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Voice of America, 98-05-04

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [02] KOSOVO WOMEN BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)
  • [03] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [05] NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE (PART SIX) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [06] THE U-S SENATE VOTES TO EXPAND NATO BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] REACTION TO NATO EXPANSION BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] TURKEY/EUROPE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

  • [01] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-230680
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE ENDED TRADING ON A HIGH NOTE MONDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH HAS THE DAY'S CLOSING FIGURES FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: PICKING UP FROM THE BIG BOOST BEFORE LAST FRIDAY'S "MAY DAY" HOLIDAY, MARKETS IN FRANKFURT AND PARIS CLOSED SHARPLY HIGHER MONDAY. THE GERMAN "DAX" INDEX CLOSED UP 96-AND-A-HALF POINTS -- A GAIN OF JUST UNDER TWO PERCENT -- AND THE PARIS "CAC 40" WAS UP JUST OVER 93 POINTS -- A GAIN FOR THE DAY OF ALMOST TWO-AND-A-HALF PERCENT.

    LONDON CELEBRATED ITS "MAY DAY" HOLIDAY ON MONDAY, SO THE STOCK MARKET WAS CLOSED. COMMODITIES AND CURRENCY MARKETS IN LONDON WERE OPEN, HOWEVER, FOLLOWING THE WEEKEND MEETING IN BRUSSELS APPROVING THE 11 EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES TO USE THE "EURO" CURRENCY, COME JANUARY FIRST. BRITISH NEWSPAPERS CONFIDENTLY SPECULATED MONDAY THAT DIFFERENCES AMONG E-U MEMBERS OVER A EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK CHIEF WOULD BOOST THE VALUE OF THE BRITISH POUND AS A SAFE HAVEN CURRENCY. ACTUALLY, THE POUND LOST VALUE TO BOTH THE GERMAN MARK AND THE U-S DOLLAR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF
    04-May-98 2:17 PM EDT (1817 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] KOSOVO WOMEN BY ART CHIMES (PRISTINA)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40255
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AMID THE VIOLENCE AND UNREST OF SERBIA'S TROUBLED KOSOVO PROVINCE, THE LOCAL WOMEN'S CENTER PROVIDES A HAVEN WHERE WOMEN CAN GET MEDICAL TREATMENT, PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING AND OTHER SERVICES. BUT AS WE HEAR FROM V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES IN THE PROVINCIAL CAPITAL, PRISTINA, THE CENTER'S ACTIVITIES -- AND CLIENTS -- ARE NEVER VERY FAR FROM THE CONFLICT.

    TEXT: THE WAITING ROOM AT THE "CENTER FOR THE PROTECTION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN" ("QENDRA PER MBROJTJEN E GRAVE DHE FEMIJEVE") IS FULL. PREGNANT WOMEN COME FOR PRE-NATAL EXAMINATIONS. TEENAGERS ARE HERE FOR CLASSES ON HEALTH AND SEXUALITY. AN OLDER WOMAN MIGHT BE WAITING TO SEE A LAWYER ABOUT HER DIVORCE. IN THEORY, MOST OF THESE SERVICES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE THROUGH OFFICIAL CHANNELS. BUT THESE ARE ALBANIAN WOMEN AND ETHNIC ALBANIANS HAVE BEEN EFFECTIVELY EXCLUDED FROM MANY PUBLIC SERVICES IN KOSOVO, EVEN THOUGH THEY CONSTITUTE ABOUT 90-PERCENT OF THE POPULATION. ETHNIC ALBANIAN GUERRILLAS ARE FIGHTING FOR AN INDEPENDENT KOSOVO.

    NEWS REPORTS DOCUMENT THE ALMOST-DAILY CLASHES BETWEEN SERB FORCES AND SEPARATIST GUERRILLAS WHICH RESULT IN A MOUNTING DEATH TOLL. BUT THE HEADLINES FAIL TO CAPTURE SOME OF THE OTHER CASUALTIES OF THE CONFLICT.

    A PHYSICIAN AT THE CENTER, DR. VJOSA DOBRUNA, SAYS UNEMPLOYMENT, ECONOMIC HARDSHIP AND THE POLITICAL ATMOSPHERE HAVE ALL CONTRIBUTED TO AN INCREASE IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

    // DOBRUNA ACTUALITY //

    IT BECAME AN ISSUE WHICH IS NOT IN THE POLITICAL SENSE, A PRIORITY. BUT FOR US WOMEN, IT IS ONE OF OUR PRIORITIES. IT IS A PRIORITY IN ORDER TO SURVIVE. MEN WHO ARE FRUSTRATED OUTSIDE, ARE WITHOUT A JOB, AND SUFFER VIOLENCE OUTSIDE (THE HOME) ON A DAILY BASIS -- THAT FRUSTRATION THEY BRING HOME.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    ACCORDING TO SURVEYS DONE BY THE WOMEN'S CENTER, TWO-THIRDS OF THE ALBANIAN WOMEN IN KOSOVO HAVE BEEN VICTIMS OF FAMILY VIOLENCE.

    THERE IS OTHER VIOLENCE TOO. IN ARMED CONFLICTS, THERE ARE ALMOST ALWAYS RAPES, BUT IN THIS CONFLICT RAPES ARE NOT BEING REPORTED. EXPERTS SAY IT IS A CULTURAL TABOO. NONETHELESS, WOMEN'S CENTER HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCATE SEVDIE AHMETI SAYS THE CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE IS PERSUASIVE.

    // AHMETI ACTUALITY //

    THERE MUST BE RAPES. BUT IT IS NOT REPORTED. IT IS TABOO. BUT LARGE POLICE FORCES SURROUND A VILLAGE OR SOME FAMILIES, AND THEY ARE HEAVILY ARMED AND WITH ARMORED VEHICLES. (THEY COME) DURING THE NIGHT WHEN EYEWITNESSES ARE NOT PRESENT. KNOWING THAT THEY BEAT UP THE MEN OF THE FAMILY AND THEY TORTURE THEM AND THEY ISOLATE THEM ... AND THEN THEY ISOLATE WOMEN IN ANOTHER PLACE, SO THERE MUST BE CASES OF RAPE, TOO.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THE POSSIBILITY OF INCREASING VIOLENCE OR A PROTRACTED LOW LEVEL CONFLICT HAS A PROFOUND PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT AS WELL. DR. DOBRUNA, WHO IS A PEDIATRICIAN, SAYS THE MAJORITY OF GIRLS SHE SEES IN THE CENTER FEEL HOPELESS. THE JUST WANT TO ESCAPE, SHE SAYS, FROM A PLACE WHERE THEY SAY THERE IS NO LIFE ANYMORE. (SIGNED) NEB/ART/ADEN/
    04-May-98 1:37 PM EDT (1737 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/04/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10694
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ////

    EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ! !

