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Voice of America, 97-06-23

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BLASKIC TRIAL BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [02] BRITAIN/FORESTS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [04] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] NATO / ROMANIA (L) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)
  • [07] RUSSIA RELIGION (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [08] SUMMIT BOSNIA (S-UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (DENVER)

  • [01] BLASKIC TRIAL BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-36761
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE TRIAL OF THE HIGHEST-RANKING MAN TO FACE WAR CRIMES CHARGES BY THE U-N YUGOSLAV WAR-CRIMES TRIBUNAL GETS UNDERWAY TUESDAY IN THE HAGUE. THE BOSNIAN CROAT GENERAL, TIHIMOR BLASKIC WHO SURRENDERED MORE THAN A YEAR AGO -- IS CHARGED WITH CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. HE IS BEING HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE KILLING AND MISTREATMENT OF MUSLIM CIVILIANS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. FROM THE HAGUE, GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS.

    TEXT: WHEN TIHIMOR BLASKIC GAVE HIMSELF UP IN APRIL LAST YEAR, HE SAID HE SIMPLY WANTED TO CLEAR HIS NAME. AS AN OFFICER IN THE BOSNIAN-CROAT MILITIA, TROOPS UNDER HIS COMMAND ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE MISTREATED AND MURDERED MUSLIM CIVILIANS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA ON SUCH A LARGE SCALE VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE COMMUNITY WAS DEPORTED OR KILLED.

    THE CROAT GOVERNMENT HAS STOOD FIRMLY BEHIND HIM, TO THE POINT OF PROMOTING HIM JUST DAYS AFTER THE INDICTMENT WAS ISSUED. UNLIKE OTHER WAR CRIME SUSPECTS, GENERAL BLASKIC IS BEING HELD UNDER HOUSE ARREST -- PAID FOR BY SUPPORTERS IN CROATIA.

    /// ACT OF BLASKIC IN SERBO-CROAT -- ESTABLISH AND FADE ///

    GENERAL BLASKIC TELLS JUDGES AT THE TRIBUNAL HE UNDERSTANDS THE CHARGES AGAINST HIM AND PLEADS NOT GUILTY. DETERMINING THE TRUTH OF THAT IN HIS UPCOMING TRIAL -- SAYS TRIBUNAL SPOKESMAN CHRISTIAN CHARTIER -- WILL HAVE FAR REACHING IMPLICATIONS.

    /// CHARTIER ACT ///

    THIS IS THE FIRST TRIAL OF A CAREER MILITARY OFFICER AND SECONDLY -- AND THIS MAY SURPRISE YOU -- BUT THIS IS ONE MORE TRIAL, AND THAT MEANS WE ARE UP AND RUNNING. I THINK MOST OBSERVERS WOULD NOT HAVE BELIEVED ME IF I HAD TOLD THEM ONE-YEAR AGO -- IN ONE YEAR FROM NOW WE WILL BE HAVING THE FOURTH TRIAL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE MAIN CHARGE FACING GENERAL BLASKIC IS THAT HE COULD, AND SHOULD, HAVE PREVENTED HIS MEN FROM COMMITTING WAR CRIMES -- WHAT IS KNOWN AS COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY. HIS LAWYER RUSS HAYMAN -- A FORMER FEDERAL PROSECUTOR FROM LOS ANGELES -- SAYS THE PROSECUTION IN THIS CASE SIMPLY DOES NOT HAVE WHAT IT NEEDS.

    /// HAYMAN ACT ///

    THE TYPE OF COMMAND AND CONTROL THAT IS NECESSARY FOR COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY, THAT MAY HAVE EXISTED IN THE GERMAN THIRD REICH IN WORLD WAR TWO, DID NOT EXIST IN THIS GROUP OF CROATIAN PEASANTS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. WITHOUT COMMAND AND EFFECTIVE CONTROL, YOU CANNOT HAVE COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY. THE BURDEN WILL BE ON THE PROSECUTION TO PROVE THAT THAT TYPE OF EFFECTIVE COMMAND AND CONTROL OVER UNTRAINED AND LARGELY UNEDUCATED PEASANTS, THAT IT EXISTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT PROVING THAT IS GOING TO BE DIFFICULT. CROATIA HAS REFUSED TO COMPLY WITH A TRIBUNAL ORDER TO HAND OVER DOCUMENTS FROM ITS MILITARY ARCHIVE, AS HAS THE SELF-DECLARED BOSNIAN-CROAT REPUBLIC. AMSTERDAM UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL LAW PROFESSOR PETER MALANCZUK SAYS THE DOCUMENTS -- OR LACK OF THEM -- COULD PROVE DECISIVE. HE SAYS THE BLASKIC CASE IS A TEST THE TRIBUNAL CANNOT AFFORD TO LOSE.

