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Voice of America, 28 September 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA PANEL BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

  • [04] BRITAIN / EUROCOURT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA ( LONDON)

  • [05] CONGRESS-BOSNIA REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

  • [06] NATO/RUSSIA (L UPDATE) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [07] UKRAINE/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/28/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09192
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 28TH //

    INTRO: U-S DAILY PAPERS ARE EDITORIALIZING ABOUT THE ISRAELI-P-L-O PEACE AGREEMENT [TO BE] SIGNED AT THE WHITE HOUSE TODAY, BUT NOT IN OVERWHELMING NUMBERS. MANY OTHER EDITORIAL TOPICS ARE DEALT WITH IN THE NATION'S BIG PAPERS, INCLUDING THE WIDENING GAP IN THE EARTH'S OZONE LAYER; THE NEED FOR CHANGES IN THE U-S SOCIAL SECURITY NATIONAL INSURANCE SYSTEM; THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, AND TURKEY'S WAR WITH THE NEWS MEDIA OVER THE KURDISH INSURGENCY. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS _________________ AND TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SKIES WERE CLEAR AND THE SUN WAS BRIGHT IN WASHINGTON FOR THE SIGNING OF THE LATEST ACCORD BETWEEN ISRAELIS AND PALESTINIANS OVER THE FUTURE CONTROL AND ADMINISTRATION OF THEIR TRADITIONAL HOMELANDS. COMMENTING ON THE CEREMONY, "USA TODAY" GIVES CREDIT TO PRESIDENT CLINTON FOR HIS PERSEVERENCE.

    VOICE: "WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON SHEPHERDS LEADERS OF ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS THROUGH ANOTHER PEACE CEREMONY TODAY AT THE WHITE, IT WILL BE TESTIMONY TO THE VALUE OF PERSISTENCE IN DIPLOMACY. AND PERHAPS A HINT OF HOW THE VEXING TRAGEDY IN BOSNIA EVENTUALLY WILL BE BROUGHT TO AN END. AGAINST ALL ODDS, RIDICULED AT TIMES AS HOPELESSLY NAIVE, GENERATIONS OF U-S DIPLOMATS HAVE STRUGGLED TO SOLVE THE SEEMINGLY UNRESOLVABLE: THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT. IT ISN'T SOLVED YET. BUT THE ONCE-HOPELESS PROCESS CONTINUES TO INCH FORWARD."

    TEXT: IN PENNSYLVANIA, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" OFFERS THIS COMMENT:

    VOICE: "TODAY'S CEREMONY MARKING THE SECOND PHASE OF THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN PEACE PROCESS WILL LACK THE DRAMA OF THE PACT SIGNED ON THE WHITE HOUSE LAWN TWO YEARS AGO... BUT TODAY'S DOCUMENT, TO BE SIGNED INDOORS WITH LESS HOOPLA [FANFARE], IS MUCH MORE COMPLEX, DETAILED AND DIFFICULT. IT PROPELS ISRAEL AND THE PALESTINIANS INTO THE MOST RISKY PHASE OF THEIR DEVOLVED RELATIONSHIP. [IT] SPEEDS THE BUILDING OF NEW PALESTINIAN INSTITUTIONS AND THE DIVISION OF CONTESTED LAND IN WAYS THAT WILL MAKE IT ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE FOR EITHER SIDE TO TURN BACK... THE ACHIEVEMENT IS SOLID."

    TEXT: AMONG TODAY'S DOMESTIC EDITORIAL ISSUES IS THE DEBATE ABOUT TO BE WAGED IN CONGRESS OVER THE SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM, THE NATIONAL PENSION PROGRAM FOR THE ELDERLY THAT COSTS THE NATION MORE EACH YEAR AS THE POPULATION AGES. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, ENTITLED "DARING TO TOUCH A SACRED COW", "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" JOINS THE DEBATE OVER HOW THE GOVERNMENT OVER-ESTIMATES THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX [CPI], WHICH IN TURN IS USED TO INCREASE THE SOCIAL SECURITY PAYMENTS FOR MILLIONS OF PENSIONERS.

    VOICE: "BY HOW MUCH DOES THE C-P-I INFLATE THE REAL RATE OF INFLATION? A CONGRESSIONALLY-SPONSORED STUDY BY A PANEL OF RESPECTED ECONOMISTS HAS PUT THE FIGURE AT BETWEEN ONE-SEVENTH OF A POINT AND TWO PERCENTAGE POINTS. ... GIVEN THE TENS OF MILLIONS WHO GET SOCIAL SECURITY AND OTHER GOVERNMENT PENSION CHECKS EACH MONTH, THAT ADDS UP TO BIG BUCKS INDEED. BIG ENOUGH, SAY ... SENIOR MEMBERS OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE, SO THAT THE GOVERNMENT COULD SAVE ALMOST 201-BILLION DOLLARS OVER THE NEXT SEVEN YEARS JUST BY CHANGING THE FORMULA IT USES TO CALCULATE BENEFIT INCREASES... IN EFFECT, THAT WOULD SIMPLY MEAN ELIMINATING THE WINDFALL THAT HAS COME FROM OVERSTATING THE INFLATION RATE... HERE IS A BOLD NEW ELEMENT TO PUT ON THE TABLE. IT IS A CHANGE THAT MAKES SENSE, THAT'S OVERDUE AND THAT'S DOABLE. LET THE WHITE HOUSE AND CONGRESS GET ON WITH IT."

