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Voice of America, 99-07-02

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] EDITORIAL: SERBS PROTEST MILOSEVIC POLICIES
  • [02] FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL: ROMANIAN EXHIBIT BY ANDREW BAROCH (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [04] KOSOVO PEC (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PEC, KOSOVO)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] PRISTINA CELEBRATIONS (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)
  • [07] RUSSIA / NATO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)
  • [08] TURKEY / OCALAN (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [09] TURKEY'S CROSSROADS OVER THE OCALAN VERDICT BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] U-N / KOSOVO / KOUCHNER (S&L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [11] U-N / KOSOVO / KOUCHNER (S&L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [12] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

  • [01] EDITORIAL: SERBS PROTEST MILOSEVIC POLICIES

    DATE= 07/06/99
    TYPE= EDITORIAL
    NUMBER= 0-08361
    CONTENT=THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST
    07/06/99.

    ANNCR: THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS DIFFERING POINTS OF VIEW ON A WIDE VARIETY OF ISSUES. NEXT, AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE: "RESIGN! GO AWAY!" THOSE WERE SOME OF THE CALLS DIRECTED AT YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AS SEVERAL THOUSAND PEOPLE DEMONSTRATED RECENTLY IN THE SERBIAN CITY OF CACAK. OPPONENTS OF MILOSEVIC ARE PLANNING DEMONSTRATIONS IN A NUMBER OF CITIES IN HOPES OF PRESSURING HIM TO STEP DOWN IN THE WAKE OF THE DEATH AND DESTRUCTION HIS POLICIES HAVE BROUGHT TO YUGOSLAVIA.

    AS SERBIAN INTELLECTUAL MILAN PROTIC TOLD DEMONSTRATORS, "THIS GOVERNMENT HAS SHAMED US IN FRONT OF OURSELVES, IN FRONT OF GOD AND IN FRONT OF THE WHOLE WORLD." REFERRING TO SERBIAN ATROCITIES COMMITTED AGAINST KOSOVAR ALBANIANS, PROTIC SAID, "THEY DID EVIL AGAINST THOSE WHO LIVE BY OUR SIDES, AND THEY NEVER ASKED US. . . . NOW WE HAVE TO APOLOGIZE TO THE WHOLE WORLD NOT FOR WHAT WE DID, BUT FOR WHAT WAS DONE IN OUR NAME."

    CALLS FOR MILOSEVIC TO RESIGN HAVE ALSO COME FROM LEADERS OF THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. AS KOSOVO BISHOP ARTEMIJE [AHR-'TEM-EE-YAH] PUT IT, "SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS DONE A LOT OF EVIL TO EVERYONE . . . ." MILOSEVIC'S EARLIER AGGRESSION IN BOSNIA LED TO UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. THEN THE REPRESSION AND TERROR AGAINST ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO BROUGHT THE DEVASTATING NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN. DURING THAT CAMPAIGN -- IN TOTAL DISREGARD OF THE RIGHTS OF ETHNIC ALBANIANS AND THE INTERESTS OF THE REST OF THE PEOPLE OF YUGOSLAVIA -- MILOSEVIC AUTHORIZED A CAMPAIGN OF MURDER, RAPE, PLUNDER AND DESTRUCTION IN KOSOVO. FOR THESE CRIMES, HE AND FOUR OF HIS TOP AIDES HAVE BEEN INDICTED BY AN INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    AS ETHNIC ALBANIAN REFUGEES STREAM BACK INTO KOSOVO AND TRY TO REBUILD THEIR HOMES AND LIVES, THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTRIES ARE DISCUSSING HOW BEST TO HELP THEM. BUT PRECIOUS LITTLE AID FOR THE REST OF SERBIA SHOULD BE EXPECTED SO LONG AS YUGOSLAVIA CONTINUES TO BE RULED BY LEADERS INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES. NO WONDER THAT INCREASING NUMBERS OF SERBS ARE DEMANDING THE RESIGNATION OF SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC.

    ANNCR:

    THAT WAS AN EDITORIAL EXPRESSING THE POLICIES OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. IF YOU HAVE A COMMENT, PLEASE WRITE TO EDITORIALS, V-O-A, WASHINGTON, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. YOU MAY ALSO COMMENT AT WWW-DOT-VOA-DOT-GOV-SLASH-EDITORIALS, OR FAX US AT (202) 619-1043.
    02-Jul-99 11:04 AM EDT (1504 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL: ROMANIAN EXHIBIT BY ANDREW BAROCH (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/02/99
    TYPE=ENGLISH PROGRAMS FEATURE
    NUMBER=7-32325
    TELEPHONE=619-0929
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=
    (ATTN: ROMANIAN SERVICE, JULY 4, RELIGION, CULTURE)

    INTRO: ON THE NATIONAL MALL IN WASHINGTON, D.C., IN BETWEEN THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT AND THE U-S CAPITOL, WOOD WORKERS FROM ROMANIA RECENTLY ERECTED A CHURCH 18-AND-A-HALF METERS HIGH -- PART OF THE ROMANIAN EXHIBIT AT THE ANNUAL SMITHSONIAN FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL (6/23-7/4). AS

    VOA'S ANDREW BAROCH REPORTS, THE EXHIBIT OFFERED A BLEND

    OF THE SENSUAL AND SPIRITUAL. CART 1 FESTIVAL DANCING MUSIC IN FULL FOR :05 AND UNDER

    TEXT: THE AROMA OF SPICY FOOD -- AND THE SOUND OF PEASANT DANCERS WHISTLING AND STAMPING THEIR FEET TO DRUMS AND VIOLIN -- ENTICED THOUSANDS OF VISITORS INTO AN AREA OF TENTS ON THE NATIONAL MALL -- THROUGH A LARGE, ORNATELY-SCULPTURED WOODEN GATE. ROBERT MICHLEAN (MICK-LAY-ON) THE PROGRAM COORDINATOR FOR THE ROMANIAN EXHIBIT, SAYS THE RUST-COLORED GATE IS PACKED WITH SYMBOLISM. CART 2 CHURCH BELL SNEAK UNDER CUT ONE AT LINE SEVEN AFTER "...1989."***

    TAPE CUT ONE -- MICHLEAN, BAROCH "OF COURSE, OUR THEME FOR [THE] ROMANIAN [EXHIBIT] IS 'GATEWAYS TO ROMANIA.' I LIKE THE ROMANIAN SENSE OF IT BETTER EVEN. IT [THE TRANSLATION] IS 'OPEN GATEWAYS.' ROMANIA WAS, FOR SO LONG, TRAPPED UNDER SUCH A TOTALITARIAN REGIME, THE CEAUSESCU REGIME, ISOLATED FROM THE REST OF THE WORLD. SO HAVING ROMANIA HERE ON THE NATIONAL MALL, THE CENTER PLACE OF AMERICAN CULTURE, REPRESENTS HOW FAR ROMANIA HAS COME IN THE TEN YEARS SINCE THE REVOLUTION BACK IN 1989.***IT'S REALLY FITTING THAT A DECADE AFTER THAT TIME IN A COUNTRY THAT IS TRANSITIONING TO A MORE OPEN ECONOMY AND DEMOCRACY, TO HAVE THEM REPRESENT THEIR CULTURE AND WHAT THEY WERE ABLE TO KEEP ALIVE -- DESPITE SUCH A TERRIBLE REGIME AS THE CEAUSESCU REGIME IS REALLY PHENOMENAL." [BAROCH]: "HERE IS THE OPEN GATEWAY. WHAT DO WE SEE [BEYOND IT]?" "WELL, YOU SEE, FOR INSTANCE, AN OPEN CHURCH. YOU SEE THE CHURCH HAS SURVIVED ALL THESE CENTURIES IN THE SAME STYLE THEY'VE BEEN BUILDING FOR 500 YEARS." [BAROCH]: "HOW WOULD DESCRIBE IT? IT'S A WOODEN BUILDING..." "THIS PARTICULAR BYZANTINE-STYLE CHURCH IS TYPICAL FOR THE REGION CALLED MARAMURES IN NORTHWESTERN TRANSYLVANIA. THIS PARTICULAR WOODEN CHURCH RISES ABOUT 55 FEET HIGH. ALL OF THE PIECES WERE NUMBERED AS THEY WERE BEING BUILT. IT TOOK THEM THREE MONTHS. THEY THEN DISASSEMBLED THE CHURCH PIECE BY PIECE, BROUGHT IT OVER HERE AND REASSEMBLED IT IN TEN DAYS. THERE WAS A TEAM OF TEN CHURCH-BUILDERS. IT'S A GROUP OF TEN, BOTH ORTHODOX AND GREEK, CATHOLICS WORKING TOGETHER. THAT'S PRETTY UNIQUE FOR A PART OF THE WORLD THAT'S SO INBRED WITH ETHNIC AND DENOMINATIONAL TENSIONS. YET THIS TEAM HAS WORKED TOGETHER TO BUILD SOMETHING UNIQUE AND BEAUTIFUL. WE'VE HAD THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF VISITORS HERE EACH DAY." CART 3 FOLK DANCING SNEAK UNDER PREVIOUS CUT, 2ND TO LAST LINE "...TENSIONS."

