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Voice of America, 98-01-08

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [02] EUROPE-ALGERIA (L-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [03] GERMANY / BUGGING (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [04] GERMANY / RATES (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [05] GREECE/TURKEY (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)
  • [06] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [08] WHO ARE THE KURDS? BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224995
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-ISSUING TO ADD CR NUMBER ///

    INTRO: IT WAS A MOSTLY DOWN DAY FOR THE STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE THURSDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH HAS THE CLOSING NUMBERS FROM OUR OFFICES IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THE INFLUENCE OF THE DECLINING MARKETS IN ASIA WERE FELT BY INVESTORS IN EUROPE -- NOTABLY IN PARIS AND FRANKFURT -- WHERE STOCK PRICES WERE OFF BY ALMOST TWO PERCENTAGE POINTS FOR THE DAY. IN GERMANY, JITTERS OVER THE PLUNGE ON THE INDONESIAN MARKET WAS CITED BY ANALYSTS AS A KEY REASON FOR THE "DAX 30" INDEX TO DROP 44 POINTS -- AND THEN FALL EVEN FURTHER IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING. A MAJOR FRENCH BANK HURT BADLY BY THE DECLINING ASIA MARKETS WAS CITED AS A BIG REASON WHY THE PARIS "CAC 40" INDEX DROPPED 52 POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    LONDON'S FINANCIAL TIMES 100 INDEX WAS UP 13 POINTS, BUT HAD BEEN TRADING AT MUCH HIGHER LEVELS.

    A FREEZE ON INTEREST RATES BY THE CENTRAL BANKS OF GERMANY AND BRITAIN DID LITTLE TO HALT TO U-S DOLLAR'S ADVANCE AGAINST BOTH THE POUND AND THE MARK THURSDAY.

    //REST OPT//

    GOLD CONTINUED TO DECLINE IN VALUE. IN LONDON, THE PRICE WAS FIXED AT JUST UNDER 280 DOLLARS AN OUNCE -- A DECLINE OF A DOLLAR AND A HALF FROM WEDNESDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/KL
    08-Jan-98 2:10 PM EST (1910 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] EUROPE-ALGERIA (L-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224994
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT, WHICH HAS BEEN RELUCTANT TO ACCEPT ANY ASSISTANCE FROM OUTSIDE COUNTRIES TO HELP STEM THE WAVE OF VIOLENT KILLINGS THERE, GAVE INDICATIONS THURSDAY IT MAY RECONSIDER OFFERS FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. DETAILS FROM VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THE INDICATIONS OF CHANGE CAME BOTH IN GERMANY AND BRITAIN, WHERE THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF EACH COUNTRY ANNOUNCED PLANS FOR CLOSER INVOLVEMENT IN TRYING TO BRING THE WAVE OF MASSACRES IN ALGERIA TO AN END. NEITHER MINISTER, HOWEVER, PRESENTED A CONCRETE PROPOSAL FOR ACTION. IN BONN, GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL TOLD REPORTERS ALGERIAN OFFICIALS AGREED TO HIS PROPOSAL TO SEND A TEAM OF ADVISERS FROM THE 15-MEMBER EUROPEAN UNION TO PROVIDE ADVICE ON COUNTERING THE ATTACKS.

    BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY ROBIN COOK ANNOUNCED THURSDAY THE EUROPEAN UNION DECIDED IN PRINCIPLE TO SEND AN OFFICIAL, THREE-MEMBER DELEGATION ON A FACT-FINDING MISSION TO ALGERIA. IN A STATEMENT, MR. COOK SAID THE MISSION WOULD ENABLE THE E-U "TO MAKE CLEAR TO THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT THE CONCERN FELT IN EUROPE ABOUT THE SECURITY SITUATION" THERE, AND EXPRESS THE E-U'S DESIRE "TO OFFER HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE."

    NO SPECIFIC PLAN OF ACTION WAS OFFERED BEYOND THAT STATEMENT. BUT BRITISH PRIME MINISTER TONY BLAIR TOLD REPORTERS IN LONDON THE ISSUE IS UNDER CLOSE STUDY BY THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    ///BLAIR ACT///

    WE ARE NOT IN A POSITION TO MAKE A FIRM PROPOSAL FOR ACTION AT THE PRESENT TIME, BUT WE HAVE IT UNDER ACTIVE CONSIDERATION AND I DON'T THINK THAT ANYONE CAN BE INDIFFERENT TO THE SCALE OF THE SUFFERING AND THE APPALLING CIRCUMSTANCES THERE. SO IT IS SOMETHING THAT WE ARE LOOKING AT VERY CLOSELY.

