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Voice of America, 22 November 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 22, 1995

  • [03] BALKAN EMBARGOES (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [04] BALKAN SANCTIONS VOTE (S) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [05] BOSNIA / BRITAIN / FRANCE BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

  • [06] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [07] BOSNIAN SERB PESSIMISM (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON )

  • [08] BOSNIA / POLITICS (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [09] BOSNIA PACT REACT / MIDWEST (L ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (CHICAGO)

  • [10] BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT BY RON PEMSTEIN (DAYTON, OHIO)

  • [11] BOSNIA / RUSSIA (S) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW )

  • [12] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [13] BOSNIA / SERBS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [14] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

  • [15] E-U/U-S TRADE (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [16] RUSSIA / BOSNIA REACT (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

  • [17] THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [18] THE CASE FOR US TROOPS IN BOSNIA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [19] U-S/BOSNIA SERBS (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

  • [20] U-S TROOPS / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09283
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR= NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 22ND //

    INTRO: AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED, ONE TOPIC DOMINATES THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF AMERICA'S MAJOR MORNING NEWSPAPERS THIS WEDNESDAY--THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT SIGNED IN DAYTON, OHIO, TUESDAY. THERE ARE, HOWEVER, A FEW OTHER TOPICS AND THEY INCLUDE: THE CONTINUING BUDGET DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN THE WHITE HOUSE AND CONGRESS; [BEGIN OPT] THE RETIREMENT OF A VETERAN FEMALE SENATOR [END OPT]; AND TOMORROW'S THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY. NOW HERE IS _________________ WITH SOME OF THE INSIGHTS IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: ACROSS THE COUNTRY, PAPERS LARGE AND SMALL ARE VOICING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT THE PEACE PLAN FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. IN CALIFORNIA, "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" SAYS "WITH [THE] ACCORD SIGNED, THE BUILDING OF A BOSNIA PEACE MUST BEGIN." BUT WARNS:

    VOICE: "GOING INTO BOSNIA'S CIVIL WAR, IN WHICH U-S SUPPORT HAS TILTED TOWARD THE MUSLIM SIDE, WILL BE UNUSUALLY RISKY. THE PEACE THERE WILL COME STEP BY STEP, WITH DIFFICULTIES IN EACH ADVANCE. THE U-N EMBARGOES ARE FIRST UP. EARLY NEXT WEEK THE SECURITY COUNCIL COULD CONSIDER ELIMINATING THE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO, SERBIA'S PARTNER IN THE RUMP YUGOSLAVIA. ..... MORE SENSITIVE IS THE U-N ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST SHIPMENTS TO THE THREE COMBATANTS. "

    TEXT: MOVING EASTWARD, TODAY'S "DENVER POST" CAUTIONS:

    VOICE: " [OPT] DON'T CONFUSE A PEACE PACT WITH REAL PEACE. [END OPT] THE AGREEMENT ANNOUNCED TUESDAY BEGINS TO BUILD TRANQUILITY IN THE BALKANS, BUT IT DOESN'T FINISH THE JOB. .... THE LARGEST QUESTION CONCERNING A U-S ROLE IN BOSNIA IS WHETHER THE UNITED STATES REALLY WANTS TO BE A SUPERPOWER ANYMORE AT ALL."

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, "THE MIAMI HERALD" NOTES THAT "BROKERING PEACE WAS A MONUMENTAL AMERICAN ACHIEVEMENT. BUT IT WILL CRUMBLE WITHOUT AMERICAN ENFORCEMENT." FLORIDA'S LARGEST DAILY ADDS:

    VOICE: "THERE ARE NOT MANY OPPORTUNITIES ON TODAY'S COMPLEX WORLD STAGE FOR AMERICANS TO TAKE SINGULAR PRIDE IN AN ACHIEVEMENT THAT IS ALL THEIR OWN. THIS MAY PROVE TO BE ONE. IF SO, IT'S A COLOSSAL ONE. [REST OPT] YET WHAT AMERICA WROUGHT BY ITSELF IT CAN ALSO RUIN BY ITSELF. IF CONGRESS TRIES TO BLOCK PRESIDENT CLINTON'S PLAN TO SEND 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS TO HELP IMPLEMENT THE BOSNIAN PEACE, THE WHOLE, DELICATE STRUCTURE COULD TOPPLE AT ONCE. IF THAT HAPPENS, THE BLAME WILL LIE WHERE THE CREDIT NOW LIES: IN WASHINGTON."[END OPT]

    TEXT: HERE IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL, "THE WASHINGTON POST" GREETS THE NEWS THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT MAKES WHAT IT CAN OF THE DEBRIS OF 43 MONTHS OF WAR. SOME WRETCHED PART OF IT CONDONES 'ETHNIC CLEANSING' AND THE ALTERATION OF BORDERS BY FORCE. BUT A SAVING PART HOLDS THE PROSPECT OF ENDING THE SLAUGHTER AND OF ENABLING THE PARTIES TO START DAMPENING WHAT MUST BE DEEPLY FELT IMPULSES OF HURT AND REVENGE. [OPT] THIS IS THE POSSIBILITY THAT OTHERS MUST HELP TO MAKE REAL. ..... THE TERMS IN THIS AMBITIOUS AND COMPLEX AGREEMENT SLIP PAST BASIC DIFFERENCES. .... YET IT COULD HARDLY HAVE BEEN OTHERWISE."[END OPT]

    TEXT: FOR ITS PART, "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS CAUTIOUSLY HOPEFUL:

    VOICE: "IF THE COMMITMENTS MADE .... IN OHIO ARE HONORED IN BALKAN CITIES AND VILLAGES IN THE MONTHS AHEAD, EUROPE'S WORST CONFLICT SINCE WORLD WAR TWO WILL COME TO AN END. IT WILL NOT BE A MOMENT TOO SOON. [OPT] AS PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID IN ANNOUNCING A PEACE AGREEMENT, 'THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA FINALLY HAVE A CHANCE TO TURN FROM THE HORROR OF WAR TO THE PROMISE OF PEACE.' [END OPT] ..... THE BEST HOPE IS THAT GIVEN TIME, AND THE REMOVAL FROM THE POLITICAL SCENE OF THE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS WHO HAVE NOW BEEN BARRED FROM OFFICE, THE COUNTRY [BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA] COULD EVENTUALLY BE UNITED AGAIN."

    TEXT: ONE PAPER WARY OF THE ACCORD IS "THE NEW YORK POST" WHICH SUSPECTS THE AGREEMENT IS MERELY A RUSE FOR A PAUSE IN THE FIGHTING:

    VOICE: "....REPORTS OF THE LAST-MINUTE WRANGLING [DISAGREEMENT] OVER KEY TERRITORIAL PROVISIONS SUGGEST THAT THE VARIOUS BOSNIA FACTIONS ARE NOT PREPARING FOR PEACE AT ALL. [BEGIN OPT] TO THE CONTRARY, THEY SEEM TO BE PAUSING FOR THE WINTER - - IN ANTICIPATION OF YET ANOTHER ROUND OF FIGHTING. ..... WE ARE FAR FROM CONVINCED THAT PEACE IS EVEN REMOTELY AT HAND. [END OPT] NEVERTHELESS, IN AN EFFORT TO MAINTAIN THE DAYTON ACCORDS, PRESIDENT CLINTON PLANS TO SEND AT LEAST 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS TO BOSNIA ... INTO HARM'S WAR ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD - - TO A REGION IN WHICH WASHINGTON HAS NO VITAL NATIONAL SECURITY INTERESTS. ..... THE HALF-BAKED CHARACTER OF AMERICA'S BOSNIA POLICY GIVES US PAUSE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE," WHICH HAS ALWAYS OPPOSED U-S INTERVENTION, NOW VIEWS MATTERS IN THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "[OPT] WHETHER HISTORY WILL SAY THAT THE ACCORD .... WAS BUT AN INTERLUDE IN THIS CENTURY'S ONGOING BALKAN WARS OR A LASTING PEACE DEPENDS TO A GREAT EXTENT UPON THE UNITED STATES AND ITS WILLINGNESS TO SHOULDER THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF WORLD POWER. [END OPT] THIS NEWSPAPER HAS LONG ARGUED AGAINST U-S MILITARY INTERVENTION IN A CIVIL WAR THAT WAS AS MESSY AND MULTIFARIOUS AS BEIRUT IN ITS WORST DAYS. WE BELIEVED THAT U-S VITAL INTERESTS WERE NOT ENGAGED IN THE BALKANS, THAT U-S STAYING POWER IN THE FACE OF CASUALTIES WAS LIMITED - - AS BEIRUT AND SOMALIA PROVED - - AND THAT THE WAR WOULD END ONLY WHEN THE WARRING PARTIES SAW THAT THEY HAD MORE TO GAIN THROUGH PEACE THAN THROUGH FIGHTING. THAT LAST CONDITION APPEARS TO BE AT HAND."