    ////

    INTRO: A PAIR OF EDITORIALS CRITICAL OF CLINTON ADMINISTRATION POLICY IN AFRICA ARE AMONG THE EDITORIAL TOPICS TO BE FOUND IN THE COMMENTARY SECTIONS OF MONDAY'S U-S PAPERS. ONE IS ABOUT THE "SHAM DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA" WHILE THE OTHER TALKS OF THE SAME OLD POLITICS IN THE "NEW CONGO." ELSEWHERE, THERE IS COMMENT ON THE PROSPECTS FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S TRIP TO CHINA; THE ISSUE OF A MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM FOR THIS COUNTRY; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S USE OF EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE TO KEEP INFORMATION FROM THE WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION, AND REFORMING THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE. NOW, JOINING US WITH SOME QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK IS ______________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" IS UPSET AS REGARDS THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN NIGERIA'S ANNOUNCED MOVE TOWARD A CIVILIAN GOVERNMENT, WHICH HAS ALL FIVE POLITICAL PARTIES ANNOUNCING GENERAL SANI ABACHA AS THEIR CANDIDATE. SAYS "THE POST;"

    VOICE: PRESIDENT CLINTON TRAVELED TO AFRICA LAST MONTH HAILING THE POSSIBILITY OF A NEW ERA OF DEMOCRACY AND PROSPERITY. HOPEFUL SIGNS CAN BE FOUND. BUT COUNTERBALANCING THEM IS THE DEEPENING DECLINE IN AFRICA'S MOST POPULOUS NATION, NIGERIA. TO GAIN CREDIBILITY FOR ITS AFRICA POLICY THE ADMINISTRATION NEEDS TO CONFRONT MORE COURAGEOUSLY THE TYRANNICAL RULERS RESPONSIBLE FOR NIGERIA'S DECLINE. GIVEN THE NATION'S OIL WEALTH, ITS POPULATION OF 105-MILLION SHOULD BE AMONG AFRICA'S MOST PROSPEROUS. BUT THANKS TO THE CORRUPT AND INEPT REGIME OF DICTATOR GENERAL SANI ABACHA, AVERAGE G-D-P PER CAPITA IS 260-DOLLARS -- AND GOING DOWN. THE REGIME'S HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD IS 'DISMAL,' THE STATE DEPARTMENT REPORTED THIS YEAR. /// OPT /// ... NOW THE GENERAL HAS DEMONSTRATED HIS CONTEMPT FOR U-S OPINION. HE LEGALIZED FIVE POLITICAL PARTIES,AND ALL FIVE NOMINATED HIM FOR PRESIDENT. /// END OPT /// ...ONLY AN INTERNATIONAL BOYCOTT OF NIGERIA'S OIL CAN PUT PRESSURE ON ITS MILITARY REGIME AND SHOW FAITH WITH ITS PEOPLE.

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO "THE NEW YORK TIMES" THINGS ARE ONLY SOMEWHAT BETTER IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO, WHERE LAURENT KABILA IS NEARING THE END OF HIS FIRST YEAR IN POWER, AFTER OUSTING ZAIRE'S LONGTIME DICTATOR MOBUTU SESE SEKO. "THE TIMES" SUGGESTS:

    VOICE: ELEVEN AND A HALF MONTHS LATER,M FAR TOO MUCH OF THE MOBUTU STYLE REMAINS. WHILE THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION WENT OUT OF ITS WAY TO CULTIVATE MR. KABILA, THE NEW CONGOLESE LEADER HAS PROVED TO BE A RIGID AND INTOLERANT AUTOCRAT WHO SCORNS DEMOCRACY, JAILS RIVALS AND HAS STONEWALLED UNITED NATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF REPORTED MASSACRES OF HUTU REFUGEES DURING LAST YEAR'S FIGHTING.

    /// OPT ///

    ... MR. KABILA TREATS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY CONTEMPTUOUSLY, COUNTING ON THE LURE OF CONGO'S MINERAL RESOURCES TO ATTRACT THE FOREIGN FUNDS HE NEEDS TO FINANCE HIS ADMINISTRATION. BUT FOREIGN INVESTORS SHOULD BE CAUTIOUS. THE KABILA GOVERNMENT'S HIGHHANDEDNESS OFFERS LITTLE ASSURANCE THAT CONTRACTS WILL BE ENFORCEABLE. /// END OPT /// ...WASHINGTON HAS ALWAYS MADE COOPERATION WITH THE U-N HUMAN RIGHTS INVESTIGATION A CONDITION FOR PROCEEDING WITH ITS 50-MILLION-DOLLAR AID PACKAGE FOR CONGO. ALL PARTS OF THAT AID PROGRAM MUST NOW BE RECONSIDERED.

    TEXT: TURNING TO ASIA, TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS LOOKING AHEAD TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S FORTHCOMING SUMMIT MEETING IN CHINA, COMPLAINING THE ADMINISTRATION IS NOT PRESSING BEIJING FOR ENOUGH CONCESSIONS IN THE WORK-UP TO THAT VISIT.

    VOICE: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT'S DIPLOMATIC SPADEWORK IN CHINA LAST WEEK FOUND LITTLE EVIDENCE OF MODERATION IN BEIJING'S TOUGH STAND ON ISSUES THAT WASHINGTON IS MOST CONCERNED ABOUT. WHILE THAT DOES NOT RULE OUT SOME CONCILIATORY GESTURES AS THE SUMMIT MEETING DRAWS CLOSER, IT ALSO DOES NOT OFFER MUCH HOPE THAT THE TALKS WILL PRODUCE ANY BREAKTHROUGHS.

    TEXT: BACK HOME, "THE NEW YORK POST" SAYS THE NATION IS STILL WAITING FOR SOME KIND OF DEFENSE SYSTEM AGAINST ENEMY MISSILES, AND BLAMES THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FOR INACTION IN THAT AREA.