    ///END ACT///

    EARLIER THIS WEEK, ALGERIA'S GOVERNMENT INSISTED IT WANTED NO OUTSIDE HELP.

    ///REST OPT///

    TENS OF THOUSANDS OF ALGERIANS HAVE BEEN BRUTALLY MURDERED OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS. THE ALGERIAN GOVERNMENT BLAMES ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISTS FOR THE KILLINGS. SOME OBSERVERS BELIEVE THE GOVERNMENT TOO MAY BE PLAYING A ROLE IN THE MASSACRE. THE VIOLENCE BEGAN AFTER ALGERIA'S GOVERNMENT CANCELLED ELECTIONS IN 1992 WHICH THE FUNDAMENTALIST "ISLAMIC SALVATION FRONT" SEEMED POISED TO WIN.

    IN THE PAST COUPLE WEEKS, THE UNOFFICIAL DEATH TOLL HAS SOARED BY ANOTHER THOUSAND, PROMPTING A CHORUS OF CALLS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN FINDING A WAY TO END TO THE CARNAGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/WFR
    08-Jan-98 1:39 PM EST (1839 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] GERMANY / BUGGING (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224984
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT SAYS POLICE WILL SOON BE ABLE TO PLACE SURVEILLANCE EQUIPMENT IN THE HOMES OF SUSPECTED CRIMINALS FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THE END OF THE NAZI ERA OF THE 1930S AND 40S. FROM BONN, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS SAY AGREEMENT ON THE NEW CRIME FIGHTING RULES CAME AFTER LONG TALKS BETWEEN CHANCELLOR HELMUT KOHL'S GOVERNMENT AND THE OPPOSITION SOCIAL DEMOCRATS. THE AGREEMENT CLEARS THE WAY FOR BOTH HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT TO PASS THE MEASURE, WHICH REQUIRES A CHANGE IN THE GERMAN CONSTITUTION.

    INTERIOR MINISTER MANFRED KANTHER SAYS THE NEW LAW WILL GIVE AUTHORITIES THE TOOLS THEY NEED TO FIGHT ORGANIZED CRIME AND MONEY LAUNDERING.

    THE NEW EAVESDROPPING LAW, WHICH IS PART OF A LONG DEBATED PACKAGE OF CRIME FIGHTING MEASURES, WILL RESTORE A POLICE TOOL THAT WAS WIDELY ABUSED BY SECRET POLICE DURING THE NAZI ERA.

    CRITICS SAY THE LEGISLATION WILL VIOLATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTIONS OF FREE SPEECH AND PRIVACY. GERMAN JOURNALISTS SAY THE NEW LAW WILL ALSO VIOLATE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS RULES BECAUSE INFORMANTS WILL NO LONGER FEEL SAFE TALKING WITH JOURNALISTS IN THEIR HOMES OR OFFICES.

    UNDER THE NEW LEGISLATION, WHICH IS EXPECTED TO BE APPROVED NEXT WEEK, POLICE WILL BE REQUIRED TO GET A COURT ORDER BEFORE THEY PLACE LISTENING EQUIPMENT IN HOMES. POLICE WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO BUG THE HOMES OF PRIESTS, DEFENSE LAWYERS OR LEGISLATORS.

    UNDER GERMANY'S POST WAR CONSTITUTION, POLICE ARE NOW BARRED FROM ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE, AND THE INTERCEPTION OF MAIL AND PHONE CONVERSATIONS EXCEPT IN VERY LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF/KL
    08-Jan-98 11:50 AM EST (1650 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] GERMANY / RATES (S ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224985
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///POSSIBLE BUSINESS SPOT///

    INTRO: GERMANY'S CENTRAL BANK HAS LEFT KEY INTEREST RATES UNCHANGED -- IN A MOVE WIDELY EXPECTED BY ANALYSTS. FROM BONN, VOA'S KYLE KING REPORTS.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH INTEREST RATES IN GERMANY HAVE BEEN AT HISTORIC LOWS SINCE 1996, THE GERMAN CENTRAL BANK DID NOT MAKE ANY CHANGES AT THEIR LATEST POLICY MEETING.

    THAT MEANS THE "LOMBARD" RATE -- THE RATE AT WHICH BANKS CAN BORROW EMERGENCY FUNDS -- REMAINS AT FOUR-POINT-FIVE PERCENT.

    THE SO-CALLED "REPO-RATE," WHICH IS WHAT THE BUNDESBANK CHARGES TO BUY BACK SECURITIES FOR QUICK CASH, REMAINS AT THREE-POINT-THREE PERCENT, AND THE DISCOUNT RATE REMAINS AT TWO-POINT-FIVE PERCENT.

