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Voice of America, 97-06-13

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] GREECE ALBANIA (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)
  • [02] ALBRIGHT / TURKEY (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)
  • [03] SHOWDOWN IN TURKEY NEARS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] TURKEY/POLITICS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [05] E-U/CENTAM RIGHTS (L-ONLY) BY BILL RODGERS (SAN JOSE)
  • [06] E-U SUMMIT SCENESETTER (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [07] FRANCE / GERMANY SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (POITIERS)
  • [08] U-S / BOSNIA POLICY SHIFT? BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] NATO / EASTERN EUROPE (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [10] NATO MEETING (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)
  • [11] ALBRIGHT / LATVIA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)
  • [12] EAST EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [13] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [14] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)
  • [15] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [16] DEVELOPING WORLD / COMPUTER GAP BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

  • [01] GREECE ALBANIA (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215671
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IT'S NOW TWO WEEKS BEFORE ALBANIANS GO TO THE POLLS, AND GREECE IS ENCOURAGING ITS ALBANIAN COMMUNITY TO GO HOME TO VOTE. GREEK OFFICIALS SAY SPECIAL MEASURES WILL BE TAKEN TO PROVIDE ALBANIAN REFUGEES WITH A SAFE TRIP BACK TO THEIR COUNTRY FOR THE JUNE 29TH ELECTION. ANTHEE CARASSAVA REPORTS FROM ATHENS, WHERE A LEADING ALBANIAN CANDIDATE IS BOTH CAMPAIGNING FOR VOTES AND ATTEMPTING TO EASE VOTERS' CONCERN OVER ONGOING VIOLENCE IN ALBANIA.

    TEXT: THE GREEK MEASURES WERE ANNOUNCED IN ATHENS AFTER TALKS BETWEEN A TEAM OF SENIOR FOREIGN MINISTRY OFFICIALS AND ALBANIAN SOCIALIST PARTY LEADER, FATOS NANO.

    THE MEASURES INCLUDE GUARDED TRANSPORT AND ONE-MONTH TRAVEL VISAS, ALLOWING THOUSANDS OF ALBANIANS WHO FLED THEIR COUNTRY AMID VIOLENT UNREST TO RETURN TO GREECE AFTER THE VOTE. ALBANIANS, BY LAW, ARE REQUIRED TO CAST THEIR BALLOT IN THEIR HOMELAND.

    OFFICIALS SAY THE ANNOUNCED MEASURES REFLECT GREECE'S BID TO HELP PUT AN END TO THE VIOLENT CRISIS THAT CONTINUES TO LOOM OVER ITS NORTHERN FRONTIER. BUT FOR CHAOS-WRACKED ALBANIA. THE MEASURES UNDERSCORE ONE OF THE KEY PROBLEMS WHICH THE COUNTRY'S UPCOMING ELECTIONS FACE: VOTERS TURNOUT.

    PREOCCUPIED WITH THE PROBLEM ARE ALBANIA'S SOCIALISTS, WHO ARE DESPERATELY TRYING TO WIN A MAJORITY VOTE TO OVERTHROW FROM POWER THE "DEMOCRATIC PARTY" OF PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA.

    FATOS NANO SAYS AT LEAST 600-THOUSAND ALBANIANS LEFT THE COUNTRY SINCE IT SLIPPED INTO ANARCHY EARLIER THIS YEAR, FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF QUICK-PROFIT INVESTMENTS KNOWN AS PYRAMID SCHEMES. MR. NANO CLAIMS THEY WERE ALL DISGRUNTLED BY WHAT HE CALLS THE TOTALITARIAN POLICIES OF PRESIDENT BERISHA.

    THE SOCIALIST LEADER IS PRESENTLY IN GREECE TRYING TO PERSUADE SOME 300-THOUSAND ALBANIANS TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMELAND TO VOTE AGAINST THE CAUSE OF THEIR PLIGHT. FATOS NANO HAS EVEN SCHEDULED AN UNPRECEDENTED ELECTION RALLY IN THE CENTER OF ATHENS (FRIDAY) TO EASE THE SECURITY CONCERNS OF HIS ALBANIAN COMPATRIOTS.

    DURING HIS VISIT TO GREECE, MR. NANO FREQUENTLY ATTRIBUTED THE LATEST UPSURGE IN ALBANIA'S TO GOVERNMENT FORCES WHOM HE ACCUSES OF TRYING TO TERRORIZE VOTERS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AC/PCF/KL
    13-Jun-97 9:20 AM EDT (1320 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBRIGHT / TURKEY (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215678
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE UNITED STATES WANTS TO SEE A SECULAR DEMOCRACY MAINTAINED IN TURKEY -- AND THAT WASHINGTON HOPES TURKISH OFFICIALS WILL NOT MAKE ANY MOVES THAT VIOLATE THE COUNTRY'S CONSTITUTION. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES HAS SUPPORTED TURKEY AS A SECULAR DEMOCRACY -- BUT WARNINGS BY THE TURKISH MILITARY ABOUT USING FORCE TO STOP A (GOVERNMENT) MOVE TOWARD ISLAMIC POLICIES HAVE WORRIED OFFICIALS HERE.

    IN AN APPARENT ATTEMPT TO CALM THE MILITARY CRITICS, (ISLAMIC) PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN INTENDS TO TRANSFER POWER TO DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER. ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE PLAN, HOWEVER, BROUGHT A WARNING FROM TURKEY'S PRESIDENT ABOUT POSSIBLE VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION.

    SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT TELLS REPORTERS AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE UNITED STATES WANTS TURKEY'S CONSTITUTION TO BE FOLLOWED.

    ///ALBRIGHT ACT///

    WHATEVER ISSUES ARE GOING ON THERE, WHATEVER DISCUSSIONS AND WHATEVER CHANGES PEOPLE ARE THINKING ABOUT, THEY HAVE TO BE WITHIN A DEMOCRATIC CONTEXT, WITH NO EXTRA CONSTITUTIONAL APPROACH.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS THE UNITED STATES APPRECIATES TURKEY AS A SECULAR DEMOCRACY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    13-Jun-97 12:23 PM EDT (1623 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] SHOWDOWN IN TURKEY NEARS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/13/97
    TYPE=U-S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10212
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A LONG-SIMMERING DISPUTE BETWEEN TURKEY'S ISLAMIC-FUNDAMENTALIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, AND THE NATION'S MILITARY LEADERS APPEARS TO BE COMING TO A CLIMAX.

    THE MILITARY INSISTS THE NATION REMAIN A SECULAR DEMOCRACY, AS FOUNDER KEMAL ATATURK PROCLAIMED IN THE 1920S. AND IT IS GROWING ANGRY AT MR. ERBAKAN'S EFFORTS TO TRANSFORM THE NATION INTO A RELIGIOUS ISLAMIC STATE.

    THE U-S PRESS, WATCHING DEVELOPMENTS WITH ANXIETY FOR SOME TIME, HAS SOME THOUGHTS, AND WE GET A SAMPLING NOW FROM ___________________IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: NO ONE IS SURE WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT IN TURKEY, BUT SOME WESTERN OBSERVERS FEAR A POSSIBLE MILITARY COUP. SHOULD IT HAPPEN, IT WOULD BE THE FOURTH SINCE 1960.

    WHAT APPEARS MORE LIKELY IS A CHANGE IN THE GOVERNMENT AND -- POSSIBLY -- EARLY ELECTIONS. FORMER PRIME MINISTER, TANSU CILLER, THE NATION'S FIRST WOMAN TO HOLD THE JOB, HAS BEEN SHARING POWER IN A SHAKY COALITION WITH PRIME MINISTER ERBAKAN, THE NATION'S FIRST PRO-ISLAMIC LEADER. NOW SHE IS SET TO BE PRIME MINISTER AGAIN. MR. ERBAKAN HAS ANNOUNCED HE WILL HAND OVER POWER TO HER IN A FEW DAYS.

    THE NEED FOR A CHANGE STEMS FROM THE POLICIES OF MR. ERBAKAN, WHO HAS FORGED AHEAD WITH HIS ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST AGENDA, IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC POLICY, MAKING THE GENERALS MORE AND MORE UNEASY. IN AN UNPRECEDENTED SERIES OF BRIEFINGS FOR POLITICAL LEADERS, JOURNALISTS AND BUSINESSMEN, THE MILITARY THIS WEEK LAID OUT ITS CASE AGAINST THE PRIME MINISTER AND CHARGED THAT FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR HIS ISLAMIC MOVEMENT IS COMING FROM IRAN, LIBYA, SUDAN AND SAUDI ARABIA.

    SINCE TURKEY IS A STAUNCH MEMBER OF NATO AND A GATEWAY TO THE MIDDLE EAST, THE UNITED STATES IS VERY CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT GOES ON THERE, AS IS THE PRESS. WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING IN CALIFORNIA, WHERE THE LOS ANGELES TIMES CALLS WHAT IS GOING ON "A DANGEROUS TILT BY TURKEY."