    /// MALANCZUK ACT ///

    IT WOULD SET A PRECEDENT WITH REGARD TO THE STANDARD OF EVIDENCE REQUIRED TO ESTABLISH SUCH RESPONSIBILITIES. SO THAT IS IMPORTANT, IN THAT RESPECT. SECOND, POLITICALLY, IT WOULD BE IMPORTANT IF IT LEADS TO CONVICTION, BECAUSE IT WOULD ESTABLISH THAT ALSO THE "BIG FISH" (MAJOR SUSPECTS) ARE BEING ADDRESSED AND NOT JUST THE "SMALL FISH" (MINOR SUSPECTS).

    /// END ACT ///

    ANALYSTS SAY THAT IS THE REAL POINT OF THIS TRIAL. IT IS NOT ONLY A JUDGMENT ON THE CONDUCT OF GENERAL BLASKIC, BUT COULD EVENTUALLY LEAD THE TRIBUNAL CLOSER TO THOSE EVEN HIGHER-UP WHO DIRECTED EVENTS WITHOUT GETTING PERSONALLY INVOLVED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/PCF/RAE
    23-Jun-97 8:54 AM EDT (1254 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BRITAIN/FORESTS (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216147
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BRITAIN'S NEW LABOR GOVERNMENT DREW A HEARTY ROUND OF APPLAUSE AT A HIGH-LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SESSION AT THE U-N (MONDAY) AS PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR PLEDGED HE WOULD REVERSE BRITAIN'S DECLINING ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. ON ONE ISSUE IN PARTICULAR -- THE PRESERVATION OF FORESTS -- PRIME MINISTER BLAIR TOOK A POSITION SETTING HIM -- AS WELL AS THE EUROPEAN UNION -- ON A COLLISION COURSE WITH THE UNITED STATES. CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER BLAIR STRESSED THE OBLIGATION HIS LABOR GOVERNMENT FEELS TOWARD THE ENVIRONMENT GENERALLY, AND IN PARTICULAR TOWARD HELPING POOR COUNTRIES ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. HE PLEDGED TO REVERSE THE DECLINE IN BRITISH FOREIGN AID, AND TO FOCUS LONDON'S GENEROSITY ON THE POOREST COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THOSE IN AFRICA.

    GOVERNMENTS AGREED IN RIO DE JANEIRO IN 1992 TO TRY THEIR BEST TO MEET A U-N FOREIGN AID TARGET OF SEVEN-TENTHS-OF-ONE-PERCENT OF THE DONOR COUNTRIES' GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT. AID LEVELS ARE NOT AVERAGING ONE-HALF THAT MARK.

    BRITAIN'S NEW PRIME MINISTER ALSO STRONGLY ENDORSED A EUROPEAN UNION POSITION CALLING FOR A NEW TREATY ON MANAGING THE EARTH'S DISAPPEARING FORESTS. MR. BLAIR PUT HIMSELF SQUARELY IN OPPOSITION TO ONE OF HIS CLOSEST ALLIES -- THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION:

    /// BLAIR ACT ///

    I HOPE THIS WEEK WE WILL START NEGOTIATIONS ON A FOREST CONVENTION. IT TAKES LESS THAN AN HOUR TO FELL A TREE. IT CAN [TAKE] A LIFETIME TO REPLACE IT. IF WE ARE SERIOUS ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, WE MUST SHOW WE ARE SERIOUS ABOUT FORESTRY MANAGEMENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE FOREST CONVENTION IS AMONG THE MOST CONTENTIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES, WITH DEBATE CROSSING NORTH-SOUTH LINES. FOR EXAMPLE, BRAZIL AND INDIA SHARE THE VIEW OF THE UNITED STATES THAT NEGOTIATING A TREATY WOULD WASTE TIME AND ACTUALLY DEFER ACTION. MANY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LINK THE ISSUE TO POVERTY, SAYING POOR PEOPLE SHOULD NOT BE PREVENTED FROM CHOPPING DOWN TREES FOR COOKING AND HEATING IF THEY HAVE NO OTHER OPTIONS.