    ALTHOUGH ECONOMISTS HAD PREDICTED THE BANK WOULD LEAVE THE RATES UNCHANGED, MANY EXPERTS EXPECT AN INCREASE LATER THIS YEAR.

    ECONOMISTS SAY AN INCREASE WILL BE NEEDED TO HARMONIZE EUROPEAN SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES BEFORE IT IS DECIDED WHICH COUNTRIES PARTICIPATE IN THE FIRST PHASE OF THE NEW SINGLE EUROPEAN CURRENCY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/PCF/KL
    08-Jan-98 12:02 PM EST (1702 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] GREECE/TURKEY (L-ONLY) BY ANTHEE CARASSAVA (ATHENS)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-224972
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN THE LATEST SIGN OF ESCALATING TENSION, GREECE CLAIMED THURSDAY THAT AT LEAST 32 TURKISH JET FIGHTERS VIOLATED ITS NATIONAL AIRSPACE OVER THE AEGEAN SEA. ANTHEE CARASSAVA REPORTS FROM ATHENS ON THE GROWING TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO NATO ALLIES.

    TEXT: GREEK NATIONAL DEFENSE MINISTRY OFFICIALS SAID 24 TURKISH F-16-S AND EIGHT "PHANTOM" FIGHTER JETS VIOLATED GREEK NATIONAL AIRSPACE ALONG ITS ENTIRE STRETCH ALONG THE AEGEAN SEA.

    THE AIRCRAFT WERE INTERCEPTED BY A SORTIE OF GREEK AIR FORCE PLANES THAT HAVE BEEN ON ALERT MONITORING ONGOING TURKISH AIR AND NAVY WAR GAMES IN THE REGION.

    DEFENSE MINISTRY OFFICIALS IN ATHENS SAID THEY WERE ANTICIPATING THE AIRSPACE VIOLATIONS, BUT CONCEDED THEY WERE SURPRISED BY THE EXTENT OF WHAT THEY CALLED "AN ALARMING BARRAGE" OF TURKISH OVERFLIGHTS.

    GREECE AND TURKEY HAVE BEEN AT ODDS FOR YEARS OVER AIRSPACE AND SEA RIGHTS, EACH CLAIMING DIFFERENT LIMITS.

    BUT THURSDAY'S INCIDENT IS THE LATEST -- AND WORST -- IN A SURGE OF ALLEGED AIRSPACE VIOLATIONS WHICH BEGAN DECEMBER 25TH, DESPITE AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN ATHENS AND ANKARA TO HOLD OFF FROM STAGING MILITARY MANEUVERS DURING RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AND THE SUMMER TOURIST SEASON.

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO ANTAGONISTIC NATO ALLIES HAVE BECOME EVEN FURTHER STRAINED SINCE DECEMBER, AFTER THE EUROPEAN UNION DECIDED TO FREEZE TURKEY'S MEMBERSHIP BID TO THE 15-NATION BLOC UNTIL IT IMPROVED TIES WITH GREECE AND IMPROVES ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD.

    GREECE HAS ALSO BEEN ANNOYED BY TURKEY'S RECENT MILITARY TIES WITH ISRAEL.

    THOUGH PART OF THE NATO ALLIANCE, GREECE AND TURKEY ARE AGE-OLD FOES, ARGUING FOR YEARS OVER A HOST OF ISSUES RAGING FROM RIGHTS TO THE MINERAL AND OIL-RICH AEGEAN SEA TO THE 23-YEAR-OLD DIVISION OF CYPRUS.

    THE TWO NEIGHBOR STATES CAME CLOSE TO WAR TWO YEARS AGO WHEN BOTH SIDES SENT FLEETS OF FRIGATES AND BATTLE SHIPS TO A BARREN AEGEAN ISLE WHICH EACH CLAIM. THE ISLAND IS INHABITED ONLY BY GOATS, RABBIT AND SHEEP.

    THOUGH GREEK POLITICAL LEADERS HAVE VOICED THE NEED FOR CALM AND PRUDENCE, THE COUNTRY'S TOP MILITARY BRASS FEAR AN ADDITIONAL SURGE OF AIRSPACE VIOLATIONS BY TURKEY.