    VOICE: AFTER SIX-YEARS OF DITHERING ON MISSILE DEFENSE, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FINALLY TOOK A CONCRETE STEP TOWARD MAKING IT A REALITY LAST WEEK: IT AWARDED A ONE-POINT-SIX-BILLION-DOLLAR CONTRACT -- THE LARGEST EVER IN THIS FIELD -- TO THE BOEING CORPORATION TO OVERSEE THE DESIGN AND TESTING OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM TO DESTROY INCOMING BALLISTIC MISSILES. HERE IS A FACT OF LIFE: THE UNITED STATES IS UTTERLY DEFENSELESS TO MISSILE ATTACK. PRESIDENT REAGAN HOPED TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT THIS IN 1983 WHEN HE PROPOSED THE STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE -- THE 'STAR WARS' MISSILE-DEFENSE SYSTEM -- BUT NOTHING HAPPENED. THE PROGRAM HAS LANGUISHED BECAUSE OF LACKLUSTER SUPPORT FROM MANY REPUBLICANS AND OUTRIGHT HOSTILITY FROM MANY DEMOCRATS. ...THE COLD WAR IS OVER, BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN THE THREAT HAS EVAPORATED.

    TEXT: WITH DOMESTIC AFFAIRS, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS UPSET WITH THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S USE OF THE EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE DOCTRINE, WHICH SETS SOME PRESIDENTIAL CONVERSATIONS AS SO PRIVATE, NOT EVEN A GRAND JURY CAN FIND OUT WHAT WAS SAID. SAYS "THE TIMES:"

    VOICE: PROPERLY CONSTRUED, THE DOCTRINE OF EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE EXEMPTS ONLY A NARROW BAND OF PRESIDENTIAL ACTIVITIES FROM THE REACH OF LEGAL INQUIRY. TO INVOKE THAT PRIVILEGE IN A BROAD AND SELF-SERVING WAY, AS THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE HAS DONE TO SHIELD ITSELF FROM KENNETH STARR'S [WHITEWATER] INQUIRY, IS TO ABUSE IT. ... /// OPT /// NOT EVERY WHITE HOUSE ASSERTION OF PRIVILEGE HAS BEEN UNREASONABLE. ... THE PRIVILEGE CLAIM FOR SECRET SERVICE AGENTS HAS SOME PLAUSIBILITY, THE ARGUMENT BEING THAT THEY CANNOT PROPERLY SHADOW [FOLLOW] THE PRESIDENT IF THEY ARE GOING TO BE ROUTINELY HAULED INTO COURT TO TESTIFY ABOUT THE PRESIDENT'S PRIVATE BEHAVIOR. BUT THOSE FEARS ARGUE NOT FOR A BLANKET EXEMPTION FROM TESTIFYING IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS, BUT FOR ATTENTIVE JUDGES WHO WILL MAKE SURE THAT THE AGENTS ARE NOT SUBJECTED TO EXTRANEOUS QUESTIONS.

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" IS STILL WORRYING ABOUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF LAST WEEK'S SENATE VOTE ON THE EXPANSION OF NATO, WORRIED ABOUT HOW IT WILL AFFECT THE WEST'S FUTURE RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA.

    VOICE: ON AN EMOTIONAL LEVEL, WHO COULD QUARREL WITH THE SENATE'S DECISION LAST WEEK TO RATIFY THE EXPANSION OF NATO TO INCLUDE POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC? THOSE COUNTRIES PAID A BITTER PRICE FOR THE WEST'S ACQUIESCENCE TO THE IRON CURTAIN, AND ARE UNDERSTANDABLY EAGER NOW TO JOIN THE WEST'S PREMIER DEFENSE CLUB. BUT THE SENATE VOTE DOES NOT CLARIFY WHY MEMBERSHIP MATTERS WHEN THE SOVIET UNION IS DEAD AND THE IRON CURTAIN IS HISTORY.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: LASTLY, AND AGAIN IN DOMESTIC ISSUES, THE ATTACK ON INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE ABUSES AGAINST U-S TAXPAYERS CONTINUES IN CONGRESS, AND AT THE WHITE HOUSE, BUT "USA TODAY" POINTS OUT, SOME OF THE FAULTS MAY BE EXAGGERATED, AND THE REMEDY UNCERTAIN.

    VOICE: IN ANCIENT EGYPT, TAX COLLECTORS GUILTY OF OVERCHARGING TAXPAYERS HAD THEIR NOSES CUT OFF AND WERE BANISHED TO A DESOLATE PART OF ARABIA. ... NOT SO IN MODERN AMERICA. AT THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, ABUSIVE TAX AGENTS ARE PROMOTED. OR SO THE STORY GOES. LAST WEEK'S SENATE HEARINGS INTO IRS ABUSES ADDED TO THE LIST OF HORROR STORIES -- ...BUT WHAT TO DO ABOUT THE ABUSES THE SENATE PUT ON DISPLAY IS LESS CERTAIN, FOR DESPITE ALL THE HYPE, THEY ARE IRRELEVANT TO THE VAST MAJORITY OF TAXPAYERS. ABOUT 40-PERCENT OF ADULTS, FOR INSTANCE, EITHER DO NOT FILE AT ALL, OR USE ... A ONE-PAGE FORM THAT TAKES ONLY MINUTES TO FILL OUT. THE DREADED AUDIT IS A RARITY, WITH FEWER THAN TWO-PERCENT OF INDIVIDUAL RETURNS SELECTED FOR REVIEW. ... ANY TAX-CODE OVERHAUL WILL AFFECT MANY TIMES MORE TAXPAYERS THAN ALL THE ABUSES EXPOSED AT THE HEARINGS.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM THE PAGES OF MONDAY'S U-S PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    04-May-98 10:35 AM EDT (1435 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-230692
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (MONDAY) WITH THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSING AT A RECORD HIGH. VOA CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 91 HUNDRED 92, UP 45 POINTS. THAT IS THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE'S FIRST RECORD HIGH SINCE APRIL 21ST. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 11 HUNDRED 22, UP ONE POINT.

    ANALYSTS SAY TRADING WAS BASICALLY A CONTINUATION OF FRIDAY'S RALLY WHICH WAS FUELED BY U-S ECONOMIC STATISTICS WHICH SHOW CONTINUED LOW INFLATION ALONG WITH HEALTHY ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ///OPT///

    IN OTHER FINANCE-RELATED NEWS, SUSAN PHILLIPS, A GOVERNOR OF THE U-S CENTRAL BANK, WILL RESIGN AT THE END OF JUNE TO TAKE A TEACHING POSITION. PRESIDENT CLINTON MUST NOW NOMINATE A NEW MEMBER OF THE BANK'S GOVERNING BOARD.