    VOICE: "IN POWER LESS THAN A HEAR, TURKISH PRIME MINISTER ... ERBAKAN HAS RUN INTO SERIOUS TROUBLE AT HOME AND ABROAD OVER HIS PRO-ISLAMIST POLICIES. ..... THE MILITARY, WHICH CREATED THE NEW TURKEY IN THE 1920S, IS SENDING STRONG SIGNALS THAT [MR.] ERBAKAN STEPPED OVER THE LINE WITH HIS SUPPORT OF WOMEN CIVIL SERVANTS WEARING VEILS AND IN OTHER MATTERS OF A RELIGIOUS NATURE. TO MOST IN THE WEST, THIS MAY SEEM AN INSULAR POLITICAL MATTER, BUT NOT TO THE GENERALS WHO VALUE TURKEY'S ROLE IN NATO AND ITS GOAL OF ACHIEVING MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. ..... TURKEY'S GEOSTRATEGIC STATUS AS THE EASTERN BULWARK OF NATO DOES NOT PERMIT AMBIGUITIES REGARDING ITS LOYALTIES. CLEARLY THE ANKARA GOVERNMENT SHOULD DEAL WITH ITS ISLAMIC NEIGHBORS, BUT TO WEAKEN MORE THAN 70 YEARS OF SECULAR SOCIETY IS ANOTHER MATTER."

    TEXT: THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE [3/27] WORRIES ABOUT A COUP, SUGGESTING THAT CURRENTLY, "TURKEY [IS] LIVING ON THE RAZOR'S EDGE."

    VOICE: "..... A COUP .... WOULD BE A TRAGIC SETBACK FOR TURKEY'S FLAWED BUT FUNCTIONING DEMOCRACY. WHAT'S MORE, A COUP WOULD CONFRONT WASHINGTON WITH STIFF NEW CHALLENGES, SINCE TURKEY IS A NATO MEMBER AND ONE OF THE UNITED STATES' MOST RELIABLE FRIENDS IN THE MOSLEM WORLD. ..... PREVENTING A COUP SHOULD BE A PRIORITY OF THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. IN PARTICULAR, WASHINGTON SHOULD URGE PATIENCE AND RESTRAINT ON THE PRO-WESTERN GENERALS, MAKING THEM UNDERTAND THAT BRUTAL MILITARY ACTION COULD PROVE TO BE A BIGGER THREAT TO TURKEY'S SECULAR SYSTEM THAN [PRIME MINISTER] ERBAKAN'S FUNDAMENTALIST LEANINGS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THERE IS SOME DISAGREEMENT AS TO THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION. WRITING IN THE WASHINGTON POST IN MARCH, [3/4/97] LALLY WEYMOUTH SUGGESTED THE SPECTER OF CIVIL WAR WAS POSSIBLE, ESPECIALLY SINCE THE ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST MEMBERS OF THE WELFARE PARTY HAD BEEN ARMING THEMSELVES WITH A WIDE ARRAY OF WEAPONS. MS. WEYMOUTH WRITES IN PART:

    VOICE: "THE MILITARY'S CONCERNS REFLECT THOSE FELT BY THE MAJORITY OF THE TURKISH POPULATION - - 80 PERCENT OF WHOM VOTED FOR SECULAR PARTIES IN THE LAST ELECTIONS. SINCE THAT TIME, TURKS HAVE WATCHED REFAH [TURKISH NAME FOR THE WELFARE PARTY] CHIP AWAY AT THE SECULAR DEMOCRACY OF WHICH THEY ARE RIGHTLY PROUD. .....ON THE DOMESTIC FRONT, [MR.] ERBAKAN PROPOSED THAT WOMEN WEARING ISLAMIC VEILS OR HEAD SCARVES BE ALLOWED TO WORK IN GOVERNMENT OFFICES AND IN UNIVERSITIES. HE CONTINUED HIS CAMPAIGN TO INTRODUCE RELIGION INTO HITHERTO SECULAR PLACES..... THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WOULD BE WISE TO ASSUAGE THE FEARS OF "TURKS WHO CHARGE THAT WASHINGTON EMBOLDENED THE ISLAMISTS BY CONVINCING THEM THAT AMERICA WOULD TOLERATE REFAH'S RULE. .....WASHINGTON SHOULD IMMEDIATELY DROP ANY AND ALL IDEAS ABOUT TAMING ISLAM IN TURKEY."

    TEXT: JOHN TIRMAN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE WINSTON FOUNDATION FOR WORLD PEACE, ALSO WRITING IN THE WASHINGTON POST, [3/26/97 SEES THE POWERFUL TURKISH MILITARY, RATHER THAN GROWING FUNDAMENTALIST ISLAM, AS THE MORE DANGEROUS THREAT.

    VOICE: "THE MILD RESURGENCE OF RELIGIOUS FEELING IN TURKEY IS MOSTLY BENIGN. REFAH'S ELECTORAL VICTORIES WERE DUE AS MUCH TO THE CORRUPTION OF THE DECREPIT SECULAR PARTIES AS FROM ANY ISLAMIC REVIVAL. ..... TURKEY'S SECULARISM IS NOT MERELY A LEGACY OF [KEMAL] ATATURK, THE REPUBLIC'S FOUNDER, BUT A HABIT OF THE TURKISH PUBLIC NOW FOR SEVEN DECADES. [MR.] ATATURK'S OTHER MAJOR LEGACY IS A FORMIDABLE MILITARY, AND THAT IS MORE WORRISOME. ..... THE REAL CIVIL WAR IN TURKEY IS NOT BETWEEN RELIGIONISTS AND SECULARISTS, BUT BETWEEN DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS AND MILITARISM."

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL SAYS [5/2/97] THE TIME HAS COME FOR THE SECULAR OPPOSITION TO RALLY TO THE FORE RATHER THAN THE MILITARY.

    VOICE: "FRESH ELECTIONS WOULD OFFER A NEW START, BUT ONLY IF THE SECULAR PARTIES CAN FIND STRONGER AND MORE PRINCIPLED LEADERS AND STEM THEIR BICKERING AND CORRUPTION. IT IS TO BE HOPED THAT BETTER SENSE WILL PREVAIL AND A DAY WILL ARRIVE WHEN THE MILITARY DOESN'T FEEL COMPELLED TO STICK ITS FINGERS IN THE DEMOCRATIC MACHINE. PRESERVING THE LEGACY OF THE GREAT MODERNIZER, KEMAL ATATURK, IS IMPORTANT TO TURKEY, BUT THAT CAN BE DONE EFFECTIVELY ONLY THROUGH MAJOR PARTIES STEPPING UP TO THE TASK."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL OPINION FROM THE U-S PRESS DURING THE PAST FEW MONTHS ON THE FISSURES DEVELOPING IN THE TURKISH BODY POLITIC.
    NEB/ANG/EH
    13-Jun-97 3:12 PM EDT (1912 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] TURKEY/POLITICS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215680
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKEY'S ISLAMIST PRIME MINISTER, NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, HAS AGREED TO HAND OVER POWER TO TANSU CILLER, THE LEADER OF HIS JUNIOR COALITION PARTNER, THE CONSERVATIVE "TRUE PATH" PARTY. THE ANNOUNCEMENT COMES AMID MOUNTING PRESSURE FROM TURKEY'S POWERFUL ARMED FORCES FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO RESIGN. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: SPEAKING ON TELEVISION, HASAN EKINCI, DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF MRS CILLER'S "TRUE PATH" PARTY, OR D-Y-P, CONFIRMED THAT MR. ERBAKAN WOULD HAND OVER THE PREMIERSHIP NEXT WEDNESDAY. //OPT// COMMENTATORS SAY THE DEAL IS AIMED AT FENDING OFF MOUNTING PRESSURE FROM THE TURKISH MILITARY FOR THE 11-MONTH-OLD ISLAMIST LED COALITION TO STEP DOWN. //END OPT//

    THE AGREEMENT HAS TRIGGERED FURTHER RESIGNATIONS FROM THE D-Y-P WING OF THE CABINET. TOURISM MINISTER, BAHATTIN YUCEL ON FRIDAY BECAME THE FOURTH MINISTER TO QUIT THE GOVERNMENT IN PROTEST OVER MRS. CILLER'S CONTINUING ALLIANCE WITH THE ISLAMISTS.

    TURKEY'S GENERALS, WHO VIEW THEMSELVES AS THE CUSTODIANS OF THE SECULAR REPUBLIC FOUNDED BY KEMAL ATATURK, ACCUSE MR. ERBAKAN OF SEEKING TO REDIRECT TURKEY FROM ITS TRADITIONAL PRO-WESTERN COURSE. //OPT// IN THEIR MOST OPEN THREAT TO THE ISLAMISTS SO FAR, MILITARY OFFICIALS ON WEDNESDAY ACCUSED THE GOVERNMENT OF FAILING TO CRACK DOWN ON ISLAMIC EXTREMISM AND SAID ISLAMIC RADICAL GROUPS HAD SHARPLY INCREASED UNDER THE CURRENT ADMINISTRATION. //END OPT//

    MRS CILLER, NOW BOTH DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER AND FOREIGN MINISTER, HAS LONG SOUGHT TO PERSUADE MR. ERBAKAN TO HAND OVER THE PREMIERSHIP, SAYING THIS WOULD EASE THE MOUNTING CHORUS OF PRO-SECULARIST PROTEST AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.

    BUT SOME POLITICAL COMMENTATORS SAY IT IS NOW TOO LATE FOR THAT. RECENT OPINION POLLS SHOW THAT MRS CILLER'S POPULARITY AND CREDIBILITY HAVE TAKEN A SERIOUS PLUNGE SINCE SHE FORGED A PARTNERSHIP WITH THE ISLAMISTS LAST YEAR.