    THEY SAY THE COUNTRY'S FORCES WILL REMAIN ON FULL ALERT UNTIL TURKEY'S JETS AND SHIPS STEER BACK HOME AT THE END OF THEIR WAR GAMES, SCHEDULED UNTIL LATE JANUARY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AC/PCF/KL
    08-Jan-98 8:52 AM EST (1352 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/08/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10521
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ! ! ////

    INTRO: A PAIR OF STORIES FROM YESTERDAY'S NEWS ARE ALREADY DRAWING A GOOD DEAL OF COMMENT IN THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS OF THE AMERICAN PRESS. ONE IS THE LONG INTERVIEW WITH THE NEW PRESIDENT OF IRAN ON THE CABLE NEWS NETWORK AND THE OTHER WAS THE FINDING BY A FEDERAL JURY IN DENVER THAT THEY COULD NOT AGREE ON A SENTENCE FOR CONVICTED OKLAHOMA BOMBING ACCOMPLICE TERRY NICHOLAS.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE CHINA'S WRESTLING WITH THE FREEDOM OF THE INTERNET; THE KOREAN FINANCIAL CRISIS; AND THE DEATH OF ENTERTAINER AND CONGRESSMAN SONNY BONO. NOW, JOINING US IN THE STUDIO IS _______________ FOR A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: CNN'S INTERVIEW WITH THE NEW PRESIDENT OF IRAN, CONSIDERED A MODERATE AMONG THE MULLAHS THAT RULE THAT NATION, CAUGHT THE IMMEDIATE ATTENTION OF "THE NEW YORK TIMES," WHICH RESPONDS IN PART:

    VOICE: AMERICANS ACCUSTOMED TO IRANIAN CLERICS FULMINATING [COMPLAINING LOUDLY] AGAINST THE UNITED STATES MAY HAVE BEEN PLEASANTLY SURPRISED TO ENCOUNTER MOHAMMED KHATAMI ON CNN LAST EVENING. THE NEW IRANIAN PRESIDENT SPOKE ADMIRINGLY OF AMERICAN CIVILIZATION, SPRINKLING HIS COMMENTS WITH RESPECTFUL REFERENCES TO THE PILGRIMS AND ABRAHAM LINCOLN. ... BUT FOR ALL THE FRIENDLY GESTURES, THE HARD EDGE OF IRAN'S HOSTILITY TO AMERICA WAS STILL PRESENT. BY THE END OF MR. KHATAMI'S INTERVIEW, WITH CHRISTIANE AMANPOUR, IT WAS CLEAR THERE WOULD BE NO QUICK HEALING OF THE RIFT BETWEEN TEHERAN AND WASHINGTON.

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" REFERS TO THE COMPARATIVELY REASONABLE TONE OF THE INTERVIEW AS "A WARMING VOICE IN ICY U-S-IRANIAN RELATIONS," ADDING:

    VOICE: THE TIME HAS NOT COME, HE SAID, FOR NORMAL RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES, BUT HE OPENED A DOOR FOR CULTURAL AND SCHOLARLY EXCHANGES. THAT IS AN EXTREMELY SMALL CRACK IN A VERY LARGE WALL, BUT ONE TO WHICH WASHINGTON AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE SHOULD GIVE CONSIDERATION. IT IS A GAMBIT IN A GAME WORTH PLAYING. ...THE IRANIAN PRESIDENT'S FRANK WORDS SHOULD NOT BE IGNORED. HIS ELECTION CAME AS A PLEASANT SURPRISE TO MANY IRANIANS. NOW HIS FLEDGLING STEPS TOWARD AN OPENING SHOULD BE WELCOME IN THE UNITED STATES.

    TEXT: THE BIG DOMESTIC STORY ELICITING IMMEDIATE REACTION IS THE INABILITY OF A JURY IN DENVER TO DECIDE ON THE FATE OF CONVICTED OKLAHOMA BOMBING ACCOMPLICE TERRY NICHOLS. THE JURY WEDNESDAY REPORTED TO THE JUDGE IT WAS DEADLOCKED ON THE PENALTY PHASE OF ITS DELIBERATIONS AND ASKED HIM TO IMPOSE SENTENCE IN ITS STEAD. NICHOLS HAS BEEN CONVICTED OF CONSPIRACY IN THE BOMBING THAT KILLED 168 PEOPLE, INCLUDING MANY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, BUT NOT OF THEIR MURDER. "THE WASHINGTON POST" REACTS THIS WAY:

    VOICE: /// OPT /// HOW DO YOU SENTENCE A MAN CONVICTED OF CONSPIRING TO COMMIT THE WORST ACT OF DOMESTIC TERRORISM IN AMERICAN HISTORY YET ACQUITTED OF THE ACT ITSELF, CONVICTED OF MANSLAUGHTER IN THE DEATHS IT CAUSED BUT ACQUITTED OF MURDER FOR THOSE SAME DEATHS? /// END OPT