    TEXT: TURNING BRIEFLY TO OTHER TOPICS, ON THE BATTLE OVER THE BUDGET THAT SAW THE GOVERNMENT PARTIALLY SHUT DOWN LAST WEEK, "THE WASHINGTON POST" THINKS IT HAS FOUND WHAT IT CALLS A "TIME BOMB" IN THE BUDGET ESTIMATES.

    VOICE: "THE TAX CUTS AND SOME OF THE SPENDING CUTS IN THE REPUBLICANS' SEVEN-YEAR PACKAGE WOULD ULTIMATELY BE MUCH LARGER THAN THE OFFICIAL ESTIMATES SUGGEST. [BEGIN OPT] THAT'S BECAUSE AS THEY WERE WRITTEN THEIR FULL EFFECT WOULD NOT BE FELT UNTIL AFTER OR NEAR THE END OF THE SEVEN-YEAR PERIOD FOR WHICH THE ESTIMATES WERE. [END OPT] THESE DELAYED-ACTION MECHANISMS SHOULD BE AN ISSUE IN THE TALKS ABOUT TO BEGIN BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS. YOU CANNOT ACHIEVE A BETTER BALANCE BETWEEN THE RESOURCES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE GOVERNMENT WITH THESE SLOW-DEVELOPING TAX CUTS WHOSE LONG-TERM EFFECT WOULD BE TO CREATE A NEW IMBALANCE."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] ON THE RETIREMENT OF VETERAN KANSAS SENATOR NANCY KASSENBAUM, ANNOUNCED EARLIER THIS WEEK, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE CALLS IT "REGRETTABLE" ADDING:

    VOICE: "SHE IS ONE OF THE DWINDLING BAND OF MODERATE REPUBLICANS IN THE SENATE, AND AS SUCH SHE WILL BE MISSED. .... LIKE ... CAL RIPKEN [RECORD-SETTING BALTIMORE ORIOLES BASEBALL SHORTSTOP] ... ONE COULD WISH FOR THAT SAME SPECIAL COMMITMENT TO QUALITY AND INTEGRITY IN THE POLITICAL ARENA. HOWEVER, POLITICS AND BASEBALL ARE TWO VERY SEPARATE SPORTS ... THEY WOULDN'T BE IF MORE POLITICIANS DISPLAYED HALF NANCY KASSEBAUM'S COMMITMENT TO QUALITY AND INTEGRITY." [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, SOME THOUGHTS ON THE NATION'S GREAT HARVEST FESTIVAL, THANKSGIVING, TO BE CELEBRATED TOMORROW. THE HOLIDAY EVOLVED FROM A TRADITION BEGUN IN 1621 BY THE PILGRIM SETTLERS FROM ENGLAND. TODAY'S "WALL STREET JOURNAL" GIVES ITS OWN THANKS FOR THIS GREAT LAND, AMERICA.

    VOICE: "ANYONE WHOSE LABORS TAKE HIM INTO THE FAR REACHES OF THE COUNTRY, AS OURS LATELY HAVE DONE, IS BOUND TO MARK HOW THE YEARS HAVE MADE THE LAND GROW FRUITFUL. THIS IS INDEED A BIG COUNTRY, A RICH COUNTRY, IN A WAY NO ARRAY OF FIGURES CAN MEASURE AND SO IN A WAY PAST BELIEF OF THOSE WHO HAVE NOT SEEN IT. ..... WE CAN REMIND OURSELVES THAT FOR ALL OUR SOCIAL DISCORD WE YET REMAIN THE LONGEST ENDURING SOCIETY OF FREE MEN GOVERNING THEMSELVES WITHOUT BENEFIT OF KINGS OR DICTATORS. BEING SO, WE ARE THE MARVEL AND THE MYSTERY OF THE WORLD, FOR THAT ENDURING LIBERTY IS NO LESS A BLESSING THAN THE ABUNDANCE OF THE EARTH."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM SOME OF THE NATION'S MAJOR PAPERS ON THIS DAY BEFORE THANKSGIVING.

    ANG/NL 22-Nov-95 10:58 AM EST (1558 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] !!! VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- NOVEMBER 22, 1995

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=ADVISORY
    CONTENT=

    VOA DAILY BOSNIA REPORT -- 11/22/95 THE FOLLOWING IS A SYNOPSIS OF SIGNIFICANT REPORTING ON BOSNIA BY THE VOICE OF AMERICA THAT HAD BEEN BROADCAST OR FIRMLY SCHEDULED AT THE TIME OF PUBLICATION. THIS SELECTION IS NOT INTENDED TO BE EXHAUSTIVE, AND DOES NOT INCLUDE LATE-BREAKING NEWS OR THE MANY REPORTS IN ALL VOA LANGUAGES THAT ARE BASED ON COMMERCIAL WIRE SERVICES OR OTHER SECONDARY SOURCES. WE REGRET THAT WE CANNOT RESPOND TO REQUESTS FOR TRANSCRIPTS OF SPECIFIC BROADCASTS OR PROGRAM SEGMENTS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT VOA, OFFICE OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS. TELEPHONE: +1-202-619-2538. ELECTRONIC MAIL: LETTERS@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE FROM OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES); LETTERS-USA@VOA.GOV (FOR CORRESPONDENCE WITHIN THE UNITED STATES).

    REPORTS BY VOA NEWS SERVICES:

    BOSNIA / NATO -- NATO PLANNERS ARE DRAFTING DETAILS ABOUT HOW TO MOVE SIXTY THOUSAND NATO TROOPS INTO BOSNIA SAFELY. THE FORCE HAS NOT YET BEEN RAISED BUT PRESIDENT CLINTON IS EXPECTED TO SEEK A RESOLUTION WITH THE US CONGRESS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE ABOUT 20,000 ENFORCEMENT TROOPS. STRINGER JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS DETAILS ABOUT THE COMING MISSION. (11/22)

    BOSNIA / RUSSIA -- PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS PRAISED THE AGREEMENT REACHED IN THE UNITED STATES TO END THE CONFLICT IN BOSNIA. MR YELTSIN CALLS FOR AN END TO SANCTIONS AGAINST FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. STRINGER PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS THERE WAS NO MENTION OF PLANS TO SUPPLY RUSSIAN FORCES TO HELP IMPLEMENT THE ACCORD. (11/22)

    BOSNIA / SARAJEVO -- A UN FORCE OFFICIAL IN SARAJEVO SAYS HE EXPECTS A NATO FORCE TO BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA TO BE BETTER EQUIPPED AND MORE PROFESSIONAL THAN THE UN PEACEKEEPERS NOW DEPLOYED. STRINGER DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO THAT CHRIS VERNON, A BRITISH LIEUTENANT COLONEL EXPECTS THE NEW DEPLOYMENT WILL AVOID THE POLICIES THAT BOGGED DOWN UN TROOPS. (11/22)

    BOSNIA POLITICS -- THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA, AND CROATIA HAVE RETURNED HOME FROM TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO, IN THE UNITED STATES. CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS FROM VIENNA THE LEADERS SAY THEY ARE SATISFIED WITH THE DEAL THEY STRUCK BUT SOME MILITARY AND POLITICAL LEADERS ARE NOT RUSHING TO ENDORSE THE ARRANGEMENT TO END THE CONFLICT. (11/22)

    BOSNIA / BRITAIN / FRANCE -- A BRITISH MILITARY ANALYST EXPECTS NATO'S INITIAL CONTINGENT OF TROOPS TO BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA WILL PROBABLY BE DISPATCHED WITHIN DAYS. CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON THAT PAUL BEAVER OF JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY PREDICTS THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, AND FRANCE WILL PROVIDE THE BULK OF THE TROOPS DEPLOYED. (11/22)

    US / BOSNIA / TROOPS -- NOW THAT A PEACE AGREEMENT HAS BEEN REACHED FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, PRESIDENT CLINTON IS FOCUSING HIS ATTENTION ON CONVINCING AMERICANS ABOUT THE NEED TO SEND US TROOPS TO BOSNIA TO HELP MONITOR THAT ACCORD. MR. CLINTON, UNDER PRESSURE FROM A SKEPTICAL CONGRESS, PLANS TO MAKE HIS CASE TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE SOON. CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS. (11/21)

    CONGRESS / BOSNIA REACT -- MEMBERS OF CONGRESS ARE PRAISING THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD BUT MANY SAY THEY ARE NOT READY TO SEND US TROOPS TO HELP ENFORCE THE PACT. CORRESPONDENT DAVID SWAN REPORTS PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL ASK THE HOUSE AND SENATE TO SUPPORT THE DEPLOYMENT. (11/21)

    BOSNIA / SERB REACT -- A SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIAL, WHO WAS AT THE YUGOSLAV PEACE TALKS, SAYS HE AND OTHER SERB NEGOTIATORS DO NOT ACCEPT THE NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE AGREEMENT WAS INITIALLED, ON THEIR BEHALF BY SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS. (11/21)