    IN EXCHANGE FOR THE PREMIERSHIP, MRS CILLER IS BELIEVED TO HAVE AGREED TO CEDE TO MR. ERBAKAN'S DEMANDS THAT SHE AND HER PARTY BACK EARLY GENERAL ELECTIONS, WHICH ARE NORMALLY SCHEDULED TO TAKE PLACE IN FOUR YEARS TIME.

    ANY SUCH DECISION NEEDS TO BE APPROVED BY THE TURKISH PARLIAMENT, WHERE THE RULING COALITION NO LONGER ENJOYS A MAJORITY. FOR MUCH OF TURKEY'S PRO-WESTERN SECULARIST ESTABLISHMENT -- AS, INDEED, FOR THE MILITARY -- THE IDEAL WAY OUT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS WOULD BE THE FORMATION OF A BROAD-BASED COALITION THAT WOULD EXCLUDE THE ISLAMISTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/EH
    13-Jun-97 12:25 PM EDT (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] E-U/CENTAM RIGHTS (L-ONLY) BY BILL RODGERS (SAN JOSE)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215703
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IS PROVIDING ALMOST FIVE MILLION DOLLARS TO FUND VARIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS THAT DEFEND HUMAN RIGHTS IN LATIN AMERICA. A SIGNING CEREMONY FOR THE FUNDING AGREEMENTS WAS HELD IN THE COSTA RICAN CAPITAL FRIDAY AT THE START OF A THREE DAY CONFERENCE -- AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A'S BILL RODGERS IN SAN JOSE.

    TEXT: THE AGREEMENTS SIGNED FRIDAY PROVIDE FOUR-POINT-NINE MILLION DOLLARS TO EIGHT ORGANIZATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA WHICH HELP DEFEND AND PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE REGION. THESE ARE THE LATEST GRANTS IN A PROGRAM STARTED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IN 1992 TO STRENGTHEN DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE AMERICAS. A COMMITTEE OF HUMAN RIGHTS EXPERTS CREATED BY THE COMMISSION IN BRUSSELS OVERSEES THE PROJECTS AND MONITORS HUMAN RIGHTS CONDITIONS IN THE REGION.

    COMMITTEE MEMBERS SAY ABOUT 70 PERCENT OF THE FUNDING GOES TO PROJECTS IN CENTRAL AMERICA -- WHICH IS STILL SUFFERING THE AFTER-EFFECTS OF THE CIVIL WARS OF THE 1980'S. COMMITTEE HEAD MENDEL GOLDSTEIN SAYS WHILE HUMAN RIGHTS CONDITIONS HAVE IMPROVED IN THE ISTHMUS SINCE THE LAST DECADE --PROBLEMS STILL REMAIN.

    ///GOLSTEIN ACT///

    "FORMAL DEMOCRACY SEEMS, MORE OR LESS, LIKE WESTERN STANDARDS. BUT OF COURSE IF YOU LOOK MORE CLOSELY THERE IS STILL A LOT OF THINGS TO DO. I WOULD SAY THERE ARE A LOT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOALTIONS, IMPUNITY, PUBLIC SECURITY IS VERY BAD -- JUSTICE IS NOT VERY INDEPENDENT, THERE ARE A LOT OF ABUSES BY THE POLICE FORCES AND, OF COURSE, IF YOU INCLUDE IN HUMANRIGHTS SOCIAL RIGHTS THEN YOU CAN SEE AN IMPORTANT SEGMENT OF THOSE COUNTRIES ARE STILL OUTSIDE OF ANY NORMAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE."

    ///END ACT///

    AMONG THE GROUPS RECEIVING COMMISSION GRANTS IS THE INTER-AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. IT WILL GET ONE MILLION DOLLARS FOR TRAINING AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN AREAS SUCH AS THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE AND THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS. THE INTER-AMERICAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS ALSO IS A BENEFICIARY -- RECEIVING SOME 339-THOUSAND DOLLARS.

    MR. GOLDSTEIN SAYS STRENGTHENING THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN LATIN AMERICA WILL GO A LONG WAY TOWARD IMPROVING HUMAN RIGHTS CONDITIONS IN THE REGION.

    ///GOLDSTEIN ACT///

    "PEOPLE MUST HAVE FAITH IN THE JUSTICE OF THEIR COUNTRY. FOR EXAMPLE, IN GUATEMALA'S PEACE PROCESS WE REALLY TRY ALL THE DONORS TO GET A FUNDAMENTAL REFORM OF THE JUSTICE SYSTEM. WE MUST HAVE JUDGES WHO ARE REASONABLY PAID SO THEY ARE INDEPENDENT AND ARE NOT CORRUPT. WE MUST HAVE A PENITENTIARY SYSTEM THAT IS RUN CORRECTLY AND WE ARE DEDICATING A LOT OF FUNDS TO THOSE PROBLEMS."

    ///END ACT///

    THE SIGNING CEREMONY FOR THE FUNDING AGREEMENTS WAS HELD FRIDAY IN THE COSTA RICAN CAPITAL. THE CEREMONY MARKED THE START OF A THREE-DAY CONFERENCE BETWEEN THE COMMISSION'S COMMITTEE OF HUMAN RIGHTS EXPERTS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    13-Jun-97 6:23 PM EDT (2223 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] E-U SUMMIT SCENESETTER (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215675
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///EDS: WILL HOLD THROUGH SUNDAY BROADCASTS ///

    INTRO: EUROPEAN UNION LEADERS GATHER IN AMSTERDAM THIS WEEKEND FOR IMPORTANT SUMMIT TALKS. THEY HOPE TO REACH AGREEMENT ON A NEW TREATY THAT WILL SPEED DECISION-MAKING INSIDE THE 15-NATION BLOC AND PREPARE IT TO ADMIT NEW MEMBERS FROM EASTERN EUROPE. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM E-U HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: IF ALL GOES WELL, THE LEADERS WILL END THEIR MEETING WITH A "TREATY OF AMSTERDAM" TO ADDRESS SERIOUS PROBLEMS THAT CURRENTLY EXIST IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCEDURES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    THE AIM IS TO ENSURE THAT, AS IT DEVELOPS FROM A 15-NATION CLUB TO ONE WITH 28 OR MORE MEMBERS, THE EXTRA NUMBERS DO NOT LEAD TO BUREAUCRATIC GRIDLOCK AND PARALYSIS.

    THE PROPOSED TREATY WILL GRANT PEOPLE IN ALL STATES -- OTHER THAN PERHAPS BRITAIN AND IRELAND -- THE RIGHT TO MOVE FROM ONE COUNTRY TO ANOTHER, WITHOUT PASSING THROUGH BORDER CONTROLS AND HAVING TO SHOW THEIR PASSPORTS.

    TRAVELERS REQUIRING VISAS WILL NEED JUST ONE FOR THE 13-NATION AREA, AND THERE WILL ALSO BE COMMON RULES ON IMMIGRATION AND ASYLUM.

    BRITAIN APPEARS TO BE WINNING ITS DEMANDS TO BE EXCLUDED, ALONG WITH IRELAND, FROM SUCH AN ARRANGEMENT -- BUT WILL SIGN ON TO GREATER COOPERATION IN THE FIGHT AGAINST INTERNATIONAL CRIME AND TERRORISM.

    THE NEW TREATY WILL ALSO SPEED E-U DECISIONS ON FOREIGN POLICY, IN HOPES OF GIVING EUROPE GREATER AUTHORITY AND PRESENCE ON THE WORLD STAGE.

    IT IS NOT YET CLEAR HOW MUCH E-U DEFENSE COOPERATION WILL BE EXTENDED -- THE FRENCH AND GERMANS WANT SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS, BUT THE BRITISH AND SOME OTHERS ARE RESISTING THIS.

    DECISIONS ON SOME ISSUES, SUCH AS THE VOTING STRENGTH OF EACH E-U STATE WHEN JOINT DECISIONS ARE TAKEN, HAVE PROVED TOO DIFFICULT AND MAY BE PUT OFF FOR SOME YEARS. HOWEVER, THE TREATY IS LIKELY TO RESTRICT THE ABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL NATIONS TO BLOCK PROGRESS, WHEN THE MAJORITY ARE KEEN TO PRESS AHEAD.

    //OPT//

    THERE WILL ALSO BE A BREAKTHROUGH IN EXTENDING TO BRITAIN A FRAMEWORK FOR ENACTING EUROPE-WIDE EMPLOYMENT LAWS. BRITAIN'S PREVIOUS CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENT WAS JUST AS HOSTILE TO SUCH COOPERATION, AS THE CURRENT LABOR GOVERNMENT IS RECEPTIVE TO IT.

    //END OPT//

    ONE PROBLEM NEEDS TO BE RESOLVED BEFORE THE SUMMIT CAN BE SUCCESSFUL -- NAMELY, A DEMAND BY THE NEW FRENCH GOVERNMENT THAT JOB CREATION BE PLACED AT THE VERY TOP OF THE EUROPEAN AGENDA.

    UNTIL THIS IS AGREED, FRANCE REFUSES TO SIGN UP TO NEW RULES FOR RUNNING THE PLANNED EU SINGLE CURRENCY, SCHEDULED TO BE LAUNCHED IN ANOTHER 18 MONTHS.

    WITH SUCH A HEAVY WORKLOAD, THE SUMMIT IS EXPECTED TO BE A LONG AND DIFFICULT ONE, BUT THERE HAS BEEN A GREAT DEAL OF PREPARATION, WITH MORE THAN A YEAR OF NEGOTIATIONS TO PREPARE THE NEW TREATY.