    VICE-PRESIDENT AL GORE -- IN OPENING REMARKS MONDAY -- SAID A MORE INFORMAL WAY OF DEALING WITH THE FORESTS ISSUE WOULD BE MORE EFFECTIVE:

    /// GORE ACT ///

    WE MUST WORK TO PROTECT THE WORLD'S FORESTS BY CREATING A FOLLOW-UP MECHANISM TO THE INTER-GOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON FORESTS THAT PRODUCES ON-THE-GROUND RESULTS, NOT NEW NEGOTIATIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    ON THIS ISSUE, LEADING ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS FAVOR THE U-S POSITION. THEY ARGUE PROTRACTED NEGOTIATIONS WOULD GIVE FREE REIN TO LOGGING COMPANIES, WHOSE MAIN INTEREST IS EXPORTING WOOD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RAE
    23-Jun-97 3:11 PM EDT (1911 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S ONLY) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216143
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES WERE MOSTLY DOWN ON TRADING MONDAY IN MAJOR EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES ROSE A LITTLE IN PARIS, BUT WERE OFF IN BOTH LONDON AND FRANKFURT. ANALYSTS SAID TRADERS IN BRITAIN WERE CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE HIGHER INTEREST RATES. IN GERMANY, INVESTORS TOOK PROFITS FROM LAST WEEK'S RECORD HIGHS. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ENDED THE DAY DOWN JUST OVER 18 POINTS, ABOUT FOUR-TENTHS PERCENT OF THE MARKET'S TOTAL VALUE.

    IN FRANKFURT, THE CAX-30 INDEX WAS OFF MORE THAN 33 POINTS, ABOUT NINE-TENTHS PERCENT.

    BUT IN PARIS, PRICES SQUEEZED OUT A SMALL GAIN. THE CAC-40 INDEX ROSE JUST OVER FIVE POINTS, ABOUT TWO-TENTHS PERCENT.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY EXCHANGE, THE U-S DOLLAR GAINED VALUE AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN, BUT WAS DOWN AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK, THE BRITISH POUND, AND ALL OTHER MAJOR EUROPEAN CURRENCIES.
    NEB/JWH/EH
    23-Jun-97 1:49 PM EDT (1749 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/23/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10218
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=
    CONTENT=

    (UNEDITED)

    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON MONDAY JUNE 23RD //

    INTRO: TWO STORIES THAT DEVELOPED OVER THE WEEKEND FORM THE BASIS FOR MUCH OF THE COMMENTARY IN MONDAY'S U-S NEWSPAPERS. ONE IS THE DENVER ECONOMIC SUMMIT, AND THE OTHER THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY SETTLEMENT WITH A GROUP OF ATTORNEYS GENERAL. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE CONTINUING THREAT OF THERMONUCLEAR WAR; THE MCDONALDS LIBEL VICTORY IN A LONDON COURT; NEW INFORMATION ON HONDURAN ATROCITIES DURING THE CIVIL WAR; AND THE PROGRESS TOWARD GENDER EQUALITY.

    NOW, HERE IS ______________ WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE SUMMIT OF THE EIGHT HAS CONCLUDED IN DENVER, COLORADO, AND FOR AN IDEA ON WHAT THE MEDIA THOUGHT OF THE WEEKEND SESSION, WE TURN FIRST TO THE HOST NEWSPAPER, THE DENVER POST.

    VOICE: "AS OFTEN HAPPENS AT INTERNATIONAL MEETINGS, THE FINAL COMMUNIQUE OF THE DENVER ... SUMMIT ... WAS ALMOST AS CONCERNED WITH PAPERING OVER DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE RESPECTIVE WORLD LEADERS ON KEY ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES AS IT WAS WITH VOICING THEIR JOINT RESOLVES. BUT THE DENVER SUMMIT MADE HISTORY NONETHELESS, IF ONLY FOR THE PARTICIPATION OF RUSSIA. IF FINAL PROOF THAT THE COLD WAR IS OVER WAS NEEDED, IT WAS SURELY PROVIDED BY INCLUDING THE NATION THAT WAS AT THE HEART OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION IN DISCUSSIONS OF A GROUP THAT WAS ONCE THE ECONOMIC EQUIVALENT OF NATO IN COORDINATING MAJOR FREE MARKET ECONOMIES."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES AGREES WITH THE DENVER POST THAT "THE FURTHER INTEGRATION OF RUSSIA'S PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN" WAS ONE OF THE MEETING'S "SIGNIFICANT ACCOMPLISHMENTS."