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" PRAISES THE BIPARTISAN EFFORT IN THE CONGRESS TO DEAL WITH THE ESCLATING COST OF SOCIAL SECURITY, BUT THE PAPER CHIDES THE PRESIDENT:

    VOICE: "UNFORTUNATELY, ONE KEY PLAYER WAS ABSENT FROM THE BUDDING CONSENSUS -- PRESIDENT CLINTON. HIS SPOKESMAN CHOSE INSTEAD TO SCORE POINTS WITH OLDER VOTERS BY WORRYING THAT THE CUTS MIGHT BE TOO BIG. THEY'RE NOT. BUDGET REALITY AND SOCIAL SECURITY'S PROBLEM DEMAND MORE. CUTTING THE COLA [COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENT] IS A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION."

    TEXT: TURNING OVERSEAS AGAIN, TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, "NEWSDAY" OF LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, IS GUARDEDLY OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE A LASTING PEACE IN THE BALKANS:

    VOICE: "IT'S TOO SOON TO SAY THAT BOSNIA'S WARRING FACTIONS HAVE DECIDED TO WORK TOGETHER TOWARD PEACE. THIS WEEK'S AGREEMENT ON A FRAMEWORK FOR A FUTURE GOVERNMENT FOR BOSNIA IS... NEVERTHELESS, A SIGNIFICANT IF TENTATIVE STEP ON THE ROAD TOWARD EVENTUAL PEACE IN THE BALKANS, MADE POSSIBLE BY THE SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY OF U-S NEGOTIATOR RICHARD HOLBROOKE."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES," LESS IMPRESSED, CALLS THE PACT "A FEEBLE STEP TOWARD PEACE," SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "PEACE IN BOSNIA, WHEN IT COMES, WILL BE A FRAGILE THING. THE FOREIGN MINISTERS REPRESENTING THE WARRING FACTIONS SIGNALED THAT TUESDAY WHEN THEY SIGNED AN AGREEMENT ... CREATING A ROTATING PRESIDENCY FOR THE COUNTRY, IF IT SURVIVES THE CONFLICT. THAT WEAK FORMULA FOR GOVERNANCE IS PRECISELY THE ONE THAT HELPED UNRAVEL YUGOSLAVIA FOUR YEARS AGO. ANOTHER LESSON STILL UNLEARNED."

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE" TODAY NERVOUSLY EYES THE THINNING OZONE LAYER IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE, NOTING A REPUBLICAN-LED MOVE IN CONGRESS TO DELAY, OR EVEN REPEAL, LEGISLATION PHASING OUT USE OF CHLOROFLUOROCARBON CHEMICALS WIDELY BELIEVED TO BE EATING AWAY AT THE LAYER.

    VOICE: "THERE ARE MANY ASPECTS OF OUR NATIONAL LIFE THAT ARE BEST LEFT TO MARKET FORCES TO DETERMINE WITHOUT INTERFERENCE FROM GOVERNMENT. ..... UNFORTUNATELY ..... THE THIN LAYER OF OZONE ENCIRCLING THE PLANET IS NEITHER PROTECTED NOR GUARANTEED BY PURSUING MARKET FORCES AND SHOULD BE PUT BEYOND THE REACH OF THE RAMBUNCTIOUS NEW HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST", LIKE SEVERAL OTHER PAPERS, IS COMMENTING ON PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DESCRIMING HIMSELF AND THE NATION AS IN A "FUNK", OR DEPRESSED MOOD, DURING A CHAT WITH REPORTERS ABOARD AIR FORCE ONE.

    VOICE: "THANKS TO PRESIDENT CLINTON, THE NATION HAS BEEN TREATED TO A HIGH-LEVEL PHILOSOPHICAL DISCUSSION OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 'FUNK' AND 'MALAISE.' ... MR. CLINTON ... EXPLAINED THE CENTRAL ISSUE. 'MALAISE IS A STATE OF MIND,' THE PRESIDENT-TURNED-PHILOSOPHER DECLARED. 'FUNK IS SOMETHING YOU CAN BOUNCE RIGHT OUT OF.' FUNK, HE THEN ADMITTED, 'WAS A POOR CHOICE OF WORDS.'

    TEXT: CONCERNING THE POLITICAL OUTLOOK FOR HAITI, ONE YEAR AFTER THE AMERICAN-LED MILITARY INTERVENTION, TODAY'S '"MIAMI HERALD" SAYS OF PRIEST-TURNED-PRESIDENT JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE:

    VOICE: "THE PRESIDENT'S HONEYMOON CAN'T LAST FOREVER. AND HE CAN'T EXPECT TO RUN A COUNTRY AS HE ONCE RAN HIS TINY CHURCH ORPHANAGE, WITH GRACE AND CHARITY ALONE. THE ESSENTIAL JOB OF PEACE-AND-CONFIDENCE-BUILDING IS PLAINLY A SUCCESS. NOW A HARD ECONOMIC RECKONING MUST FOLLOW."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, OF TURKEY'S ON-GOING ASSAULT ON FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC JOURNALISTS WHO COVER THAT NATION'S WAR WITH KURDISH GUERRILLAS, TODAY'S "PORTLAND [MAINE] PRESS HERALD" DECLARES:

    VOICE: "JAILING REPORTERS ISN'T A WAY TO GET OTHERS TO OPEN DOORS ... TURKEY'S FUTURE HOLDS MUCH PROMISE, IF ONLY ITS LEADERS WOULD START RESPECTING HUMAN RIGHTS... TURKISH LEADERS HAVE TO CONVINCE THEIR MILITARY THAT ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT AND FREEDOM GO TOGETHER. ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS, AND EFFORTS TO SQUASH HONEST STORIES ABOUT THEM, ARE NOT JUST WRONG IN THEMSELVES. SUCH REPRESSIVE ACTS WILL CONTINUE TO BLOCK CLOSER TIES WITH NATIONS THAT RESPECT FREEDOM."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT SOME OF THE EDITORIALS AMERICANS ARE PONDERING THIS THURSDAY AS SEPTEMBER PREPARED TO SLIDE AWAY INTO OCTOBER.

    NEB/ANG/PCH

    28-Sep-95 11:13 AM EDT (1513 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA PANEL BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08620
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THREE AND A HALF YEARS OF BRUTAL FIGHTING, PEACE APPEARS TO BE WITHIN THE GRASP OF THE WARRING FACTIONS IN BOSNIA. AS YET THERE IS NO FORMAL CEASEFIRE BUT FIGHTING HAS ABATED WHILE NEGOTIATORS FOR BOTH SIDES DISCUSS WHAT IS BEING CALLED A 'FRAMEWORK' FOR A PEACE SETTLEMENT. THE U-S BROKERED FRAMEWORK AGREED ON IN NEW YORK THIS WEEK WOULD ESTABLISH A COMMON BOSNIAN PARLIAMENT AND PRESIDENCY WITHIN A SINGLE COUNTRY DIVIDED INTO A CROAT-MUSLIM ENTITY AND A SERB

    ENTITY. TO EXPLAIN HOW THIS WOULD WORK, VOA'S WORLD

    REPORT PROGRAM HELD A PANEL DISCUSSION AMONG FOUR BALKAN EXPERTS: PROFESSOR JOSHUA GOLDSTEIN (PRON: GOLDSTINE) OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, OBRAD KESIC OF THE IREX INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH EXCHANGE, REPORTER DAVID BINDER OF THE NEW YORK TIMES AND PROFESSOR OMER HADZISELIMOVIC [HAJ-EE-SEL-EE-MOH-VITCH] OF EARLHAM COLLEGE IN RICHMOND

    INDIANA. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR SUMS UP THEIR COMMENTS:

    TEXT: PROFESSOR GOLDSTINE GOT RIGHT TO THE POINT:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 GOLDSTINE RUNS [:32] "UNTIL YOU DEAL WITH THE CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE OF: 'ARE YOU GOING TO PARTITION THE COUNTRY OR ARE YOU GOING TO HOLD IT TOGETHER?', IT'S HARD TO SEE YOUR WAY TO A SOLUTION. IN MY VIEW IF YOU WANT TO MAINTAIN BOSNIA AS A COUNTRY AS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS TO DO, YOU HAVE TO APPLY SUFFICIENT LEVERAGE, PROBABLY MILITARY FORCE, TO GET (BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN) KARADZIC AND (BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL RATKO) MLADIC, THOSE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN INDICTED AS WAR CRIMINALS, OUT OF POWER IN THAT PIECE OF BOSNIA THAT THEY HOLD."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR GOLDSTINE'S REFERENCE TO THE TWO BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS' INDICTMENT BY THE HAGUE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL BROUGHT A RETORT FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES' DAVID BINDER WHO CALLED IT 'DEBATABLE' WHETHER GENERAL MLADIC, WHOM HE HAS MET SEVERAL TIMES, IS A WAR CRIMINAL..

    TAPE: CUT # 2 BINDER RUNS [:35] "I THINK HE (GENERAL MLADIC), AMONG OTHERS, HAS BEEN TRYING TO CREATE A SITUATION THAT WOULD LEAD TO PEACE IN BOSNIA FOR SOME TIME. THIS IS NOT A POPULAR VIEW OF (GENERAL) MLADIC BUT IT'S MY VIEW. I THINK HE CAN LIVE QUITE COMFORTABLY WITH A GENUINE PEACE SETTLEMENT. I HAVE RECENTLY TALKED TO ONE OF THE SENIOR BOSNIAN (SERB) POLITICAL LEADERS WHO AFFIRMS THAT GENERAL MLADIC WILL SUPPORT A PEACE AGREEMENT."

    TEXT: WHAT HAS STRUCK MANY BALKAN ANALYSTS ABOUT THE NEW YORK AGREEMENT IS HOW IT APPEARS TO RE-CREATE THE VERY INSTITUTIONS -- A MULTI-ETHNIC PRESIDENCY AND PARLIAMENT -- WHICH COLLAPSED IN 1992 WHEN THE SERBS WALKED OUT TO SET UP THEIR INDEPENDENT REPUBLIKA SRPSKA. OBRAD KESIC OF THE IREX INSTITUTE:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 KESIC RUNS [:21] "WHEN THEY STARTED OUT IN THIS WAR IN 1992, THERE WAS A DESIRE TO SEPARATE BOSNIAN-SERB TERRITORY FROM THE TERRITORY OF BOSNIA AS A WHOLE. IN THIS QUEST TO SEPARATE THEY DEFINITELY HAD A DESIRE AND STILL HAVE A DESIRE TO LINK UP WITH A UNIFIED SERBIAN STATE OF SOME KIND."