    BOSNIA / PEACE AGREEMENT -- THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA AND CROATIA HAVE PUT THEIR INITIALS ON A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT TO END THE WAR IN BOSNIA AFTER 43 MONTHS. CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE SITE OF THE PEACE TALKS. (11/21)

    BALKAN / EMBARGOES -- THE UNITED STATES IS PRESSING THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TO PASS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE APPROPRIATE RESOLUTIONS TO REINFORCE THE BALKAN PEACE DEAL ACHIEVED IN DAYTON, OHIO TUESDAY. BUT THE RUSSIANS HAVE SERIOUS RESERVATIONS ABOUT ENDING AN ARMS EMBARGO. CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS. (11/21)

    PEACE AGREEMENT / BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER -- BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER HARIS SILAJDZIC VOICED CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM ON THE PEACE AGREEMENT, AND NOTED THAT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT WILL BE THE KEY ISSUE IN THE FUTURE. HE EMPHASIZED THAT BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA REMAINS A UNIFIED STATE. STAFFER INTERVIEW. (CROATIAN 11/21)

    DAYTON AGREEMENT / EUROPEAN REACTIONS -- NATO WELCOMED THE DAYTON AGREEMENT EXPRESSING HOPE THAT IT LAYS A FOUNDATION FOR LASTING PEACE. THE EUROPEAN UNION ALSO WELCOMED THE AGREEMENT AND PLEDGED HELP IN REBUILDING BOSNIA. STRINGER LADA STIPIC-NISETEO REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS. (CROATIAN 11/21)

    DAYTON AGREEMENT / SERBIAN REACTIONS -- GUNFIRE COULD BE HEARD ON THE STREETS OF BELGRADE IN CELEBRATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. THE PRESIDENT OF YUGOSLAVIA ZORAN LILIC PRAISED SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC FOR HIS NEGOTIATING SKILLS AND PRESIDENT CLINTON FOR HELPING ACHIEVE THE PEACE AGREEMENT. STRINGER JADRANKA KRONJA FROM BELGRADE REPORTS. (CROATIAN 11/21)

    DAYTON AGREEMENT / CROATIAN REACTIONS -- ZAGREB WAS QUIET, ONLY STATE TELEVISION BROADCAST PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ANNOUNCEMENT OF PEACE AGREEMENT. BOSNIAN CROATS FROM THE POSAVINA CORRIDOR STRONGLY OPPOSED THE AGREEMENT, AND SOME CROATIAN MILITARY ANALYSTS SAY THE DAYTON AGREEMENT FOR CROATIA SECURES ONLY A CEASE-FIRE FOR ONE OR TWO YEARS. STRINGER ZELJKO MATIC REPORTS. (CROATIAN 11/21)

    DAYTON AGREEMENT / SARAJEVO REACTIONS -- SOME SARAJEVO RESIDENTS WATCHED THE ANNOUNCEMENT ON TELEVISION, THERE WAS SINGING IN THE STREETS, AND GUNFIRE AROUND THE CITY IN CELEBRATION. STRINGER VLADIMIR BILIC FROM SARAJEVO REPORTS. (CROATIAN 11/21)

    BOSNIA ACCORD / ALBANIA REACT -- ALBANIAN PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA WELCOMED THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, EMPHASIZING THE DECISIVE ROLE OF AMERICAN DIPLOMACY, ESPECIALLY THAT OF PRESIDENT CLINTON. PRESIDENT BERISHA EXPRESSED HIS WILLINGNESS TO ALLOW NATO FORCES TO USE ALL ALBANIAN FACILITIES IN THEIR MISSION TO ENFORCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACCORD. STRINGER MERO BAZE REPORTED THAT ALBANIAN PRESIDENT EMPHASIZED THAT THIS STEP OPENS THE WAY FOR EFFORTS TO SOLVE THE KOSOVO ISSUE, WHICH HE ADDED, SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN ALL FORMAL PEACE TALKS ON FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THE LEADERS OF ALL ALBANIAN POLITICAL PARTIES AND ORGANIZATIONS IN KOSOVO PROVINCE AND THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA CALLED THE ACCORD A MAJOR STEP TOWARD ENDING CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. THE LEADER OF ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO, DR IBRAHIM RUGOVA, TOLD STRINGER AFERDITA SARACINI KELMENDI THE AGREEMENT SHOULD SERVE AS PRELUDE IN EFFORTS TO SOLVE ALL POLITICAL, ETHNIC, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE CONFLICT, AND HE CALLED FOR CONTINUED AMERICAN ROLE IN THESE EFFORTS. (ALBANIAN 11/22)

    BOSNIA / PEACE -- REPORTER JOHN PITMAN SPEAKS TO STEVE CAMBONE OF CSIS ABOUT THE PEACE AGREEMENT. HE SAYS THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS ARE THE BIGGEST LOSERS, AND THEY ACCEPTED THE AGREEMENT BECAUSE THEY HAD NO OTHER OPTION. HE SAYS THE NATO MISSION COULD BE IMPOSSIBLE OR SIMPLE. WHAT DO WE DO IN 1997 WHEN THEY COME HOME? HE BELIEVES FIGHTING WILL SIMPLY FLARE UP AGAIN. (ENP 11/21)

    BOSNIA / PEACE / REACT -- STAFFER IDRISSA FALL INTERVIEWS US CONGRESSMAN JAMES L. OBERSTAR ABOUT HIS REACTION TO THE SIGNING IN DAYTON, OHIO OF THE BALKAN PEACE AGREEMENT. (FRENCH 11/21) 22-Nov-95 5:34 PM EST (2234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BALKAN EMBARGOES (L ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=11/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188955
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS PRESSING THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL TO PASS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE APPROPRIATE RESOLUTIONS TO REINFORCE THE BALKAN PEACE DEAL ACHIEVED IN DAYTON, OHIO TUESDAY. BUT THE RUSSIANS HAVE SERIOUS RESERVATIONS ABOUT ENDING AN ARMS EMBARGO. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: TWO RESOLUTIONS ARE BEFORE THE SECURITY COUNCIL. ONE WOULD SUSPEND TRADE SANCTIONS ON YUGOSLAVIA IMMEDIATELY -- A PAY-OFF TO SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FOR HIS PEACEMAKING ROLE. THE OTHER WOULD EASE A REGIONAL ARMS EMBARGO -- WITH A COMPLETE LIFTING OF THE BAN IN SIX MONTHS.

    THE RUSSIANS -- WARY OF A MUSLIM BUILD-UP -- ARE SAID TO FAVOR A SUSPENSION RATHER THAN TOTAL END TO THE EMBARGO. A SUSPENSION WOULD MEAN IT COULD BE RE-IMPOSED EASILY IF THE ARMS SITUATION GETS OUT OF CONTROL. IN ANY CASE, U-S DIPLOMATS EXPECT THE BETTER-EQUIPPED BOSNIAN SERBS WILL BE ELIMINATING WEAPONS DURING THE INITIAL PERIOD, WHILE THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WILL BE ACQUIRING SOME TO MOVE TOWARD A BALANCE OF POWER.

    THE UNITED STATES IS PRESSING HARD FOR A VOTE WITHIN 24 HOURS OF THE PEACE DEAL -- SETTING AN INFORMAL DEADLINE OF LATE WEDNESDAY. U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE RESOLUTIONS -- AS WELL AS THE EVENTUAL PARTICIPATION OF U-S TROOPS IN A NATO FORCE IN BOSNIA -- WILL HELP ASSURE THE PARTIES:

    // ALBRIGHT ACT //

    WE BELIEVE THAT ALL OF THIS -- AND THE TWO RESOLUTIONS THAT WE ARE PASSING -- ARE PART OF AN ATTEMPT TO HAVE THE SIDES DEVELOP CONFIDENCE IN EACH OTHER AND CONFIDENCE THAT THE PEACE IS SOMETHING THAT WILL LAST AND WILL HELP THEM ALL LIVE TOGETHER.

    /// END ACT ///

    U-S DIPLOMATS DO NOT BELIEVE THE RUSSIANS WOULD SCUTTLE TUESDAY'S DEAL BY USING THEIR VETO IN THE SECURITY COUNCIL. THEY SAY -- IF ANYTHING -- MOSCOW MIGHT ABSTAIN ON THE ARMS RESOLUTION, ALLOWING IT TO PASS.

    THE IDEA BEHIND QUICK COUNCIL ACTION IS NOT TO LOSE MOMENTUM -- NOW THAT THE BALKAN PARTIES HAVE TAKEN THEIR FIRST DECISIVE STEP TOWARD PEACE IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/LWM
    21-Nov-95 7:06 PM EST (0006 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BALKAN SANCTIONS VOTE (S) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189006
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HAS SUSPENDED TRADE SANCTIONS ON SERB-LED YUGOSLAVIA -- EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY -- AND ORDERED A PHASED LIFTING OF A REGIONAL ARMS EMBARGO. THE ACTION WAS TAKEN WEDNESDAY TO REINFORCE THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD REACHED IN DAYTON, OHIO THIS WEEK. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: THE SECURITY COUNCIL VOTED UNANIMOUSLY TO SUSPEND ALL ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON BELGRADE. THE SANCTIONS WILL BE TERMINATED ONLY AFTER BOSNIA HOLDS ELECTIONS -- PROVIDED THE SERBS ARE STILL COMPLYING WITH THE PEACE ACCORD.