    WITH TAX COLLECTIONS RUNNING AHEAD OF EXPECTATIONS THIS YEAR, THE U-S TREASURY DEPARTMENT SAYS IT WILL BE ABLE TO PAY OFF A RECORD 110 BILLION DOLLARS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT IN THE SECOND QUARTER. THE HIGH INFLOW OF TAX MONEY ALSO MEANS THE TREASURY WILL NEED TO BORROW LESS LATER THIS YEAR.///END OPT///

    THE BIG STOCK STORY OF THE DAY INVOLVED ENTREMED, A SMALL BIOTECHNOLOGY FIRM WHICH IS DEVELOPING A NEW CANCER TREATMENT THAT HAS BEEN SHOWN TO ELIMINATE TUMORS IN LABORATORY MICE. ENTREMED'S STOCK CLOSED FRIDAY AT 12 DOLLARS A SHARE. IT OPENED MONDAY AT 84 DOLLARS A SHARE AND CLOSED AT 51 DOLLARS.

    ///REST OPT///

    SOME SKEPTICAL ANALYSTS SAY THE ACTION IN ENTREMED STOCK IS REMINISCENT OF OTHER BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANIES WHICH SEEMED ON THE VERGE OF MAJOR MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS WHICH NEVER DEVELOPED. DR. JOHN HOLADAY, THE CHAIRMAN OF ENTREMED, SAYS HE IS TRYING TO BE CAUTIOUS.

    ///HOLADAY ACT///

    WE THINK THE FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM OF BIOTECH AS A SECTOR HAS BEEN PROMISES MADE AND PROMISES NOT KEPT. THEREFORE WE ARE VERY CAUTIOUS IN MAKING PROMISES. IT IS A LONG WAY FROM MOUSE TO MAN.

    ///END ACT///

    INTERVIEWED ON THE C-N-B-C TELEVISION NETWORK, DR. HOLADAY SAID HIS COMPANY'S ANTI-CANCER DRUG, ANGIOSTATIN, MAY BE TESTED ON HUMANS WITHIN A YEAR.

    TOBACCO STOCKS WERE UP ON UNCONFIRMED REPORTS THAT THE INDUSTRY HAS REACHED AN AGREEMENT TO SETTLE A LAWSUIT IN THE STATE OF MINNESOTA. THE STATE HAS BEEN ASKING FOR ALMOST TWO BILLION DOLLARS TO COVER THE COSTS OF SMOKING-RELATED ILLLNESSES.

    A SURVEY BY "FORBES" MAGAZINE SHOWS SANFORD WEILL, CHAIRMAN OF THE TRAVELERS INSURANCE AND INVESTMENT COMPANY, IS THE HIGHEST PAID CORPORATE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER IN THE UNITED STATES, EARNING 228 MILLION DOLLARS IN COMPENSATION LAST YEAR. BUT COMPENSATION DOES NOT NECESSARILY MAKE SOMEONE RICH. BILL GATES, CHAIRMAN OF THE MICROSOFT COMPUTER SOFTWARE COMPANY, EARNED 591 THOUSAND DOLLARS LAST YEAR, A PITTANCE COMPARED TO MR. WEILL'S PAY. BUT MR. GATES OWNS MICROSOFT STOCK VALUED AT ABOUT 50 BILLION DOLLARS.(SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/LSF
    04-May-98 4:55 PM EDT (2055 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NORTHERN IRELAND PEACE (PART SIX) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40256
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NORTHERN IRELAND'S PRO-NATIONALIST "SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC AND LABOR" PARTY -- THE "S-D-L-P" -- IS ONE OF MANY POLITICAL PARTIES URGING VOTERS TO ACCEPT THE RECENT AGREEMENT ON NORTHERN IRELAND. A REFERENDUM ON THE ISSUE WILL BE HELD MAY 22ND. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA SPOKE WITH THE S-D-L-P'S LEADER JOHN HUME ABOUT THE ACCORD.

    TEXT: THE "SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC AND LABOR PARTY" IS THE POLITICAL ENTITY THAT SPEAKS FOR MOST CATHOLICS IN NORTHERN IRELAND. ITS LEADER IS JOHN HUME, A MAN WHO FOR 30 YEARS, HAS BEEN TRYING TO FIND A PEACEFUL SOLUTION TO WHAT HAS BECOME COMMONLY KNOWN AS "THE TROUBLES" IN NORTHERN IRELAND.

    MR. HUME -- A FORMER TEACHER -- FIRST CAME TO POLITICAL PROMINENCE DURING THE 1968 CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN LONDONDERRY NORTHERN IRELAND'S SECOND LARGEST CITY. HE HAS BEEN THE S-D-L-P'S LEADER SINCE 1979 AND HAS PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN GETTING THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY'S POLITICAL WING "SINN FEIN" INTO THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS.

    MR. HUME HAS BEEN A DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE APRIL 10TH POLITICAL AGREEMENT, WHICH WILL BE PUT TO VOTERS IN NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE IRISH REPUBLIC MAY 22ND. HE CONSIDERS THE ACCORD A HISTORIC ACHIEVEMENT.

    // HUME ACT //

    THERE ALWAYS HAVE BEEN IN IRELAND THOSE WITH VERY SIMPLISTIC SOLUTIONS, WAVING FLAGS AND SAYING: "FOLLOW OUR FLAG AND YOU HAVE GOT AN ANSWER." BUT WHEN YOU HAVE A DEEPLY-DIVIDED PEOPLE, YOU DO NOT SOLVE THAT WITH AN INSTANT PACKAGE, IN A WEEK OR A FORTNIGHT. YOU REQUIRE A HEALING PROCESS AND YOU (ARE) REQUIRED TO CREATE THE FRAMEWORK WITHIN WHICH THE HEALING PROCESS WILL TAKE PLACE. THAT IS WHAT WE ARE PROPOSING TO DO IN THIS AGREEMENT.