    TEXT: AND THIS IS WHAT WORRIES THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT, WHICH ONLY UNDER SEVERE PRESSURE FROM U-S NEGOTIATORS PULLED BACK AT THE ELEVENTH HOUR FROM INSISTING ON WORDING PROHIBITING THE SERB REPUBLIC FROM ONE DAY SECEDING TO JOIN SERBIA PROPER. BUT MR. KESIC SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERBS WERE PRESSURED IN TURN BY BELGRADE TO ACCEPT THE NEW YORK AGREEMENT AS THE BEST THEY CAN GET RIGHT NOW.

    TAPE: CUT # 4 KESIC RUNS [:20] "BELGRADE HAS ADVISED THEM TO TAKE THE PROCESS IN A STEP-BY-STEP MANNER, IN WHICH THEY COULD TAKE WHAT IS BEING OFFERED THEM, WHAT'S POSSIBLE NOW AND THEN BUILD UPON THAT TO THEIR ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF UNIFICATION. WHEREAS THE BOSNIAN SERBS THEMSELVES HAVE BEEN VERY IMPATIENT WITH THIS APPROACH."

    TEXT: U-S NEGOTIATORS SAY THEY HOPE THE STEP BY STEP APPROACH OUTLINED BY THE MINISTERIAL MEETINGS FIRST IN GENEVA AND LATER NEW YORK, WILL LEAD TO A CEASEFIRE AND THEN A FULL PEACE CONFERENCE BETWEEN THE WARRING PARTIES. THE GOAL, THEY SAY, IS TO HAVE AN AGREEMENT IN FOUR OR FIVE WEEKS TIME SO THAT A NEW NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE CAN BE IN PLACE BEFORE THE ONSET OF WINTER. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS COMMITTED THE U-S TO PROVIDING UP TO 25 THOUSAND TROOPS TO SUCH A FORCE ONCE A PEACE ACCORD IS IN EFFECT. PROFESSOR GOLDSTINE:

    TAPE: CUT # 5 GOLDSTINE RUNS [:21] "THE DIFFICULTY WITH THE INTERNATIONAL FORCE IS THE AMERICAN PARTICIPATION BECAUSE IT HAS TO BE FUNDED BY THE U-S CONGRESS AND THEY DON'T WANT TO SEND IN AMERICAN TROOPS AS A KIND OF APARTHEID POLICE TO ENFORCE PARTITION. THEY HAVE TO BE CONVINCED THAT THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES REALLY ARE IN FAVOR OF THE KIND OF BOSNIA THEY'VE BEEN SUPPORTING."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR HADZISELIMOVIC, WHO IS A MUSLIM FROM SARAJEVO, IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT AN EVENTUAL AGREEMENT, ALTHOUGH HE IS PESSIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE OF HIS COUNTRY:

    TAPE: CUT # 6 HADZISELIMOVIC RUNS [1:03] "BY NOW EVERYONE'S TIRED OF THE WAR ALTHOUGH THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS MAKING SOME GAINS. BUT EVERYONE IS TIRED AND EXHAUSTED, ESPECIALLY IN SARAJEVO. A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO THERE WAS A RHYME CIRCULATING IN SARAJEVO (IN SERBO-CROATIAN) MEANING: '(BOSNIAN PRESIDENT) ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC, SIGN THIS DEAL EVEN THOUGH BOSNIA BE AS SMALL AS A FRONT YARD.' THAT'S HOW DESPERATE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS WERE AND STILL ARE.THE SAD THING ABOUT ALL THIS IS THAT EVERYONE WILL BE THE LOSER IN THE END, SERBS, MUSLIMS AND CROATS. ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO WANTED A CIVIC, NOT AN ETHNIC STATE AND IF A CIVIC STATE CANNOT BE WORKED OUT THAN I THINK MUCH OF THIS HAS BEEN IN VAIN."

    TEXT: PROFESSOR HADZISELIMOVIC JOINED AMERICAN UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR JOSHUA GOLDSTINE, NEW YORK TIMES REPORTER DAVID BINDER AND OBRAD KESIC OF THE IREX INSTITUTE FOR A

    VOA PANEL DISCUSSION OF THE LATEST PROPOSAL FOR PEACE IN

    BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PAM/NES
    28-Sep-95 5:35 PM EDT (2135 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY ( VIENNA )