    //REST OPT//

    SO OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE REASONABLY HOPEFUL THAT THE MEETING WILL BE A SUCCESS. IF NOT, THE EUROPEANS HAVE A TRIED AND TESTED FALL-BACK POSITION: IF ONE SUMMIT COLLAPSES IN FAILURE, YOU CAN ALWAYS ORGANIZE ANOTHER A FEW WEEKS LATER -- IN THE HOPE THAT THE SECOND WILL BE A BIG SUCCESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/PCF/RRM
    13-Jun-97 11:03 AM EDT (1503 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] FRANCE / GERMANY SUMMIT (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (POITIERS)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215683
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE AND GERMANY ARE HOLDING WEEKEND TALKS TO FIND A COMPROMISE OVER THE SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY BEFORE MONDAY'S EUROPEAN SUMMIT IN AMSTERDAM. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM POITIERS, FRANCE.

    TEXT: FRANCE AND GERMANY FAILED TO AGREE ON A VITAL PART OF THE RUNUP TO EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION AT A SUMMIT IN THE FRENCH CITY OF POITIERS FRIDAY. BUT THEY ARE CONTINUING TALKS THROUGH THE WEEKEND.

    GERMAN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL, WHO MET WITH CONSERVATIVE FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC AND HIS NEW SOCIALIST PRIME MINISTER LIONEL JOSPIN, SAID OFFICIALS OF BOTH COUNTRIES WILL WORK THROUGH THE WEEKEND TO SOLVE THEIR PROBLEM BEFORE THE EUROPEAN SUMMIT OPENS IN AMSTERDAM MONDAY.

    THE AMSTERDAM SUMMIT IS DUE TO APPROVE THE SO-CALLED "STABILITY PACT" GOVERNING THE ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF COUNTRIES THAT QUALIFY FOR MEMBERSHIP OF THE PROPOSED SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY. IT WOULD, FOR EXAMPLE, OBLIGE MEMBER COUNTRIES TO PAY PENALTIES IF THEIR PUBLIC DEFICITS GROW TOO LARGE.

    PRIME MINISTER JOSPIN, DURING HIS SUCCESSFUL ELECTION CAMPAIGN LAST MONTH, SERVED NOTICE THAT HE WANTS THE PACT TO CONTAIN MORE OF A SOCIAL MESSAGE AND A PLEDGE TO COMBAT UNEMPLOYMENT. HE SAID EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION IS TOO TECHNICAL AND IMPERSONAL FOR THE ORDINARY CITIZENS. HE SAID HE WOULD REFUSE ANY MORE AUSTERITY MEASURES FOR THE SAKE OF THE CURRENCY.

    EARLIER THIS WEEK, THE NEW FRENCH GOVERNMENT SAID IT NEEDS MORE TIME TO REVIEW THE STABILITY PACT BEFORE APPROVING IT IN AMSTERDAM. BUT GERMANY REFUSES TO CONTEMPLATE ANY DELAY.

    CHANCELLOR KOHL SAID THE FRENCH HAD SENT NEW PROPOSALS LATE THURSDAY TO DEFUSE THE CRISIS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/JWH/EH
    13-Jun-97 1:11 PM EDT (1711 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-S / BOSNIA POLICY SHIFT? BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36668
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RECENT STATEMENTS BY THE U-S SECRETARY OF STATE SEEM TO INDICATE A TOUGHER POLICY ON THE BALKANS. THEY ALSO APPEAR TO CONTRADICT STATEMENTS MADE BY THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ABOUT WHEN U-S TROOPS SHOULD BE PULLED OUT OF BOSNIA AND A SPECIAL FORCE CREATED TO ARREST WAR CRIMINALS. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR EXAMINES WHETHER THERE IS REAL DISAGREEMENT WITHIN THE ADMINISTRATION AND WHETHER THERE HAS BEEN A CHANGE IN THE U-S POSITION ON BOSNIA:

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT ALREADY HAD A REPUTATION FOR TOUGHNESS TOWARD THE BALKANS BEFORE SHE BECAME SECRETARY OF STATE. LATE LAST MONTH SHE LIVED UP TO THAT REPUTATION WHEN SHE PROPOSED AN EXPANDED ROLE FOR THE NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA AND A U-S COMMITMENT TO BRING INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS TO JUSTICE. SHORTLY AFTERWARD PRESIDENT CLINTON APPEARED TO SUPPORT THIS APPROACH WHEN HE TOLD REPORTERS IN LONDON THE UNITED STATES CANNOT JUST HANG AROUND AND THEN DISAPPEAR IN ONE YEAR AND EXPECT FULFILLMENT OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD.

    THESE VIEWS ARE IN CONTRAST WITH REMARKS EARLIER THIS YEAR BY DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN THAT U-S TROOPS WILL BE WITHDRAWN FROM BOSNIA AS PROMISED IN MID-1998. AND MR. COHEN'S POSITION WAS REAFFIRMED THIS WEEK/LAST WEEK (6/12) AT A BRUSSELS MEETING OF NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS.

    BUT MARSHALL HARRIS OF THE WASHINGTON-BASED BALKAN INSTITUTE DOES NOT THINK THERE IS REAL POLICY DISAGREEMENT WITHIN THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ON BOSNIA:

    /// HARRIS ACT ///

    THE MAGNITUDE OF THIS DISPUTE IS BEING PLAYED UP A BIT TOO MUCH. I THINK IT IS FAIRLY CLEAR THAT SECRETRY ALBRIGHT AND HER PEOPLE DO FEEL THAT THE U-S NEEDS TO STAY IN BOSNIA AND HAS A LOT THAT NEEDS TO BE DONE, SOME OF WHICH NEEDS TO BE DONE THROUGH THE U-S TROOPS OVER THE COURSE OF THE NEXT YEAR. AND THAT COMMITMENT IS STRONGER THAN THE PENTAGON'S BUT I DON'T SEE ANY EVIDENCE THE STATE DEPARTMENT IS ADVOCATING ANY APPRECIABLE SHIFT IN U-S POLICY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. HARRIS, WHO RESIGNED FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT IN 1993 BECAUSE OF WHAT HE CONSIDERED THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S TOO HESITANT POLICY IN THE BALKANS, BELIEVES THE U-S IS ON A DANGEROUS COURSE IN THE LONG TERM IN BOSNIA. HE SAYS WAR CAN ONLY BE AVERTED IF REFUGEES ARE RESETTLED AND INDICTED WAR CRIMES' SUSPECTS ARRESTED. HE DOES NOT BELIEVE A SPECIAL PARAMILITARY FORCE IS NEEDED TO DO THE ARRESTING, AS WAS ALSO DISCUSSED AT THE NATO MEETING IN BRUSSELS. MR. HARRIS SAYS NATO CURRENTLY HAS THE MANDATE TO ARREST THOSE CHARGED WITH CRIMES -- ALL THAT IS LACKING IS THE LEADERSHIP TO DO SO:

    /// HARRIS ACT TWO ///

    I THINK IF THE PRESIDENT WERE TO OUTLINE THE DANGERS OF NOT DOING IT AND PUT THE RISKS OF USING THE TROOPS IN PROPORTION, TO EXPLAIN TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE WHAT THESE PEOPLE HAVE DONE. WHY IT IS THAT FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE HITLER, THE U-S AND ITS ALLIES HAVE SEEN FIT TO CREATE AN INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. I THINK IF YOU MADE THAT CASE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE THEY WOULD ACCEPT WHAT IN MY VIEW ARE MINIMAL RISKS TO U-S TROOPS.

    /// END ACT ///

    NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS, HOWEVER, DISAGREE AND HAVE REJECTED THE AMERICAN PROPOSAL TO CREATE A SPECIAL FORCE TO GO TO BOSNIA AND HUNT DOWN WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS.

    ANOTHER ANALYST, DAN PLESH OF THE BRITISH-AMERICAN SECURITY INFORMATION SERVICE SAYS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT REPRESENTS A DRAMATIC CHANGE IN THE POLICY APPROACH OF HER PREDECESSOR WARREN CHRISTOPHER. AND HE THINKS A PARAMILITARY FORCE IS A GOOD IDEA:

    /// PLESH ACT ONE ///

    I THINK MS. ALBRIGHT IS LOOKING TO ENFORCE SOME OF THE ELEMENTS OF DAYTON RATHER MORE LITERALLY THAN ANY OF THE WESTERN COUNTRIES HAVE SO FAR BEEN PREPARED TO DO AND I THINK SHE SHOULD BE APPLAUDED FOR THAT AND CERTAINLY WE SHOULD SEE A SPECIAL FORCE WITH THE JOB OF SECURING WAR CRIMINALS. THAT'S VERY IMPORTANT BUT CLEARLY THERE IS STRONG RESISTANCE TO THAT FROM THE MILITARY BECAUSE THERE IS UNDERSTANDABLE RISK THAT ONCE YOU START USING MILITARY FORCE TO CAPTURE INDIVIDUALS, YOU THEN BECOME NOT A PEACEKEEPING FORCE BUT A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. PLESH AGREES WITH MARSHALL HARRIS THAT THERE IS GROWING PRESSURE ON THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES TO ARREST WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS AND THAT U-S LEADERSHIP IS ALL THAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE IT HAPPEN.