    NOTHING WILL CHANGE IMMEDIATELY FOR THE BOSNIAN SERBS. ECONOMIC RESTRICTIONS REMAIN IN PLACE UNTIL THEIR FORCES MOVE BEHIND DESIGNATED ZONES OF SEPARATION.

    A SECOND RESOLUTION ALSO PASSED TERMINATING A 1991 REGIONAL WEAPONS BAN IN SIX MONTHS. HOWEVER, RUSSIA ABSTAINED ON THIS ONE. MOSCOW EXPRESSED CONCERN THAT TOO MANY WEAPONS WILL START FLOWING INTO THE REGION. THE UNITED STATES INSISTED ON ENDING THE ARMS EMBARGO TO ALLOW THE MUSLIMS TO BUILD AN ARSENAL EQUAL TO THAT OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    FEW COUNCIL MEMBERS SEEMED OVERLY-CONFIDENT ABOUT BALKAN PEACE. BUT THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, MOST AGREED, IS THE FIRST REAL SIGN OF HOPE IN OVER THREE YEARS OF WAR. (SIGNED) NEB/PT 22-Nov-95 6:06 PM EST (2306 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA / BRITAIN / FRANCE BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31726
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THOUSANDS OF NATO TROOPS WILL BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO IMPLEMENT THE PEACE AGREEMENT REACHED TUESDAY BY THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA, AND CROATIA. THE MAIN TROOP CONTRIBUTORS WILL BE THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN, AND FRANCE. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT WHAT ROLE THE NATO TROOPS ARE EXPECTED TO PLAY.

    TEXT: AN ESTIMATED 60-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS WILL BE GRADUALLY DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO BE PART OF WHAT THE PEACE AGREEMENT CALLS A STRONG INTERNATIONAL FORCE TO IMPLEMENT THE ACCORD.

    THE UNITED STATES -- PENDING CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL -- IS EXPECTED TO PROVIDE ABOUT 24-THOUSAND TROOPS, BRITAIN 13-THOUSAND, AND FRANCE 10-THOUSAND, WITH THE REMAINING SOLDIERS COMING FROM SEVERAL OTHER COUNTRIES -- INCLUDING RUSSIA AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    A SENIOR ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY -- PAUL BEAVER -- SAYS THE FIRST CONTINGENT OF TROOPS IS EXPECTED IN BOSNIA WITHIN DAYS. THEY WILL COME FROM GERMANY AND BE PART OF THE ALLIED COMMAND EUROPE/RAPID REACTION CORPS.

    MR. BEAVER SAYS THEY WILL PROBABLY FLY INTO THE CROATIAN PORT OF SPLIT AND MAKE THEIR WAY BY ROAD TO THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN TOMASLAVGRAD. THE BRITISH DEFENSE EXPERT SAYS THEY WILL THEN CONTROL THREE DIVISIONAL AREAS WHERE MANY OF THE NATO TROOPS WILL BE BASED.

    /// BEAVER ACT ///

    THERE WILL BE AN AMERICAN SECTOR IN THE NORTHEAST WHICH WILL HAVE ITS HEADQUARTERS IN TUZLA -- THE MAIN FORCE THERE WILL BE THE FIRST ARMORED DIVISION UNDER GENERAL NASH. THEN TO THE NORTHWEST AND THE WEST OF THE COUNTRY, THERE WILL BE THE BRITISH THIRD DIVISION OR ELEMENTS OF IT: IT IS BEING CALLED A BRIGADE BATTLE GROUP WHICH MEANS IT WILL PROBABLY INCLUDE TANKS, RATHER LIKE THE FIRST ARMORED DIVISION WILL. AND THAT WILL HAVE ITS HEADQUARTERS AT GORNJI VAKUF WHICH HAS BEEN THE BRITISH HEADQUARTERS FOR MOST OF THE TIME THEY WERE WITH THE UNITED NATIONS. THEY WILL TAKE OVER SOME OF THE UNITED NATIONS TROOPS THAT ARE ALREADY THERE: THERE ARE TWO BATTALIONS OF BRITISH SOLDIERS THERE, ABOUT 50 ARMORED VEHICLES -- THEY WILL TAKE THOSE AS WELL AND PART OF THE RAPID REACTION FORCE. THE FRENCH WILL ALSO USE PART OF THEIR RAPID REACTION FORCE: THEY WILL BE LOOKING AFTER THE SOUTHERN SECTOR OF BOSNIA. THEY PROBABLY WILL HAVE THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN SARAJEVO ALTHOUGH THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THEY WILL HAVE THEIR HEADQUARTERS IN MOSTAR -- AND WE THINK THERE WILL BE ELEMENTS FROM THE FORCE D'ACTION RAPIDE, THE FRENCH RAPID REACTION FORCE, WHICH HAS ALREADY BEEN IN OPERATION IN BOSNIA.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE TROOPS ON THE GROUND WILL COME SOLELY UNDER NATO'S COMMAND. MR. BEAVER SAYS THERE WILL BE NO SHARED CONTROL WITH THE UNITED NATIONS, AND ISSUE THAT LED TO MAJOR DISPUTES DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS BETWEEN THE U-N AND NATO.

    /// 2ND BEAVER ACT ///

    IT WILL BE MILITARY. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING ABOUT PUTTING NATO IN, IS THE FACT THAT IT WILL BE PEOPLE WHO KNOW EXACTLY WHAT THEY ARE DOING. WE WILL HAVE NONE OF THE (YASUSHI) AKASHI'S AND THE BOUTROS BOUTROS GHALI'S -- WELL-MEANING PEOPLE -- WHO WERE TOTALLY OUT OF THEIR DEPTH.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE COMMAND STRUCTURE WILL BEGIN IN BRUSSELS WITH NATO'S SUPREME COMMANDER, U-S GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN. MR. BEAVER SAYS REPORTING DIRECTLY TO HIM WILL BE THE COMMANDER OF ALLIED FORCES SOUTH -- U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH -- WHO WILL MOVE HIS HEADQUARTERS FROM NAPLES TO ZAGREB. THE TROOPS ON THE GROUND WILL BE COMMANDED BY BRITISH GENERAL MICHAEL WALKER -- HEAD OF THE ALLIED RAPID-REACTION CORPS.

    MR. BEAVER SAYS THE TROOPS WILL ALSO HAVE MUCH MORE FREEDOM IN RESPONDING TO A POSSIBLE THREAT -- IN OTHER WORDS THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT WILL BE DIFFERENT FROM THOSE IN FORCE UNDER THE U-N MANDATE.

    /// 3RD BEAVER ACT ///

    I THINK IT WILL MEAN THAT -- RATHER THE SAME AS THE BRITISH HAD IN NORTHERN IRELAND -- IF SOMEONE PICKS UP A GUN AND POINTS IT TOWARDS YOU, THEN HE IS COMMITTING AN AGGRESSIVE ACT AND HE WILL BE SHOT. SO I THINK THAT WE ARE GOING TO SEE SOME VERY TOUGH WORK HERE. WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN, OF COURSE, IS THAT THE ARMED FORCES OF THE VARIOUS FACTIONS WILL BE PUT BACK INTO BARRACKS, WILL BE DISARMED WHERE NECESSARY. SO THERE SHOULD NOT BE TOO MUCH OF THAT PROBLEM, BUT CERTAINLY NATO AIR POWER, AMERICAN AIR POWER IS THERE TO BACK IT UP.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BEAVER SAYS THE TROOPS ARE EXPECTED TO STAY IN BOSNIA FOR A YEAR -- BUT THEIR MANDATE CAN OF COURSE BE EXTENDED. HE SAYS 60-THOUSAND TROOPS AT A COST OF ABOUT ONE-POINT-TWO-BILLION DOLLARS A DAY MAKES THE OPERATION QUITE AN EXPENSIVE PROPOSITION -- BUT A MUCH NEEDED ONE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/JWH/RAE
    22-Nov-95 11:53 AM EST (1653 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188973
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO PLANNERS ARE WORKING ON THE ALLIANCE'S MOST AMBITIONS OPERATION TO DATE -- SECURING THE PEACE IN BOSNIA. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS THAT IF ALL PROCEEDS SMOOTHLY, A 60-THOUSAND MEMBER NATO FORCE COULD BE IN PLACE BY CHRISTMAS.

    TEXT: SEVERAL POLITICAL MOVES MUST TAKE PLACE BEFORE THE NATO OPERATION CAN BEGIN.