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186050
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS SAID TO HAVE MADE FURTHER TERRITORIAL GAINS IN FIGHTING WITH THE SERBS IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. IN ZAGREB, THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT APPEARS TO BE RECONSIDERING A CONTROVERSIAL PLAN TO REPATRIATE AS MANY AS 100-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: SARAJEVO RADIO REPORTS TROOPS OF THE BOSNIAN ARMY'S FIFTH CORPS HAVE FURTHER ADVANCED NORTHWEST AND SOUTH OF THE SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA. THE GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED RADIO SAYS UNITS OF THE FIFTH CORPS ARE NOW AT THE APPROACHES TO MRKONJIC GRAD, SOUTH OF BANJA LUKA. GOVERNMENT TROOPS MAY HAVE TEMPORARILY SEIZED MRKONJIC GRAD EARLIER THIS MONTH DURING A MAJOR OFFENSIVE WITH CROAT FORCES IN NORTHWESTERN BOSNIA. THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS BELIEVED TRYING TO LINK UP FORCES OF ITS FIFTH CORPS AND ITS SEVENTH CORPS IN THE MRKONJIC GRAD AREA. THAT LINK-UP WOULD INCREASE MILITARY PRESSURE ON SERB DEFENSES AROUND BANJA LUKA. SARAJEVO RADIO SAYS SERB ARTILLERY ATTACKS ON A NUMBER OF GOVERNMENT-HELD TOWNS MAY BE RETALIATION FOR THE BOSNIAN-ARMY'S TERRITORIAL GAINS IN THE NORTHWEST. THE SERBS SAY THEIR DEFENSE LINES ARE HOLDING AND THEY HAVE INFLICTED HUGE LOSSES ON THE BOSNIAN ARMY IN THE REGION DURING THE PAST FEW DAYS. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS SAID IT WILL CONTINUE TO TRY TO RETAKE LOST TERRITORY UNTIL A PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS SIGNED. U-S PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE IS EXPECTED TO RETURN FRIDAY TO SARAJEVO TO BEGIN ANOTHER ROUND OF SHUTTLE DIPLOMACY IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. HE IS EXPECTED TO PURSUE A POSSIBLE CEASEFIRE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS ATTACHED TOUGH CONDITIONS FOR A TRUCE, INCLUDING THE DEMILITARIZATION OF BANJA LUKA. THE SERBS FLATLY RULE THAT OUT. MEANWHILE, THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT APPEARS TO BE RECONSIDERING ITS CONTROVERSIAL PLAN TO REPATRIATE UP TO 100-THOUSAND BOSNIAN REFUGEES. THE PLAN HAS BEEN STRONGLY CRITICIZED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, PARTLY BECAUSE THE REFUGEES WOULD BE SENT BACK TO AREAS WHERE THERE COULD BE MORE FIGHTING. A CROATIAN OFFICIAL SAYS ONLY ABOUT 15-THOUSAND REFUGEES WILL BE REPATRIATED, AND THEY WILL BE SENT TO SAFE AREAS. HE ADDS THE REPATRIATIONS WILL BE CARRIED OUT IN AGREEMENT WITH THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. THE OFFICIAL DOES NOT DIRECTLY CONFIRM THE REPATRIATIONS ARE BEING DELAYED INDEFINITELY. BUT, HE MENTIONS NO DATE FOR THEM TO BEGIN. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/MH/RAE
    28-Sep-95 12:51 PM EDT (1651 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BRITAIN / EUROCOURT BY ANDRE DE NESNERA ( LONDON)

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31240
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MANY BRITISH POLITICIANS CONTINUE TO BE SCORNFUL OF THE DECISION BY THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONDEMNING BRITAIN FOR THE KILLING SEVEN YEARS AGO IN GIBRALTAR OF THREE UNARMED I-R-A TERRORISTS. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE MOSTLY NEGATIVE REACTION TO THE COURT'S RULING.

    TEXT: THE DECISION BY THE STRASBOURG-BASED EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CONTINUES TO BRING ANGRY RESPONSES FROM MANY BRITISH POLITICIANS AND COMMENTATORS. ON WEDNESDAY, THE COURT VOTED BY A NARROW 10-TO-NINE MARGIN THAT THE 1988 KILLINGS WERE UNNECESSARY AND VIOLATED THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS. IN MARCH, 1988, BRITISH SPECIAL FORCES SHOT AND KILLED THREE MEMBERS OF THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY WHILE THEY WERE ON A RECONNAISSANCE MISSION ON THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR. BRITISH INTELLIGENCE SERVICES FELT TERRORISTS WERE PLANNING AN ATTACK THERE. THE SPECIAL FORCES KILLED THE THREE TERRORISTS, BELIEVING THEY WERE ARMED AND CARRYING A REMOTE-CONTROLLED DETONATOR.

    AN INQUEST AT THAT TIME FOUND THE THREE WERE UNARMED, BUT RULED THE BRITISH SOLDIERS ACTED LAWFULLY. THE FAMILIES OF THE THREE NEVER DENIED THEY WERE ON AN I-R-A MISSION, BUT THEY ARGUED THEY SHOULD HAVE BEEN ARRESTED AND NOT SHOT.

    IN RULING THE KILLINGS WERE UNNECESSARY AND THE BRITISH SPECIAL FORCES SHOULD HAVE BEEN MORE CAUTIOUS, THE EUROPEAN COURT ORDERED THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT TO PAY THE FAMILIES' LEGAL COSTS.

    DAVID HOWELL -- CHAIRMAN OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS' FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE -- SAYS THE COURT'S RULING HAS LITTLE TO DO WITH REALITY.