    /// IT IS NO GREAT SURPRISE THAT THE JURY IN THE TRIAL OF TERRY ... NICHOLS, HAVING RENDERED A VERDICT THIS INTERNALLY INCONSISTENT, HAD DEADLOCKED ON WHETHER MR. NICHOLS DESERVES DEATH. ... AN INTERNALLY INCONSISTENT VERDICT IS NOT NECESSARILY AN ILLEGITIMATE ONE. ... AFTER LENGTHY, DETAILED TESTIMONY BEFORE A JUDGE WHO RAN A SMOOTH AND SERIOUS TRIAL, THESE JURORS WERE CONVINCED THAT THE GOVERNMENT'S CASE HAD CERTAIN LIMITED EFFICIENCIES. MR. NICHOLS' GUILT, THEY DETERMINED, WAS PROVEN, BUT NOT TOTAL. THIS CONCLUSION IS DUE DEFERENCE... THERE IS NO REASON TO VIEW THIS LATEST RESULT AS A MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE.

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES," WHICH OPPOSES THE DEATH PENALTY IN ANY CASE, CONCURS WITH THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT, NOTING:

    VOICE: .... THIS CASE ... SHOWS THE COSTLY FOLLY OF SEEKING DEATH WHEN A LIFE SENTENCE WOULD PROTECT THE PUBLIC AND EXACT A SEVERE PUNISHMENT. ...THE FEDERAL JURY'S INABILITY TO AGREE ON THE HARSHEST PENALTIES IS NOT ALTOGETHER SURPRISING GIVEN THE PANEL'S INITIAL VERDICT EXONERATING MR. NICHOLS OF THE MOST SERIOUS CHARGES. ... BY FAILING TO DECIDE BETWEEN A DEATH SENTENCE OR LIFE WITHOUT PAROLE, THE HUNG JURY CREATES THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE JUDGE MAY IMPOSE A LESSER SENTENCE THAN LIFE. EVEN SO, JUDGE ... RICHARD ... MATSCH HAS AMPLE LATITUDE TO GIVE MR. NICHOLS A SEVERE PUNISHMENT FOR THE 168 LIVES THAT WERE LOST.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" AGREES WITH "THE TIMES" CONCLUDING:

    VOICE: ALTHOUGH THIS EDITORIAL PAGE OPPOSES CAPITAL PUNISHMENT EVEN FOR THE MOST HEINOUS CRIMES, A LIFE SENTENCE FOR NICHOLS WITH ONLY A DISTANT POSSIBILITY OF PAROLE WOULD BE JUSTIFIED ON THIS RECORD.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: IN ASIA, CHINA'S RULERS ARE CONTENDING WITH THE FREEDOM OF THE INTERNET, AND HAVING TROUBLE WITH VARIOUS EFFORTS TO CENSURE IT, AND TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" HAS SOME THOUGHTS ON THAT.

    VOICE: ... IN THE AGE OF A GLOBALIZED ECONOMY, WHEN INVESTORS AROUND THE WORLD CAN RECEIVE DATA AND MOVE MONEY INSTANTANEOUSLY, NOTHING COULD BE MORE CONTRADICTORY THAN BEIJING'S NOSTALGIA FOR A TIME WHEN THE PARTY HAD ITS HAND ON EVERY PRINTING PRESS AND EVERY MICROPHONE. ACCESS TO SOME WEB SITES MAY BE BLOCKED NOW AND THEN, BUT THERE CAN BE NO ABSOLUTE CONTROL OF WEB SITES AND VERY LITTLE BLOCKING OF E-MAIL.

    TEXT: AS FOR THE ONGOING SOUTH KOREAN FINANCIAL CRISIS, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL SAYS WHILE SOME THINGS HAVE CHANGED, OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS POTENTIAL SOLUTION REMAIN THE SAME.

    VOICE: IF THE VARIOUS DEBT-RESTRUCTING PLANS BEING EXPLORED IN NEW YORK BETWEEN A KOREAN TEAM AND AN INFORMAL CONSORTIUM OF INTERNATIONAL BANKERS LOOK FAMILIAR, IT IS BECAUSE SIMILAR GROUND WAS TROD IN THE '80'S WITH MEXICANS, BRAZILIANS, AND ARGENTINES. THE BANKS ARE PRETTY MUCH THE SAME, TOO. THERE ARE IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES. ... WITH THE BANKERS ... THE STRIKING DIFFERENCE THIS TIME IS THE TIMING. THE LAST TIME AROUND, IT TOOK SEVEN YEARS BETWEEN THE 1982 ADMISSION BY MEXICAN FINANCE MINISTER JESUS SILVA-HERZOG THAT HIS COUNTRY HAD A PROBLEM SERVICING ITS DEBT AND THE 1989 SPEECH IN WHICH TREASURY SECRETARY NICHOLAS BRADY ENUNCIATED ... THE PLAN THAT WOULD ... FINALLY GET THE DEBT CRISIS OF THE FRONT BURNER. THE WORLD CAN NOT WAIT THAT LONG NOW. IT IS REFRESHING, THEREFORE, THAT KOREA AND ITS CREDITORS -- LED BY BY J-P MORGAN, CHASE MANHATTAN, AND CITICORP FROM THE U-S, AND TOKYO-MITSUBISHI FROM JAPAN -- HAVE RUSHED TO THE TABLE IN LESS THAN THREE MONTHS. THIS IS ... ALSO A CREDIT TO THE KOREANS AND TO THEIR PRESIDENT-ELECT KIM DAE-JUNG.

