO THE BALKANS FOR DOING LITTLE TO IMPLEMENT THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. BUT WITHOUT EFFECTIVE LEVERAGE TO FORCE COMPLIANCE, [MS.] ALBRIGHT'S WORDS HAD THE INEFFECTUAL TONE OF A SCHOOLMARMISH SCOLDING. WASHINGTON AND ITS NATO ALLIES WILL HAVE TO DO BETTER."

    TEXT: FINALLY, ON THE NEW BRITISH GOVERNMENT'S OVERTURES TO THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY AND RESISTANCE TO BRITISH RULE IN NORTHERN IRELAND, TODAY'S BOSTON GLOBE PROCLAIMS: VOICE; "FORMER [U-S] SENATOR GEORGE MITCHELL ....WILL HAVE LITTLE SUCCESS IN BROKERING A SETTLEMENT UNTIL THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY CALLS A PERMANENT CEASE-FIRE AND REMOVES VIOLENCE FROM THE POLITICS OF NORTHERN IRELAND. ..... THEN [MR.] MITCHELL WILL HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR SUBSTANTIVE DIPLOMACY. ....PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR HAS SIGNALED THAT HE INTENDS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT. [MR.] BLAIR'S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF BRITISH COMPLICITY IN IRISH FAMINE DEATHS SUGGESTS THAT HIS GOVERNMENT IS OPEN TO NEW APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE NEIGHBORING ISLAND."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, THE DAILY NEWS IN NEW YORK, IS NOT AS PLEASED WITH THE PRIME MINISTER'S COMMENT, ASKING:

    VOICE: "IS HALF AN APOLOGY BETTER THAN NONE? SOMETIMES. [OPT] PARTICULARLY WHEN IT'S 150 YEARS IN COMING AND ARRIVES SMACK [SUDDENLY] OUT OF THE BLUE [TOTALLY UNEXPECTEDLY] FROM AN ENTITY HERETOFORE DEAD SET AGAINST ACCEPTING ANY RESPONSIBILITY. THE ENTITY IN QUESTION IS THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, AND THE QUESTION AT HAND IS THE ROLE BRITAIN PLAYED IN THE IRISH FAMINE OF 1845-50. [END OPT] OVER THE WEEKEND, BRITAIN'S NEW PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR, WROTE A LETTER THAT WAS READ AT FAMINE COMMEMORATION CEREMONIES IN CORK. [MR.] BLAIR WROTE: 'THAT ONE MILLION PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE DIED IN WHAT WAS THEN PART OF THE RICHEST AND MOST POWERFUL NATION IN THE WORLD IS SOMETHING THAT STILL CAUSES PAIN ...." NEEDLESS TO SAY, THE IRISH HAVE NEVER FORGOTTEN. IT'S THE BRITS WHO HAVE REFUSED TO REMEMBER. [MR.] BLAIR'S LETTER SUGGESTS HE'D LIKE TO MAKE A START ON CHANGING THAT. "

    TEXT: ON THAT HOPEFUL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    04-Jun-97 11:05 AM EDT (1505 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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