    TEXT: UNDER A BILLOWY, WHITE TENT NEAR THE CHURCH: FOLK DANCERS ARE CONSTANTLY MOVING -- IN A LINE OR IN A CIRCLE. FOUR WOMEN IN WHITE BLOUSES AND SKIRTS, RED SCARVES AND LEATHER MOCCASINS. THE FOUR MEN WEAR WHITE EXCEPT FOR BLACK BOOTS. COLIN QUIGLEY, THE CURATOR OF THE FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL, SAYS THE DANCERS -- LIKE MOST OF THE 135 PERFORMERS FROM ROMANIA -- COME FROM RURAL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

    TAPE CUT TWO -- QUIGLEY, BAROCH "ALMOST ALL ARE FARMERS, HOUSEHOLDERS, DOING A MIXED ECONOMY OF AGRICULTURE AND FOREST WORK." (BEGIN OPT) [BAROCH]: "DOES THAT PREDOMINATE IN ROMANIA? IS THERE A LOT OF THAT?" "IT DEPENDS WHAT REGION YOU'RE IN. THERE'S A LOT OF FOREST UP IN THE NORTH, WHERE THEY DO A LOT OF WORK IN THE WOODS." [BAROCH] "WHAT BORDER ARE THEY NEAR?" "THEY'RE RIGHT NEAR THE UKRAINIAN BORDER." (END OPT) [BAROCH]: "CAN YOU TELL ME SOME OF THE THINGS THEY'RE [THE DANCERS ARE SHOUTING OUT] SAYING? "IT'S NOT REAL STANDARD ROMANIAN. IT'S MORE LIKE A DIALECT, WHICH MAKES IT HARD FOR ME TO UNDERSTAND. [HE TRANSLATES:] 'I'M WITH MY LOVE, AND WE TWO LOVE EACH OTHER. THE VILLAGE IS FULL, BUT NOBODY IS MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN MY GIRL.' [ALSO,] WE STAY TOGETHER FOR A WHOLE MONTH -- AND I'M NOT LYING.' [LAUGHTER] THE DANCES ARE SORT OF COURTSHIP OCCASIONS. SO IT'S MOSTLY ABOUT FALLING IN LOVE, HAVING A GIRLFRIEND OR BOYFRIEND." CART 4 WEDDING CEREMONY MUSIC SNEAK UNDER PREVIOUS CUT AT 2ND TO LAST LINE

    TEXT: A TRADITIONAL ROMANIAN WEDDING IS STAGED UNDER A GAZEBO AT ANOTHER SITE ON THE MALL. AMERICAN SOCIOLOGIST GAIL KLIGMAN EXPLAINED TO VISITORS THAT THE BRIDE WEARING A PILLBOX-SHAPED HAT MOVES RATHER GINGERLY BECAUSE THE HAT IS A SIX-KILO CROWN OF BEADS -- SEWN INTO HER HAIR BY THE BRIDESMAIDS. THE CROWN IS REMOVED RIGHT AFTER THE WEDDING CEREMONY.

    TAPE CUT THREE -- KLIGMAN "AT THE END OF THE WEDDING, WHEN SHE IS THEN A MARRIED WOMAN, THEY WILL THEN REMOVE THE WEDDING CROWN FROM HER HEAD AND PLACE [ON IT] WHAT IS ACTUALLY A BLACK SCARF, WHICH IS THE MARK THAT A WOMAN IS MARRIED. UNTIL SHE IS MARRIED, SHE'LL WEAR THESE VERY COLORFIUL SCARVES THAT YOU SEE THESE TWO YOUNG WOMEN STANDING NEXT TO HER WEARING." [BAROCH]: "WHY [IS IT] A BLACK SCARF?" "THERE ARE MANY INTERPRETATIONS OF THAT. SOME PEOPLE WILL TELL YOU THAT, FOR A MARRIED WOMAN, THIS REPRESENTS THE HARDSHIPS OF HER LIFE. SO BLACK IS THE COLOR OF MOURNING FOR HER LOST YOUTH."

    TEXT: THE ROMANIAN EXHIBIT, ALSO, IS OPEN TO SEVERAL INTERPRETATIONS, ACCORDING TO SOME EXHIBIT OFFICIALS I TALKED TO. ON ONE LEVEL, IT'S ENTERTAINMENT. BUT ON A DEEPER LEVEL, OFFICIALS SAY, IT IS GOOD TO SEE ROMANIANS CELEBRATING THE VIBRANCY OF THEIR TRADITIONS -- NO LONGER STUCK IN MOURNING THEIR COMMUNIST PAST. (SIGNED)
    NEB / AJB
    02-Jul-99 2:14 PM EDT (1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=07/02/99
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11363
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    /// EDS: MATERIAL DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-T ///

    INTRO: AS THIS NATION BEGINS A LONG HOLIDAY WEEKEND CELEBRATING ITS INDEPENDENCE FROM ENGLAND, THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICAN DAILY NEWSPAPERS ARE FILLED WITH WIDE-RANGING DISCUSSIONS.

    AMONG THE TOPICS ARE THE AFTERMATH OF THE WAR IN KOSOVO, AND ITS COST; THE DEATH SENTENCE PASSED ON KURDISH LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN; THE LAST-MINUTE STALL IN THE IRISH PEACE TALKS; A LOOK AT SADDAM HUSSEIN'S STRENGTH, NEARLY ONE YEAR AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF U-N ARMS INSPECTORS; AND REACTION TO THE WIDELY-ANTICIPATED RISE IN U-S INTEREST RATES BY THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD. NOW, HERE IS ______________WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME EXCERPTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THIS IS A WEEKEND ON WHICH AMERICANS WILL CELEBRATE THE FOUNDING OF THEIR REPUBLIC ON JULY FOURTH, 1776, IN A BREAK WITH GREAT BRITAIN. IT IS A TIME FOR TRIPS TO THE BEACH, PATRIOTIC PARADES AND BACKYARD COOKOUTS. AND SOME PEOPLE WILL BE CONTEMPLATING THE DAY'S EDITORIALS, ESPECIALLY REGARDING THE AFTERMATH OF THE WAR IN KOSOVO, WHICH TAKES UP ALL THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS IN TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE."

    VOICE: IN KOSOVO THE SMOKE IS RISING FROM BURNING HOUSES AGAIN, AND BODIES ARE BEING FOUND IN POOLS OF BLOOD. A FEW WEEKS AGO THEY WOULD HAVE BEEN ALBANIAN. ... NOW THEY ARE SERB HOUSES AND SERB BODIES, AS THE ANCIENT PATTERN OF BALKAN REPRISAL AND REVENGE ENTERS ANOTHER CYCLE. AS HAS HAPPENED SO OFTEN BEFORE, FOREIGNERS ARE TRYING TO SORT THINGS OUT. // OPT // ... THE WORD BALKANIZE IN WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY IS DEFINED AS "TO BREAK UP AS A REGION INTO SMALLER AND OFTEN HOSTILE UNITS." ... THIS IS A CENTURIES-LONG PROCESS THAT ACCOMPANIED THE WEAKENING OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE ... // END OPT // BALKANIZATION CONTINUES TODAY WITH NATO HAVING EFFECTIVELY REMOVED KOSOVO FROM SERBIA ... WHILE THE SEEDS OF THE NEXT WAR ARE SOWN. THE NEXT WAR WILL COME PERHAPS IN THE NAME OF ALBANIAN NATIONALISM OVER KOSOVO AND MACEDONIA AND PERHAPS AFTER THAT WHEN SERBIA TRIES TO REGAIN WHAT IT HAS LOST OF ITS IMAGINED COMMUNITY.