    TEXT: IN ANOTHER COMMENTARY, "NEWSDAY" IS SUGGESTING ZAMBIA'S PRESIDENT NEEDS [SOME] LESSONS IN DEMOCRACY.

    VOICE: THE UNFOUNDED ARREST AND ILLEGAL DETENTION OF ZAMBIA'S FORMER PRESIDENT KENNETH KAUNDA, IS AN UGLY BLOT ON THE ELECTED GOVERNMENT OF PRESIDENT FREDERICK CHILUBA. [MR.] CHILUBA HAD AMPLE PRECEDENT FOR JAILING A POLITICAL RIVAL INDEFINITELY WITHOUT CHARGES: [MR.] KAUNDA RESORTED TO THAT SAME TACTIC AGAINST HIS ENEMIES WHEN HE WAS PRESIDENT. ... BUT THAT DOES NOT EXCUSE HIS ILLEGAL DETENTION.

    TEXT: THERE ARE CONTINUED OUTPOURINGS OF GRIEF OVER THE ACCIDENTAL DEATH WHILE SKIING OF ENTERTAINER AND CALIFORNIA CONGRESSMAN SONNY BONO. MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" SAYS OF MR. BONO:

    VOICE: IN 34 YEARS OF PUBLIC LIFE, SONNY BONO ALWAYS MANAGED TO EXCEED OUR EXPECTATIONS. HE WAS NOT A GREAT ENTERTAINER, YET IMPROBABLY BECAME A POP ICON IN THE 1960'S, TEAMED WITH HIS WIFE CHER. ... HIS ENTRY INTO POLITICS, TOO, WAS GREETED SKEPTICALLY. HOWEVER, AS MAYOR OF PALM SPRINGS, CALIFORNIA, AND LATER IN CONGRESS, HE SHOWED HIMSELF TO BE NOT ONLY AN ENTERTAINING SPEAKER, BUT A MAN CAPABLE OF GRASPING THE ISSUES. SO ... HOW SHOULD HE BE REMEMBERED? ENTERTAINER? ENTREPRENEUR? POLITICIAN? [MR.] BONO WAS ALL OF THOSE, BUT MOST OF ALL HE WAS A SUCCESS.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES," REFLECTING ON THE ACCIDENTAL SKIING DEATHS OF BOTH MICHAEL KENNEDY, SON OF THE LATE ATTORNEY GENERAL ROBERT KENNEDY AND MR. BONO, LESS THAN ONE WEEK APART, MAKES THESE POINTS ABOUT RECREATIONAL RISKS.

    VOICE: REPORTERS COMMONLY SUMMON THE NUMBERS AFTER ACCIDENTS LIKE THE ONES THAT KILLED MR. KENNEDY AND MR. BONO, AND WHAT THE NUMBERS SHOW IS THAT MOST DANGEROUS SPORTS, INCLUDING SKIING, ARE SAFER THAN BICYCLING OR KILL FEWER AMERICANS ANNUALLY THAN SHOWERING. IT IS TEMPTING TO COUNT UP THE RECREATIONAL DEATHS THAT OCCUR EACH YEAR AND TO MORALIZE UPON THEIR IRONIC FUTILITY -- NOT BECAUSE THEY WERE ACCIDENTAL BUT BECAUSE THEY OCCURRED DURING RECREATION.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: ON THAT SAD NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF THE DAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    08-Jan-98 10:54 AM EST (1554 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-225009
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE DOWN TODAY (THURSDAY) ON CONTINUED CONCERN ABOUT THE FINANCIAL SITUATION IN ASIA. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 78 HUNDRED TWO, DOWN 99 POINTS. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 956, DOWN EIGHT POINTS.