    // HOWELL ACT //

    THE WORKINGS OF THIS PARTICULAR COURT ARE SOMETHING OF A MYSTERY. CLEARLY, THIS WAS A VERY, VERY NARROWLY TAKEN DECISION -- 10 TO NINE -- AND FOR THAT REASON OBVIOUSLY DOES NOT CARRY THE SORT OF WEIGHT THAT A UNANIMOUS DECISION OF A COURT WOULD CARRY. THERE ARE CLEARLY A LOT OF LEGAL COMPLEXITIES AND ARGUMENTS IN THERE, BUT I THINK THEY SEEM TO BE UTTERLY UNRELATED TO THE REAL WORLD AND PARTICULARLY TO THE REAL WORLD OF TERRORIST OPERATIONS WHERE IT IS -- I AM AFRAID -- KILL OR BE KILLED IS OFTEN THE AGONIZING CHOICE.

    // END ACT //

    MANY POLITICIANS AND COMMENTATORS HAVE SAID THE COURT'S RULING MAY GIVE COMFORT TO TERRORISTS -- A VIEW SHARED BY SIR GEOFFREY HOWE, WHO WAS BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY AT THE TIME OF THE GIBRALTAR KILLINGS.

    // HOWE ACT //

    IT CERTAINLY GIVES THEM AN ENCOURAGEMENT WHICH I THINK IN TODAY'S WORLD IS QUITE UNJUSTIFIED. I DO NOT SUGGEST THE COURT HAS TACKLED THE THING OTHER THAN IN A JUDICIAL MANNER. BUT I BELIEVE THEY HAVE COME -- AS COURT'S SOMETIMES DO -- TO A SERIOUSLY WRONG CONCLUSION AND THAT THAT DOES GIVE COMFORT AND HELP OF A MORAL KIND TO THE WRONG PEOPLE.

    // END ACT //

    THE DECISION HAS SO INFURIATED THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT, IT HAS HELD OPEN THE PROSPECT OF WITHDRAWING FROM THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS. A TERSE STATEMENT FROM BRITISH PRIME MINISTER JOHN MAJOR SIMPLY SAID MINISTERS WILL NEED TO CONSIDER THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE COURT'S DECISION. HOWEVER, NEITHER MR. HOWELL NOR LORD HOWE BELIEVE BRITAIN SHOULD WITHDRAW FROM THE COURT -- THOUGH LORD HOWE SAYS THE GOVERNMENT IS CORRECT IN DEBATING THE WHOLE ISSUE.

    // HOWE ACT //

    THEY ARE RIGHT TO CONSIDER THE QUESTION BECAUSE OUR PEOPLE WOULD BE VERY SURPRISED IF THEY DID NOT. AT THE END OF THE DAY I THINK THEY SHOULD REMAIN WITH THE COURT AND BE SURE TO DO WHAT THEY CAN TO SEE THAT IT IS FULLY ADVISED OF THE DAMAGE DONE BY THIS PARTICULAR DECISION.

    // END ACT //

    FOR LORD HOWE, IT IS CLEAR THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS HAS GREATLY DAMAGED ITS REPUTATION BY COMING OUT WITH A DECISION HE BELIEVES IS MISGUIDED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/MH/BG

    28-Sep-95 12:40 PM EDT (1640 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] CONGRESS-BOSNIA REFUGEES (L ONLY) BY PAULA WOLFSON (CONGRESS)

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186067
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FAINT BUT GROWING HOPE OF PEACE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAS MEMBERS OF THE U-S CONGRESS LOOKING TO THE FUTURE. MANY ARE KEEPING CLOSE WATCH ON PREPARATIONS FOR A MULTINATIONAL PEACEKEEPING FORCE. BUT AS V-O-A'S PAULA WOLFSON REPORTS, ONE GROUP OF LAWMAKERS IS PUTTING ITS FOCUS ON CONTINGENCY PLANNING OF ANOTHER SORT.

    TEXT: THEY ARE WORRIED ABOUT THE REFUGEES.

    MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE SUBCOMMITTEE ON HUMAN RIGHTS ARE GOING TO ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF GROUPS THAT ARE ADVOCATES FOR THE HOMELESS VICTIMS OF WAR. THEY WANT ADVICE,AND THEY WANT ANSWERS.

    /////SMITH TEASE ACT///

    THIS IS A HUMAN PROBLEM, NOT A BOSNIAN, CROAT OR SERB PROBLEM.

    ////END ACT////

    REPUBLICAN CHRIS SMITH OF NEW JERSEY IS THE SUBCOMMITTEE CHAIRMAN.

    ////SMITH ACT////

    THE RESOLUTION OF THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AND THE BEGINNING OF RECONSTRUCTION IN THAT REGION WILL REQUIRE THAT THE REFUGEE PROBLEM BE DEALT WITH HUMANELY AND EXPEDITIOUSLY.

    ////END ACT////

    MR. SMITH FEARS THERE WILL BE SCARCE RESOURCES TO HELP THE REFUGEES....THAT THE UNITED STATES WILL AGREE TO ADMIT ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER...AND THAT THE OFFICE OF THE U-N HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES WILL PRESELECT APPLICANTS FOR RESETTLEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

    STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS SAY THE REFUGEE PROBLEM IS ENORMOUS AND WILL BE EVEN MORE OF A CHALLENGE IN THE PERIOD IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING A PEACE AGREEMENT. AMBASSADOR BRUNSON MCKINLEY SAYS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED PERSONS WILL BE ON THE MOVE -- SOME WILL BE ABLE TO RETURN HOME...OTHER TRAUMATIZED VICTIMS OF WAR WILL FIND THEMSELVES STARTING OVER IN NEW VILLAGES, TOWNS, OR EVEN COUNTRIES.