    TEXT: IN THE MIDWEST, "THE DETROIT NEWS" WORRIES OVER THE FINAL COSTS TO THIS COUNTRY OF THE WAR, AND IMPLICATIONS OF FUTURE , AND POTENTIALLY EXPENSIVE, U-S INTERVENTION ABROAD.

    VOICE: THE LATEST COST ESTIMATE FOR THE WAR IN KOSOVO IS FOUR-BILLION DOLLARS, MOST OF IT BORNE BY THE UNITED STATES. THAT MIGHT BE A CHEAP PRICE TO PAY IF IT BROUGHT PEACE AND STABILITY TO THE BALKANS. BUT AMERICANS REMAIN PROPERLY QUEASY ABOUT BOTH THE WAY THE WAR WAS CONDUCTED AND THE COMPLICATIONS THAT LIE AHEAD.

    // OPT //

    FOR ONE THING ... WHEREAS THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AT ONE POINT ESTIMATED THAT 100-THOUSAND KOSOVARS HAD BEEN SLAUGHTERED, IT NOW APPEARS THE NUMBER WAS CLOSER TO TEN-THOUSAND -- HORRIFIC ENOUGH, TO BE SURE, BUT NOT EXACTLY A SECOND HOLOCAUST. // END OPT
    // ... NEW FACTS INDICATE ... THE GROUNDS FOR NATO INTERVENTION IN KOSOVO WERE WEAK, AND THE U-S MILITARY MAY BECOME INDEFINITELY MIRED IN THE BALKANS.

    TEXT: ONE OF MANY U-S PAPERS COMMENTING ON THE DEATH SENTENCE HANDED OUT BY A TURKISH MILITARY COURT AGAINST THE KURDISH SEPARATIST LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN, // OPT // KNOWN TO HIS FOLLOWERS AS "APO" // END OPT // IS "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS."

    VOICE: ... TURKISH OFFICIALS WHO COULD REDUCE THE DEATH SENTENCED ... SHOULD CONSIDER WHETHER REVENGE IS DRIVING THIS CASE MORE THAN JUSTICE TEMPERED BY STATESMANSHIP. THERE'S LITTLE DOUBT THAT MR. OCALAN'S RECORD IS EVIL. ... BUT DOES HAVING THE RIGHT TO EXECUTE SUCH A PROMINENT INDIVIDUAL MEAN THAT HE *MUST* [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] BE EXECUTED? // OPT // TURKEY'S GOVERNMENT SCORED A HUGE VICTORY IN APPREHENDING AND TRYING MR. OCALAN. BUT IF HE IS EXECUTED, TURKEY COULD GRIEVE A LOST OPPORTUNITY TO ESTABLISH CLOSER TIES WITH EUROPE. THAT IS AN EXCELLENT REASON FOR STIFLING THE DESIRE FOR REVENGE ... // END OPT //

    TEXT: IN YET ANOTHER WORLD TROUBLE SPOT, NORTHERN IRELAND, THE DEADLINE FOR AN AGREEMENT ON DISARMING THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY [I-R-A] AS PART OF THE PEACE PROCESS HAS PASSED, AND THINGS APPEAR AT AN IMPASSE. "THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE" LAMENTS:

    VOICE: ONE OF THE GREAT PEACE PACTS IN RECENT YEARS MAY UNRAVEL. ... WITHOUT THE GUN TURN-IN, THERE CAN BE NO LASTING PEACE WHERE ASSASSINATIONS, ARMY PATROLS AND FUNERALS HAVE MARKED POLITICAL LIFE. THE SETTLEMENT WILL BE A HOLLOW ACHIEVEMENT IF THE I-R-A REFUSES TO DISBAND ITS HIT SQUADS. // OPT // IT'S TIME FOR HIGH-POWERED DIPLOMACY TO PUSH THE TALKS BACK ON TRACK AND MAKE SURE THAT BLOODY MEMORIES DON'T COME TO LIFE AGAIN. // END OPT //

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" LAMENTS WHAT IT CONSIDERS THE FAILURE OF U-S POLICY TO REIGN IN SADDAM HUSSEIN'S CHEMICAL AND OTHER WEAPONS PROGRAM, NOW ALMOST A YEAR WITHOUT U-N ARMS CONTROL SUPERVISION.

    VOICE: ALTHOUGH THE ADMINISTRATION NO LONGER SPEAKS ABOUT IT MUCH, SADDAM HUSSEIN REMAINS MOST DANGEROUS AS A POTENTIAL WIELDER OF BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL OR NUCLEAR WEAPONS. NEARLY A YEAR HAS PASSED SINCE UNITED NATIONS ARMS INSPECTORS WERE EVEN PARTIALLY FREE TO OPERATE INSIDE IRAQ. ... ONLY REMOVING SADDAM HUSSEIN CAN ULTIMATELY REMOVE THE DANGER HE PRESENTS. BUT THE ADMINISTRATION'S SERIOUSNESS IN THIS REGARD REMAINS IN DOUBT.

    TEXT: ISRAEL'S NEW PRIME MINISTER-ELECT, EHUD BARAK, GAINS PRAISE FOR THE BREADTH OF HIS COALITION GOVERNMENT FROM "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES."

    VOICE: THE ELECTORATE GAVE [MR.] BARAK A CLEAR MANDATE TO REVERSE THE CONFRONTATIONAL AND DESTRUCTIVE POLICIES OF [BENJAMIN] NETANYAHU. HE HAS TAKEN THE RIGHT FIRST STEPS IN FULFILLING THAT MANDATE.

    TEXT: TURNING TO DOMESTIC ISSUES, THE DECISION THIS WEEK OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD [THE U-S CENTRAL BANK] TO RAISE INTEREST RATES ONE-QUARTER OF ONE PERCENT DRAWS THIS REACTION FROM MAINE'S "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD."

    VOICE: WITH ITS ACTION RAISING A BENCHMARK ... RATE ... [FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD CHAIRMAN ALAN] GREENSPAN'S FED IS SHOWING A NEW SENSITIVITY TO OTHER FACTORS IN THE ECONOMY. ... WAGES HAVE BEEN EDGING UPWARD IN RECENT MONTHS, WELL AHEAD OF A LOW INFLATION RATE. THAT'S GOOD NEWS FOR WORKING PEOPLE, AND [MR.] GREENSPAN AND OTHER FED POLICY-MAKERS SHOULD SEE IT THAT WAY.

    /// O P T ///

    [EDITORS: NOTE THE CONTENT OF THE NEXT ITEM]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST AND "THE ST. PAUL [MINNESOTA] PIONEER PRESS" ARE REACTING TO THE STORY OF A PHILADELPHIA-AREA WOMAN WHO HAS PLEADED GUILTY TO KILLING EIGHT OF HER BABIES MORE THAN FOUR DECADES AGO.

    THE MINNESOTA PAPER WONDERS WHY THIS WOMAN IS GETTING PROBATION, AND NOT JAIL TIME, WHEN A ST. PAUL WOMEN RECENTLY CONVICTED OF SIMILAR CRIMES -- THE DEATH OF SIX CHILDREN -- IS SERVING A 50-YEAR-PRISON SENTENCE.

    VOICE: SO WHY THE DISCREPANCY IN PUNISHMENT? IT SEEMS THAT THE SENTENCE FOR CONFESSED MURDERS SHOULD BE METED WITH UNCOMPROMISING EXACTITUDE. THE GAP BETWEEN PROBATION FOR ONE AND 50 YEARS IN JAIL FOR ANOTHER CRIES FOR A CLOSE EXAMINATION OF THE DETAILS. SADLY, EVEN THAT PROVIDES NO SATISFACTORY EXPLANATION FOR THE DISCREPANCY IN TREATMENT.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL COMMENT FROM SOME OF THE NATION'S MAJOR DAILY PAPERS THIS FRIDAY.
    NEB/ANG/WTW
    02-Jul-99 11:49 AM EDT (1549 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] KOSOVO PEC (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PEC, KOSOVO)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251359
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS A HALF MILLION ETHNIC ALBANIANS HAVE NOW RETURNED TO KOSOVO. TIM BELAY REPORTS FROM THE CITY OF PEC ON THE CONDITIONS WHICH SOME ARE FINDING UPON THEIR RETURN HOME.