    VOICE: "A YEAR AGO MR. YELTSIN WAS A PHYSICALLY RAVAGED MAN, STRUGGLING TO SURVIVE POLITICALLY AND UNABLE TO ATTEND THE ECONOMIC SUMMIT MEETING IN LYONS, FRANCE. THIS PAST WEEKEND HE SEEMED MORE FIT THAN IN YEARS. HE JOINED WITH HIS SUMMIT COLLEAGUES TO CALL FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BOSNIA AND WENT ALONG WITH A RENEWED THREAT OF SANCTIONS AGAINST IRAQ. BUT THERE WERE DISQUIETING SIGNS THAT MR.. YELTSIN REMAINS ON THE DEFENSIVE AT HOME BECAUSE OF THE UNITED STATES' ILL-CONSIDERED DRIVE FOR NATO EXPANSION. [OPT] .... ALTHOUGH MR. YELTSIN'S PRESENCE OVERSHADOWED THE OTHER WORK OF THE SUMMIT, THE CONFEREES NUDGED A FEW ECONOMIC ISSUES FORWARD AND PAPERED OVER THEIR DIFFERENCES IN SEVERAL AREAS."// // END OPT //

    TEXT: THIS MONDAY'S OTHER POPULAR SUBJECT FOR COMMENTARY IS THE AGREEMENT, REACHED FRIDAY, BETWEEN A GROUP OF STATE ATTORNEYS GENERAL AND THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY REGARDING DAMAGES CAUSED BY SMOKING. USA TODAY NOTES THAT FIRST IMPRESSION OF THE SETTLEMENT MAY HAVE BEEN INACCURATE.

    VOICE: "HOW QUICKLY PERCEPTIONS CHANGE. ON FRIDAY, THE PROPOSED $368 BILLION SETTLEMENT OF STATE SUITS AGAINST THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY WAS TOUTED AS STRICT TOBACCO CONTROL. THREE DAYS LATER, ITS BEING CONDEMNED FOR PROVIDING TOO MANY LOOPHOLES. IN THE END, THOUGH, THERE'S ONLY ONE ISSUE THAT MATTERS: WILL THIS DEAL DO MORE TO REDUCE SMOKING THAN CONTINUING THE LEGAL ASSAULT THAT HAS PUT BIG TOBACCO ON THE RUN? ANSWER: THAT'S MUCH IN DOUBT ..... CONGRESS AND [PRESIDENT] CLINTON SAY THEY'LL REVIEW EVERY DETAIL. THEY'D BETTER. HISTORY SAYS THAT WHEN DEALS ARE MADE, TOBACCO WINS."

    TEXT: THE WALL STREET JOURNAL IS ALSO SOMEWHAT SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE DEAL.

    VOICE: "THE PROBLEM WITH THE SO-CALLED SETTLEMENT IS THAT IT DRIPS OF HYPOCRISY BY ALL HANDS. WITH THE TOBACCO COMPANIES, THIS IS OBVIOUSLY WELL UNDERSTOOD. NEWS OF THE IMPENDING AGREEMENT, WHICH PURPORTS TO RELIEVE THEM OF CLASS-ACTION SUITS AND PUNITIVE DAMAGES, HAS BEEN GOOD FOR THEIR STOCKS. TOBACCO EXECUTIVES ARE IN A PERFECTLY LEGAL BUSINESS, OF COURSE, BUT WE DO NOT EXACTLY ADMIRE THEIR CAREER CHOICE OF SELLING SO INSIDIOUS A PRODUCT. THE OTHER PARTIES, THOUGH, STRIKE US AS NO BETTER. THEY ARE NOT OUT TO STOP THE TOBACCO ENTERPRISE ..... BUT TO CUT [CREATE FOR] THEMSELVES INTO A PARTNERSHIP IN IT."

    TEXT: DESPITE THE FALL OF COMMUNISM, AND IMPROVING RELATIONS AMONG MOST NATIONS, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES CONTINUES TO WORRY ABOUT THE THREAT OF THERMONUCLEAR WAR.