    THE AGREEMENT REACHED TUESDAY MUST BE CONFIRMED AND RATIFIED BY ALL THE PARTIES INVOLVED, AND BOSNIAN SERB RESERVATIONS NEED TO BE OVERCOME. PRESIDENT CLINTON NEEDS TO SETTLE HIS DISAGREEMENTS WITH CONGRESS ABOUT U-S PARTICIPATION IN THE OPERATION.

    WITH THE UNITED STATES PROVIDING A THIRD OF THE FORCE OF 60-THOUAND, EUROPEAN ALLIES HAVE MADE IT CLEAR THAT THE OPERATION CANNOT EASILY PROCEED WITHOUT THE UNITED STATES. AND FINALLY, NATO WILL NEED AN INTERNATIONAL INVITATION -- ISSUED BY THE UNITED NATIONS -- BEFORE IT AGREES TO GO AHEAD. HOWEVER, THE ASSUMPTION IS THAT ALL THESE HURDLES CAN BE OVERCOME. SO ALLIANCE MILITARY PLANNERS ARE HARD AT WORK PREPARING FOR THE MOST DAUNTING CHALLENGE IN NATO HISTORY. ALREADY, COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND A TEAM OF TWO-THOUSAND PLANNERS IS MOVING INTO BOSNIA TO WORK ON LOGISTICS. THE ALLIANCE IS IN CLOSE TOUCH WITH NON-NATO NATIONS -- PARTICULARLY RUSSIA -- WHICH ALSO WILL BE INVOLVED IN THE BOSNIAN OPERATION. POLITICAL COMMAND PROCEDURES WILL HAVE TO BE WORKED OUT WITH MOSCOW, ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN A RECENT BREAKTHROUGH IN AGREEING ON THE MILITARY ARRANGEMENTS.

    DETAILS OF THE OPERATION WILL BE DISCUSSED BY NATO DEFENSE MINISTERS, WHO MEET NEXT WEEK IN BRUSSELS. IN LONDON EARLY IN DECEMBER THERE WILL THEN BE A CONFERENCE OF THE 40 NATIONS THAT WILL BE INVOLVED IN THE BOSNIAN OPERATION.

    MOST OF THE FORCES FOR THE NEW OPERATION WILL HAVE TO BE SENT INTO BOSNIA, ALTHOUGH SOME WILL UNDERTAKE LOGISTICS DUTIES FROM BASES IN CROATIA. MEANWHILE, SOME OF THE FORCES ALREADY THERE, WHO HAVE BEEN HELPING WITH THE HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS, WILL STAY ON. THEY WILL BE TRANSFERRED FROM UNITED NATIONS TO NATO COMMAND.

    THE AIM OF THE BOSNIAN MISSION IS SIMPLE -- TO ENSURE A SMOOTH TRANSITION TO PEACE, AND TO ASSIST WITH THE SETTING UP OF THE NEW BOSNIAN STATE. THIS WILL BE A UNIFIED ENTITY, WITH TWO SUB-DIVISIONS. PART OF THE TERRITORY GOES TO THE SERBS, WITH THE REST FALLING UNDER MUSLIM AND CROAT AUTHORITY.

    THERE WILL BE A CENTRAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE, BASED IN SARAJEVO, AND IT IS HOPED THAT ELECTIONS CAN BE HELD AS SOON AS IS PRACTICABLE. NATO IS PLANNING TO DEPLOY ITS FORCES IN BOSNIA FOR ONE YEAR, AFTER WHICH IT IS HOPED THE COUNTRY WILL HAVE BEEN RETURNED TO COMPARATIVE NORMALITY.

    IN THE MEANTIME, NATO TROOPS WILL SECURE THE FRONTIERS BETWEEN THE TWO SECTIONS OF THE NEW BOSNIA, AND TRY TO ENSURE THAT DISAGREEMENTS DO NOT ESCALATE INTO CONFLICT.. IT IS A MAMMOTH TASK, WHICH WILL PROVIDE AN ANSWER TO THE QUESTION WHICH WAS ASKED AT THE END OF THE COLD WAR -- DOES NATO STILL HAVE A ROLE IN THE NEW WORLD ORDER, NOW THAT ITS FORMER ENEMIES HAVE BECOME ITS FRIENDS.

    INSIDE NATO, THERE IS NO DOUBT OF THE CHALLENGES AHEAD, AND THAT IF WHY THE SEARCH FOR A NEW SECRETARY GENERAL FOR THE ALLIANCE HAS TAKEN ON NEW URGENCY. THAT POST HAS BEEN VACANT SINCE THE RESIGNATION OF PREVIOUS INCUMBENT WILLY CLAES, WHO WAS FORCED TO LEAVE AFTER THE BELGIAN PARLIAMENT VOTED THAT HE COULD BE INDICTED ON CORRUPTION CHARGES. SO FAR, EUROPEAN MEMBERS OF NATO HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO AGREE WITH THE AMERICANS ON A CHOICE OF SECRETARY GENERAL. NATO OFFICIALS HOPE THE CHALLENGES LYING AHEAD IN BOSNIA WILL LEAD TO GREATER CONVERGENCE OF VIEWS AMONG THE ALLIES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/CF
    22-Nov-95 8:35 AM EST (1335 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] BOSNIAN SERB PESSIMISM (L) BY NICK SIMEONE (WASHINGTON )

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189001
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS ARE DENOUNCING THE PEACE AGREEMENT INITIALED IN OHIO TUESDAY, ACCUSING SERBIA'S PRESIDENT OF MAKING TOO MANY CONCESSION ON BEHALF OF HIS ERSTWHILE ALLIES. THE BOSNIAN SERB SPOKESWOMAN IN WASHINGTON TOLD THE "V-O-A TODAY" PROGRAM THE WORLD SHOULD NOT EXPECT THE BOSNIAN WAR TO END WHEN THE FINAL PEACE AGREEMENT IS SIGNED IN PARIS NEXT MONTH. V-O-A'S NICK SIMEONE HAS SOME OF THE BOSNIAN SERB REACTION.

    TEXT: BOSNIAN SERB REPRESENTATIVES IN DAYTON DID NOT SHOW UP FOR TUESDAY'S INITIALING CEREMONY. SOME WENT "BERSERK" AS ONE NEGOTIATOR PUT IT, WHEN THEY LEARNED SERB NEIGHBORHOODS OF SARAJEVO WOULD BE TURNED OVER TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT.

    THEY ARE BLAMING SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC FOR MAKING SUCH CONCESSIONS FOR THE SAKE OF AN AGREEMENT, CONCESSIONS WHICH THEIR WASHINGTON SPOKESWOMAN DANIELLE SREMAC FEARS MAY HAVE ALREADY PLACED THE ACCORD IN JEOPARDY.

    // SREMAC ACT //

    THERE'S A BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WANTING PEACE AND WANTING A FAIR EQUITABLE SOLUTION FOR LIVING ON THAT LAND. AND I THINK THAT FOR THE SAME REASONS WHY THE WAR STARTED, THE BOSNIAN SERBS CAN NOT SAY THAT THERE WILL BE PEACE IF THIS PEACE WILL BE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SERBIAN PEOPLE, THAT IT WILL ENSURE THAT THE SERBS DON'T HAVE ANY VOICE IN THE NEW GOVERNMENT.

    // END ACT //

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION STRESSES SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC HAS GIVEN HIS WORD TO BACK THE ACCORD AND IS PRESUMED TO HAVE THE ABILITY TO EXERT INFLUENCE OVER THE BOSNIAN SERBS AS WELL. THE U-S MILITARY IS NOW GOING AHEAD WITH PLANS FOR LEADING A NATO PEACE KEEPING FORCE, A PLAN MS. SREMAC SAYS THE BOSNIAN SERBS DO NOT RELISH.

    // SREMAC ACT //

    I'M CONCERNED ABOUT THE FACT THAT U-S TROOPS ARE COMING INTO THIS REGION WHERE PEACE HAS NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED BY A LONGSHOT.

    // END ACT //

    PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL OUTLINE HIS PROPOSAL FOR DISPATCHING SOME 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS TO THE BALKANS IN A NATIONWIDE TELEVISION ADDRESS MONDAY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/NJS/JM
    22-Nov-95 4:38 PM EST (2138 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] BOSNIA / POLITICS (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188983
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN, SERBIAN, AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS HAVE RETURNED HOME FROM THE UNITED STATES AFTER INITIALING THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THEY ALL SAY THEY ARE SATISFIED WITH THE DEAL. BUT, V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS BOSNIAN-SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS ARE MAINTAINING AN OMINOUS SILENCE. AND A BOSNIAN-SERB NEGOTIATOR SAID THE PEACE AGREEMENT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE.

    TEXT: STOPPING IN ZAGREB EN ROUTE TO SARAJEVO, BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAID THE AGREEMENT REACHED AT AN AIR FORCE BASE IN THE UNITED STATES WILL BRING PEACE TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAID HE IS RELATIVELY SATISFIED.