    TEXT: /// ACT OF BEGOLLI IN ALBANIAN; IN FULL AND UNDER ///

    BARDYL BEGOLLI SAYS WHEN HE CAME TO THE CITY, WHICH THE ALBANIANS CALLED PEJA, ONE OF HIS FAMILY'S HOUSES WAS BURNED TO THE GROUND AND THE OTHER WAS LOOTED. THERE WAS NO ELECTRICITY AND MOST OF THE HOUSES ON THE STREET WHERE THE FAMILY LIVED WERE DESTROYED BY FIRE.

    MR. BEGOLLI SAYS THE PEOPLE WHO DID THE DAMAGE EVEN TOOK THE CHINA AND THE SILVERWARE.

    BY MOST ACCOUNTS, 85 PERCENT OF THE HOUSES IN THIS TOWN HAVE BEEN DESTROYED. IT HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN A VERY TENSE PLACE FOR ALBANIANS IN RECENT YEARS, WITH EXTREMELY STRICT CONTROL BY YUGOSLAVIAN POLICE.

    ALBANIAN KOSOVARS FROM PRISTINA, FOR EXAMPLE, SAY THEY DID NOT LIKE TO TRAVEL HERE FOR FEAR OF THIS CONTROL.

    BEFORE THE WAR, ONE-THIRD OF THE RESIDENTS OF PEC -- OR PEJA -- WERE ETHNIC SERBS. MR. BEGOLLI SAYS THE SERBIAN POPULATION AND THE YUGOSLAV ARMED FORCES WERE DETERMINED TO USE THIS CITY AS A WAY TO SEND A MESSAGE THAT BELGRADE WANTED TO RID THE PROVINCE OF ITS ALBANIAN POPULATION.

    LAURA BOLDRINI OF THE UNITED NATIONS REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS HER ORGANIZATION IS NOW HELPING THE SERBIAN POPULATION GET AWAY FROM PEC.

    //OPT// /// BOLDRINI ACT -- MARGINAL AIR QUALITY ///

    FIFTY-THOUSAND HAVE ALREADY LEFT FOR MONTENEGRO AND WE DON'T KNOW HOW MANY HAVE LEFT FROM HERE DIRECTLY ... AND THERE WAS THIS BIG EXIT ... AND BY THE ORTHODOX MONASTERY ... (THERE ARE ONLY OLD PEOPLE LEFT) AND SICK PEOPLE. THE MAJORITY LEFT.

    ///END ACT /////END OPT//

    ON THE QUESTION OF WHETHER OR NOT ALBANIAN AND SERBIAN KOSOVARS WILL BE ABLE TO LIVE TOGETHER, MRS. BOLDRINI SAYS NOTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE, BUT RECONCILIATION IS THE MOST DIFFICULT TASK FOR THE PROVINCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/PCF/KL
    02-Jul-99 11:21 AM EDT (1521 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251380
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (FRIDAY) WITH ALL MAJOR AVERAGES CLOSING AT RECORD HIGHS. V-O-A BUSINESS CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 11-THOUSAND-139, UP 72 POINTS. FOR THE WEEK, THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE GAINED 587 POINTS OR MORE THAN FIVE PERCENT. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED FRIDAY AT A RECORD HIGH 13-HUNDRED-91, UP 10 POINTS. THE NASDAQ INDEX ALSO CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 27-HUNDRED-40, UP 34 POINTS.

    THE LATEST EMPLOYMENT REPORT SHOWS THE U-S ECONOMY CREATED 268 THOUSAND NEW JOBS LAST MONTH. THAT WAS SLIGHTLY AHEAD OF EXPECTATIONS BUT NOT ENOUGH TO SPARK NEW FEARS OF INFLATION AND HIGHER INTEREST RATES.

    /// BEGIN OPT ///

    DAVID WEISE OF THE STANDARD AND POOR'S RESEARCH COMPANY EXPECTS THE RATE OF NEW JOB CREATION WILL CONTINUE TO BE RELATIVELY STRONG.

    /// WEISE ACT ///

    IN ONE SENSE WE ARE RUNNING OUT OF WORKERS BUT AT THE SAME TIME, EMPLOYERS ARE TRYING TO HIRE ANYONE THEY CAN FIND. WE THINK WHAT THEY CAN FIND WILL BE ABOUT 200-THOUSAND PER MONTH.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// END OPT ///

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED THAT U-S FACTORY ORDERS JUMPED MORE THAN ONE PERCENT IN MAY, LARGELY BECAUSE OF STRONG DEMAND FOR COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT.

    /// REST OPT ///

    ALL U-S FINANCIAL MARKETS WILL BE CLOSED MONDAY IN OBSERVANCE OF THE INDEPENDENCE DAY HOLIDAY.

    THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY SAID ITS NORTH AMERICAN VEHICLE SALES ROSE FOUR AND ONE-HALF PERCENT IN JUNE, BETTER THAN ANALYSTS HAD EXPECTED. MIRAGE, THE OPERATOR OF LUXURY CASINO-RESORTS, WARNED WALL STREET THAT ITS PROFITS WILL BE WELL BELOW ANALYSTS' EXPECTATIONS. THE COMPANY CITED HIGHER COSTS, STIFFER COMPETITION AND LOWER PROFITS AT THE GAMBLING TABLES. TRADERS REACTED BY DROPPING THE VALUE OF MIRAGE STOCK BY ALMOST 20 PERCENT.

    COCA-COLA HAS NEW PROBLEMS IN EUROPE. COKE IS WITHDRAWING SOFT DRINKS AND BOTTLED WATER FROM SALE IN POLAND AFTER SOME CONTAMINATED CONTAINERS WERE FOUND. A FEW DAYS AGO, COKE SALES RESUMED IN BELGIUM AFTER CONTAMINATION PROBLEMS THERE.

    THE U-S JUSTICE DEPARTMENT HAS GIVEN APPROVAL TO A MAJOR ELECTRIC UTILITY MERGER IN THE NEW YORK CITY AREA. CONSOLIDATED EDISON WILL MERGE WITH THE ORANGE AND ROCKLAND UTILITIES CORPORATION.

    THE WALT DISNEY COMPANY SAYS IT IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT A DEAL TO CONSTRUCT A THEME PARK IN HONG KONG. THE COMPANY ALSO SAYS THAT A FACILITY IN HONG KONG WILL NOT PRECLUDE THE CONSTRUCTION OF ANOTHER THEME PARK IN SHANGHAI OR ELSEWHERE IN CHINA. (SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/GM
    02-Jul-99 5:09 PM EDT (2109 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] PRISTINA CELEBRATIONS (L-ONLY) BY TIM BELAY (PRISTINA)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251384
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: KOSOVAR ALBANIANS CELEBRATED A MAJOR POLITICAL ANNIVERSARY FRIDAY. TIM BELAY HAS A REPORT FROM PRISTINA.

    TEXT: NINE YEARS AGO ON JULY 2ND ETHNIC ALBANIAN MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT HERE VOTED OUTSIDE A LOCKED ASSEMBLY BUILDING TO DECLARE KOSOVO AN EQUAL AND INDEPENDENT PART OF YUGOSLAVIA. THOUSANDS OF MOSTLY YOUNG KOSOVAR ALBANIANS FLOODED THE STREETS OF PRISTINA FRIDAY NIGHT TO CELEBRATE IN PUBLIC FOR THE FIRST TIME THE DAY THEY CALL KOSOVO DAY. THEY CHANTED SLOGANS IN SUPPORT OF NATO AND THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, WHICH IS PRONOUNCED UCAKA IN ALBANIAN LANGUAGE.

