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Voice of America, 99-07-30

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] U-N - KOSOVO - K-L-A (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)
  • [02] STABILITY SUMMIT (S-L)CQ BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] STABILITY SUMMIT -- WRAP (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)
  • [04] CLINTON-SUMMIT (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)
  • [05] CLINTON-SUMMIT (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)
  • [06] CLINTON-SARAJEVO WRAP (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)
  • [07] BOSNIAN LESSONS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)
  • [08] RELIGIOUS LEADERS-KOSOVO BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)
  • [09] EDITORIAL: KOSOVO WAR CRIMES
  • [10] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)
  • [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [12] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] U-N - KOSOVO - K-L-A (L - ONLY) BY MAX RUSTON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252350
    INTERNET=YES CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A senior United Nations official says alleged war criminals still in Kosovo need to be apprehended and tried as soon as possible. He says such measures are needed to reassure residents of the Yugoslav province that justice will be maintained. More from our U-N correspondent Max Ruston.

    TEXT: The call for swift justice came from Sergio Vieira de Mello, who just returned to New York after serving as the interim chief of U-N civilian operations in Kosovo.

    /// VIEIRA DE MELLO ACt ///

    We need to provide the Albanian Kosovars with satisfaction, with an assurance that justice will be done, which is why the role of the International Criminal Tribunal is so important, and which is why the role of the new judiciary in Kosovo is so important. Therefore we need to identify suspected war criminals who remain inside Kosovo and deal with them in a manner that is both democratic and respecting fully the normal course of law. At the same time actions need to be sufficiently swift to deter understandably disgruntled Kosovo Albanians from taking justice into their own hands.

    /// END ACT ///

    Mr. Vieira de Mello defends the United Nations role in Kosovo following the withdrawal of Serb forces. The United Nations has faced some criticism for allegedly moving too slowly to set up a local police force in the province. Mr. Vieira de Mello says the initial job of establishing law and order clearly belongs to the international security force K-FOR, and not the United Nations. The senior U-N official also says there are positive aspects to the Kosovo Liberation Army's take-over of some of the administrative and policing duties in Kosovo. He says the ultimate purpose of the U-N deployment in Kosovo is to promote autonomy. He says some of the K-L-A members are demonstrating good administrative skills and willingness help create a multi-ethnic, democratic system. He says the United Nations may retain or co-opt some of them as it moves forward, building new administrative and judicial systems for the province. Some diplomats say they have been disappointed by the continuing lack of law and order in Kosovo since the United Nations and K-FOR entered the province. They say it is particularly noticeable in the large number of revenge attacks against Kosovo Serbs who have remained in the province. Mr. Vieira de Mello admits that is a problem, and says everyone working in Kosovo is trying to correct the situation as fast as possible. (signed) NEB/UN/MPR/gm 30-Jul-1999 15:58 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1958 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] STABILITY SUMMIT (S-L)CQ BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252335
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /////

    fixes to 30 in intro of cr2-252330.

    /////

    INTRO: More than 30 leaders have gathered in Sarajevo to find a way to ensure stability and economic development in the Balkans. The Stability Pact for the Balkans will focus on three key areas -- democratic reform, economic development and regional security. Correspondent Laurie Kassman is in Sarajevo for the summit and files this report.

    TEXT: In his opening remarks as Conference Chairman, the European Union's current president, Marti Ahtisaari of Finland, set down the goals of the Stability Pact.

    ///AHTISAARI ACT ///

    The Stability Pact envisions a Europe at last undivided, prosperous and free -- a Europe where war becomes unthinkable.

    ///END ACT ///

    During the three-hour conference, regional leaders will present some ideas for improving trade, security and political links within the region and with the rest of Europe. European leaders will talk about what they can do to help. U-S President Bill Clinton and his European Union colleagues have promised several hundred million dollars in credits and grants. But exact aid figures won't come until the regional working groups have actually put together concrete projects later this year.

    ///CUT HERE FOR SHORT C-R ///

    E-U President Ahtisaari says the Balkan nations bear the responsibility for carrying out the democratic reforms.