    MR. IZETBEGOVIC AGONIZED OVER THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT BEFORE HE FINALLY ACCEPTED IT FOLLOWING THREE WEEKS OF EXTRAORDINARILY DIFFICULT NEGOTIATIONS.

    HE CAN CLAIM TO HAVE WON SOME IMPORTANT CONCESSIONS, SUCH AS A UNITED SARAJEVO AND A GUARANTEED CORRIDOR TO LINK THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL WITH THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF GORAZDE.

    ALSO SPEAKING IN ZAGREB, CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN SAID -- WE GOT PEACE, PEACE FOR CROATIA, FOR BOSNIA, AND FOR EUROPE. HE PREDICTED A MAJOR PEACE DIVIDEND -- THE RETURN OF TOURISTS TO HIS COUNTRY'S ADRIATIC COAST.

    SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC WAS WELCOMED BACK TO BELGRADE BY NEWSPAPER REPORTS PRAISING THE AGREEMENT HE INITIALED AS A TRIUMPH OF PEACE. EARLIER, IN A BROADCAST MESSAGE FROM THE UNITED STATES, MR. MILOSEVIC TOLD THE PEOPLE OF YUGOSLAVIA CRIPPLING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST THEIR COUNTRY WILL NOW BE SUSPENDED AND EVENTUALLY LIFTED ENTIRELY. BUT, PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC MUST ENSURE THE BOSNIAN SERBS IMPLEMENT THE PEACE AGREEMENT. THEY HAVE DEFIED HIM BEFORE AND MAY DEFY HIM AGAIN.

    BOSNIAN-SERB MEMBERS OF THE NEGOTIATING TEAM MR. MILOSEVIC HEADED ARE SAID TO REJECT THE CONCESSIONS HE MADE TO GET THE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    BOSNIAN-SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC AND SERB-ARMY COMMANDER GENERAL RATKO MLADIC HAVE SAID NOTHING ABOUT THE DEAL, WHILE ORDINARY PEOPLE IN SERB-HELD TERRITORY HAVE BEEN CELEBRATING THE PROSPECTS OF PEACE.

    THE PEACE AGREEMENT PREVENTS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS, LIKE MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC, FROM HOLDING IMPORTANT GOVERNMENT POSITIONS.

    EUROPEAN UNION MEDIATOR CARL BILDT SAYS THE PARTIES TO THE ACCORD ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR HANDING OVER INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS TO THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    22-Nov-95 10:20 AM EST (1520 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] BOSNIA PACT REACT / MIDWEST (L ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (CHICAGO)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188994
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE AMERICAN MIDDLE WEST IS HOME TO MANY PEOPLE OF SERBIAN, CROATIAN AND BOSNIAN ANCESTRIES, AND REACTION TO THE PEACE ACCORD SIGNED TUESDAY IN DAYTON, OHIO, IS DECIDEDLY MIXED. VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH PROVIDES A SAMPLING OF OPINION.

    TEXT: THE PEOPLE WE TALKED WITH EXPRESSED OPINIONS THAT RANGED FROM GUARDED OPTIMISM TO OUTRIGHT PESSIMISM ABOUT THE ACCORD. ON THE NORTH SIDE OF CHICAGO, PHYSICIAN HASIM COSOVIC ('CHO-SO-VITCH) RUNS THE "BOSNIAN-AMERICAN CULTURAL CENTER." DR. COSOVIC SAYS MANY AT HIS CENTER ARE QUESTIONING THE FAIRNESS OF THE ACCORD.

    // COSOVIC ACT //

    WELL YOU KNOW WE ALL PREFER PEACE AND NO WAR -- LESS PEOPLE WILL BE KILLED -- AND THEY CAN START GETTING TO DO NORMAL THINGS AND GET BACK TO NORMAL LIFE. THE THING WE DON'T AGREE (WITH) IS REWARDING THE AGGRESSION. BASICALLY, SIGNING THIS AGREEMENT AND GIVING 49 PERCENT TO SERBS, IT IS DIVIDING BOSNIA ON ETHNIC PRINCIPLES, AND OUR COMMUNITY DOES NOT AGREE ABOUT THAT.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    AND DR. COSOVIC BELIEVES BOSNIA'S ARMY MAY BE UNCONVINCED ABOUT WHAT WAS AGREED TO IN DAYTON, OHIO.

    // SECOND COSOVIC ACT //

    I'M VERY SUSPICIOUS THAT THE BOSNIAN ARMY WILL AGREE WITH THIS, ESPECIALLY AFTER SO MANY LIVES ARE LOST. AND THE BOSNIAN ARMY IS NOT FOR THIS ETHNIC DIVISION IN BOSNIA.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    ABOUT 300 KILOMETERS NORTHEAST OF DAYTON IN CLEVELAND, OHIO, JOE LASIC ('LAH-SITCH) RUNS THE "CROATIAN TAVERN" ON THE CITY'S EAST SIDE. PATRONS TELL HIM THE NEW BOSNIA SOUNDS LIKE THE OLD YUGOSLAVIA -- A MAKE-BELIEVE COUNTRY WHICH CANNOT SURVIVE.

    // LASIC ACT //

    THEY'RE MAKING A MINIATURE YUGOSLAVIA AND IT'S GOING TO HOLD PROBABLY FOR A WHILE TILL IT (BOILS) UP AGAIN. THAT COUNTRY SHOULD NEVER BE. THAT COUNTRY NEVER EXISTED BEFORE AND I DON'T THINK THERE'S GOING TO BE PEACE THERE.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    TAVERN OWNER JOE LASIC THINKS THE THREE PARTIES TO THE BOSNIAN ACCORD WERE PRESSURED TO AGREE TO A PEACE PLAN WHICH IS PROBABLY UNWORKABLE.

    // SECOND LASIC ACT //

    A (FEW) GUYS FROM THE OUTSIDE, THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT, SERBIAN PRESIDENT, THEY'RE PRESSURED BY WASHINGTON TO ACCEPT THIS PEACE. BUT PEOPLE INSIDE THAT COUNTRY IS THE MAIN THING. THEY DON'T ACCEPT THIS PEACE ON THIS KIND OF TERMS. I BELIEVE THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE SEPARATED.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    IN THE LARGE SERBIAN COMMUNITY OF CHICAGO, OPINION IS EQUALLY MIXED ABOUT THE BOSNIA ACCORD. ANNA HARKINS IS WITH A SERBIAN COMMUNITY GROUP CALLED "SERBNET."

    // HARKINS ACT //

    THE COMMUNITY IS VERY CONCERNED AND THEY'RE VERY CONCERNED BECAUSE THEY KNOW THIS IS NOT A PLAN THAT HAS BEEN ACCEPTED BY ALL MEMBERS OF THE SERBIAN DELEGATION. THE DELEGATION WAS MADE UP OF THREE REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC AND THEN THREE FROM THE BOSNIAN SERBIAN REPUBLIC.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    VUCETA RUTOVIC ('VOO-SIT-TAH 'ROO-TOE-VITCH) IS AN OFFICIAL WITH A CHICAGO GROUP CALLED THE "SERBIAN NATIONAL DEFENSE COUNCIL OF AMERICA." MR. RUTOVIC SHARES DOUBTS ABOUT THE DURABILITY OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, AND HE EXPRESSES THE CONCERNS OF MANY SERBIAN AMERICANS THAT THE UNITED STATES IS BIASED AGAINST THE SERBS.

    // RUTOVIC ACT //

    I'M AN AMERICAN CITIZEN AND MY KIDS WERE BORN HERE IN THE UNITED STATES, MY GRANDCHILDREN ARE AMERICAN. BUT I'M A LITTLE BIT MAD (AT) THE UNITED STATES -- WHY DO THEY HAVE TO DO SOMETHING JUST FOR ONE SIDE? WHY NOT LOOK AT BOTH SIDES.

    // END ACT., END OPT //

    WHILE THE BOSNIANS, CROATS AND SERBS WE SPOKE TO SHARE DOUBTS ABOUT SUCCESS FOR THE NEW PEACE ACCORD, ALL AGREED THAT AFTER A QUARTER-MILLION LIVES LOST IN THIS FOUR-YEAR CIVIL WAR, IT IS GOOD SOMETHING WAS DONE TO STOP ... AT LEAST FOR THE MOMENT ... THE FIGHTING AND KILLING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PCF/CF
    22-Nov-95 1:45 PM EST (1845 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT BY RON PEMSTEIN (DAYTON, OHIO)

    DATE=11/21/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31722
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE BOSNIA PEACE TALKS IN DAYTON, OHIO HAVE ENDED AS PLANNED -- WITH THE INITIALS OF THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA COMMITTING THEIR COUNTRIES TO ENDING EUROPE'S WORST FIGHTING SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. VOA CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM DAYTON, OHIO ON THE AGREEMENT AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD.