    // END ACT //

    THE WORDS "HEALING PROCESS FOR A DIVIDED SOCIETY" ARE AT THE CORE OF MR. HUME'S PHILOSOPHY, AS HE TRIES TO PERSUADE OTHERS OF THE NEED TO PUT BEHIND THEM THE DEEP DIVISIONS OF THE PAST AND WORK TO BUILD A BETTER SOCIETY. HE BELIEVES THE POLITICAL AGREEMENT GIVING NORTHERN IRELAND MORE SAY IN RUNNING ITS OWN AFFAIRS REPRESENTS THE FIRST STEP TOWARDS THIS BRIGHTER FUTURE.

    // SECOND HUME ACT //

    WHAT THE AGREEMENT IS PROPOSING IS THAT WE WILL HAVE INSTITUTIONS WITHIN NORTHERN IRELAND WHICH ARE SHARED, WHEREBY BOTH SECTIONS OF OUR COMMUNITY WILL WORK TOGETHER IN THEIR COMMON INTEREST. AND SIMILARLY BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH OF IRELAND: BOTH SECTIONS WILL WORK TOGETHER IN OUR COMMON INTEREST. AND BY DOING THAT, BY SPILLING OUR SWEAT -- AS I KEEP SAYING -- AND NOT OUR BLOOD, THAT WILL BREAK DOWN THE BARRIERS OF CENTURIES. THE OLD DIVISIONS WILL ERODE AND IN A GENERATION OR TWO, THE NEW IRELAND WILL EVOLVE -- BUT IT WILL BE BASED ON AGREEMENT AND RESPECT FOR DIVERSITY.

    // END ACT //

    //OPT//

    FOR HIS UNFAILING EFFORTS TO FIND A POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS OF NORTHERN IRELAND, MR. HUME HAS BEEN NOMINATED FOR THIS YEAR'S NOBEL PEACE PRIZE. FOR HIM, THE REAL PRIZE WOULD BE -- AS HE PUT IT -- "PEACE FOR MY PEOPLE."

    // THIRD HUME ACT //

    MY DREAM FOR THE NEXT CENTURY, WHICH IS LESS THAN TWO YEARS AWAY, IS THAT IT WILL BE THE FIRST CENTURY IN OUR ISLAND'S HISTORY IN WHICH WE WILL NOT HAVE KILLINGS ON THE STREETS AND WE WILL NOT HAVE EMIGRATION OF OUR YOUNG TO OTHER LANDS.

    // END ACT // //END OPT//

    S-D-L-P LEADER JOHN HUME BELIEVES A VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE IN NORTHERN IRELAND AND IN THE IRISH REPUBLIC WILL CAST BALLOTS IN FAVOR OF THE AGREEMENT COME MAY 22ND. HE SAYS THE PEOPLE IN HIS NORTHERN IRISH CONSTITUENCY OF FOYLE HAVE ALREADY GIVEN AN EXTREMELY POSITIVE RESPONSE TO THE AGREEMENT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF
    04-May-98 1:42 PM EDT (1742 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] THE U-S SENATE VOTES TO EXPAND NATO BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/04/98
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-10695
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SENATE VOTED OVERWHELMINGLY LATE LAST WEEK TO RATIFY THE EXPANSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION TO INCLUDE POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY. THE VOTE, WHICH CROSSED PARTY LINES, WAS 80 TO 19, AND TOOK PLACE LATE THURSDAY EVENING AFTER TWELVE HOURS OF CONTINUOUS DEBATE.

    IN THE AMERICAN PRESS, HOWEVER, THE ARGUMENT STILL RAGES WITH SOME PAPERS APPLAUDING THE MOVE, AND OTHERS WORRIED ABOUT HOW IT WILL AFFECT RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA.

    JOINING US NOW IS ___________________ WITH A SAMPLING IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: MARYLAND SENATOR BARBARA MILKULSKI, A POLISH-AMERICAN, COMMENTED 'WE'RE VOTING TO MAKE EUROPE MORE STABLE AND AMERICA MORE SECURE' AS SHE RECOUNTED POLAND'S TROUBLED HISTORY UNDER NAZI AND SOVIET DOMINATION. HOWEVER, VETERAN DEMOCRATIC SENATORS DANIEL PATRICK MOYNIHAN OF NEW YORK AND PATRICK LEAHY OF VERMONT, WHO HAVE SUPPORTED MUCH OF PRESIDENT CLINTON'S FOREIGN POLICY, DENOUNCED THE EXPANSION.

    THE TWO LAWMAKERS SAID IT WOULD ENCOURAGE NATIONALISTS IN RUSSIA. ..... SENATOR LEAHY TOLD HIS COLLEAGUES HE REMAINS 'PROFOUNDLY TROUBLED' BY THE IDEA OF PUSHING NATO TO THE EDGE OF RUSSIA.

    THAT GIVES YOU AN IDEA OF HOW DIVIDED SOME IN CONGRESS ARE. FOR AN IDEA OF HOW THE PRESS REACTED, HERE IS A COMMENT FROM "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" [5/1]:

    VOICE: IT WAS A BRIGHT DAY FOR THE PROSPECT OF CONSOLIDATING DEMOCRACY AND PROMOTING THE EXPANSION OF CAPITALISM IN THE FORMER SOVIET BLOC. AS AMENDMENTS TO CURTAIL NATO ENLARGEMENT FELL LIKE SO MANY CHUNKS IS OF THE BERLIN WALL, PRESIDENT CLINTON WAS CONFIDENT ENOUGH OF AN AFFIRMATIVE VOTE TO DECLARE THAT THE WORLD WAS MOVING 'CLOSER THAN EVER TO REALIZING THE DREAM OF A GENERATION: A EUROPE THAT IS UNITED, DEMOCRATIC AND SECURE.' [MR.] CLINTON DESERVED CREDIT FOR PROVIDING LEADERSHIP ON THIS CRITICAL MATTER OF FOREIGN POLICY. ..... FOR ALL THE QUESTIONS ABOUT EXPANSION ..... THERE WAS NO DENYING THAT NATO'S BASIC MISSION WOULD HAVE TO CHANGE IN THIS POST-COLD WAR ERA. ADDING NEW DEMOCRACIES AS THEY MATURE IS A NECESSARY ELEMENT OF THAT CHANGE.

    TEXT: ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE NATION, PORTLAND'S "MAINE SUNDAY TELEGRAM" ALSO APPROVES, SAYING THAT FUTURE HISTORIANS WILL LOOK BACK ON THE DATE OF APRIL 30TH AS HISTORIC, AND ADDING THAT THE WORLD IS BETTER FOR THE DECISION.