    /// ACT NATURAL SOUNDS ///

    SOME PEOPLE ALSO FIRED SMALL ARMS AND HEAVIER WEAPONS IN THE AIR TO CELEBRATE. NATO TROOPS LOOKED ON AND USED SPOTLIGHTS FROM THEIR HELICOPTERS TO SURVEY THE CROWD AND DID NOT INTERVENE. DEMONSTRATORS TOPPLED TWO STATUES OF SERBIAN EDUCATORS, BURNED THE YUGOSLAVIAN FLAG AND DESTROYED THE SIGN IN FRONT OF A SERB-CONTROLLED BANK WHICH WAS ONCE RUN BY ALBANIANS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/TB/PHW-T/GM
    02-Jul-99 6:45 PM EDT (2245 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] RUSSIA / NATO BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (MOSCOW)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43789
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIA IS SENDING MORE TROOPS TO KOSOVO AS PART OF ITS NATO PEACEKEEPING CONTINGENT. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA SPOKE WITH SENIOR NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA ABOUT RUSSIA'S ROLE AND NATO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS -- AND HE FILED THIS REPORT FROM MOSCOW.

    TEXT: RUSSIAN OFFICIALS SAY DURING THE NEXT SEVERAL DAYS ABOUT 300 SOLDIERS WILL BE FLOWN INTO KOSOVO'S PRISTINA AIRPORT. IN ADDITION, FOUR SHIPS FROM RUSSIA'S BLACK SEA FLEET ARE READY TO RECEIVE SOME 18-HUNDRED ADDITIONAL TROOPS. THESE SOLDIERS WILL BE TAKEN BY SEA TO GREECE AND THEN WILL MAKE THEIR WAY TO KOSOVO BY TRUCK.

    UNDER TERMS OF AN AGREEMENT REACHED LAST MONTH BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA, MOSCOW WILL PROVIDE 36-HUNDRED TROOPS TO NATO'S PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN KOSOVO, KNOWN AS "K-FOR." THEY WILL BE DISPATCHED TO SECTORS RUN BY THE UNITED STATES, GERMANY AND FRANCE. THEY WILL ALSO PROVIDE MAINTENANCE FACILITIES FOR PRISTINA'S AIRPORT -- LOCATED IN THE BRITISH SECTOR.

    SENIOR NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS RUSSIA'S PRESENCE IN "K-FOR" IS ESSENTIAL FOR SEVERAL REASONS. FIRST -- AS A MAJOR POWER WITH INTERESTS IN THE AREA, MR. SHEA SAYS RUSSIA MUST BE INVOLVED IN EFFORTS TO BRING PEACE TO KOSOVO.

    // SHEA ACT //

    SECONDLY, A RUSSIAN PRESENCE IN KOSOVO -- WHICH OF COURSE WILL TAKE PLACE -- CAN GO SOME WAY TOWARDS REASSURING THE SERBS THAT THEY SHOULD STAY, THAT THEY WILL BE PROTECTED BY K-FOR, THAT K-FOR WILL BE EVEN-HANDED AND THAT WE ARE SINCERE WHEN WE SAY THAT WE WANT KOSOVO TO BE A MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETY. AND THIRDLY, AS IN BOSNIA, HAVING RUSSIA THERE WILL GIVE US MANY OPPORTUNITIES FOR TACTICAL RUSSIA-NATO COOPERATION IN THE MILITARY FIELD: JOINT PATROLS, INTEGRATED COMMAND STRUCTURES -- JUST A HABIT OF WORKING ALONGSIDE EACH OTHER, WHICH WOULD HOPEFULLY GIVE (A) BOOST TO OUR OVERALL RELATIONSHIP.

    // END ACT //

    RUSSIA WAS VERY CRITICAL OF NATO'S 78-DAY BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA. TO SHOW ITS DISPLEASURE, MOSCOW FROZE RELATIONS WITH THE WESTERN ALLIANCE, RECALLING ITS PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES FROM NATO'S BRUSSELS HEADQUARTERS. JUST LAST WEEK, RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV SAID HIGH-LEVEL TALKS WILL BE NEEDED TO RESTORE FULL RELATIONS. IN 1997, NATO AND RUSSIA AGREED TO SET A PERMANENT JOINT COUNCIL IN BRUSSELS TO DISCUSS A WIDE RANGE OF ISSUES. BUT BECAUSE OF DIFFERENCES OVER KOSOVO, THAT COUNCIL HAS NOT MET FOR SEVERAL MONTHS. MR. SHEA EXPRESSED THE HOPE IT COULD RESUME ITS ACTIVITIES SOON.

    (OPT) // 2ND SHEA ACT //

    WE HOPE THAT IN THE COURSE OF THIS MONTH -- JULY -- BEFORE THE SUMMER BREAK, WE CAN HAVE SOME MEETINGS. NOT JUST TO DISCUSS KOSOVO - ALTHOUGH THAT IS THE IMMEDIATE INTEREST - BUT ALSO TO RESUME OUR COOPERATION IN A NUMBER OF AREAS: NUCLEAR WEAPONS, PROLIFERATION, TERRORISM, THE ENVIRONMENT. WE HAD A VERY ACTIVE DIALOGUE AND INDEED MORE AND MORE PRACTICAL COOPERATION BEFORE KOSOVO DIVIDED US. AND I BELIEVE THAT RUSSIA AND NATO BOTH HAVE AN OBJECTIVE INTEREST IN RESUMING THAT GENERAL COOPERATION.

    // END ACT //

    (END OPT)

    BUT DESPITE MOSCOW'S COLD SHOULDER TO NATO, THERE HAVE BEEN SOME CONTACTS BETWEEN THE WESTERN ALLIANCE AND RUSSIAN OFFICIALS.

    EARLIER THIS WEEK, A RUSSIAN MILITARY DELEGATION HELD THREE-DAYS OF TALKS IN BRUSSELS TO IRON OUT DIFFERENCES OVER RUSSIA'S EXACT ROLE IN KOSOVO. MR. SHEA SAYS IT IS IMPERATIVE TO RESOLVE THOSE ISSUES.

    // THIRD SHEA ACT //

    IT IS VERY IMPORTANT, IF THIS FORCE ("K-FOR") IS GOING TO BE EFFECTIVE, THAT EVERYBODY ROWS THE BOAT IN THE SAME DIRECTION AND THAT IS WHY THESE TALKS HAVE BEEN ONGOING: TO TRY TO IDENTIFY THE SPECIFIC TASKS AS WELL AS THE SPECIFIC LOCATIONS WHERE THE RUSSIAN TROOPS WILL BE ACTIVE. // OPT // AND I THINK BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF BOSNIA WHERE WE HAVE GAINED A CERTAIN DEGREE OF EXPERIENCE WORKING TOGETHER OVER THE LAST FOUR YEARS -- AND WE ANTICIPATE THAT THINGS WILL RUN SMOOTHLY. // END OPT //

    // END ACT //

    SENIOR NATO SPOKESMAN JAMIE SHEA SAYS THE RUSSIAN MILITARY DELEGATION IS EXPECTED BACK AT NATO HEADQUARTERS NEXT WEEK AFTER CONSULTATIONS IN MOSCOW. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/GE/KL
    02-Jul-99 11:12 AM EDT (1512 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY / OCALAN (L ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251347
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE IS MOUNTING DEBATE IN TURKEY ABOUT WHETHER TO CARRY OUT THE DEATH SENTENCE HANDED TO KURDISH REBEL CHIEF ABDULLAH OCALAN FOR COMMITTING TREASON. AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA.

    TEXT: NEWS OF OCALAN'S CONVICTION ON TREASON CHARGES TUESDAY WAS CELEBRATED IN MOST OF THE COUNTRY. THE FAMILIES OF TURKISH SOLDIERS SLAIN IN THE 15-YEAR CONFLICT BETWEEN OCALAN'S KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY (P-K-K) AND THE TURKISH ARMY WHOOPED FOR JOY, BELLY DANCED AND SANG NATIONALIST SONGS. EFFIGIES OF THE P-K-K LEADER WERE BURNED.

    BUT AS THE INITIAL EUPHORIA TRIGGERED BY OCALAN'S CONVICTION BEGINS TO DIE DOWN, A GROWING NUMBER OF INFLUENTIAL COMMENTATORS ARE WEIGHING THE MERITS OF HANGING THE MAN TURKEY BLAMES FOR THE DEATHS OF 30-THOUSAND OF ITS CITIZENS.