    /// AHTSAARI ACT ///

    The commitment and active participation of the countries of the region is of crucial importance for the stabilization process. Sustainable ideas and initiatives can only come from those with an intimate knowledge of the region.

    /// END ACT ///

    The Special Stability Pact Coordinator Bodo Hombach of Germany says the new effort for European integration underlines what he calls the logic of peace.

    //OPT//

    He says Serbia also can benefit from what is being billed as a modern-day Marshall Plan. But first, Serbia must meet the conditions of democratic reforms. //END OPT// Yugoslavia's President Slobodan Milosevic is the only Balkans leader not invited to the summit. The reform-minded leader of the Yugoslav republic of Montenegro (Milo Djukanovic) is attending the meeting. And Mr. Hombach says he will invite Serbian mayors opposed to Mr. Milosevic to a regional conference of mayors being organized later in the year. (Signed) NEB/LMK/PCF/kl 30-Jul-1999 08:41 AM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1241 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] STABILITY SUMMIT -- WRAP (L) BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252343
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // RE-ISSUING TO CORRECT CR NUMBER //

    INTRO: More than 30 leaders gathered Friday in Sarajevo to talk about the future stability and development of the Balkans. But the summit was clouded by one man -- Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic. He was not at the summit but was very much on the mind of those who were. V-O-A correspondent Laurie Kassman in Sarajevo reports summit leaders pledged to rebuild the Balkans and to leave the door open for Yugoslavia - after the departure of Mr. Milosevic.

    TEXT: Balkan leaders have presented ideas for integrating their region into mainstream Europe. The international community has promised political and financial support. Only one Balkan leader was excluded -- Yugoslav President Milosevic. British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook says Serbia will not benefit from the Stability Pact as long as Mr. Milosevic is in power.

    /// COOK ACT ONE ///

    Serbia was not here because it was judged by the same standards as the other countries that were here. And it was found wanting by those standards. I look forward to the time when we can have a summit under the Stability Pact when the people of Serbia are represented. But they cannot be represented while their government is in the hands of an indicted war criminal.

    /// END ACT ///

    Britain and the United States have pledged financial help for Serbia's democratic opposition and the independent media to encourage a change in Belgrade's leadership. President Clinton has pledged ten-million dollars to foster democratic reforms in Serbia. Mr. Cook says Britain has earmarked more than three-million dollars to fund links with opposition town councils and the independent media.

    ///OPT // COOK ACT TWO ///

    We want to make sure that the people of Serbia understand what we are doing with the rest of the region. And we are confident that when they see the Stability Pact speed up the integration of the countries of the region into the modern Europe, provide a future of democracy, stability and economic progress for them, then the people of Serbia will be well placed to draw the conclusion that all that stands between them and being part of that process is the government of President Milosevic.

    /// END OPT ACT ///

    French President Jacques Chirac has launched an appeal to the Serbian people to do what is needed to rejoin the international community.
    /// CHIRAC ACT - IN FRENCH - FADE UNDER
    ///
    Serbia has its place among us, Mr. Chirac says. And when it is possible to accept the same standards as the rest of Europe, he says Serbs can benefit like everyone else. Britain and the United States have also promised money and technical support for Balkan projects aimed at breaking down trade barriers and rebuilding investor confidence in the region. But the European Union will bear the lion's share of the responsibility for implementing the Stability Pact. International financial institutions say they are ready to help too.

    /// REST OPTIONAL ///

    The Stability Pact Special Coordinator will soon name three working groups to focus on concrete projects in the areas of democratic reform, economic development and regional security. A donors conference will probably be organized later in the year to find the money to help finance them. Bosnian leaders already have pledged to reduce military spending and use the money for social and economic programs. They have called on their neighbors to do the same. (Signed)
    NEB/LMK/JWH/KL 30-Jul-1999 15:28 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1928 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CLINTON-SUMMIT (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252325
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: President Clinton is in the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, for the Stability Pact Summit on economic recovery and political reform in the Balkans. V-O-A's David Gollust reports from Sarajevo. Text: Mr. Clinton and his party arrived here aboard a giant U-S Air Force C-17 transport plane from the NATO air base at Aviano, Italy. Aviano was the main staging point for the allied air campaign against Yugoslavia. Aides say he has brought with him a five-point U-S plan, to be presented at the summit, that would speed the economic recovery of the region. It would give duty-free status to Southeast European products exported to the United States. It would also provide hundreds of millions of dollars worth of credits and incentives for investments in the regional economy. But the officials say Serbia will be excluded from the program as long as Slobodan Milosevic remains in power in Belgrade. As one official puts it, there is one obstacle to their being part of this and that is Mr. Milosevic. The President began his visit here with a meeting with the three-member Bosnian joint presidency. In a brief exchange with reporters at a photo session with the Muslim, Croat and Serb leaders, he paid tribute to post-war reconciliation and rebuilding in Bosnia and dismissed criticism that the process has been too slow:

    ///Clinton actuality///

    In the time since 1995, look at the level of cooperation here. We now have a common currency. We have other common institutions. We have opposition political parties. We have, last year, very brisk economic growth. We have a lot more to do. But I think the people who are overly critical should come here and look and see."

    ///end actuality///

    Mr. Clinton says the western allies were able to respond to the crisis in Kosovo more quickly than in Bosnia. He expressed hope the economic situation there can be turned around more rapidly, as well. In his talk with reporters, Mr. Clinton reiterated strong personal support for NATO supreme commander General Wesley Clark, who is being replaced - ahead of schedule - next year by U-S Air Force General Joseph Ralston. The President said any inference that he was unhappy with General Clark's conduct of the allied campaign against Yugoslavia is "absolutely false." (Signed) NEB/DAG / wd / wd 30-Jul-1999 05:35 AM LOC (30-Jul-1999 0935 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] CLINTON-SUMMIT (L-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252338
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: At the Stability Pact Summit in Sarajevo, President Clinton has offered new U.S. assistance for Balkans economic recovery. But Serbia would be denied benefits as long as Slobodan Milosevic remains in power. VOA's David Gollust reports from the Bosnian capital. Text: Mr. Clinton presented a five-point Balkans aid package that includes a proposal for duty free- treatment for most products from the region in the U-S market, and hundreds of millions of dollars in credits and incentives for American investments there. The U.S. initiative, which Clinton aides hope will be matched by the European Union and other summit participants, came in a closed-door presentation by the President which included scathing criticism of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic, the only Balkans leader excluded from the gathering. In a text of his remarks released to reporters, Mr. Clinton said all meaningful economic activity in Serbia is controlled by Mr. Milosevic and his "cronies" and that any reconstruction aid that reached that country would only "perpetuate the Milosevic regime." Serbia, Mr. Clinton said, will have a future only when Mr. Milosevic and his policies are consigned to the past. Briefing reporters later, Clinton National Security Adviser Sandy Berger said the summit partners are eager to extend a hand to (eager to aid) Serbia and its people once there is a change of leadership in Belgrade:

    ///BERGER ACTUALITY///

    Most of the leaders made it very clear that the moment there is a different government in Serbia committed to democracy, Serbia will be welcomed into the Stability Pact and the countries that are here will be eager to help reconstruct Serbia. So there really is only one thing that stands between the people of Serbia and the reconstruction that is so desperately needed in that country, and that is the leader who has created the suffering in the region in the first place.

    /// END ACT ///

    Mr. Berger said he believes a large majority of the people of Serbia want change and an end to isolation. He said the administration package also includes an initial ten million dollars this year - and more funds later - to support independent media, labor unions and other supporters of democratic change in Serbia. The President began his day with meetings with the three members of Bosnia's joint presidency and heaped praise on the Muslim, Serb and Croat leaders for the progress made in reconstruction and reconciliation in Bosnia since his last visit two years ago. (Signed)
    NEB/DAG/KL 30-Jul-1999 11:11 AM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1511 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] CLINTON-SARAJEVO WRAP (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252340
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: President Clinton, at the Stability Pact Summit in Sarajevo, announced a U-S program of aid and trade benefits to help speed Balkans economic recovery after the Kosovo war. V-O-A's David Gollust reports from the Bosnian capital. Text: The President's plan would give duty-free status to Balkans products and provide hundreds of millions of dollars in investment incentives for the region. But he told students at a multi-ethnic high school being rebuilt after Serb-inflicted war damage that Serbia - which was excluded from the summit - also excludes itself from reconstruction aid until there is new leadership in Belgrade.