    VOICE: THE ACTION HAS HUGE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. IT MEANS THIS NATION HAS PLEDGED TO RESPOND TO AN ATTACK ON PRAGUE, BUDAPEST OR WARSAW IN THE SAME MANNER AS IT WOULD ..... WASHINGTON, D.C. IT WILL MEAN EXPANDING THE MILITARY PRESENCE OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATO COUNTRIES 644 KILOMETERS ... EASTWARD TOWARD RUSSIA. .... FOR NEARLY HALF A CENTURY ... NATO HAS PROVEN TO BE THE UNDERPINNING OF PEACE AND PROSPERITY FOR WESTERN EUROPE. THAT FACT IS CLEAR TO RUSSIA AND OTHER NON-NATO COUNTRIES IN EUROPE, AND IT'S DOUBTFUL THEY FEEL THREATENED.

    TEXT: TAKING A DECIDEDLY DIFFERENT VIEW IS GEORGE KENNAN, A FORMER AMBASSADOR TO MOSCOW DURING THE COLD WAR AND THE MAN CREDITED WITH BEING THE ARCHITECT OF AMERICA'S CONTAINMENT POLICY TOWARD THE SOVIET UNION. NOW, AT 94, HE IS LIVING OUT HIS RETIREMENT IN PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY. WRITING IN "THE NEW YORK TIMES" COLUMNIST THOMAS FRIEDMAN CALLED MR. KENNAN FOR HIS VIEWS AND REPORTS THE VETERAN STATESMAN'S STARK ASSESSMENT.

    VOICE: 'I THINK IT IS THE BEGINNING OF A NEW COLD WAR ..... I THINK THE RUSSIANS WILL GRADUALLY REACT QUITE ADVERSELY AND IT WILL AFFECT THEIR POLICIES. I THINK IT IS A TRAGIC MISTAKE. THERE WAS NO REASON FOR THIS WHATSOEVER. NO ONE WAS THREATENING ANYBODY ELSE. THIS EXPANSION WOULD MAKE THE FOUNDING FATHERS OF THIS COUNTRY TURN OVER IN THEIR GRAVES [AN IDIOM FOR: "BEING PROFOUNDLY UPSET" WITH SOMETHING.] WE HAVE SIGNED UP TO PROTECT A WHOLE SERIES OF COUNTRIES, EVEN THOUGH WE HAVE NEITHER THE RESOURCES NOR THE INTENTION TO DO SO IN ANY SERIOUS WAY. [NATO EXPANSION] WAS SIMPLY A LIGHT-HEARTED ACTION BY A SENATE THAT HAS NO REAL INTEREST IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS.' ..... AS HE SAID GOODBYE TO ME ON THE PHONE, MR. KENNAN ADDED JUST ONE MORE THING: 'THIS HAS BEEN MY LIFE, AND IT PAINS ME TO SEE IT SO SCREWED UP [MISHANDLED] IN THE END.'

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" SAYS THE SENATE DEBATE ANSWERED NONE OF THE NAGGING QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT IT CONSIDERS AN ILL-ADVISED FOREIGN POLICY DECISION.

    VOICE: ..... THE SENATE VOTE DOESN'T CLARIFY WHY THE MEMBERSHIP MATTERS WHEN THE SOVIET UNION IS DEAD AND THE IRON CURTAIN IS HISTORY. ..... THE SENATE VOTE .... FAILS TO ANSWER ANY OF THE NAGGING QUESTIONS THAT MAKE NATO EXPANSION UNWISE. THE NATO ALLIANCE WAS FORMED TO DEFEND WESTERN EUROPE AGAINST SOVIET AGGRESSION. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION INSISTS THAT NATO'S MISSION NO LONGER IS TO CONTAIN RUSSIAN MIGHT. SO WHY EXPAND THE ALLIANCE'S BORDERS EAST? .... THE ADMINISTRATION SAYS NATO SHOULD FOCUS ON ETHNIC CONFLICTS AND ON INTERNATIONAL THREATS SUCH AS DRUGS AND TERRORISM. FINE. BUT MOST EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF NATO WERE RELUCTANT TO INTERVENE IN BOSNIA, AND FEW CAN AGREE ON MEASURES TO STOP ETHNIC KILLING IN KOSOVO OR PREVENT RENEWED CIVIL WAR IN CYPRUS. .... IF NATO DECISIONS -- WHICH REQUIRE A CONSENSUS -- ARE SO HARD TO MAKE WITH 16 MEMBERS, HOW CAN THEY BE MADE WITH THREE MORE? TEN MORE? IF THE ADMINISTRATION DOESN'T EXERCISE CAUTION, IT MAY EXPAND NATO INTO IMPOTENCE.

    TEXT: FINALLY, SOME COMMENTS FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST" WHICH SUPPORTED THE VOTE, POINTING OUT THE BIPARTISAN SUPPORT OF THE MOVE, WITH PRESIDENT CLINTON LAUNCHING NATO ENLARGEMENT, AND A REPUBLICAN SENATE RATIFYING IT. "THE POST" SAYS THAT WHILE RUSSIA IS STILL IN A DELICATE TRANSITION TO CAPITALISM AND DEMOCRACY, AND MAY BE ALIENATED BY THE MOVE, THAT SHOULD NOT BE AN ARGUMENT AGAINST THIS EXPANSION.

    VOICE: IT WOULD BE FOOLISH TO SAY THAT RUSSIA, A COUNTRY STILL IN A VULNERABLE PHASE OF UPROOTEDNESS AND TRANSITION, CANNOT BE FURTHER ALIENATED. BUT THAT SIMPLY MAKES IT PRUDENT TO ENGAGE WITH RUSSIA MORE DEEPLY ACROSS THE BOARD IN ORDER TO PREVENT THE OPPONENTS' DIRE FORECASTS FROM BECOMING TRUE BY OFFICIAL DEFAULT. NO DOUBT MANY RUSSIANS WOULD PREFER TO KEEP CENTRAL EUROPE A SPHERE OF INFLUENCE IN WHICH TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN SECURITY AMBITIONS PREVAIL ..... BUT THE COLD WAR WAS FOUGHT, ON THE AMERICAN SIDE, PRECISELY TO PREVENT THAT OLD HABIT FROM BEING SUSTAINED.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL REACTION TO THE SENATE'S VOTE LAST WEEK ON EXPANDING NATO.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    04-May-98 1:59 PM EDT (1759 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] REACTION TO NATO EXPANSION BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40261
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRODUCTION: BY EIGHTY TO NINETEEN, THE U-S SENATE VOTED TO EXPAND NATO - A CLEAR VICTORY FOR THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION'S FOREIGN POLICY. BUT REACTION IS MIXED BOTH IN RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATES. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS.