    TEXT: THE CEREMONY ITSELF CAME AS AN ANTI-CLIMAX. THE BALKAN PRESIDENTS NEVER REALLY GREETED EACH OTHER BY SHAKING HANDS. THERE WERE FEW SMILES AFTER SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETING THREE WEEKS OF NEGOTIATIONS AT THE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE.

    IT WAS CLEAR TO EVERYONE THAT THIS PEACE AGREEMENT REACHED HERE IN SOUTHWEST OHIO IS THE REAL ONE TO BRING 43 MONTHS OF WARFARE TO AN END. THERE HAVE BEEN FALSE STARTS BEFORE IN LONDON, GENEVA AND ATHENS. THIS AGREEMENT, INITIALED BY THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, CROATIA AND SERBIA, CONTAINS A CONSTITUTION, A SEPARATION OF FORCES,

    A RETURN OF REFUGEES, PROVISIONS FOR ELECTIONS AND COMPELS EVERYONE, BOSNIAN SERBS INCLUDED, TO COMPLY WITH THE ORDERS OF THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. MOST OF ALL, THE AGREEMENT COMMITS THE NATO ALLIANCE TO DEPLOY TROOPS TO MAKE SURE THESE PROVISIONS ARE CARRIED OUT.

    SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER EXPRESSED THE SKEPTICISM OF MANY PEOPLE THAT THESE TALKS WOULD PRODUCE A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    /// CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    WE HAVE REACHED A DAY MANY BELIEVED WOULD NEVER COME. AFTER THREE WEEKS OF INTENSIVE DIPLOMACY HERE IN DAYTON, THE LEADERS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, CROATIA AND SERBIA HAVE AGREED TO END THE WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. THEY HAVE AGREED THAT FOUR YEARS OF DESTRUCTION IS ENOUGH. THE TIME HAS COME TO BUILD PEACE WITH JUSTICE.

    /// END CHRISTOPHER ACT ///

    AS A SIGN OF IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS, THE BOSNIAN SERBS BOYCOTTED THE INITIALING CEREMONY. THEY ARE ALREADY SAYING THEY WILL NOT ABIDE BY THE PROVISIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT. HOWEVER, PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC INITIALED THE DOCUMENT IN THEIR PLACE AND GAVE THE SECRETARY OF STATE HIS PERSONAL ASSURANCE THAT SERBIA WILL CARRY OUT THE COMMITMENTS FOR THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO TURN OVER INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS.

    PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC, AS WELL AS BOSNIA'S ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC AND CROATIA'S FRANJO TUDJMAN, APPEALED FOR NATO, INCLUDING AMERICAN SOLDIERS, TO SEND TROOPS TO HELP ENSURE THE AGREEMENT IS PUT INTO EFFECT. MR. MILOSEVIC ALSO SPOKE OF PAINFUL CONCESSIONS NEEDED TO MAKE THIS PEACE AGREEMENT POSSIBLE, THE PEACE TREATY WILL LEAD TO THE SUSPENSION OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST SERBIA AS WELL AS THE CANCELLATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST ALL THREE COUNTRIES.

    BOSNIA'S PRESIDENT MADE THE LAST CONCESSION, TO AGREE TO LET A MEDIATION COMMISSION ARBITRATE THE DISPUTE WITH SERBIA OVER THE POSAVINA CORRIDOR IN NORTHEAST BOSNIA. THE TERRITORIAL ISSUE HAD THREATENED TO COLLAPSE THE TALKS.

    PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC SAYS THIS WAS THE BEST AGREEMENT BOSNIA COULD GET.

    /// IZETBEGOVIC ACT ///

    TO MY PEOPLE, I SAY, THIS MAY NOT BE A JUST PEACE, BUT IT IS MORE JUST THAN A CONTINUATION OF WAR. IN THE SITUATION AS IT IS, AND THE WORLD AS IT IS, A BETTER PEACE COULD NOT BE ACHIEVED.

    /// END IZETBEGOVIC ACT ///

    WITH 102 MAPS AND 11 ANNEXES, THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT IS AN IMPRESSIVE DOCUMENT. HOWEVER, THE LEAD AMERICAN NEGOTIATOR, RICHARD HOLBROOKE SAYS THE ISSUE NOW IS TO PUT THE AGREEMENT INTO PRACTICE.

    /// HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    THE AGREEMENTS AND TERRITORIAL ARRANGEMENTS INITIALED TODAY, ARE A HUGE STEP FORWARD, THE BIGGEST BY FAR SINCE THE WAR BEGAN. BUT AHEAD LIES AN EQUALLY DAUNTING TASK, IMPLEMENTATION. ON EVERY PAGE OF THE MANY COMPLICATED DOCUMENTS AND ANNEXES INITIALED HERE TODAY LIE CHALLENGES TO BOTH SIDES TO SET ASIDE THEIR ENMITIES, THEIR DIFFERENCES WHICH ARE STILL RAW AND OPEN WOUNDS. THEY MUST WORK TOGETHER. ON PAPER, WE HAVE PEACE, TO MAKE IT WORK IS OUR NEXT AND GREATEST CHALLENGE.

    /// END HOLBROOKE ACT ///

    IMPLEMENTATION WILL BE DISCUSSED IN LONDON AT A MINISTERIAL CONFERENCE DECEMBER 8TH AND 9TH AND THE TREATY SIGNING WILL TAKE PLACE IN PARIS SHORTLY THEREAFTER. THAT'S WHEN THE AMERICAN AND OTHER NATO TROOPS ARE SUPPOSED TO DEPLOY IN BOSNIA AND MAKE SURE THE 43 MONTHS OF WAR ARE REALLY OVER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/BD/LWM
    21-Nov-95 8:53 PM EST (0153 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] BOSNIA / RUSSIA (S) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW )

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188970
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS PRAISED THE BALKAN PEACE ACCORD AND SAID NOW IS THE TIME TO REMOVE SANCTIONS ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM MOSCOW THE RUSSIAN LEADER PUT OFF A DECISION ON SENDING TROOPS TO SERVE IN A BOSNIAN PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    TEXT: IN A WRITTEN STATEMENT, MR. YELTSIN CONGRATULATED THE BALKAN LEADERS FOR HAVING THE COURAGE TO REACH AN AGREEMENT DESPITE THEIR MUTUAL HATRED AND DISTRUST. HE SAID THE ONLY WAY PEACE CAN BE ESTABLISHED IN THE REGION IS THROUGH RECOGNITION OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS OF SERBS, CROATS AND MUSLIMS.

    THE AILING RUSSIAN PRESIDENT ALSO CALLED FOR A LIFTING OF UNITED NATIONS SANCTIONS AGAINST THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. RUSSIA, WHICH HAS STRONG TRADE LINKS WITH THE REGION, SAYS THE SANCTIONS HAVE COST IT BILLIONS OF DOLLARS.

    WHEN IT CAME TO COMMITTING RUSSIAN TROOPS FOR A BALKAN PEACEKEEPING FORCE, MR. YELTSIN WAS HESITANT. HIS STATEMENT SAID WE WILL DECIDE ON RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE SETTLEMENT LATER.

    THE SUBJECT OF INCLUDING RUSSIAN TROOPS IN A NATO-LED FORCE HAD BEEN THE SUBJECT OF INTENSE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN MOSCOW AND WASHINGTON. EARLIER THIS MONTH THE TWO SIDES ANNOUNCED THE ISSUE HAD BEEN RESOLVED, BUT MR. YELTSIN'S STATEMENT INDICATES SOME DIFFICULT DETAILS REMAIN UNSETTLED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/MH/CF
    22-Nov-95 7:40 AM EST (1240 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188980
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SIXTY-THOUSAND PEACEKEEPING TROOPS -- MOSTLY FROM NATO COUNTRIES -- WILL BE DEPLOYED TO ENFORCE THE BOSNIAN PEACE SETTLEMENT. SOME SOLDIERS NOW SERVING WITH U-N TROOPS IN BOSNIA WILL BE PART OF THE NEW FORCE. BUT DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS MANY U-N SOLDIERS WILL NOT BE WELCOME IN THE NATO OPERATION.

    TEXT: IN THE NEXT MONTH, NATO WILL BE ASSEMBLING ITS LARGEST-EVER MILITARY OPERATION. EVENTUALLY, 60-THOUSAND TROOPS, MOSTLY FROM NATO COUNTRIES, WILL BE DEPLOYED ACROSS BOSNIA TO KEEP THE PEACE AND TO ENFORCE COMPLIANCE WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    BUT THERE ARE CONCERNS THE FORCE COULD GET BOGGED DOWN IN THE SAME DIFFICULTIES THAT HAVE CONSISTENTLY HINDERED THE U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA. THE U-N MILITARY SPOKESMAN, LIEUTENANT COLONEL CHRIS VERNON, A BRITISH OFFICER WHO WILL SOON BE UNDER NATO COMMAND, EXPLAINS HOW THE NATO FORCE WILL BE DIFFERENT.