    ///CLINTON ACT///

    I hope that before long, Serbia too will participate in this economic reconstruction but I do not believe that we should give reconstruction aid to Serbia as long as it rejects democracy and as long as Mr. Milosevic is in power.

    ///END ACT///

    Mr. Clinton, who also visited a Serbian Orthodox church, said the United States did not unleash its military power against Belgrade to hurt the Serb people, but to punish those who he said use racial, religious or ethnic differences to promote hatred. (signed)
    NEB/DAG/RAE 30-Jul-1999 12:06 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1606 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] BOSNIAN LESSONS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-43982
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// Eds: Will hold through weekend use ///

    INTRO: In Sarajevo, the site of this weeks (today's) Balkans Stability Summit, the United Nations' special High Representative for Bosnia-Herzogovina, Carlos Westendorp, is winding up his two-year mission. He spoke with a small group of reporters about his experience administering Bosnia and the lessons it could provide for Kosovo. Correspondent Laurie Kassman was there and has this report.

    TEXT: The 1995 Dayton Peace Agreement ended four years of bloody conflict in Bosnia and laid the framework for its international administration to help the republic regain political and economic stability. Carlos Westendorp is optimistic as he completes his mission as Bosnia's international administator. Bosnia, he says, can serve as a model for Kosovo, which will also be run by a special U-N-appointed representative. But Mr. Westendorp says there are several lessons from Bosnia, where ethnic strife nearly destroyed a country and has made its reconstruction difficult. The first advice he offers is to make sure the administrator in Kosovo establishes a clear chain of command and a substantial budget to pay for rebuilding the civic institutions.

    ///Westendorp act ///

    It has to be very clear that the military is under the civilian authority. This is what we are teaching these countries and we have to practice it ourselves. And, another important thing is that the administrator needs a budget, a clear budget . to be obliged to pass the tin cup to the donors every time you need money is not going to work because you need to pay the people, the civil servants, the judges. Otherwise you are not going to be able to command because he who pays commands.

    ///end act ///

    Mr. Westendorp says the administrator's legitimacy relies on a clear, centralized authority. He warns against letting different agencies operate independently -- which sometimes can put them at odds with the central authority. Another challenge for Kosovo -- like Bosnia -- is rebuilding a multi-ethnic society. For Mr. Westendorp, that means protecting all ethnic communities.

    ///Second Westendorp act ///

    You need to protect the people there. The Albanians need to be protected going back there, but the Serbs need even more protection because when the Albanians will go back, the Serbs will flee away. As we learned from Bosnia, the experience of Sarajevo, (it) is not only because of the fear but also the fear that is fueled by the leadership.

    ///end act ///

    Bosnia has taught Mr. Westendorp that the societal healing process takes a lot longer than setting up the institutions. It has already started at the neighborhood level and now, he says, it is up to the leaders to set an example and bridge the ethnic gap through compromise.

    /// Third Westendorp act ///

    I am also optimistic at the level of the leadership, although they have not yet made the jump to compromise. Extremist nationalism by definition sees compromise as treason.

    /// end act ///

    Carlos Westendorp says the best defense against the resurgence of extremist nationalism in Bosnia and Kosovo is to integrate the Balkans into the rest of Europe. He says it is time the region's leaders to realize that in today's inter-dependent world, old nationalistic messages no longer work. (signed)
    NEB/LMK/PCF 30-Jul-1999 06:05 AM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1005 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] RELIGIOUS LEADERS-KOSOVO BY ELAINE JOHANSON (NEW YORK)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252353
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Two religious leaders in the United States - recently back from a visit to the Balkans - urged governments today (Friday) to recognize that re- building Kosovo also means finding a way to heal ethnic hatreds. VOA correspondent Elaine Johanson reports from New York:

    TEXT: Roman Catholic Archbishop Theodore McCarrick and Rabbi Arthur Schneier believe a physically restored Kosovo will unravel unless political leaders also start building a peaceful multi-ethnic society. To do that, they have encouraged the United States and Europe to recognize the importance of utilizing religious leaders in the area to heal the hearts and minds of the Kosovars. Archbishop McCarrick says too many Kosovars want revenge. They must be convinced, he says, that justice does not mean payback violence and that peace, in the end, must include tolerance:

    //McCARRICK ACT//

    If you find the people who did these terrible things, bring them to trial and have them imprisoned. But if, because it was done by a certain ethnic group, you take it out against everybody in that ethnic group, that brings us back to the dark ages. And that brings us back to a situation that will not be the basis on which to build a firm and last peace.