    IN A THREE-PAGE REPORT LEAKED TO THE TURKISH MEDIA FRIDAY THE TURKISH FOREIGN MINISTRY CONCLUDED THAT THE DISADVANTAGES OF EXECUTING OCALAN FAR OUTWEIGHS THE ADVANTAGES. OCALAN'S ARGUMENT IN COURT THAT HIS DEMISE WOULD NOT SOLVE TURKEY'S KURDISH PROBLEM MAY HAVE STRUCK HOME.

    EVEN HARDLINERS ACKNOWLEDGE THAT OCALAN'S OFFER TO ORDER HIS MEN DOWN FROM THE MOUNTAINS SHOULD HIS LIFE BE SPARED IS WORTH TESTING. TURKEY'S LEFTIST PRIME MINISTER BULENT ECEVIT IS ALREADY WORKING ON DRAFT LEGISLATION THAT WOULD GRANT EITHER FULL OR PARTIAL AMNESTY TO P-K-K REBELS IF THEY LAY DOWN THEIR ARMS.

    BUT MR. ECEVIT IS ENCOUNTERING STIFF OPPOSITION FROM HIS ULTRA NATIONALIST COALITION PARTNER, THE NATIONAL ACTION PARTY. OR M-H-P. THE M-H-P GAINED A SURPRISE SECOND PLACE IN NATIONWIDE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS HELD LAST APRIL. ONE OF ITS CAMPAIGN SLOGANS WAS "HANG OCALAN."

    COMMENTATORS SAY THE MOST DIFFICULT TASK FACING THOSE IN FAVOR OF COMMUTING OCALAN'S DEATH SENTENCE IS TO BRING THE M-H-P ON BOARD. THE NATIONALISTS HAVE ALREADY BACKED DOWN ON ONE OF THEIR KEY PLEDGES SINCE JOINING THE GOVERNMENT. THAT WAS TO EASE RESTRICTIONS ON THE ISLAMIC HEADSCARF IN STATE UNIVERSITIES. INSTEAD THE GOVERNMENT IS PRESSING AHEAD WITH NEW LEGISLATION THAT WOULD FURTHER RESTRICT ANY MANIFESTATION OF PIETY DEEMED TO BE POLITICAL IN NATURE.

    ANALYSTS SAY MOUNTING PRESSURE ON TURKEY FROM EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS NOT TO EXECUTE OCALAN WILL MAKE IT EVEN HARDER TO SELL THE IDEA OF SPARING HIS LIFE TO THE TURKISH PUBLIC, BECAUSE TURKEY WOULD THEN BE PERCEIVED TO BE ACTING UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE. MR ECEVIT ON THURSDAY DESCRIBED EUROPEAN CALLS FOR CLEMENCY AS UNACCEPTABLE INTERFERENCE IN TURKEY'S DOMESTIC AFFAIRS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/JWH
    02-Jul-99 6:01 AM EDT (1001 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TURKEY'S CROSSROADS OVER THE OCALAN VERDICT BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=06/00/99
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-11364
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A SPECIAL CIVILIAN COURT IN TURKEY THIS WEEK PRONOUNCED THE KURDISH GUERRILLA LEADER, ABDULLAH OCALAN, KNOWN AS "APO" TO HIS FOLLOWERS, GUILTY OF TREASON. THE COURT SENTENCED MR. OCALAN TO DEATH BY HANGING. HOWEVER, AROUND THE WORLD, AND IN THE UNITED STATES, MANY NEWSPAPERS HAVE SUGGESTED THAT TURKEY MIGHT GAIN MORE BY KEEPING MR. OCALAN ALIVE THAN BY KILLING HIM.

    HERE WITH A SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM THE U-S PRESS IS ____________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: MR. OCALAN WAS TRIED ON A SPECIAL PRISON ISLAND IN THE SEA OF MARMARA, UNDER TIGHT SECURITY, IN A TRIAL THAT WAS WIDELY EXPECTED TO END WITH BOTH A GUILTY VERDICT AND A DEATH SENTENCE. WHAT WAS N O T EXPECTED WERE STATEMENTS BOTH AT THE BEGINNING AND END OF THE TRIAL, IN WHICH MR. OCALAN RENOUNCED VIOLENCE AS A MEANS OF GAINING KURDISH GOALS OF CULTURAL IDENTITY WITHIN TURKEY.

    HE TOLD THE COURT THAT, IF SPARED, HE WOULD WORK TO DISARM HIS KURDISH WORKERS PARTY, KNOWN BY THE INITIALS P-K-K, AND TRY TO TRANSFORM IT INTO A DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL PARTY, TO PRESS FOR KURDISH RIGHTS IN TURKEY. HOWEVER, THE RELATIVES OF THE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE, CIVILIANS AND MILITARY AND POLICE MURDERED BY THE P-K-K DURING AT LEAST TWO DECADES OF GUERRILLA WARFARE WERE ELATED BY THE VERDICT AND ARE CALLING FOR A SPEEDY DEATH FOR MR. OCALAN. SHOULD HE BE KILLED, MANY OF HIS KURDISH FOLLOWERS HAVE THREATENED TO EXPAND THEIR CAMPAIGN OF TERROR IN THE KURDISH HEARTLAND OF SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY.

    WITH THAT AS BACKGROUND, WE TRAVEL TO THE MIDWEST, WHERE "OMAHA'S [NEBRASKA] WORLD-HERALD" SEES THE SITUATION IN THESE TERMS.

    VOICE: [MR.] OCALAN'S KURDISH REBEL SUPPORTERS HAVE VOWED THAT IF HE IS HANGED, THEY WILL RENEW AND ACCELERATE THEIR CAMPAIGN OF RANDOM VIOLENCE IN TURKEY AND ELSEWHERE. ... EUROPEAN LEADERS ARE RAISING HOWLING PROTESTS AGAINST THE SENTENCE. THIS IS NOT BECAUSE THEY CONSIDER [MR.] OCALAN A MARTYR OR A HERO, BUT BECAUSE ALL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION NATIONS HAVE ELIMINATED THE DEATH PENALTY ... AS BARBARIC AND INEFFECTIVE. ... THE KURDS ARE N O T WITHOUT LEGITIMATE COMPLAINTS AGAINST TURKEY (AND IRAQ AND IRAN). STILL, 37-THOUSAND DEATHS ARE N O T SOMETHING TO BLINK AT. NO MATTER HOW HIS APOLOGISTS TRY TO WHITEWASH [EDITORS: PURGE] THE RECORD, ABDULLAH OCALAN IS N O T A NICE GUY. ... IN THE END, TURKEY MUST DO WHAT IT THINKS IS RIGHT. BUT THAT CAN MEAN A LOT OF THINGS TO A LOT OF PEOPLE. /// OPT /// AMONG THE OPTIONS ... IS NOT KILLING [MR.] OCALAN, BUT INSTEAD CONFINING HIM FOR A VERY LONG TIME IN A VERY SMALL CELL, CUT OFF FROM ... HIS SUPPORTERS. THAT MAY NOT BE A PERFECT SOLUTION. BUT IT MAY VERY WELL BE THE BEST ONE FOR ALL CONCERNED. /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: TO SOUTH FLORIDA NOW, AND THESE COMMENTS ON TURKEY'S OCALAN DILEMMA FROM "THE [FORT LAUDERDALE] SUN-SENTINEL."

    VOICE: ... TURKEY SHOULD NOT PASS UP AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE PEACE IN A 15-YEAR CIVIL WAR THAT HAS CLAIMED 30-THOUSAND LIVES. THE PEACE PROCESS DESERVES A CHANCE EVEN IF IT MEANS COMMUTING [MR.] OCALAN'S SENTENCE TO YEARS, IF NOT LIFE, IN PRISON. TURKEY'S LEADERS HAVE THE POWER TO DO SO. [MR.] OCALAN MAY BE A TERRORIST. BUT TURKEY HAS A LONG HISTORY OF ABUSE AGAINST ITS LARGE KURDISH MINORITY. ... ANKARA NEEDS TO TAKE A HINT FROM NATO'S BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN KOSOVO. PROLONGED AND VIOLENT ETHNIC CONFLICT IS THE SUREST WAY TO INTERNATIONAL PARIAH STATUS.