    MR. MCKINLEY SAYS ABOUT 10-THOUSAND REFUGEES FROM THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA CAME TO THE UNITED STATES DURING THE LAST TWELVE MONTHS. AT LEAST 15-THOUSAND MORE WILL BE ADMITTED BY OCTOBER FIRST, 1996. THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY WILL CONTINUE TO BE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS.

    /////MCKINLEY ACT////

    THE REASON FOR THAT IS IN OUR EYES, AS WELL AS IN THE EYES OF THE UNHCR, IT IS THE MUSLIM POPULATION WHICH HAS NO OTHER PLACE TO GO. IF YOU ARE A SERB AND HAVE BEEN CHASED OUT OF YOUR HOME, YOU CAN GO TO SERBIA. THAT IS WHAT THE SERBS IN KRAJINA DID. IF YOU ARE A CROAT, YOU CAN GO TO CROATIA AND NUMBERS OF BOSNIAN CROATS ARE THERE. BUT IF YOU ARE A BOSNIAN MUSLIM AND YOU HAVE BEEN CHASED OUT OF YOUR HOME, YOU REALLY DO NOT HAVE A COUNTRY OF REFUGEE NEARBY.

    ////END ACT/////

    AMBASSADOR MCKINLEY -- WHO HEADS THE STATE DEPARTMENT'S BUREAU OF POPULATION, REFUGEES AND MIGRATION -- SAYS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE REFUGEE CRISIS THE UNITED STATES RELIED ON THE U-N-H-C-R TO SELECT APPLICANTS FOR RESETTLEMENT. BUT HE SAYS U-N REFUGEE OFFICIALS IN THE FIELD ARE NOW ACTING AS ADVISORS AND DO NOT DETERMINE WHO CAN AND CANNOT GO TO AMERICA.

    /////MCKINLEY ACT ////

    I MYSELF WOULD LIKE TO SEE UNHCR CONTINUE TO PLAY A ROLE -- NOT AS GATEKEEPER, NOT AS AN OBSTACLE, BUT AS AN AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE OF GUIDANCE TO US ON WHICH POPULATIONS WE OUGHT TO BE LOOKING AT. I THINK WE CAN TRUST THEM TO DO A GOOD JOB OF THAT. THAT DOESN'T MEAN THEY CAN IMPEDE OUR ACCESS TO POPULATIONS IF WE DECIDE WE WANT TO GO AND INTERVIEW THOSE PEOPLE. WE CERTAINLY WILL BE ABLE TO DO THAT.

    ////END ACT /////

    BUT MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE SUBCOMMITTEE ON HUMAN RIGHTS ARE NOT TOTALLY CONVINCED. DURING A HEARING ON THE REFUGEE CRISIS IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, CHAIRMAN SMITH REFERRED TO TENS OF THOUSANDS OF VIETNAMESE REFUGEES STILL LANGUISHING IN CAMPS BECAUSE THEY WERE NOT RULED ELIGIBLE FOR RESETTLEMENT BY THE U-N. AMBASSADOR MCKINLEY TOLD HIM THE SITUATION IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA IS DIFFERENT,AND THE UNITED NATIONS DOES NOT AND WILL NOT HAVE THE LAST WORD. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 28-Sep-95 5:40 PM EDT (2140 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] NATO/RUSSIA (L UPDATE) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186056
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// ED'S: UPDATES WITH CLAES COMMENTS. /////

    INTRO: RUSSIA SAYS IT FEELS THREATENED BY A NEW NATO PLAN FOR ENLARGEMENT TO THE EAST, WHICH WILL ADMIT CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES INTO THE ALLIANCE. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FOR V-O-A FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE NATO REPORT WAS PRESENTED THURSDAY TO A NUMBER OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, INCLUDING RUSSIA. IT OUTLINES NATO THINKING ON THE ADMISSION OF CANDIDATE COUNTRIES FROM THE FORMER WARSAW PACT. THE RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR TO NATO VITALY CHURKIN LEFT NATO HEADQUARTERS SAYING THE DOCUMENT DOES NOT MEET RUSSIA'S CONCERNS, AND THAT NATO HAS NOT PROPERLY THOUGHT OUT ITS STRATEGY. NATO SECRETARY GENERAL WILLY CLAES REPLIED THAT THE RUSSIANS SHOULD STUDY THE DOCUMENT - BEFORE LEAPING TO CONCLUSIONS.