    ANALYSTS SAY THAT, IN MANY WAYS, THURSDAY'S TRADING IN NEW YORK WAS A RE-RUN OF WEDNESDAY'S SESSION WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT THERE WERE NO LAST MINUTE BUYERS ON THURSDAY TO RESCUE STOCK PRICES. AS IT HAS BEEN FOR SEVERAL SESSIONS, THE FINANCIAL CRISIS IN ASIA WAS THE FOCUS OF ATTENTION ON WALL STREET, ESPECIALLY NOW THE SITUATION IN INDONESIA WHERE STOCK PRICES FELL THURSDAY BY 18 PERCENT.

    WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES FELL TWO-TENTHS OF ONE PERCENT IN DECEMBER TO THEIR LOWEST LEVEL IN 11 YEARS. THE FIGURES LED SOME ANALYSTS TO SPECULATE THAT THERE MIGHT BE A REAL POSSIBILITY THAT THE U-S IS ENTERING A PHASE OF DEFLATION OR SUSTAINED DECREASES IN PRICES.

    ///REST OPT///

    A KEY OFFICIAL OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK IS HINTING THAT THERE IS NO NEED TO RAISE SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES. IN A SPEECH, CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR LAURENCE MEYER, WHO IS KNOWN AS A VIGILANT OPPONENT OF INFLATION, EVEN SUGGESTED A REDUCTION IN INTEREST RATES MAY BE NEEDED.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS APPLYING FOR UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS JUMPED BY MORE THAN SIX PERCENT LAST WEEK. HOWEVER, ANALYSTS SAY THE INCREASE WAS CAUSED BY SEASONAL ADJUSTMENTS AND DOES NOT INDICATE A WEAKENING OF THE U-S JOB MARKET.

    REPORTS SAY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS AT THE A-T AND T TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANY IS SET TO APPROVE AN 11 BILLION DOLLAR TAKEOVER OF THE TELEPORT COMPANY. A-T AND T IS THE LARGEST LONG DISTANCE COMPANY IN THE UNITED STATES AND TELEPORT PROVIDES LOCAL TELEPHONE SERVICE IN MAJOR U-S CITIES. ANALYSTS SAY THE DEAL WILL HELP A-T AND T ENTER LOCAL TELEPHONE MARKETS.

    THE DELL COMPUTER COMPANY SAYS IT WILL CUT PRICES BY UP TO 15 PERCENT. THE COMPANY CITES LOWER COMPONENT COSTS BECAUSE OF THE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN PARTS OF ASIA.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/WFR
    08-Jan-98 5:09 PM EST (2209 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WHO ARE THE KURDS? BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/8/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38613
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-ISSUING TO CORRECT FIRST GRAF OF TEXT //

    NTRO: THE MASS EXODUS OF MORE THAN 12 HUNDRED KURDISH REFUGEES FROM TURKEY AND IRAQ IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS HAS FOCUSED WORLD ATTENTION ON THE 13 YEAR OLD WAR BETWEEN KURDISH REBELS KNOWN AS THE P-K-K AND THE TURKISH ARMY. THE KURDS SAY THEY ARE FLEEING A VICIOUS EFFORT TO SUPRESS THEM, BUT TURKEY SAYS THOSE FLEEING ARE EITHER CRIMINALS OR MEMBERS AND SUPPORTERS OF THE BANNED P-K-K GUERRILLA MOVEMENT. BUT WHO ARE THE KURDISH PEOPLE, WHERE DID THEY COME FROM AND WHERE DO THEY NOW LIVE? VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR EXAMINES THOSE QUESTIONS IN THIS BACKGROUND REPORT:

    TEXT: THE SUDDEN EXODUS OF KURDS FROM TURKEY AND IRAQ HAS ALARMED NOT ONLY EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS BUT SOME KURDISH LEADERS AS WELL. (MR.) KANI XULAM (PRON: KHOO-LAHM) OF THE AMERICAN KURDISH INFORMATION NETWORK IN WASHINGTON EXPLAINS:

    // ACT ONE/ZOLAM //

    THERE'S AN UGLY WAR GOING ON WHICH GOES TO THE HEART OF THE QUESTION. WE DO NOT WANT THE KURDS TO BE IN EUROPE, WE WANT THE KURDS BE IN KURDISTAN WHERE THEY HAVE BEEN LIVING FOR A MILENNIUM. SO WHILE WE APPLAUD THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO ACCEPT THEM, WE ALSO DEPLORE THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT'S DECISION TO SEEK A MILITARY SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM.