    TEXT: "THANK YOU, AMERICA," SAID POLISH PRIME MINISTER JERZY BUZEK ON TELEVISION IN WARSAW.

    HE WAS REFERRING TO THE U-S SENATE VOTE TO EXPAND NATO TO INCLUDE POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY. OTHERS WERE EQUALLY GRATEFUL IN THE NEWLY ADMITTED EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS. MANY SAID THE DECISION UNDID THE 1945 YALTA AGREEMENT THAT CONSIGNED THESE COUNTRIES TO THE SOVIET UNION, AND IT WOULD OFFER PROTECTION AGAINST A POSSIBLE RENEWAL OF RUSSIAN AGGRESSION.

    WHILE RUSSIAN POLITICIANS ACROSS THE SPECTRUM HAVE OBJECTED TO NATO EXPANSION, THE GENERAL RESPONSE IN RUSSIA SEEMED MUTED. RUSSIA AT LEAST HAS A VOICE, THOUGH NO VETO, IN THE EXPANDED NATO, AND MANY MOSCOW BUSINESSMEN ARE MORE CONCERNED WITH OBTAINING WESTERN INVESTMENT.

    WHILE NATO HISTORICALLY HAS BEEN DIRECTED AGAINST RUSSIA. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFERED A BROADER REASON FOR EXPANSION. AFTER THE SENATE VOTE, PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID THE NEW NATO WILL NOT ONLY PREVENT WAR BUT ALSO STRENGTHEN DEMOCRACY AND ENCOURAGE TRADE.

    IN A RECENT SPEECH, NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISER SAMUEL BERGER SAID NATO IS ONE OF A NUMBER OF U-S INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS:

    // BERGER ACT //

    IN EACH INSTANCE, THE OBJECTIVES ARE THE SAME: TO PROMOTE AMERICAN INTERESTS AND VALUES BY ENTANGLING NATIONS IN A WEB OF MUTUALLY REINFORCING ARRANGEMENTS THAT MAXIMIZE BOTH THE BENEFITS OF COMPLIANCE AND THE COSTS OF TRANSGRESSION. MEMBERSHIP IN AN EXPANDED NATO REQUIRES ADHERENCE TO BASIC DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES, THE RULE OF LAW AND CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY.

    // END ACT //

    OTHER AMERICANS ARE NOT SO OPTIMISTIC. SCHOLAR-DIPLOMAT GEORGE KENNAN TOLD THE NEW YORK TIMES NATO EXPANSION LAUNCHES A NEW COLD WAR. "THERE WAS NO REASON FOR THIS WHATSOEVER. NO ONE WAS THREATENING ANYBODY ELSE. WE HAVE SIGNED UP TO PROTECT A WHOLE SERIES OF COUNTRIES, EVEN THOUGH WE HAVE NEITHER THE RESOURCES NOR THE INTENTION TO DO SO IN ANY SERIOUS WAY."

    VARIOUS ANALYSTS, RANGING FROM THE COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS TO THE NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, SAY AS A RESULT OF NATO EXPANSION, RUSSIA IS MORE FIRMLY OPPOSING U-S POLICIES IN THE BALKANS AND CYPRUS AND PRESSURING NEIGHBORS LIKE LATVIA AND GEORGIA. THERE ARE INCREASING TENSIONS BETWEEN POLAND AND BELARUS, WHICH IS CLOSELY ALLIED TO MOSCOW. ACCUSING POLAND OF TRYING TO DESTABILIZE BELARUS, ITS GOVERNMENT PLEDGES TO RETALIATE.

    OPPONENTS LIKE SUSAN EISENHOWER, DAUGHTER OF THE FORMER U-S PRESIDENT, SAY THE UNITED STATES HAS SACRIFICED MUCH OF ITS LEVERAGE ON RUSSIA BY EXPANDING NATO. IT WILL BE HARDER NOW TO MAKE DEMANDS IN OTHER AREAS, SUCH AS RUSSIAN INTERVENTION IN THE COUNTRIES ON ITS PERIPHERY THAT DO NOT BELONG TO NATO.

    BUT MICHAEL MCFAUL, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT STANFORD UNIVERSITY, SAYS AS MUCH AS RUSSIANS DISLIKE NATO EXPANSION, IT IS NOT A DECISIVE FACTOR IN THEIR BEHAVIOUR:

    // MCFAUL ACT //

    WE ARE IN THE BEGINNING OF AN ERA OF RUSSIA'S REASSERTION AS A REGIONAL POWER, AND THAT WOULD HAVE HAPPENED WHETHER NATO EXPANDED OR NOT. RUSSIA HAS GONE THROUGH A PERIOD OF REVOLUTION DOMESTICALLY, AND SO IT HAS BEEN VERY WEAK AS AN INTERNATIONAL PLAYER. BUT AS THEY COME OUT OF THAT REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, YOU ARE GOING TO SEE MORE AND MORE OF RUSSIA REASSERTING ITSELF AS A WORLD POWER. WE SHOULD NOT BE SURPRISED BY THAT.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR MCFAUL THINKS IN THE NEXT ROUND OF NATO EXPANSION RUSSIA SHOULD BE INCLUDED. THIS MAY NOT SEEM VERY REALISTIC AT THE MOMENT, HE SAYS, BUT STRANGER THINGS HAVE HAPPENED WHEN CREATIVE DIPLOMACY IS TRIED. (SIGNED)
    04-May-98 6:56 PM EDT (2256 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY/EUROPE BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=5/4/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-40249
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WHILE THE EUROPEAN UNION CELEBRATES CLOSER UNITY THROUGH AN UPCOMING SINGLE CURRENCY, TURKEY STILL SEETHES OVER ITS EXCLUSION FROM E-U ENLARGEMENT PLANS. FOR MORE THAN 30-YEARS, TURKEY HAS COUNTED ON E-U MEMBERSHIP AS THE ULTIMATE CONFIRMATION OF ITS EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. NOW TURKEY FEELS SHUNNED AND HUMILIATED AS NEWER CANDIDATES ARE PUT ON THE "FAST TRACK" LIST INSTEAD. AS WE HEAR FROM CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN ISTANBUL, THAT ANGER HAS SPARKED A CHANGE IN TURKEY'S ATTITUDE TOWARD EUROPE.