    /// ACT CLAES ///

    IF I MAY GIVE, VERY FRANKLY, A FIRST ADVICE TO AMBASSADOR CHURKIN: WE HAVE JUST CIRCULATED A LOT OF DOCUMENTS TO ALL THE PARTNERS. MAYBE THE BEST SOLUTION IS TO STUDY THESE DOCUMENTS BEFORE GIVING A DEFINITE ADVICE. SECONDLY, WE WILL CONTINUE TO MAKE EFFORTS IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AND IN ORDER TO STRENGTHEN OUR RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. I HAVE SAID IT BEFORE, WE CANNOT IMAGINE A STRONG, CREDIBLE SECURITY ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE WITHOUT RUSSIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NATO PLAN SAYS COUNTRIES WHICH WISH TO JOIN THE ALLIANCE MUST ACCEPT ALL THE RESPONSIBILITIES, AS WELL AS THE BENEFITS. IT SPEAKS OF STATIONING TROOPS AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORY OF NEW MEMBERS, BUT DOES NOT SUGGEST THIS SHOULD BE AUTOMATIC. SECRETARY-GENERAL CLAES SAYS NATO IS TRYING TO OFFER REASSURANCES TO THE RUSSIANS.

    /// ACT CLAES ///

    NO COUNTRY WILL BE THREATENED OR MARGINALIZED. OUR MESSAGE TO ALL OUR PARTNERS - THOSE THAT JOIN IN THE FUTURE AND THOSE THAT DO NOT - IS ONE OF REASSURANCE AND A PLEDGE OF COOPERATION. ENLARGEMENT IS AIMED AT EXTENDING STABILITY AND SECURITY THROUGHOUT THE EURO-ATLANTIC AREA. IT IS NOT A MATTER OF WINNERS AND LOSERS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. CLAES ADDED NATO CONTINUES TO MAKE SPECIAL EFFORTS TO IMPROVE RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. HE NOTED THIS MONTH ALONE, THERE HAVE BEEN NATO MEETINGS WITH THE RUSSIANS TO DISCUSS BOSNIA, TO DEBATE TROOP REDUCTIONS IN EUROPE AND TO PRESENT PROPOSALS ON A FRAMEWORK FOR AN ENHANCED DIALOGUE BETWEEN NATO AND MOSCOW. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/MH/RAE
    28-Sep-95 1:37 PM EDT (1737 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] UKRAINE/BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=9/28/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-186051
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTER GENNADI UDOVENKO HAS URGED BALKAN MEDIATORS TO GIVE RUSSIA A BIGGER ROLE IN A BOSNIAN SETTLEMENT. IN REMARKS TO THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY THURSDAY, THE UKRAINIAN OFFICIAL ALSO RE-ISSUED HIS GOVERNMENT'S OFFER TO HOST AN INTERNATIONAL MEETING TO PROMOTE PEACE. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: SIDING WITH MOSCOW -- UKRAINE BELIEVES THAT RUSSIA SHOULD NOT BE EXCLUDED FROM A BALKAN PEACE. FOREIGN MINISTER UDOVENKO SAYS THE MEDIATION FIELD SHOULD BE EXPANDED AND THE GUARANTORS OF A FINAL SETTLEMENT (SHOULD) INCLUDE ALL PARTIES WITH AN INTEREST IN MAINTAINING STABILITY IN THE REGION:

    ///UDOVENKO ACT///

    ITS SEEMS THAT TODAY EVERYBODY AGREES THAT THERE IS NO ALTERNATIVE TO THE POLITICAL SETTLEMENT. WE WELCOME EFFORTS IN THIS DIRECTION, PARTICULARLY THE RECENT INTENSIFICATION OF THE RELEVANT ACTIVITIES BY THE UNITED STATES. WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT RUSSIA CAN PLAY A GREATER AND CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN A PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT.

    ///END ACT///

    BUT THE UKRAINIAN MINISTER DID NOT TOUCH ON THE EVOLVING CONTROVERSY OVER WHETHER RUSSIA SHOULD OR COULD SUBMIT TO NATO COMMAND IN A LARGELY WESTERN FORCE THAT WOULD GO INTO BOSNIA TO ENFORCE A SETTLEMENT.

    UKRAINE HAS A STAKE IN THE PEACE PROCESS. ITS SOLDIERS -- SERVING AS PEACEKEEPERS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA -- RAN INTO TROUBLE DURING RECENT FIGHTING OVER U-N PROTECTED MUSLIM AREAS. FOREIGN MINISTER UDOVENKO HAS INDICATED UKRAINE WILL NOT CUT AND RUN (PULL OUT) AND BELIEVES U-N PEACEKEEPERS ARE STILL ESSENTIAL. MEANWHILE, UKRAINE REITERATED ITS OFFER TO HOST A MEETING OF THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA THAT WOULD INCLUDE THE MEDIATORS AND OTHER INTERESTED GOVERNMENTS. FOREIGN MINISTER UDOVENKO SAYS THE FIVE-NATION CONTACT GROUP TRYING TO BROKER A BOSNIAN PEACE SHOULD BE ENLARGED AND NEW APPROACHES TO ENDING THE WAR SHOULD BE CONSIDERED.

    THE APPEAL COMES AS U-S SPECIAL ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE SETS OUT FOR THE BALKANS TO TRY TO ARRANGE A CEASE-FIRE. THE KEY PARTIES THIS WEEK AGREED IN NEW YORK ON ELEMENTS OF A SETTLEMENT. BUT HOPES ARE GUARDED ABOUT THE PROSPECTS FOR A FINAL AGREEMENT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/BG
    28-Sep-95 12:49 PM EDT (1649 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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