    //END ACT//

    The Archbishop and Rabbi Schneier have discussed with top religious leaders in southeastern Europe convening a conference later this year to rally support for religious involvement in Kosovo reconstruction. Neither considers the Yugoslav conflict a religious war. But they believe religious figures can provide the moral leadership so critically absent in Yugoslavia today. At the same time, Rabbi Schneier has called on governments to respond faster to the U-N's call for an international police force in Kosovo. He says deploying tens of thousands of police officers throughout Kosovo to establish law and order is essential for sociological re-building:

    // SCHNEIER ACT //

    There is this time lag and I think we're not going to see an effective police force based on the rate we're going until the end of the year. And so, while this vacuum is taking place, you do have some of the civilian casualties that are occurring now actually before the eyes of K-For.

    //END ACT//

    Rabbi Schneier and Archbishop McCarrick's recent trip was a follow-up to a conference in Vienna last March attended by the Kosovo leaders of the Islamic, Serbian Orthodox and Roman Catholic communities. (OPT) It was their first face-to-face meeting. (END OPT) (Signed) NEB/NY/EJ/BA/KL 30-Jul-1999 16:51 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 2051 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [09] EDITORIAL: KOSOVO WAR CRIMES

    DATE=8/1/1999
    TYPE=EDITORIAL
    NUMBER=0-08394
    CONTENT=

    THIS IS THE ONLY EDITORIAL BEING RELEASED FOR BROADCAST 08/01/99. (Resending to fix formatting) Anncr: The Voice of America presents differing points of view on a wide variety of issues. Next, an editorial expressing the policies of the United States Government: Voice: On July 23rd, British troops with the Kosovo peacekeeping force, or KFOR, on a routine evening patrol near the village of Gracko, heard the sound of automatic weapons fire coming from nearby fields. Forty minutes later, a British army unit found the bodies of fourteen ethnic Serbian men. All had been brutally murdered. The victims had been harvesting wheat at the time of the attack. Additional NATO troops were brought into the area to begin the search for the perpetrators of the massacre. KFOR commander Mike Jackson ordered KFOR to "leave no stone unturned to get hold of the murderers. . .and bring security to all the people of Kosovo." The massacre in Gracko brings to more than one-hundred forty the number of civilians murdered in Kosovo in the past six weeks. About half were ethnic Serbs, and the other half were ethnic Albanians. Many other people, including ethnic Roma, have been assaulted, robbed, or had their homes burned. This comes against a background of conflict in which many thousands died, many under the most brutal circumstances. KFOR is determined to suppress violence and lawlessness of any kind and from any source. Nearly two hundred people, most of them ethnic Albanians, have been arrested for murder, arson, looting, and other crimes committed against ethnic Serbs. KFOR is cooperating with the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in efforts to bring to justice accused Serbian war criminals, including Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic. It was to put a stop to such horrors that the U.S. and NATO carried out the air campaign against Milosevic's military. That same resolve will be applied in maintaining peace and security in Kosovo. Anncr: That was an editorial expressing the policies of the United States Government. If you have a comment, please write to Editorials, V-O-A, Washington, D-C, 20547, U-S-A. You may also comment at www-dot-voa-dot-gov-slash- editorials, or fax us at (202) 619-1043. 30-Jul-1999 12:19 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1619 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY LAUREN COMITEAU (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252347
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Two years after it began, the trial of Croatian General Tihomir Blaskic is finally over. The general is accused by prosecutors at the Yugoslav War Crimes Tribunal of commanding troops who murdered Muslims and burned and pillaged their villages in an attempt to get them to leave central Bosnia. Lauren Comiteau in The Hague reports the tribunal's judges now face the huge task of deciding guilt or innocence.