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, "THE SAN FRANCISCO EXAMINER" SAYS TAKING UP MR. OCALAN'S PEACE OFFER IS WORTH THE RISK FOR THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT.

    VOICE: IF HE IS SPARED, [MR.] OCALAN SAYS HE WILL TRY TO PERSUADE THE KURDISH REBELS TO GIVE UP THEIR ARMED STRUGGLE IF TURKEY WILL LET THE KURDS PARTICIPATE IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS. HOWEVER, IF HE IS HANGED HE PREDICTS THAT 'A LOT OF BLOOD WILL FLOW IN TURKEY AND THIS COULD LEAD TO A MILITARY COUP.' NOT A PLEA, HE SAYS, BUT AN OBSERVATION. IT'S NOT A BAD GAMBIT FOR SOMEONE WITH HIS BACK TO THE WALL. THE TERRORIST AND THE FREEDOM FIGHTER SEEM TO COEXIST FOR AS LONG AS [MR.] OCALAN SURVIVES.

    TEXT: BACK TO THE MIDWEST AND "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE," WHICH ALSO FEELS HE MAY BE WORTH MORE TO ANKARA ALIVE THAN DEAD.

    VOICE: TO BE SURE, [MR.] OCALAN WAS A TREACHEROUS LEADER. HE DAMAGED THE KURDISH CAUSE BY SLAUGHTERING INNOCENTS - - WOMEN AND CHILDREN - - AND HIS OWN RIVALS. BUT TURKEY WAS NOT EXACTLY FASTIDIOUS IN WAGING WAR ON THE KURDS. ITS ARMED FORCES BURNED VILLAGES, TORTURED PRISONERS AND PROMOTED DEATH SQUADS. BEFORE TURKEY PUTS A ROPE AROUND [MR.] OCALAN'S NECK, IT OUGHT TO CONSIDER THE LEGITIMATE GRIEVANCES OF TURKEY'S MORE THAN 12 MILLION KURDS. ... THE OCALAN CASE OFFERS TURKEY A CALCULATED GAMBLE ... THE CHANCE - - NOT A GUARANTEE BUT A CHANCE - - THAT HIS RECENT JAILHOUSE CONVERSION WAS SINCERE, THAT HE IS NOW PREPARED TO USE HIS INFLUENCE TO BROKER A PERMANENT PEACE. THAT HAS TO BE WORTH MORE TO TURKEY THAN [MR.] OCALAN'S NECK. ... IT LOOKS LIKE A GAMBLE WORTH TAKING.

    TEXT: IN MINNESOTA, "THE [MINNEAPOLIS] STAR TRIBUNE" TAKES MUCH THE SAME LINE, AS IT COMPARES WHAT MAY GO ON IN TURKEY IN THE FUTURE, WITH WHAT HAS JUST G O N E ON IN YUGOSLAVIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE.

    VOICE: [MR.] OCALAN MAY MERELY BE GRANDSTANDING WHEN HE SUGGESTS THAT 'THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE' WILL CARRY OUT ACTS OF TERROR IF HE IS EXECUTED, BUT THE GENERAL POINT IS VALID. MARGARET THATCHER COMPLAINED ABOUT 'THE OXYGEN OF PUBLICITY' FOR TERRORISTS. IN REALITY, THE OXYGEN OF REPRESSION IS MUCH MORE POWERFUL. ONLY TWO YEARS AGO, ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO SUPPORTED PEACEFUL MEANS TO ACHIEVE CHANGE. BUT THAT GAVE WAY TO WIDESPREAD SUPPORT FOR THE ARMED STRUGGLE OF THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY. IN THAT RESPECT, SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC HAS BECOME THE PATRON SAINT OF THE K-L-A. TURKEY IS IN DANGER OF ACHIEVING THE SAME AIM.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: TO GAUGE THE REACTION IN TEXAS, WE TURN TO "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS."

    VOICE: ... TURKISH OFFICIALS WHO COULD REDUCE THE DEATH SENTENCE ... SHOULD CONSIDER WHETHER REVENGE IS DRIVING THIS CASE MORE THAN JUSTICE TEMPERED BY STATESMANSHIP. THERE'S LITTLE DOUBT THAT MR. OCALAN'S RECORD IS EVIL. ... BUT DOES HAVING THE RIGHT TO EXECUTE SUCH A PROMINENT INDIVIDUAL MEAN THAT HE MUST BE EXECUTED? TURKEY'S GOVERNMENT SCORED A HUGE VICTORY IN APPREHENDING AND TRYING MR. OCALAN. BUT IF HE IS EXECUTED, TURKEY COULD GRIEVE A LOST OPPORTUNITY TO ESTABLISH CLOSER TIES WITH EUROPE. THAT IS AN EXCELLENT REASON FOR STIFLING THE DESIRE FOR REVENGE ...

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, WHERE "THE SACRAMENTO BEE" DISCUSSES THE U-S ROLE IN A POSSIBLE ETHNIC RECONCILIATION WITHIN TURKEY, A KEY NATO PARTNER.

    VOICE: ... THE UNITED STATES HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE TO PLAY. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS WISELY REFRAINED FROM LECTURING TURKEY ABOUT ITS USE OF THE DEATH PENALTY. YET WASHINGTON SHOULD PRESS ANKARA TO END HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES AND, MORE SPECIFICALLY, TO GRANT KURDS THE SAME STATUS THAT OTHER ETHNIC MINORITIES HAVE. [MR.] OCALAN'S PLEA IN COURT FOR A CHANCE TO HEAL THE WOUNDS BETWEEN TURKS AND THE 12 MILLION TURKISH KURDS MAY HAVE BEEN SELF-SERVING, BUT ETHNIC RECONCILIATION IS THE ONLY SENSIBLE COURSE FOR ENDING TURKEY'S CRISIS.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENTARY ON THE DEATH SENTENCE TO KURDISH GUERRILLA LEADER ABDULLAH OCALAN, AND ITS RAMIFICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF TURKEY.
    NEB/ANG/KL
    02-Jul-99 3:17 PM EDT (1917 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-N / KOSOVO / KOUCHNER (S&L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251368
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRENCH HEALTH MINISTER BERNARD KOUCHNER HAS BEEN CHOSEN TO HEAD THE UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN KOSOVO. AS THE LEAD U-N OFFICIAL IN THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE, MR. KOUCHNER WILL MANAGE ALL CIVILIAN OPERATIONS. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. KOUCHNER IS BEING APPOINTED SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL IN KOSOVO -- THE HIGHEST-LEVEL U-N POST IN THE PROVINCE. THE 59-YEAR-OLD FRENCH HEALTH MINISTER HAS A LENGTHY BACKGROUND IN THE FIELDS OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. HE IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST OUTSPOKEN PROPONENTS OF THE HUMANITARIAN RIGHT OF INTERVENTION, A KEY ISSUE CONCERNING U-N INVOLVEMENT IN KOSOVO.

    U-N SPOKESMAN FRED ECKHARD:

    /// ECKHARD ACT ///

    HE HAS THOSE QUALITIES, I THINK, THAT THE SECRETARY-GENERAL SAID HE WAS LOOKING FOR: VISION, THE ABILITY TO MANAGE, AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED NATIONS HAS NOT SAID WHEN MR. KOUCHNER WILL ASSUME HIS DUTIES IN KOSOVO.

    /// REST OPTIONAL ///

    MR. KOUCHNER WAS ONE OF FOUR MAIN CONTENDERS FOR THE POST. THE OTHERS WERE JAN PRONK, THE HOUSING MINISTER FOR THE NETHERLANDS, EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER FOR HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS EMMA BONINO AND RETIRING BRITISH LIBERAL PARTY LEADER PADDY ASHDOWN.

    THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL SIMULTANEOUSLY ANNOUNCED THE APPOINTMENT OF A PRINCIPAL DEPUTY TO THE SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE JOCK COVEY OF THE UNITED STATES, A FORMER U-N DEPUTY HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IN SARAJEVO.