    TEXT: TURKEY'S MINISTER FOR EUROPEAN UNION AFFAIRS, SUKRU GUREL, (SHOO-KROO GU-RELL) IS PRETTY BLUNT. HE SAYS-- TURKEY DESERVED BETTER TREATMENT.

    //GUREL ACT//

    THIS GOVERNMENT DOES NOT INTEND TO WAIT AT THE DOORSTEP OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. UNLESS THE EUROPEAN UNION CHANGES ITS ATTITUDE, ITS BASIC APPROACH TOWARDS TURKEY, BECOMING A FULL MEMBER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION WILL NOT AGAIN RE-ENTER THE POLITICAL AGENDA OF TURKEY.

    //END ACT//

    THAT DOES NOT MEAN TURKEY IS TURNING ITS BACK ON EUROPE. A CUSTOMS UNION AGREEMENT ON TRADE DUTIES, SIGNED MORE THAN TWO-YEARS AGO, AND OTHER PARTNERSHIP ACCORDS MAKE TURKEY AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE EUROPEAN MARKET. STILL, ASLAN GUNDUZ OF MARMARA UNIVERSITY'S "EUROPEAN COMMUNITY INSTITUTE" POINTS OUT EXCLUDING TURKEY FROM FULL E-U MEMBERSHIP DENIES IT A VOICE IN KEY FINANCIAL AND POLITICAL DECISIONS AFFECTING IT.

    // GUNDUZ ACT //

    THE EXTERNAL TRADE ISSUES ARE DECIDED AND DETERMINED BY THE COMMUNITY ITSELF, AND TURKEY IS NOT IN THE DECISION-MAKING ABOUT THAT ISSUE -- SO EXTERNAL COMMON TARIFFS, ETC, ARE DECIDED BY THE COMMUNITY. TURKEY DOES NOT HAVE ANY PART TO PLAY AND TURKEY HAS ACCEPTED THIS IN THE ANTICIPATION THAT IT WOULD BECOME A FULL MEMBER IN THE FUTURE.

    // END ACT //

    MOST TURKS BLAME GREECE FOR BLOCKING THEIR ACCESS TO E-U MEMBERSHIP. ATHENS HAS CONTINUED TO VETO TURKEY'S MEMBERSHIP AND MORE THAN 400-MILLION DOLLARS OF FINANCIAL AID THAT WAS PLEDGED TO ANKARA BACK IN 1995.

    // OPT //

    PRIME MINISTER MESUT YILMAZ LASHED OUT AT GREECE AGAIN LAST WEEK FOR WHAT HE CALLED PROVOCATIVE POLICIES -- INCLUDING THE STALEMATE OVER CYPRUS AND ITS PERMISSION FOR TURKISH KURDISH REBELS TO OPEN AN OFFICE IN THE GREEK CAPITAL. // END OPT //

    ANGRY TURKS POINT TO THEIR BOOMING ECONOMY, THAT OUTSHINES MANY OF THE 11 CANDIDATES NOW ON THE LIST FOR E-U MEMBERSHIP. MOST OF THEM ARE FORMER WARSAW PACT MEMBERS AND TURKS TALK OF THEIR LOYAL MEMBERSHIP IN NATO ALL THROUGH THE COLD WAR.

    BUT MANY ALSO SEE EUROPE AS A CHRISTIAN CLUB WITH DOUBLE STANDARDS TOWARD THEIR PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM NATION. EROL YARAR HEADS A PRO-ISLAMIST BUSINESSMAN'S GROUP. HE HAS CRITICIZED THE GOVERNMENT FOR TRYING SO HARD TO JOIN EUROPE WHEN, HE SAYS, IT COULD BE PROFITING MORE FROM ITS TIES TO THE MUSLIM WORLD.

    // YARAR ACT //

    THE REALITY IS WE ARE DIFFERENT AND THERE IS NOTHING WRONG (WITH) BEING DIFFERENT. THIS IS TO BE UNDERSTOOD. IF WE SAY WE ARE DIFFERENT, PEOPLE THINK THIS IS BAD AND WE HAVE TO BE SIMILAR. WHY BE SIMILAR?

    // END ACT //

    THE GOVERNMENT IS CAPITALIZING ON ITS CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC LINKS TO THE EAST. TURKISH MINISTER SUKRU GUREL HIGHLIGHTS THE COUNTRY'S ROLE AS A LOGICAL BRIDGE TO THE EAST -- THIS, AS THE WEST NOW FOCUSES MORE ATTENTION ON CENTRAL ASIA.

    // GUREL ACT //

    THERE IS A LARGER EUROPE BEYOND THE EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPE DOES NOT END WHERE EUROPEAN UNION ENDS. AND THEREFORE WE REGARD EUROPE AS A BIGGER CONGLOMERATE THAN (THE) E-U AND WE REGARD THE FORMATION OF EURASIA NOT AS A GEOGRAPHICAL NOTION, BUT AS A POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PHENOMENON AS WELL, IN WHICH TURKEY WILL PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE.

    // END ACT //

    THERE ARE SIGNS THE EUROPEAN UNION IS TRYING TO EASE TENSIONS AND SMOOTH THE WAY FOR A MORE PRIVILEGED RELATIONSHIP WITH TURKEY. U-S DIPLOMATS ARE TRYING TO PUSH EUROPE TOWARDS THAT TOO, IN AN EFFORT NOT TO ISOLATE TURKEY.

    BUT EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS POINT OUT TURKEY STILL HAS A LOT TO DO TO QUALIFY FOR FULL MEMBERSHIP -- FROM FIGHTING UN-EMPLOYMENT AND TRIPLE-DIGIT INFLATION, TO CLEANING UP ITS HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD AND RESOLVING ITS DISPUTES WITH GREECE. MEANWHILE, BRITAIN HAS REMINDED TURKEY THE BRITISH APPLICATION WAS VETOED TWICE BEFORE IT BECAME A FULL E-U MEMBER. (SIGNED) NEB/LK/PCF/NEB/TM/RAE
    04-May-98 8:45 AM EDT (1245 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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