    VOICE: "REALITY AND FICTION HAVE COINCIDED IN RECENT WEEKS TO REMIND AMERICANS THAT THE MAJOR NUCLEAR POWERS STILL HAVE AT THEIR FINGERTIPS THE ABILITY TO DESTROY LIFE ON EARTH MANY TIMES OVER. ACCORDING TO A REPORT FROM THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENTISTS, 'SIGNIFICANT PORTIONS OF U-S AND RUSSIAN NUCLEAR FORCES ARE MAINTAINED IN A CONTINUOUS STATE OF ALERT.' THE COLD WAR MAY BE OVER BUT SO-CALLED NUCLEAR READINESS IS NOT. THOUGH THE NUMBERS OF NUCLEAR WARHEADS HAVE DECLINED, THE TWO NATIONS STILL POSSESS THOUSANDS OF THEM."

    TEXT: SEVERAL PAPERS, INCLUDING THE WASHINGTON POST, HAVE TAKEN NOTE OF A VERY LENGTHY LIBEL TRIAL SETTLEMENT IN LONDON IN WHICH THE GIANT HAMBURGER CHAIN SUED SOME ENVIRONMENTALISTS FOR DISTRIBUTING MISLEADING INFORMATION.

    VOICE: "EVERYBODY TALKS ABOUT THE GLOBAL MARKET AND THE RISE OF THE GLOBAL BRAND NAME, BUT SOME THINGS REMAIN STUBBORNLY DIFFERENT FROM PLACE TO PLACE - - AMONG THEM LIBEL LAWS. THAT'S THE MAIN MESSAGE OF THE BIZARRE SAGA THAT CAME TO AN END LAST WEEK IN LONDON, WHEN MCDONALD'S FINALLY TRIUMPHED AFTER SPENDING MOST OF A DECADE AND 26-MILLION DOLLARS ON A LIBEL ACTION AGAINST TWO ANTI-MCDONALD'S PAMPHLETEERS. THE COMPANY .... DEFENDED ITS GOOD NAME AGAINST [CHARGES OF] ..... CULTURAL IMPERIALISM, RAIN-FOREST DESTRUCTION, DISCRIMINATION, FOOD POISONING AND MANY OTHER UNSAVORY THINGS. ..... THE TALE HAS ITS SERIOUS SIDE. GALLOPING INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE AND INSTANT WORLDWIDE COMMUNICATIONS INCREASINGLY BRING CITIZENS OF ONE NATION INTO CONTACT AND SOMETIMES CONFLICT WITH OTHER NATIONS' LAWS."

    TEXT: THE SUN IN BALTIMORE, WHICH RAN AN INVESTIGATIVE SERIES TWO YEARS AGO ABOUT ALLEGED CRIMES BY THE HONDURAN MILITARY, AS AIDED BY THE C-I-A DURING THE PERIOD OF CONFLICT IN CENTRAL AMERICA, NOW LAUDS THE C-I-A FOR RELEASING MORE RECORDS ABOUT THE PERIOD.

    VOICE: "PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS WISELY PROMISED MEMBERS OF THE CONGRESSIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS CAUCUS THAT HE WILL RELEASE DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE C-I-A CONNECTION TO BATTALION 316 OF THE HONDURAN MILITARY, WHICH KIDNAPPED, TORTURED AND MURDERED SUSPECTED LEFTISTS IN THE 1980S. THIS IS THE MATERIAL THAT HONDURAS' HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSIONER,LEO VALLADARES, HAS LONG BEEN SEEKING. THAT COUNTRY IS TRYING TO COME TO TERMS WITH ITS PAST, JUST AS COUNTRIES RANGING FROM GERMANY TO SOUTH AFRICA ARE TRYING TO RECOVER THEIR OWN NATIONAL MEMORIES."

    TEXT: LASTLY, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES APPLAUDS THE PROGRESS THE NATION HAS MADE IN GENDER EQUALITY, ON THIS THE ANNIVERSARY OF THE 1972 TITLE NINE LAW BANNING GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN COLLEGES.