    /// PLESH ACT TWO ///

    THE U-S IS THE GLOBAL SUPERPOWER BUT IT IS NOT USING ITS POWER, RAISING CREDIBILITY PROBLEM AND ALLIANCE ENLARGEMENT QUESTIONS. ALTHOUGH (FORMER) YUGOSLAVIA (REPUBLICS) ARE NOT IN THE ALLIANCE, THERE IS A QUESTION OF HOW CREDIBLE THE ALLIANCE CAN BE IN DEALING WITH SECURITY PROBLEMS ON THE BORDERS OF NEW MEMBERS IF IT IS NOT ABLE TO FINALLY RESOLVE THE PROBLEM IN BOSNIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    DAN PLESH SAYS THAT WHAT LOOKS LIKE A DISAGREEMENT WITHIN THE ADMINISTION IS ACTUALLY WHAT HE CALLS SABRE RATTLING TO PRESSURE EUROPE INTO ADOPTING A HARDER LINE ON CONTINUING A NATO PRESENCE IN BOSNIA. HE SAYS IT MAY ALSO BE TO PRESSURE BALKAN LEADERS TO TURN OVER WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS SO THAT REFUGEES WILL FEEL IT IS SAFE TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES AND RESUME A NORMAL LIFE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/KL
    13-Jun-97 12:19 PM EDT (1619 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] NATO / EASTERN EUROPE (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215674
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA HAVE SHARPLY CRITICIZED THE U-S STATEMENT THAT ONLY THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY, AND POLAND SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE FIRST ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION. AS V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT BARRY WOOD REPORTS, THE MEMBERSHIP BIDS BY BOTH ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA ARE SUPPORTED BY SEVERAL NATIONS IN WESTERN EUROPE.

    TEXT: SLOVENIA AND ROMANIA SAY THEY ARE NOT GIVING UP AND WILL PUSH THEIR CLAIM FOR MEMBERSHIP UNTIL THE NATO SUMMIT NEXT MONTH IN SPAIN.

    NATO MEMBER ITALY ON FRIDAY VIGOROUSLY RENEWED ITS SUPPORT FOR SLOVENIAN AND ROMANIAN MEMBERSHIP. FOREIGN MINISTER LAMBERTO DINI SAID BOTH COUNTRIES MUST BE PART OF THE FIRST WAVE OF EXPANSION.

    HE SAID SLOVENIA PLAYS A CRUCIAL STRATEGIC MILITARY ROLE IN CONNECTING HUNGARY WITH OTHER NATO MEMBERS. HE SAID ROMANIA, BORDERING THE BLACK SEA, WOULD PROVIDE NEEDED EQUILIBRIUM IN THE SOUTH OF THE ALLIANCE. MR. DINI SAID THE FINAL DECISION ON MEMBERSHIP WILL NOT BE TAKEN UNTIL THE MADRID SUMMIT.

    IN BUCHAREST, ROMANIAN PRIME MINISTER VICTOR CIORBEA SAID HE HAS NOT GIVEN UP HOPE OF FIRST ROUND ADMISSION. MR. CIORBEA TRAVELS TO WASHINGTON NEXT WEEK TO LOBBY ROMANIA'S CASE WITH MEMBERS OF CONGRESS. THE ROMANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER SAID ROMANIAN MEMBERSHIP IS NEEDED TO PROTECT U-S INTERESTS IN THE BALKANS. SLOVENIA, LIKEWISE, SAYS IT WILL PRESS ITS CASE FOR FIRST ROUND ADMISSION. THE SLOVENIAN FOREIGN MINISTER STRESSED THAT HIS COUNTRY'S CANDIDACY ENJOYS SUPPORT FROM AT LEAST NINE NATO MEMBERS. HE SAID THAT SUPPORT IS GETTING STRONGER.

    OFFICIALS IN THE THREE BALTIC REPUBLICS, WHICH HAD NOT EXPECTED TO BE PART OF THE FIRST ROUND NATO EXPANSION, EXPRESSED HOPE THAT THIS WILL NOT BE THE LAST ROUND OF EXPANSION. NATO OFFICIALS EMPHASIZE THAT THE DOOR TO MEMBERSHIP DOES REMAIN OPEN AND THEY POINT TO INTEREST IN JOINING FROM PREVIOUSLY NEUTRAL AUSTRIA AND FINLAND.

    THE THREE EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES HEADED FOR NATO MEMBERSHIP ARE DELIGHTED WITH THE PRELIMINARY DECISIONS. IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, OFFICIALS SAID ENDORSEMENT OF ITS CANDIDACY WAS A CLEAR SIGN OF THE COUNTRY'S STABILITY. IN HUNGARY, THE FOREIGN MINISTRY CALLED THE U-S ANNOUNCEMENT A MAJOR STEP FORWARD. AND IN WARSAW, THE GOVERNMENT SAID THE DECISION SHOWS THAT POLISH READINESS FOR JOINING THE WESTERN ALLIANCE HAD BEEN POSITIVELY EVALUATED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/KL
    13-Jun-97 10:53 AM EDT (1453 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] NATO MEETING (L-ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215685
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA HOPES A DEAL CAN BE REACHED WITHIN 10 DAYS ON WHICH COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WILL BE THE FIRST TO BE OFFERED MEMBERSHIP IN THE ALLIANCE. THIS FOLLOWS AN ANNOUNCEMENT THAT THE UNITED STATES WANTS JUST THREE COUNTRIES TO JOIN THE 16-NATION ALLIANCE, IN THE FIRST WAVE. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS....

    TEXT: NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA IS TRYING TO DRAW TOGETHER A CONSENSUS INSIDE NATO. THIS FOLLOWS AMERICA'S ANNOUNCEMENT THAT WASHINGTON BELIEVES ONLY POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC SHOULD BE ISSUED INVITATIONS TO JOIN THE ALLIANCE AT NEXT MONTH'S NATO SUMMIT IN MADRID.

    THE NEWS DID NOT JUST DISAPPOINT THOSE COUNTRIES WHO WILL NOT RECEIVE INVITATIONS TO JOIN NATO, IF THE UNITED STATES GETS ITS WAY. IT ALSO CAUSED SOME CONCERN AMONG AMERICA'S NATO PARTNERS AS WELL.

    THE NEWS WAS BROKEN BY U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM COHEN, WHO TOLD A MEETING IN BRUSSELS OF NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS THAT WASHINGTON DOES NOT SUPPORT THE ADMISSION OF TWO CANDIDATES -- SLOVENIA AND ROMANIA -- FAVORED BY SOME OTHER ALLIES, AND HE ADDED THAT THIS POSITION IS NON-NEGOTIABLE. HOWEVER, SECRETARY COHEN WENT ON TO STRESS THAT THE DOOR REMAINS OPEN, AND THAT THERE COULD BE A FURTHER EXPANSION OF NATO AFTER THE FIRST THREE NEW MEMBERS HAVE BEEN ADMITTED.

    FRANCE WAS AMONG THE EUROPEAN NATO ALLIES TO CHALLENGE THE AMERICAN STANCE, AND THERE HAS ALSO BEEN CONCERN AND DISMAY EXPRESSED BY ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA AS WELL. THEY ARE TRYING TO PERSUADE PRESIDENT CLINTON TO CHANGE HIS MIND.

    FOLLOWING TALKS BETWEEN THE NATO MEMBERS AND MINISTERS FROM 27 ASSOCIATED STATES -- MOST OF WHOM ARE FROM EASTERN EUROPE -- ALLIANCE OFFICIALS SAID THE MATTER IS NOT YET CLOSED. THEY SAY NEGOTIATIONS WILL CONTINUE IN THE DAYS AHEAD, AND THERE IS NO GUARANTEE THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL GET ITS WAY. HOWEVER, MR SOLANA IS HOPING FOR AN ACCORD BY JUNE 23RD.

    AS A DECISION NEEDS THE CONSENT OF ALL, IT IS DIFFICULT TO SEE HOW A LONGER INVITATION LIST COULD BE DRAWN UP, IF WASHINGTON REMAINS RESOLUTE ON THE ISSUE.

    EFFORTS WERE MADE AT THE MEETING BETWEEN NATO AND THE 27 ASSOCIATED STATES TO STRESS THAT ALL THESE NATIONS ARE VITAL TO THE NEW POST-COLD WAR SECURITY ORDER IN EUROPE, AND THAT THOSE WHICH ARE NOT EARLY CHOICES FOR MEMBERSHIP ARE NONETHELESS VALUED PARTNERS OF NATO.

    //REST OPT//

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, AN ANALYSIS BY THE U-S GOVERNMENT SUGGESTS THAT IT COULD BE A FURTHER DECADE BEFORE NATO WOULD BE FULLY CAPABLE OF FULLY DEFENDING ITS NEW MEMBERS, IN THE EVENT OF A MILITARY CRISIS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JF/PCF/KL
    13-Jun-97 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] ALBRIGHT / LATVIA / NATO (L-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215693
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT HAS SIGNED A MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE AGREEMENT WITH LATVIAN FOREIGN MINISTER VALDIS BIRKAVS AND DISCUSSED THE ENLARGEMENT OF NATO WITH HIM. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE BALTICS ARE LOOKING TO NATO'S OPEN DOOR.