    // END ACT //

    MR. XULAM SAID THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT'S ATTEMPTS TO SOLVE THE KURDISH PROBLEM BY DRIVING THEM OUT IS A FORM OF ETHNIC CLEANSING SIMILAR TO THAT IN THE BOSNIAN WAR. BUT OTHER ANALYSTS SAY IN THE CASE OF THE KURDS, THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A COUNTRY CALLED 'KURDISTAN' -- ALTHOUGH THERE IS A SMALL PROVINCE IN IRAN WITH THAT NAME. ANOTHER SPOKESMAN FOR KURDS IN AMERICA, MICHAEL AMITAY OF THE WASHINGTON KURDISH INSTITUTE SAYS THE LACK OF A DEFINED STATE HOWEVER DOES NOT MEAN THERE ISN'T A KURDISTAN:

    // ACT TWO/AMITAY //

    KURDISTAN HAS NEVER BEEN DEFINED AS MODERN NATION STATES ARE LAID OUT WITH BORDERS, BUT IT THERE'S A REGION THAT STRETCHES ALMOST FROM CENTRAL TURKEY THROUGH THE EAST TO THE BORDERS OF ARMENIA THEN DOWN THROUGH IRAQ, IRAN, CORNERS OF SYRIA. AND YOU COULD SAY THAT THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION IN THIS REGION IS KURDISH.

    // END ACT //

    MR. AMITAY SAYS THERE ARE THREE MAJOR KURDISH CITIES IN IRAQ (ERBIL, KIRKUK AND SULAYMANIYAH), THREE IN IRAN (MAHABAD, SANANDAJ, AND KIRMANSHAH), TWO IN TURKEY (DIYARBAKIR AND VAN).

    HISTORIANS DIFFER ON THE PRECISE ORIGINS OF THE PEOPLE KNOWN TODAY AS KURDS. APPROXIMATELY FOUR THOUSAND YEARS AGO, A NOMADIC, INDO-ARYAN PEOPLE SPEAKING A COMMON LANGUAGE SETTLED IN THE MOUNTAINS OF WHAT WAS THEN MESOPOTAMIA. THEY NEVER HAD THEIR OWN GOVERNMENT, BUT HAVE OFTEN FIERCELY RESISTED EFFORTS TO ASSIMILATE. DURING WORLD WAR ONE THE OTTOMAN TURKS SUPPRESSED AN EFFORT TO ESTABLISH AN INDEPENDENT KURDISH ENTITY IN WHAT IS TODAY EASTERN TURKEY, AND IN THE 1970'S AND 80'S BOTH IRAN AND IRAQ BRUTALLY CRUSHED SIMILAR EFFORTS. FOLLOWING THE GULF WAR OF 1991, THE DEFEATED IRAQI ARMY PUT DOWN A KURDISH REBELLION AND SENT MORE THAN A MILLION KURDS FLEEING INTO THE MOUNTAINS OF NORTHERN IRAQ, IRAN AND TURKEY. [OPT] IN RESPONSE, THE ALLIED NATIONS THAT HAD FOUGHT IRAQ CREATED A SAFETY ZONE IN NORTHERN IRAQ AND PROVIDED KURDISH REFUGEES WITH FOOD AND OTHER NECESSITIES. [END OPT]

    MICHAEL AMITAY SAYS DURING ALL THESE ATTEMPTS AT SELF- GOVERNMENT, FEW KURDS SERIOUSLY BELIEVED A SEPARATE, INDEPENDENT STATE OF KURDISTAN WOULD EVER BE POSSIBLE:

    // ACT THREE/AMITAY //

    I DON'T THINK THAT'S THE HOPE OF MANY, GIVEN THE REAL POLITICAL CONDITIONS WHICH EXIST IN THE COUNTRIES THAT THEY LIVE. I THINK MOST KURDS WOULD BE CONTENT TO LIVE IN DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS WHERE THEIR POLITICAL, CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS WERE ON AN EQUAL LEVEL WITH ANYONE ELSE IN THAT COUNTRY.

    // END ACT //

    MR. AMITAY SAYS THE SOURCE OF THE ANIMOSITY TOWARD THE KURDS, IN TURKEY AND OTHER COUNTRIES, STEMS FROM TWO THINGS -- THAT THEY REMAIN A PEOPLE APART AND THE FEAR THAT IF THEIR DEMANDS FOR SELF GOVERNMENT ARE MET, THERE WILL BE SIMILAR DEMANDS FROM OTHER MINORITY GROUPS. IT ALL BOILS DOWN TO LAND AND MONEY, SAYS MICHAEL AMITAY, AND THE KURDS OCCUPY A LOT OF LAND, INCLUDING OIL RICH AREAS OF IRAN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/KL
    08-Jan-98 11:24 AM EST (1624 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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