    VOICE: "TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO, ONLY 18 PER-CENT OF ALL WOMEN HAD FINISHED COLLEGE, COMPARED WITH 26-PERCENT OF MEN. WOMEN NOW MAKE UP THE MAJORITY OF STUDENTS IN AMERICA'S UNIVERSITIES. TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AGO, MANY MEDICAL AND LAW SCHOOLS HAD ADMISSIONS QUOTAS FOR WOMEN; FEMALE STUDENTS WERE NOT ALLOWED TO TAKE CERTAIN HIGH SCHOOL OR COLLEGE COURSES SUCH AS AUTO MECHANICS, AND EXCEPT FOR CHEERLEADING, ATHLETIC PROGRAMS FOR GIRLS AND YOUNG WOMEN WERE ALL BUT UNHEARD OF. .....TODAY'S ANNIVERSARY IS AN OCCASION TO CELEBRATE THE SWEEPING PROGRESS TOWARD GENDER EQUITY THIS AMENDMENT HAS WROUGHT. .... THIS IMPORTANT ANNIVERSARY IS ALSO .... A TIME TO CONSIDER THE DISTANCE STILL TO TRAVEL."

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/EH
    23-Jun-97 10:48 AM EDT (1448 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216153
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN SHARPLY TODAY (MONDAY) IN WHAT ANALYSTS SAY WAS A COMBINATION OF PROFIT TAKING AND CONCERN ABOUT COMMENTS IN NEW YORK BY THE JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 76 HUNDRED FOUR, DOWN 192 POINTS, MORE THAN TWO PERCENT. THE BROADER AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 878, DOWN 20 POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY PROFIT-TAKING RULED THE SESSION AFTER MAJOR STOCK INDEXES CLOSED AT RECORD HIGHS ON FRIDAY. IN ADDITION, COMMENTS BY JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER HASHIMOTO WERE SAID TO PUSH STOCK AND BOND PRICES EVEN LOWER. MR. HASHIMOTO -- SPEAKING AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN NEW YORK -- SAID JAPAN MAY CONSIDER SELLING MUCH OF ITS HOLDINGS IN U-S TREASURY BONDS IF THERE IS NOT GREATER STABILITY IN THE DOLLAR-YEN EXCHANGE RATES.

    ///REST OPT///

    STOCKS OF MAJOR TOBACCO COMPANIES WERE DOWN DESPITE FRIDAY'S ANNOUNCEMENT OF A SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE INDUSTRY AND STATE GOVERNMENTS. SOME TOBACCO ANALYSTS ARE SKEPTICAL THAT THE AGREEMENT WILL BE APPROVED BY THE U-S CONGRESS.

    A MAJOR CONSOLIDATION IN THE PERSONAL COMPUTER INDUSTRY WAS ANNOUNCED WITH THE COMPAQ COMPUTER COMPANY ACQUIRING TANDEM COMPUTERS FOR ABOUT THREE BILLION DOLLARS IN STOCK.

    THE UNION PACIFIC RESOURCES CORPORATION IS MAKING AN UNSOLICITED SIX AND ONE-HALF BILLION DOLLAR BID FOR PENNZOIL, A MAJOR U-S OIL EXPLORATION AND REFINING COMPANY. PENNZOIL'S MANAGEMENT, WHICH HAS BEEN COOL TO THE IDEA OF A UNION PACIFIC TAKEOVER, SAYS IT WILL STUDY THE PROPOSAL.

    THE FOX TELEVISION NETWORK WILL PAY 850 MILLION DOLLARS FOR A 40 PERCENT OWNERSHIP OF THE MADISON SQUARE GARDEN SPORTS ARENA IN NEW YORK AND ITS RELATED PROFESSIONAL BASKETBALL AND HOCKEY TEAMS. FOX SAYS IT IS THE FIRST STEP IN A PLAN TO CREATE A NEW NATIONAL SPORTS TELEVISION NETWORK TO RIVAL E-S-P-N.

    A STUDY OF AMERICAN OFFICE WORKERS SHOWS THAT TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS SUPPOSED TO MAKE BUSINESS MORE EFFICIENT MAY OFTEN HAVE THE OPPOSITE EFFECT. THE RESEARCH SHOWS 71 PERCENT OF THOSE SURVEYED ARE OVERWHELMED BY WHAT THEY PERCEIVE AS REDUNDANT, USELESS AND TIME-WASTING ELECTRONIC MAIL, FAX AND TELEPHONE MESSAGES.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/EH
    23-Jun-97 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] NATO / ROMANIA (L) BY ART CHIMES (PRAGUE)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216124
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA IS CONTINUING ITS PUSH FOR EARLY ADMISSION TO NATO, EMPHASIZING WHAT IT SAYS IT COULD CONTRIBUTE TO EUROPEAN SECURITY. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM A NATO WORKSHOP IN PRAGUE, WHERE ROMANIA'S PRESIDENT REPEATED HIS APPEAL FOR MEMBERSHIP.