    TEXT: THE BALTIC COUNTRIES HAD NOT REALISTICALLY EXPECTED TO BE ACCEPTED INTO NATO'S FIRST ROUND OF EXPANSION. RUSSIA'S WARNING AGAINST THE ALLIANCE ENLARGING TO THE FORMER TERRITORY OF THE SOVIET UNION APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN HEEDED FOR THE SHORT TERM.

    THE AMERICAN DECISION TO SUPPORT POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY FOR THE FIRST-ROUND NATO ENLARGEMENT DREW PRAISE FROM LATVIAN FOREIGN MINISTER VALDIS BIRKAVS -- BUT ALSO A REMINDER THAT THE BALTICS WANT TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE NEXT ROUND OF EXPANSION.

    ///BIRKAVS ACT///

    WE FULLY SUPPORT THIS MAJOR STEP IN A PROCESS THAT HAS TO REMAIN, AND WE ARE SURE THAT WILL REMAIN, TO BE INCLUSIVE. AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID, THE FIRST SHALL NOT BE THE LAST. INDEED, WE FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT NATO ENLARGEMENT AND ADAPTATION WILL NOT BE COMPLETE UNTIL THE BALTIC STATES -- LATVIA, LITHUANIA AND ESTONIA -- ARE MEMBERS OF THE ALLIANCE.

    ///END ACT///

    SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT GAVE ENCOURAGEMENT TO THE LONG-TERM BALTIC ASPIRATIONS IN HER REMARKS TO REPORTERS AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    ///ALBRIGHT ACT///

    THE UNITED STATES WELCOMES THE ASPIRATIONS OF LATVIA AND ITS BALTIC NEIGHBORS TO PARTICIPATE IN ALL THE INSTITUTIONS OF OUR TRANS-ATLANTIC COMMUNITY. AS I HAVE SAID BEFORE, YOU DO NOT HAVE TO BE IN THE HEART OF EUROPE TO HAVE EUROPE IN YOUR HEART -- AND THAT IS TRUE OF LATVIA AND THE OTHER BALTICS.

    ///END ACT///

    SLOVENIA AND ROMANIA ARE FEELING THE DISAPPOINTMENT OF NOT HAVING AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR THEIR DREAMS OF BEING INVITED TO JOIN NATO AT THE MADRID SUMMIT MEETING NEXT MONTH. THE SECRETARY OF STATE DEFENDS EXCLUDING SLOVENIA AS NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN NATO'S STRENGTH.

    ///ALBRIGHT ACT///

    WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT NATO REMAINS STRONG AND COHESIVE AND THAT THERE IS OVERALL CONSENSUS ON THE COUNTRIES THAT ARE GOING TO BE COMING IN. THIS IS NOT AN ANTI-SLOVENIAN MOVE, THIS IS A MOVE IN ORDER TO MAKE SURE THAT NATO REMAINS STRONG AND COHESIVE.

    ///END ACT///

    FRANCE, THE MAIN SUPPORTER OF ROMANIA, AND ITALY, THE MAIN SUPPORTER OF SLOVENIA, ARE NOT ESPECIALLY COHESIVE ABOUT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DECISION. MR. CLINTON PLANS TO MEET FRENCH PRESIDENT JACQUES CHIRAC AND ITALIAN PRIME MINISTER ROMANO PRODI NEXT WEEK IN DENVER TO EXPLAIN HIS MOVE.

    FOR LATVIA, THE OPEN DOOR TO NATO'S FUTURE EXPANSION IS THE KEY. FOREIGN MINISTER BIRKAVS WANTS A TIME-CERTAIN FOR THE NEXT ROUND OF ENLARGEMENT.

    ///BIRKAVS ACT///

    LET ME EXPRESS THE HOPE THAT THE NATO ENLARGEMENT PROCESS WILL BE MORE LIKE THE OLYMPIC GAMES, WHOSE MAIN PRINCIPLE IS NOT TO BE FIRST BUT TO PARTICIPATE, AND WHOSE CYCLE IS NOT THREE-THOUSAND YEARS BUT TWO OR FOUR YEARS.

    ///END ACT///

    IN THE MEANTIME, THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT PLEDGED FUTURE AMERICAN COOPERATION WITH THE "BALTIC BATTALION" TO IMPROVE SECURITY IN THE REGION. THE BALTIC BATTALION IS WORKING NOW WITH RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES IN BOSNIA. SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT IS CONSIDERING A VISIT TO AT LEAST ONE BALTIC COUNTRY IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE NATO SUMMIT MEETING IN MADRID. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    13-Jun-97 2:45 PM EDT (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] EAST EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215684
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCKS IN EASTERN EUROPE THIS WEEK WERE MIXED WITH WARSAW SHARPLY HIGHER AND SLOVAKIA SHARPLY LOWER. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD HAS MORE.

    TEXT: IN WARSAW, THE WIG INDEX GAINED THREE PERCENT TO 16-THOUSAND-482, A 481 POINT GAIN. THE POLISH MARKET WAS HELPED BY THE LAUNCH OF TRADING FOR THE 15 NATIONAL INVESTMENT FUNDS, WHICH EACH CONTROL MORE THAN A DOZEN FORMERLY STATE-OWNED COMPANIES. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE PRIVATIZATION HAS BEEN HIGH AND MOST OF THE FUNDS ARE TRADING AT MUCH HIGHER PRICES THAN BEFORE.

    IN BUDAPEST, STOCKS WERE SLIGHTLY LOWER WITH THE BUX INDEX DOWN 28 POINTS TO 62-90. IN PRAGUE THE MARKET WAS SLIGHTLY HIGHER WITH THE P-X 50 INDEX UP EIGHT POINTS TO 506. BUT, BRATISLAVA WAS DOWN NEARLY FIVE PERCENT, AS ANALYSTS WORRY THAT THE SLOVAK CURRENCY COULD COME UNDER SPECULATIVE ATTACK.

    THE SLOVENIAN MARKET WAS ALSO SHARPLY LOWER BUT ROMANIA WAS HIGHER. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/EH
    13-Jun-97 1:15 PM EDT (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [13] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215688
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES ROSE TO RECORD HIGHS IN TRADING FRIDAY IN MAJOR EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES ENDED THE DAY AT NEW RECORD HIGHS IN LONDON, FRANKFURT AND PARIS, WITH WORRIES ABOUT THE EUROPEAN UNION SUMMIT MEETING NEXT WEEK APPARENTLY FADING.

    THE BIGGEST GAIN WAS IN PARIS. THE CAC-40 INDEX ROSE MORE THAN ONE-AND-SEVEN-TENTHS PERCENT TO A NEW HIGH OF TWO-THOUSAND-EIGHT-EIGHT.

    FRANKFURT ALSO HIT A NEW HIGH. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED UP ABOUT ONE PERCENT TO MORE THAN THREE-THOUSAND-FORTY-FOUR. AND, IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX WAS UP ABOUT ONE-HALF PERCENT TO A NEW HIGH OF JUST OVER FOUR-THOUSAND-EIGHTY-THREE.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR ROSE IN VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN, THE BRITISH POUND AND THE GERMAN MARK.
    NEB/JWH/EH
    13-Jun-97 1:54 PM EDT (1754 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [14] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-215698
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES CONTINUED TO RALLY TODAY (THURSDAY) AS THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE REACHED A RECORD HIGH. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE WAS UP 71 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 77-HUNDRED-82, ITS SIXTH CONSECUTIVE RECORD HIGH CLOSING. THE INDEX WAS UP 346 POINTS FOR THE WEEK -- ITS BEST WEEKLY POINT GAIN IN HISTORY. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 893, UP ALMOST 10 POINTS.

    THE RELEASE OF PRODUCER PRICE INDEX FIGURES FOR MAY WAS SEEN AS THE IMMEDIATE CATALYST FOR THE RALLY. THE PRICE INDEX WAS DOWN SLIGHTLY FOR THE FIFTH CONSECUTIVE MONTH, ADDING TO INVESTOR CONFIDENCE THAT THE U-S ECONOMY IS NOT OVERHEATING.

    AN INFLOW OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL FROM ABROAD AND FROM MUTUAL AND RETIREMENT FUNDS IN THE UNITED STATES IS ALSO CREDITED WITH FUELING THE RALLY.

    SINCE THE START OF THE YEAR, THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE IS UP CLOSE TO 20 PERCENT -- ITS LARGEST YEAR-TO-DATE INCREASE SINCE 1987.

    /// REST OPTIONAL FOR LONG ///

    ANALYSTS SAY THEY FEAR SOME STOCKS ARE BECOMING OVERVALUED. BUT, THEY SAY THE OVERALL RALLY APPEARS TO BE JUSTIFIED, DUE TO LOW INTEREST RATES, LOW INFLATION AND STRONG CORPORATE PROFITS.

    IN BUSINESS NEWS, THE U-S TOBACCO INDUSTRY IS REPORTED CLOSE TO REACHING AN AGREEMENT WITH THREE DOZEN STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL CONCERNING ITS MARKETING OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS.