    THE U-N CIVILIAN OPERATIONS MISSION HAS BEEN HEADED BY AN INTERIM CHIEF SINCE IT BEGAN ITS WORK IN KOSOVO IMMEDIATELY AFTER YUGOSLAV FORCES BEGAN WITHDRAWING FROM THE PROVINCE.

    IN RELATED NEWS, YUGOSLAVIA SENT A LETTER TO THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL CRITICIZING THE NATO-LED FORCE IN KOSOVO, K-FOR, FOR FAILING TO MAINTAIN LAW AND ORDER IN THE PROVINCE. IN THE LETTER, THE YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTER CALLS ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO ALLOW THE RETURN OF SOME SERBIAN FORCES TO KOSOVO TO HELP STOP VIOLENCE AND MONITOR INTERNATIONAL BORDERS. THERE WAS NO IMMEDIATE RESPONSE TO THE REQUEST FROM THE SECURITY COUNCIL. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/WTW
    02-Jul-99 2:07 PM EDT (1807 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] U-N / KOSOVO / KOUCHNER (S&L) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251368
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRENCH HEALTH MINISTER BERNARD KOUCHNER HAS BEEN CHOSEN TO HEAD THE UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN KOSOVO. AS THE LEAD U-N OFFICIAL IN THE YUGOSLAV PROVINCE, MR. KOUCHNER WILL MANAGE ALL CIVILIAN OPERATIONS. V-O-A'S U-N CORRESPONDENT MAX RUSTON REPORTS.

    TEXT: MR. KOUCHNER IS BEING APPOINTED SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL IN KOSOVO -- THE HIGHEST-LEVEL U-N POST IN THE PROVINCE. THE 59-YEAR-OLD FRENCH HEALTH MINISTER HAS A LENGTHY BACKGROUND IN THE FIELDS OF HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. HE IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST OUTSPOKEN PROPONENTS OF THE HUMANITARIAN RIGHT OF INTERVENTION, A KEY ISSUE CONCERNING U-N INVOLVEMENT IN KOSOVO.

    U-N SPOKESMAN FRED ECKHARD:

    /// ECKHARD ACT ///

    HE HAS THOSE QUALITIES, I THINK, THAT THE SECRETARY-GENERAL SAID HE WAS LOOKING FOR: VISION, THE ABILITY TO MANAGE, AND KNOWLEDGE OF THE REGION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED NATIONS HAS NOT SAID WHEN MR. KOUCHNER WILL ASSUME HIS DUTIES IN KOSOVO.

    /// REST OPTIONAL ///

    MR. KOUCHNER WAS ONE OF FOUR MAIN CONTENDERS FOR THE POST. THE OTHERS WERE JAN PRONK, THE HOUSING MINISTER FOR THE NETHERLANDS, EUROPEAN COMMISSIONER FOR HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS EMMA BONINO AND RETIRING BRITISH LIBERAL PARTY LEADER PADDY ASHDOWN.

    THE U-N SECRETARY-GENERAL SIMULTANEOUSLY ANNOUNCED THE APPOINTMENT OF A PRINCIPAL DEPUTY TO THE SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE JOCK COVEY OF THE UNITED STATES, A FORMER U-N DEPUTY HIGH REPRESENTATIVE IN SARAJEVO.

    THE U-N CIVILIAN OPERATIONS MISSION HAS BEEN HEADED BY AN INTERIM CHIEF SINCE IT BEGAN ITS WORK IN KOSOVO IMMEDIATELY AFTER YUGOSLAV FORCES BEGAN WITHDRAWING FROM THE PROVINCE.

    IN RELATED NEWS, YUGOSLAVIA SENT A LETTER TO THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL CRITICIZING THE NATO-LED FORCE IN KOSOVO, K-FOR, FOR FAILING TO MAINTAIN LAW AND ORDER IN THE PROVINCE. IN THE LETTER, THE YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTER CALLS ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL TO ALLOW THE RETURN OF SOME SERBIAN FORCES TO KOSOVO TO HELP STOP VIOLENCE AND MONITOR INTERNATIONAL BORDERS. THERE WAS NO IMMEDIATE RESPONSE TO THE REQUEST FROM THE SECURITY COUNCIL. (SIGNED) NEB/UN/MPR/LSF/WTW
    02-Jul-99 2:07 PM EDT (1807 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [12] U-N-H-C-R / KOSOVO (L ONLY) BY LISA SCHLEIN (GENEVA)

    DATE=7/2/99
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-251358
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A UNITED NATIONS OFFICIAL IS APPEALING FOR THE PROMPT DEPLOYMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL POLICE FORCE TO KOSOVO. LISA SCHLEIN IN GENEVA REPORTS THE OFFICIAL SAYS LOOTINGS, KILLINGS AND BURNING OF PROPERTY CANNOT BE CONTROLLED UNTIL A FUNCTIONING LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM IS PUT IN PLACE.

    TEXT: THE U-N SPECIAL ENVOY TO KOSOVO, DENNIS MCNAMARA, SAYS THE NATO-LED MILITARY FORCE IS DOING ITS BEST TO PROTECT PEOPLE AND PROPERTY. BUT, HE SAYS IT IS NEITHER MANDATED NOR EQUIPPED TO MAINTAIN LAW AND ORDER IN KOSOVO.

    MR. MCNAMARA SAYS THERE ARE NO JUDGES, NO COURTS, NO JAILS IN WHICH TO LOCK UP LOOTERS, KILLERS AND OTHER CRIMINALS. HE SAYS GOVERNMENTS HAVE PLEDGED TO SEND MORE THAN ONE-THOUSAND INTERNATIONAL POLICE OFFICERS TO KOSOVO. BUT, HE SAYS PLEDGES ARE NOT GOOD ENOUGH.

    /// MCNAMARA ACT ONE ///

    THEY'RE COMING. BUT, THEY HAVE TO COME NOW. WE CAN'T WAIT FOR THREE WEEKS OR THREE MONTHS WHICH IS A NORMAL SORT OF TIME FRAME PROBABLY. THEY'VE GOT TO COME NOW WITH EQUIPMENT, WITH THE BACKUP. THEY'VE GOT TO START THIS SYSTEM WORKING URGENTLY. AND IT'S POLICE AND IT'S COURTS AND IT'S PRISONS. IT'S THE WHOLE ESSENTIAL MECHANISM OF A RULE OF LAW SYSTEM.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MCNAMARA SAYS HE IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE PRECARIOUS SITUATION OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF SERBS AND GYPSIES REMAINING IN KOSOVO. HE SAYS THEY ARE UNDER ATTACK IN MANY AREAS. AND THE INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE ALONE CAN DO LITTLE TO PROTECT THEM OR TO STOP THE KILLINGS AND BURNINGS OF HOUSES.

    MR. MCNAMARA SAYS ABOUT FIVE-THOUSAND ETHNIC SERBS WHO FLED FIGHTING IN CROATIA SEVERAL YEARS AGO ARE PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE. HE SAYS THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY IS PLANNING TO TRANSPORT MANY OF THEM TO ROMANIA AND WILL TRY TO FIND HOMES FOR THEM IN THIRD COUNTRIES.

    U-N ENVOY MCNAMARA SAYS HE IS UPSET WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WHICH IS ASKING THE AGENCY TO DO ALL SORTS OF COMPLICATED THINGS, BUT DOES NOT PROVIDE THE MONEY NEEDED TO CARRY OUT THESE OPERATIONS.

    /// MCNAMARA ACT TWO ///

    I JUST FIND IT QUITE INCREDIBLE THAT HERE WE ARE AFTER A HUGELY EXPENSIVE CONFLICT IN EUROPE THAT WE HAVE TO KEEP ON SAYING THAT WE HAVEN'T GOT ANY MONEY. WELL, WE HAVEN'T. WE'RE JUST ABOUT BANKRUPT AGAIN TODAY IN TERMS OF CASH FLOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. MCNAMARA SAYS THE U-N AGENCY SPENDS ABOUT 10-MILLION U-S DOLLARS A WEEK. HE SAYS THE AGENCY HAS ONLY ABOUT TWO-MILLION DOLLARS CASH IN HAND RIGHT NOW. (SIGNED)
    NEB/LS/JWH/KL
    02-Jul-99 10:39 AM EDT (1439 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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