    TEXT: The job of lawyers on both sides this past week was to go over two years worth of evidence and then instruct the three-judge panel how to rule. In closing arguments, prosecutors asked for a life sentence for General Tihomir Blaskic, the man they say played a pivotal role in ethnically cleansing central Bosnia of its Muslims in the early 1990's. The ultimate plan, say prosecutors, was to create an ethnically pure Croatian state, linking parts of Bosnia to Croatia. Prosecutor Gregory Kehoe says the plan was devised by Croatian President Franjo Tudjman himself in Zagreb and carried out by his handpicked men, including General Blaskic.

    /// KEHOE ACT ///

    Blaskic was the tool. Blaskic was the individual who worked hand-in-glove with the individuals to accomplish the political goals of the Croatian community of Bosnia.

    /// END ACT ///

    Prosecutors say General Blaskic knew about the crimes his troops were committing and should have stopped them. Those crimes include the murders of more than 100 Muslims in a single day in one village, a crime they say was ordered by General Blaskic. But defense lawyers have been arguing that while General Blaskic may have had control of his troops on paper, it was a different story on the ground. They say he was an honorable man who tried to do everything he could to prevent atrocities. Defense lawyer Anto Nobilo reminded judges General Blaskic voluntarily surrendered to the tribunal to clear his name. Through a translator, he asked the trial chamber not to judge General Blaskic's as a symbol but as a man caught up in turbulent times.

    /// NOBILO TRANSLATOR ACT ///

    The prosecutor, in his closing arguments, asks you to react to an injustice committed against the Muslims with another injustice. If the chain of injustices continues, then all hope for Bosnia will be lost. Do not allow that to happen. Cut that chain of injustice now. Pass the right decision, acquit General Blaskic. The defense requests, the defense appeals that this trial chamber acquit General Blaskic.

    /// END ACT ///

    Judges still have to study 30-thousand pages of transcripts and the testimony of about 150 witnesses, so a decision is likely months away. (Signed)
    NEB/LC/JWH/KL 30-Jul-1999 14:14 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [11] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-252354
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: Stock prices in the United States were down today (Friday) as inflation fears continued on Wall Street. V-O-A Business correspondent Breck Ardery reports from New York.

    TEXT: The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 10 thousand 655 down 136 points, more than one percent. For the week, the Industrial Average lost 256 points or almost two and one-half percent. The Standard and Poor's 500 index closed Friday at 13 hundred 29, down 12 points. The NASDAQ index lost just a fraction of one percent as many technology stocks held up better than the general market. An index of U-S manufacturing activity shows the prices-paid component rose at a higher-than-expected rate this month. Coming on top of Thursday's report that U-S labor costs are rising, the manufacturing cost figures renewed inflation fears on Wall Street. There is a growing consensus that the U-S Central Bank will again raise short-term interest rates to dampen inflationary pressures.

    /// REST OPT ///

    A sign of inflationary expectations was reflected in new home sales figures for June, which were unexpectedly strong. Analysts say many Americans are attempting to beat higher mortgage interest rates. Ted Weisberg of Seaport Securities expects stock prices will continue to fall in the near future.

    /// WEISBERG ACT ///

    There is obviously still a lot of concern about the economy and interest rates. Whether that concern is valid or not remains to be seen. But I think the direction of stock prices will be flat to down.