    AND THE WORLD'S LARGEST AUTOMAKER, GENERAL MOTORS, CONTINUES TO FACE LABOR TROUBLES. G-M IS TRYING TO AVERT A STRIKE AT ITS OAK CREEK, WISCONSIN, PLANT. THAT PLANT PRODUCES EXHAUST SYSTEM CATALYTIC CONVERTERS FOR MANY OF THE COMPANY'S CARS AND TRUCKS IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE AND ASIA. A STRIKE AT THAT PLANT COULD SLOW DOWN OR EVEN STOP PRODUCTION AT MANY OF G-M'S 29 NORTH AMERICAN CAR AND TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANTS. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/PT
    13-Jun-97 5:59 PM EDT (2159 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [15] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/13/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10211
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON FRIDAY JUNE 13TH //

    INTRO: GLANCING AT THE EDITORIAL PAGES OF MANY OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS THIS FRIDAY THE 13TH, THE ISSUE OF TRADE WITH CHINA IS A MAJOR TOPIC. EVEN THOUGH PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS SAID HE WILL GRANT CHINA A CONTINUATION OF ITS MOST-FAVORED-NATION TRADING STATUS, CONGRESS MUST APPROVE THE DECISION. AND THE DEBATE FLOURISHES.

    ALSO UNDER DISCUSSION ARE: THE PRESIDENT'S INITIATIVE TO IMPROVE RACE RELATIONS; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S LATEST DRIVE TO BAN SO-CALLED "SOFT" MONEY IN POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS; THE CRUSADE AGAINST LAND MINES; NORTH KOREA'S FAMINE; AND FINALLY, ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS INVOLVING LIFE AND DEATH IN AMERICA.

    NOW, HERE IS ________________WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND A QUOTE OR TWO IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: EXTENDING CHINA'S MOST-FAVORED-NATION TRADING STATUS TAKES THE TOP SPACE IN TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH THESE REMARKS.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON IS APPROACHING A GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOW THAT HIS CHINA POLICY IS NOT SHAPED, AS CRITICS CONTEND, ENTIRELY BY A DESIRE TO MAINTAIN CORDIAL TRADE TIES. THE LEADERS OF THE TOP INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS WILL GATHER FOR A SUMMIT IN DENVER A WEEK FROM NOW. MR. CLINTON, AS HOST, SHOULD MAKE SURE THAT CHINA IS ON THE AGENDA. THE G-7, AS THIS CLUB .... IS KNOWN, HASN'T SUCCEEDED IN COORDINATING CHINA POLICY SINCE THE IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH OF THE TIANANMEN SQUARE MASSACRE IN 1989. RECENTLY, IN FACT, THE ALLIES HAVE BECOME MORE FRACTURED. .... AT THE DENVER SUMMIT, MR. CLINTON AND HIS COLLEAGUES ..... SHOULD LOOK FOR WAYS TO KEEP CHINA FROM AGAIN PLAYING ONE AGAINST THE OTHER."

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, THE SUN FEELS THE DEBATE IN CONGRESS OVER CHINA HAS BECOME "NUTTY" [CRAZY].

    VOICE: "HOW LONG, PRAY TELL, WILL THE U-S CONGRESS GO THROUGH THE ANNUAL CHARADE OF PRETENDING IT IS REALLY, HONEST-TO-GOSH THINKING OF ENDING NORMAL TRADE RELATIONS WITH CHINA? ..... AS EVERYONE ON CAPITOL HILL WELL KNOWS, THE LATEST EFFORT TO RESCIND THE MISNAMED 'MOST FAVORED NATION' (MFN) TRADE POLICY TOWARD CHINA IS DOOMED ONCE AGAIN TO FAIL. [OPT] SENATOR MAX BAUCUS CALLS IT A 'NUTTY DEBATE.' MFN STATUS IS ACCORDED TO EVERY NATION IN THE WORLD WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SIX PARIAHS. [END OPT] IF THE UNITED STATES WERE TO TRY TO EXCLUDE ONE-FOURTH OF THE HUMAN RACE FROM THE GLOBAL TRADING SYSTEM, IT, RATHER THAN CHINA, MIGHT WIND UP ISOLATED, ACCORDING TO TREASURY SECRETARY ROBERT RUBIN. ..... [AND] THE WEIGHT OF THE EVIDENCE SUGGESTS FREE TRADE AND FREE MARKET GROWTH IS THE MORE LIKELY ROAD TO FREEDOM."

    TEXT: BACK WITH PURELY DOMESTIC ISSUES AGAIN, THE OREGONIAN IN PORTLAND, WRITES ABOUT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S CAMPAIGN TO IMPROVE RACE RELATIONS AND HIS SPEECH THIS WEEKEND AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO COMMENCEMENT EXPLAINING HIS PLANS.

    VOICE: "[OPT] ASKING THE AUDIENCE WHAT IT THOUGHT OF THE O-J SIMPSON VERDICT WOULD PROBABLY NOT BE THE BEST ICE-BREAKER [OPENING COMMENT]. BUT IT IS A FITTING EXAMPLE OF THE SHARP CONTRASTS IN PEOPLE'S PERCEPTIONS OF RACE RELATIONS. [END OPT] RECENT POLLING SHOWS A HUGE DIFFERENCE IN HOW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT RACES SEE THE SERIOUSNESS OF RACIAL PROBLEMS, AND THE PRESIDENT IS RIGHT TO USE THE BULLY PULPIT OF HIS OFFICE TO TRY TO ENGAGE THE NATION ON THIS ISSUE. [OPT] ........EVEN IN ADVANCE OF HIS SAN DIEGO SPEECH, HE HAS APPOINTED A PROMINENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE TO GUIDE HIS EFFORTS TOWARD NARROWING THE DIVIDE. THE COMMITTEE WILL BE CHAIRED BY NOTED BLACK HISTORIAN JOHN HOPE FRANKLIN, WHOSE BOOK 'FROM SLAVERY TO FREEDOM' CHRONICLES THE BLACK EXPERIENCE IN AMERICA. .... THE PRESIDENT WILL PLAY HOST TO TOWN MEETINGS ON RACE OVER THE NEXT YEAR. NEXT SUMMER, HE WILL ISSUE A REPORT MAPPING OUT A FULLER AGENDA FOR THE NATION ON HOW TO IMPROVE RACE RELATIONS. WE HOPE HE FOLLOWS THROUGH." [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE PRESIDENT IS CRITICIZED IN ANOTHER AREA BY TODAY'S CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR WHICH WANTS WANTS TO SEE CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM.

    VOICE: "...BILL CLINTON'S LATEST TACTICAL THRUST AT CAMPAIGN-FINANCE REFORM GIVES US AN OPPORTUNITY TO SAY IT AGAIN: CLOSE THE 'SOFT MONEY' LOOPHOLE. THAT'S THE MONEY FUNNELED VOLUMINOUSLY INTO PARTY COFFERS, SUPPOSEDLY FOR USE IN 'PARTY BUILDING' AND GETTING OUT THE VOTE. IN PRACTICE, MOST OF IT IS USED FOR PARTY-SPONSORED MEDIA ADS THAT CLEARLY PROMOTE PARTICULAR CANDIDATES. ..... PERHAPS TO DEFLECT CRITICISM, MR. CLINTON HAS PROPOSED THAT THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BAN SOFT MONEY BY REGULATORY FIAT. ... BUT .... THE F-E-C HAS .... NEVER BEEN A STRONG ENFORCEMENT TOOL. STRONG FEDERAL LEGISLATION TO RULE OUT SOFT MONEY AND FIX OTHER SHORTCOMINGS IN CURRENT LAW WOULD BE MUCH PREFERABLE."

    TEXT: THE DEBATE ON ENDING THE MANUFACTURE AND USE OF LAND MINES CONTINUES, AND THE NEW YORK TIMES TODAY IS FAULTING THE PRESIDENT FOR NOT MOVING QUICKLY AND FORCEFULLY ENOUGH ON THE SUBJECT.

    VOICE: "IT IS NOT EVERY DAY THAT THE REPUBLICAN-CONTROLLED SENATE FINDS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION TOO TIMID IN PRESSING FOR AN ARMS CONTROL AGREEMENT, BUT THAT IS WHAT HAPPENED THIS WEEK ON LAND MINES. IN A REVERSAL OF ROLES, A MAJORITY OF SENATORS, INCLUDING SOME OF THE MOST ARDENT REPUBLICAN SUPPORTERS OF THE MILITARY, DECLARED THEIR SUPPORT FOR A NEARLY TOTAL BAN ON FUTURE AMERICAN USE OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LAND MINES. IN DOING SO, THEY ..... GAVE THEIR BLESSING TO A QUICKER WAY OF ACHIEVING IT THAN PRESIDENT CLINTON FAVORS. CLEARLY, THE MOMENT HAS ARRIVED FOR MR. CLINTON TO TAKE A BOLDER APPROACH TOWARD ENDING THE USE OF THESE DEADLY, INDISCRIMINATE WEAPONS..... [THAT] MAIM CHILDREN AND OTHER INNOCENT CIVILIANS LONG AFTER THE WARS .... ARE OVER."

    TEXT: THE NEXT HARVEST IN NORTH KOREA IS NOT DUE FOR ABOUT FOUR MONTHS, AND, AS A RESULT, THE FAMINE THERE CONTINUES. THE BOSTON GLOBE SAYS MORE ACTION IS NEEDED.

