Fluorine atom abstraction by Si(100). I. Experimental
Tate, M.R.; Gosalvez-Blanco, D.; Pullman, D.P.; Tsekouras, A.A.; Li, Y.L.; Yang, J.J.; Laughlin, K.B.; Eckman, S.C.; Bertino, M.F.; Ceyer, S.T.; Dept. of Chem., MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA
Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.111, no.8, p. 3679-95, 22 Aug. 1999 49 Refs.
In the interaction of low energy F2 with Si(100) at 250 K, a dissociative chemisorption mechanism called atom abstraction is identified in which only one of the F atoms is adsorbed while the other F atom is scattered into the gas phase. The dynamics of atom abstraction are characterized via time-of-flight measurements of the scattered F atoms. The F atoms are translationally hyperthermal but only carry a small fraction (3%) of the tremendous exothermicity of the reaction. The angular distribution of F atoms is unusually broad for the product of an exothermic reaction. These results suggest an "attractive" interaction potential between F2 and the Si dangling bond with a transition state that is not constrained geometrically. These results are in disagreement with the results of theoretical investigations implying that the available potential energy surfaces are inadequate to describe the dynamics of this gas-surface interaction. In addition to single atom abstraction, two atom adsorption, a mechanism analogous to classic dissociative chemisorption in which both F atoms are adsorbed onto the surface, is also observed. The absolute probability of the three scattering channels (single atom abstraction, two atom adsorption, and unreactive scattering) for an incident F2 are determined as a function of F2 exposure. The fluorine coverage is determined by integrating the reaction probabilities over F2 exposure, and the reaction probabilities are recast as a function of fluorine coverage. Two atom adsorption is the dominant channel [P2=0.830.03(95%, N=9)] in the limit of zero coverage and decays monotonically to zero. Single atom abstraction is the minor channel (P1=0.130.03) at low coverage but increases to a maximum (P1=0.350.08) at about 0.5 monolayer (ML) coverage before decaying to zero. The reaction ceases at 0.940.11(95%, N=9) ML. Thermal desorption and helium diffraction confirm that the dangling bonds are the abstraction and adsorption sites. No Si lattice bonds are broken, in contrast to speculation by other investigators that the reaction exothermicity causes lattice disorder.