    /// END ACT ///

    The government reported that personal income in the United States rose seven-tenths of one percent in June, but spending was up just three-tenths of a percent. It was the first time in five months that spending lagged behind income growth. Tommy Hilfiger, the clothing design firm, says its quarterly profits surged by 35 percent, well above Wall Street expectations. The company says its womenswear line showed the strongest sales increase. Stockholders of both companies have given final approval to the takeover of Gulfstream Aerospace by the General Dynamics Company in a stock deal worth almost five billion dollars. General Dynamics is a major U-S defense contractor and is diversifying its business by acquiring Gulfstream, a maker of business aircraft. Cadbury Schweppes of Britain says it has sold most of its soft drink businesses outside Europe and the United States to the Coca-Cola Company for 705 million dollars in cash. The original plan to sell all of Cadbury's operations to Coke ran into regulatory problems in Europe. The shooting rampage Thursday at two day-trading firms in the city of Atlanta has caused new warnings to be issued about the financial risks of day-trading. The National Association of Securities Dealers says its member firms should warn day-traders they could lose all their money. And the North American Securities Administrators Association says there is nothing glamorous about day-trading and that the vast majority of participants do lose money.(signed) NEB/NY/BA/JC/gm 30-Jul-1999 17:13 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 2113 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [12] FRIDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/30/1999
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-11403
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A series of developments in Asia, either occurring or contemplated, is causing a good deal of reaction this Friday in the U-S Press. Domestically, President Clinton's fine in the Paula Jones lawsuit is under discussion, as is the early sacking of the U-S General who won the Kosovo war. There are also comments aplenty on the tax cut battle in Congress; yet another multiple shooting; and the first woman space shuttle commander brings the spacecraft home safely despite several mechanical problems. Now, here with some excerpts and a closer look is ___________ and today's Editorial Digest.

    TEXT: A U-S intelligence report that North Korea is about to launch a long range missile capable of striking Hawaii or parts of Alaska with a nuclear or chemical warhead, is drawing a good deal of comment. In Oklahoma, "The Tulsa World" says in part:

    VOICE: The new Taepodong-two missile changes the game entirely. The United States and its allies must make it clear to North Korea that the firing will freeze any further relationship with the Pyongyang government. . This is no time for cajoling. The United States should make it clear that the missile test and the threat it carries will not be tolerated.

    TEXT: "The Boston Globe" is also upset, noting:

    VOICE: At last week's gathering of foreign ministers and guests of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, the principal topic of concern was the . launch . ASEAN members are worried because the missile's firing may unravel the patchwork of Asia's tacit security order.

    /// OPT ///

    [Defense Secretary William] Cohen has properly counseled North Korea not to endanger cooperation with Japan, South Korea, and the United States on replacing its weapons-capable nuclear power plants and providing famine aid and investment. But the opaque regime in Pyongyang may not respond to either carrots or sticks.

    TEXT: Understandable concern is also found in Hawaii, where Thursday's "Honolulu Star-Bulletin" wrote:

    VOICE: The Clinton administration hoped to eliminate the threat of nuclear attack with the 1994 pact,[offering to build two new nuclear reactors in return for an end to nuclear weapons development] but the North continues to keep the accord's viability in doubt. With its customary rhetorical belligerence, North Korea has threatened to withdraw from the nuclear agreement unless the United States began to show `good faith' by removing economic sanctions. The regime maintains that missile testing is its sovereign right. [Defense Secretary] Cohen's mission is to . [warn] Pyongyang in a credible manner of the consequences of exercising that right. But with North Korea you never know.

    ///END OPT ///

    TEXT: As regards neighboring China, comment continues over the so-called `One China' policy debate. In the Connecticut capitol, "The Hartford Courant" notes:

    VOICE: . The `one China' fiction has kept the peace between the communists on the mainland and the nationalist remnants on Taiwan for decades.

    /// OPT ///

    . Until 1978, Washington refused to recognize the communist regime on the Chinese mainland and maintained that China was represented only by the government on Taiwan. That was unrealistic. It is just as unrealistic for the United States to regard the Republic of China on Taiwan as less than a nation just because Washington now has normal relations with Beijing. . /// END OPT /// [However] Taiwan is a better example for the world than the totalitarian regime in Beijing /// OPT /// . Just this week, for example - - as the house of Representatives was reaffirming China's most- favored-nation trading status with the United States - - Beijing was suppressing the quasi- religious Falun Gong movement by arresting members and engaging in a Nazi-style book burning of the movement's material. /// END OPT
    /// Why should the United States recognize such a contemptible regime as the legitimate rulers of China while pretending that Taiwan doesn't exist as a nation?