    VOICE: "REPORTS OF INCIPIENT FAMINE IN NORTH KOREA HAVE BECOME TOO CREDIBLE TO IGNORE. SOME GOVERNMENTS AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE BEEN DELIVERING FOOD TO THAT STARVING NATION, BUT LESS THAN IS NEEDED. PART OF THE BLAME LIES WITH THE PRIDEFUL AND PARANOID LEADERS IN PYONGYANG, WHO DO NOT WANT TO ADMIT THEIR ABJECT FAILURE TO FEED THEIR PEOPLE. [OPT] THEY ALSO FEAR ALLOWING FOREIGNERS TO PEER THROUGH THEIR VEIL OF SECRECY. NONETHELESS, CONCERNED GOVERNMENTS IN SEOUL, WASHINGTON, AND TOKYO HAVE DONE LESS [THAN] THEY OUGHT TO BE DOING ..... [END OPT] OUTSIDERS MUST NOT COMMIT THE COLD WAR MISTAKE OF FORGETTING THAT THE STARVING PEOPLE OF NORTH KOREA ARE THE PRIMARY VICTIMS OF COMMUNIST MISRULE."

    TEXT: AND AS THE DEATHS FROM FAMINE MOUNT IN NORTH KOREA, HERE IN THE U-S, THERE IS GROWING DEBATE ABOUT ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVING DOCTORS, COURTS AND DEATH. THE MIAMI HERALD SAYS AS THE LEGAL SYSTEM AND THE GOVERNMENT GRAPPLE WITH THE TOPIC, INDIVIDUALS ALSO MUST REASSESS WHAT IT MEANS TO DIE.

    VOICE: "THE CONTROVERSY NOW BEFORE THE FEDERAL AND STATE SUPREME COURTS OVER THE ISSUE OF PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE IS MORE A CONTROVERSY OVER THE RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION AND A REJECTION OF MEDICINE THAT PRESERVES LIFE AT ALL COSTS. THOSE LAWSUITS AND [DOCTOR] JACK KEVORKIAN'S [THE MICHIGAN DOCTOR PROMINENT IN ASSISTED SUICIDE CASES] ARROGATION OF LAW UNTO HIMSELF HAVE FORCED DEATH INTO LIGHT OF DAY. .... THE NEED FOR BETTER EDUCATION ABOUT THE ISSUES OF DYING EXTEND FAR BEYOND THE FIELD OF MEDICINE. ..... BUT WHILE POLICY MAKERS AND JUDGES DEBATE THESE ISSUES, THE REST OF US WOULD DO WELL NOT TO BE MERE SPECTATORS."

    TEXT: ON THAT SUBJECT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS FROM FRIDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    13-Jun-97 10:17 AM EDT (1417 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [16] DEVELOPING WORLD / COMPUTER GAP BY MAX RUSTON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36672
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: COMPUTERS ARE PLAYING AN INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT ROLE IN EDUCATION IN THE WORLD'S RICHEST NATIONS, HELPING TO PROVIDE NEW OPPORTUNITIES TO EVEN THE YOUNGEST STUDENTS. BUT MOST DEVELOPING NATIONS LACK SUCH HIGH TECHNOLOGY TOOLS, AND EXPERTS SAY THIS COULD LEAD TO SERIOUS NEW PROBLEMS IN THE NEXT CENTURY, AS THESE COUNTRIES FALL FURTHER AND FURTHER BEHIND THE REST OF THE WORLD. IN THIS REPORT FORM NEW YORK, V-O-A'S MAX RUSTON LOOKS AT A PROJECT AIMED AT REDUCING THIS GAP BY BRINGING COMPUTERS TO SOME OF THE WORLD'S POOREST NATIONS.

    TEXT: A NEW YORK-BASED ENTERTAINMENT EXECUTIVE, PETER CAWLEY, SAYS CHILDREN ARE THE ANSWER TO CLOSING THE TECHNOLOGY GAP BETWEEN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS. IF COMPUTERS AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY LEARNING INSTRUMENTS CAN BE MADE AVAILABLE IN MORE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS, MR. CAWLEY SAYS, THAT COULD PROVIDE LEVERAGE FOR THE NEXT GENERATION TO REDUCE THAT GAP.

    MR. CAWLEY IS PRESIDENT OF A NEW NON-PROFIT FOUNDATION CALLED "2-B-1," -- THE NUMERAL TWO, THE LETTER B AND THE NUMERAL ONE -- THAT IS FOCUSSING ON BRINGING TECHNOLOGY TO CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    /// CAWLEY ACT ///

    A CHILD IS MUCH MORE OPEN TO THE MANY POSSIBLE WAYS OF MANIPULATING AN OBJECT. THAT IS PLAY FOR A CHILD. A COMPUTER, IN THIS SENSE, IS SOMETHING THE CHILD CAN LEARN ABOUT VERY QUICKLY AS THEY LEARN ABOUT ANY OTHER OBJECT OR TOY THEY USE. THEY DO NOT EXPECT SO MUCH FOR IT TO FUNCTION OR AN ACTION OR A LINEAR SORT OF RESULT, THE WAY AN ADULT MIGHT, SO THEY ARE MORE OPEN TO THE WAYS IT CAN BE MADE TO WORK.

    /// END ACT ///

    ACCORDING TO SOME ESTIMATES, MORE THAN 50 PERCENT OF THE WORLD'S ONE-POINT-TWO BILLION CHILDREN HAVE NEVER PLACED A TELEPHONE CALL, LET ALONE SEEN OR USED A COMPUTER. MR. CAWLEY ADMITS THE CHALLENGE OF BRINGING HIGH TECHNOLOGY LEARNING INSTRUMENTS TO THESE CHILDREN IS ENORMOUS. TO DEAL WITH THIS CHALLENGE HE HAS DECIDED, AS A FIRST STEP, TO HOLD A FIVE-DAY WORKSHOP IN CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS. 2-B-1 IS WILLING TO SPONSOR PEOPLE FROM OTHER NATIONS TO ATTEND THE CONFERENCE. PETER CAWLEY SAYS THE FOUNDATION, FUNDED BY INDIVIDUAL DONORS, IS LOOKING FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE TAKEN BOLD INITIATIVES IN BRINGING COMPUTERS TO CHILDREN. HE URGES THEM TO SEND HIM AN ELECTRONIC MAIL NOTE ADDRESSED TO PETER-AT-2-B-1-DOT-O-R-G -- THAT IS,.THE NUMERAL 2, LETTER B, NUMBER 1-DOT-O-R-G.

    /// CAWLEY ACT ///

    I THINK WE ARE ALL BETTER SERVED IN LEARNING FROM THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE SUCCEEDED AND THEN IN THE NEXT WAVE OF OUR EFFORT, DEMONSTRATING AND TALKING ABOUT THAT SUCCESS TO THOSE WHO WISH THEY COULD FIGURE IT OUT. WE ARE LOOKING TO THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE FIGURED IT OUT TO HELP US SPREAD IT FURTHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    ONE EXAMPLE OF HOW RECEPTIVE CHILDREN ARE TO NEW TECHNOLOGIES IS AN EXPERIMENT CARRIED OUT BY THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED CENTER FOR COMPUTATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE WEST AFRICAN NATION OF SENEGAL. COMPUTERS WERE PROVIDED TO A PRIMARY SCHOOL OUTSIDE THE CAPITAL, DAKAR. RESEARCHERS DISCOVERED THAT THE CHILDREN QUICKLY BECAME PROFICIENT ENOUGH TO TEACH THE PRINCIPAL ABOUT THEIR NEW HIGH TECHNOLOGY TOOLS, AND THAT CHILDREN FROM RURAL AREAS LEARNED COMPUTER SKILLS FASTER THAN THEIR PEERS FROM THE CAPITAL.

    MR. CAWLEY DOES NOT EXPECT HIS FIRST CONFERENCE TO RESULT IN IMMEDIATE CHANGES. INSTEAD, HE HOPES IT WILL BE A FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING IMPORTANT CONTACTS BETWEEN LIKE-MINDED PEOPLE, A CHANCE FOR THEM TO SHARE THEIR EXPERIENCES AND PUT TOGETHER IDEAS FOR HOW TO APPROACH THEIR TASK.

    /// CAWLEY ACT ///

    THERE WILL COME OUT OF IT PROGRAMS THAT CAN SERVE CHILDREN ONE BY ONE, IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES. THERE WILL COME OUT OF IT A NETWORK OF PEOPLE WHO NOW KNOW WHAT EACH OTHER IS UP TO AND PERHAPS CONTRIBUTE TO EACH OTHER. WE ALSO HOPE THERE WILL BE OUT OF THIS SOME VERY LARGE IDEAS, SOME LARGE IDEAS ON THE ORDER OF PERHAPS SETS OF TOOLS THAT WOULD BE MINIMAL, AFFORDABLE AND THAT COULD BE ROLLED OUT AT A RAPID RATE TO ASSIST THE GROWTH OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CAWLEY SAYS HE BELIEVES IT IS THIS SORT OF NETWORKING THAT COULD MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN GIVING CHILDREN IN SOME OF THE WORLD'S MOST IMPOVERISHED REGIONS A CHANCE TO CATCH UP WITH THE DEVELOPED WORLD. (SIGNED) OUTRO: IF YOU CONSIDER YOURSELF SOMEONE WHO HAS HAD SUCCESS IN BRINGING COMPUTERS TO CHILDREN WHO LIVE IN TECHNOLOGICALLY ISOLATED PLACES, MR. CAWLEY ENCOURAGES YOU TO SEND HIM AN EMAIL NOTE ADDRESSED TO PETER-AT-2-B-1-DOT-O-R-G. NEB/NY/MPR/LSF/PT
    13-Jun-97 2:58 PM EDT (1858 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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