    TEXT: ROMANIAN PRESIDENT EMIL CONSTANTINESCU FOCUSED ON STRATEGIC ISSUES, STRESSING HOW ROMANIA'S LOCATION ON THE BLACK SEA AND ADJACENT TO AREAS OF BALKAN CONFLICT COULD HELP NATO BRING STABILITY TO SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.

    /// CONSTANTINESCU ACTUALITY ///

    THE SIMULTANEOUS DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALLIANCE ALONG A WEST-TO-EAST AXIS COVERING SLOVENIA, HUNGARY AND ROMANIA WOULD PLAY A STABILIZING ROLE IN THE BALKAN REGION BY TURNING TO GOOD ACCOUNT THE SOUND RELATIONS THAT ROMANIA ENTERTAINS WITH BULGARIA AND SERBIA.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    PRESIDENT CONSTANTINESCU ALSO SAID ROMANIA WOULD BE AN IMPORTANT PRESENCE ALONG THE STRATEGIC BLACK SEA, CORRESPONDING TO POLAND'S PROXIMITY TO THE BALTIC SEA.

    HE STRESSED ROMANIA WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO NATO, NOT BE A DRAIN ON THE ALLIANCE. AND THE ROMANIAN PRESIDENT EMPHASIZED STRONG SUPPORT IN HIS COUNTRY FOR MEMBERSHIP IN NATO -- IN CONTRAST TO HERE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC WHERE POLLS INDICATE MOST CZECH CITIZENS ARE NOT ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT JOINING NATO AND ARE WORRIED ABOUT THE COSTS OF MEMBERSHIP.

    THE CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND, AND HUNGARY ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO BE INCLUDED IN THE FIRST ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION. ROMANIA AND SLOVENIA ALSO WANT TO JOIN, AND SOME NATO MEMBERS, NOTABLY FRANCE AND ITALY, STRONGLY SUPPORT THEM.

    BUT NATO'S DOMINANT PARTNER -- THE UNITED STATES -- SAYS IT WANTS ONLY THREE NEW MEMBERS THIS YEAR BECAUSE OF THE COSTS AND COMPLEXITY ASSOCIATED WITH EXPANSION. AND SINCE THE DECISION ON NEW MEMBERS REQUIRES A CONSENSUS, IT SEEMS LIKELY THAT ROMANIA WILL HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL NEXT TIME. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH/EH
    23-Jun-97 8:38 AM EDT (1238 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] RUSSIA RELIGION (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=6/23/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216134
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE LOWER HOUSE OF RUSSIA'S PARLIAMENT HAS PASSED A BILL THAT COULD RESTRICT THE ACTIVITIES OF SOME RELIGIOUS MINORITIES AND FOREIGN MISSIONARIES. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS HAVE CONDEMNED THE MEASURE.

    TEXT: THE BILL APPROVED MONDAY BY A VOTE OF 300-TO-EIGHT GIVES A SPECIAL ROLE TO THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, WHICH IT DESCRIBES AS AN INALIENABLE PART OF RUSSIA'S CULTURAL HERITAGE. THE MEASURE ALSO PLEDGES RESPECT FOR ISLAM, BUDDHISM, AND JUDAISM, ALONG WITH OTHER UNSPECIFIED -- TRADITIONAL -- RELIGIONS.

    BUT OTHER GROUPS WOULD HAVE TO REGISTER WITH THE GOVERNMENT AND FACE A 15-YEAR WAITING PERIOD BEFORE GAINING FULL RIGHTS. FOREIGN RELIGIONS WOULD HAVE TO GO THROUGH A CUMBERSOME PROCESS TO OBTAIN GOVERNMENT ACCREDITATION.

    SPONSORS SAY THE MEASURE IS INTENDED TO KEEP OUT CULTS, WHICH HAVE MUSHROOMED SINCE RELIGIOUS REPRESSION ENDED IN 1990. COMMUNIST LAWMAKER VIKTOR ZORKALTSEV, WHO INTRODUCED THE BILL, SAID IT WOULD ESTABLISH A SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE STATE AND ACCREDITED RELIGIONS.

    RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH ALEXY THE SECOND LAST WEEK SAID THE BILL IS NEEDED TO PREVENT INCIDENTS LIKE THE MASS SUICIDE BY MEMBERS OF A SAN DIEGO-BASED CULT IN THE UNITED STATES, OR A RETURN OF EXTREMIST GROUPS, SUCH AS THE JAPANESE AUM SHINRI KYO, WHICH HAD GAINED A FOOTHOLD IN RUSSIA.

    BUT HUMAN RIGHTS GROUPS SAY THE MEASURE VIOLATES RUSSIA'S CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTEE OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND REVIVES SOVIET-STYLE CENSORSHIP. THE SECRETARY OF THE PRESIDENTIAL CHAMBER ON HUMAN RIGHTS, LEV LEVINSON, SAID RUSSIA IS BEING RULED BY A SPIRIT OF CLERICAL BOLSHEVISM.

    A MOSCOW-BASED RELIGION SCHOLAR WITH THE KESTON INSTITUTE, LAWRENCE UZZELL, DESCRIBED THE MEASURE AS A GIANT STEP BACKWARD FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN RUSSIA.

    /// UZZELL ACT ///

    THIS BILL, IF PASSED AND SIGNED INTO LAW BY THE PRESIDENT, IS GOING TO BE THE BIGGEST LEGISLATIVE SETBACK FOR HUMAN RIGHTS IN GENERAL SINCE THE END OF THE SOVIET UNION. WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NANNY STATE WHICH KEEPS ITS OWN CITIZENS' MINDS UNDER LOCK AND KEY AND IS GOING TO USE THE POWERS THIS LAW GIVES IT TO SUPPRESS ANY FAITH WHICH HAPPENS TO BE UNPOPULAR.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BILL NOW GOES TO THE UPPER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT, WHERE IT IS EXPECTED TO WIN EASY APPROVAL. IT WOULD THEN GO TO PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN FOR SIGNATURE BEFORE BECOMING LAW. IN THE PAST, MR. YELTSIN HAS REJECTED SIMILAR BILLS. BUT HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVISTS SAY IN THIS CASE, THE RUSSIAN LEADER'S OPPOSITION CANNOT BE TAKEN FOR GRANTED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH/RAE
    23-Jun-97 12:18 PM EDT (1618 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] SUMMIT BOSNIA (S-UPDATE) BY RON PEMSTEIN (DENVER)

    DATE=6/22/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-216108
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE DENVER SUMMIT OF THE EIGHT INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACIES HAVE THREATENED TO CUT OFF ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO THE BOSNIAN PARTIES THAT WILL NOT PERMIT THE RETURN OF REFUGEES TO THEIR HOMES. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM DENVER, THE STATEMENT ON BOSNIA OVERSHADOWED AN ARGUMENT ABOUT THE WITHDRAWAL OF AMERICAN TROOPS NEXT YEAR.

    TEXT: THE EIGHT LEADERS UNITED IN CALLING ON THE BALKAN PARTIES TO ARREST INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS AND THREATENING TO CUT OFF ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO THOSE IN BOSNIA WHO REFUSE TO LET REFUGEES RETURN. HOWEVER, IN PRIVATE DISCUSSIONS HERE SEVERAL EUROPEAN LEADERS EXPRESSED CONCERN TO PRESIDENT CLINTON ABOUT THE AMERICAN INTENTION TO PULL U-S TROOPS OUT OF THE STABILIZATION FORCE BY NEXT JUNE.

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE TOLD THE LEADERS TO WORK HARDER NOW.

    /// CLINTON ACT ///

    I MADE IT VERY CLEAR THAT I THINK THAT WE HAVE ALL A TERRIBLE MISTAKE IN DEALING WITH BOSNIA TO SPEND ALL OUR TIME FOCUSSING ON JUNE OF 98 INSTEAD OF FOCUSSING ON TOMORROW AND THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW AND THE DAY AFTER THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SUMMIT STATEMENT SIDESTEPPED THE PULLOUT ISSUE SAYING THE TROOPS SHOULD PROVIDE A SECURE ENVIRONMENT FOR BOSNIA BY JUNE 1998. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/WLM
    22-Jun-97 8:49 PM EDT (0049 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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