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: Just to the North, "The Providence [Rhode Island] Journal" wonders why the government in Beijing should be so upset by the Falun Gong sect, which it has been harassing. combining economic freedom and political and cultural repression. This won't work in the long run, but the authorities are still trying - - witness their crackdown last week on Falun Gong . This is not a matter of supporting the tenants of Falun Gong, but of acknowledging the right to engage in peaceful activities, including peaceful demonstrations. It is disgraceful that the leaders in Beijing still do not get it. President Clinton must be forceful in explaining things to them next time, and every time, he has a chance.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: Domestically, papers are commenting on a federal judge's ruling that President Clinton must pay more than 90-thousand dollars in court costs in the Paula Jones sexual harassment suit. "The New York Times" calls it -- a Deserved Fine for Mr. Clinton -- but "The New York Post" is even more caustic in its headline, which reads - The Lying President Must Pay - then adds:

    VOICE: . Yet another dubious distinction to Bill Clinton's shameful legacy. The second president ever to be impeached and the first president ever to be held in contempt of court, [Mr.] Clinton now becomes the only president ever to be sanctioned for making false statements under oath. . Thanks to Judge [Susan Webber] Wright, history will record that the president of the United States was a contemptible, willful liar.

    TEXT: There is also more strong, editorial criticism of the sacking of NATO commanding General Wesley Clark, who won the war against Yugoslavian forces in Kosovo, while aggravating Pentagon officials and politicians at home. The "Arkansas Democrat-Gazette" quotes some famous lines by Rudyard Kipling about civilian contempt for the military, before concluding:

    VOICE: Despite all the pretenses, the message . is undeniable: This is how America treats commanders who face and overcome constant political obstacles in the conduct of a war. .This is how America treats a soldier who understands that in war there is no substitute for victory.

    TEXT: Congress and the White House are feuding over the size of a tax cut for the American people, and in the West, "The Colorado Springs Gazette" is strongly in favor of the Republican plan for the bigger cuts.

    VOICE: Here we go again. Anytime Republicans propose meaningful relief for overburdened taxpayers, you can count on Democrats to resort to what they do best: rank demagoguery. Once again, liberal lovers of big government hope to romance gullible voters with their all too familiar refrain:'Republican tax cuts benefit the rich.' Ofcourse they do, and they should. That is who pays most of the taxes, especially income taxes.

    TEXT: However in Hawaii, "The Honolulu Star-Bulletin" says of some expert testimony to Congress on the subject:

    VOICE: Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan's advice to go slow on tax cuts should be heeded.

    TEXT: Reaction to yet another mass killing by a deranged person, this time a chemist and occasional stock market trader in Atlanta, Georgia, who killed nine people and possibly 12,and himself, when cornered by police. "USA Toda", the national daily published in a Washington, D-C suburb submits:

    VOICE: . he used two powerful handguns. This is part of the true horror of these mad outbursts. Even in the first hours, as the body count was mounting and the descriptions of mayhem were beginning to unfold, it was obvious that the killings could not have been so extensive with any common weapon other than a firearm. .what speaks to every community in the nation . is that guns allow killers to kill quickly, surely, haphazardly.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "The Providence [Rhode Island] Journal", looking toward the Balkans where President Clinton and other leaders are mapping plans for a renewal, the Rhode Island paper asks: Do we need this summit?, then adds:

    VOICE: It is difficult to see how the leaders of 40 nations, including President Clinton, meeting today in Sarajevo to discuss stabilizing the Balkans will get much done. It is just too unwieldy a number. . Today's summit is mostly a photo op for the benefit of the leaders junketing to Sarajevo to display their statesmanship to the folks back home. Pretty much everything . done at the summit could be done . far more cheaply and . better on the phone .

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: "The Denver Post" and "The Orlando Sentinel" are saluting Eileen Collins, the wife and mother and U-S Air Force colonel who successfully piloted the Shuttle on its most recent mission, despite several serious technological problems. Says "The Sentinel":

    VOICE: Mrs. Collins successfully shattered yet another one of those barriers often encountered by women who seek to stretch the limits of opportunity. And she paved the way for other women to follow in her inspirational path.. Congratulations to Mrs. Collins - not only for her success, but for allowing others to dare dream of a future in the heavens.

    TEXT: On that celestial note, we conclude this sampling of opinion from today's U-S press.
    NEB/ANG/RAE 30-Jul-1999 12:58 PM LOC (30-Jul-1999 1658 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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