    /// ACT - VERNON ///

    THEY WILL NOT COME IN HERE (WITH) GUNS BRISTLING (DRAWN) SO TO SPEAK. THEY WILL COME IN ON THE SAME BASIS WE OPERATE, THE UNITED NATIONS UNPROFOR. THEIR ONLY DIFFERENCE IS THAT SHOULD THINGS NOT WORK, THEY HAVE A MILITARY CAPABILITY TO USE FORCE, AND A MANDATE TO DO SO EVEN-HANDEDLY AGAINST ANY ORGANIZATION THAT TRANSGRESSES OR BREAKS THE CEASE-FIRE OR ANY PART OF THE OVERALL NEGOTIATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN THE PAST, THE U-N HAS FOUND IT VERY DIFFICULT TO USE MILITARY FORCE "EVEN-HANDEDLY" AGAINST ONLY ONE SIDE. BUT NATO OFFICERS INSIST THEIR FORCES WILL BE SO STRONG AND SO INTIMIDATING, THEY EXPECT LITTLE RESISTANCE.

    COLONEL VERNON SAYS THAT MEANS SOME OF THE LESS PROFESSIONAL TROOPS NOW IN THE U-N FORCE WILL HAVE TO GO.

    /// ACT - VERNON ///

    THERE ARE VARIOUS U-N PARTICIPATING NATIONS THAT WILL NOT BE ACCEPTABLE TO NATO, TO BE QUITE CLEAR ABOUT THAT. THEY WILL NOT MATCH THE MILITARY STANDARDS THAT NATO WILL REQUIRE.

    /// END ACT ///

    SO ONCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT IS SIGNED, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF TROOPS WILL BE COMING IN AND THOUSANDS OF OTHERS WILL BE LEAVING. SENIOR OFFICERS SAY THERE COULD BE PROBLEMS DURING THIS PERIOD.

    /// ACT - VERNON ///

    THERE WILL BE A TRANSITIONAL PERIOD, AND IT COULD BE THREE WEEKS BEFORE YOU GET A LARGE INFLOW OF NATO, WHEN IN EFFECT YOU WILL HAVE WHAT YOU HAVE ON THE GROUND NOW -- U-N TROOPS SWITCHED UNDER NATO COMMAND -- BUT WITH NO GREATER MILITARY CAPABILITY THAN THEY HAVE AT THE PRESENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    COMMANDERS SAY THEIR FIRST PRIORITY WILL BE TO GET HEAVY WEAPONS, TANKS, ARTILLERY, AND ATTACK HELICOPTERS INTO BOSNIA FOR THE NATO TROOPS ALREADY THERE. BUT THEY SAY ALL SIDES IN THE CONFLICT SEEM QUITE CONTENT WITH THE EXISTING CEASE-FIRE, AND THEY SAY THE OPERATION SHOULD GO SMOOTHLY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LON/MMK
    22-Nov-95 9:45 AM EST (1445 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] BOSNIA / SERBS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188992
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BOSNIAN SERBS APPEAR DIVIDED ON THE NEW BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. TOP BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS STILL HAVE SAID NOTHING ABOUT THE DEAL, AND IT MAY HAVE TO BE APPROVED BY THE SELF-DECLARED SERB PARLIAMENT OR IN A REFERENDUM. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: BEFORE THE NEGOTIATIONS THAT RESULTED IN THE PEACE AGREEMENT THE BOSNIAN SERBS ACCEPTED SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC AS THE HEAD OF THEIR NEGOTIATING TEAM. BUT, ONE OF THE SERB NEGOTIATORS, MOMCILO KRAJISNIK, SAYS HE AND THE OTHERS REJECT THE DEAL MR. MILOSEVIC INITIALED ON THEIR BEHALF.

    MR. KRAJISNIK, THE CHAIRMAN OF THE SELF-DECLARED BOSNIAN SERB PARLIAMENT, SAYS THE SERB NEGOTIATORS DO NOT APPROVE THE PLANNED TERRITORIAL DIVISION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE SAYS HE WILL INFORM THE SERB PARLIAMENT THAT THE PEACE AGREEMENT DOES NOT MEET EVEN MINIMUM SERB INTERESTS. THE PARLIAMENT COULD MEET SOON.

    IF SERB HARDLINERS SUCCEEDED IN REJECTING THE PEACE AGREEMENT, THE DEPLOYMENT OF 60-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS TO BOSNIA WOULD BE CALLED INTO QUESTION.

    THE BOSNIAN SERB DEFENSE MINISTER, THE DEPUTY ARMY COMMANDER, AND ANOTHER BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIAL HAVE WELCOMED THE PEACE ACCORD. BUT, THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER, RADOVAN KARADZIC, AND THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY COMMANDER, GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, HAVE MADE NO PUBLIC STATEMENTS ABOUT IT SO FAR.

    THE AGREEMENT, INITIALED BY THE SERBIAN, BOSNIAN, AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS, BANS INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS, LIKE MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC, FROM HOLDING POWER.

    EUROPEAN UNION MEDIATOR CARL BILDT SAYS THE AGREEMENT ALSO REQUIRES PARTIES TO IT TO COOPERATE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. WHEN THE ISSUE OF PROSECUTING ALLEGED WAR CRIMINALS FIRST AROSE, THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAID THEY WOULD NOT HAND OVER ANY SUSPECTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL.

    THE SERBS ALSO DENIED RECENT REPORTS FROM BELGRADE THAT MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC WERE BOTH WILLING TO GIVE UP POWER AND THAT THE GENERAL MIGHT RETIRE TO A HOME IN THE YUGOSLAV CAPITAL.

    IF THERE IS A PROBLEM WITH THE BOSNIAN SERBS, THE MAJOR POWERS EXPECT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC TO RESOLVE IT. BUT, BOSNIAN SERBS HAVE IGNORED HIS WISHES BEFORE AND HAVE EVEN CALLED HIM A TRAITOR TO THE SERB CAUSE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    22-Nov-95 1:18 PM EST (1818 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] CLINTON / BOSNIA (S) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189004
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS PREPARING TO CONVINCE A SKEPTICAL CONGRESS AND AMERICAN PUBLIC THAT SENDING U-S PEACEKEEPING TROOPS TO BOSNIA IS WORTH THE RISK. MR. CLINTON WILL MAKE HIS CASE IN A MAJOR ADDRESS FROM THE OVAL OFFICE MONDAY NIGHT. V-O-A'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: IT IS PERHAPS THE MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE FACING PRESIDENT CLINTON SINCE HE CAME TO OFFICE: CONVINCING AMERICANS THAT BOSNIAN PEACE IS WORTH THE COST OF AMERICAN BLOOD.

    WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY ADMITS THAT U-S TROOP DEPLOYMENT IN BOSNIA WOULD NOT BE 'RISK-FREE'.

    // MCCURRY ACTUALITY //

    EVERYONE IS WELL AWARE OF THE TEST THAT IS OFTEN CALLED 'THE MOTHER TEST': WHAT DO YOU SAY TO THE MOTHER OF THE YOUNG MAN WHO HAS LOST HIS LIFE IN PURSUIT OF THIS PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT THAT IS THE RISK THIS PRESIDENT BELIEVES IS WELL WORTH TAKING BECAUSE OF THE ENORMOUS CONSEQUENCES AT STAKE HERE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. MCCURRY SAYS IT IS A MESSAGE THE PRESIDENT WILL HAVE TO DELIVER MONDAY NIGHT AS HE EXPLAINS WHY A U-S PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA IS IN THE U-S INTEREST.

    THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS HAS FORCED HIM TO POSTPONE PLANS TO LEAVE FOR A SCHEDULED TRIP TO EUROPE MONDAY NIGHT.

    MR. CLINTON WILL NOW LEAVE A DAY LATER FOR HIS TRIP TO BRITAIN, IRELAND, NORTHERN IRELAND AND SPAIN.

    SPOKESMAN MCCURRY ANNOUNCED THE PRESIDENT IS ADDING A STOP IN GERMANY LATER IN THE WEEK TO MEET WITH U-S TROOPS STATIONED THERE -- TROOPS WHO WILL LIKELY BE DEPLOYED IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAT/PT
    22-Nov-95 5:11 PM EST (2211 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [15] E-U/U-S TRADE (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188957
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SENIOR U-S OFFICIAL SAYS A TRANS-ATLANTIC FREE TRADE ZONE WITH EUROPE WOULD BE IMPORTANT AND USEFUL BUT NEGOTIATIONS TO CREATE IT ARE PREMATURE. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS A PRIVATE AMERICAN TRADE ANALYST SAYS SUCH A FREE TRADE ZONE WOULD BE AN ECONOMIC BOOM TO BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC BUT ALSO DOUBTS IT WILL BECOME A REALITY BEFORE 1997:

    TEXT: ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE DANIEL TARULLO SAYS A LOT OF GROUNDWORK NEEDS TO BE DONE BEFORE THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE PREPARED TO HAVE PRODUCTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION ON A FREE TRADE ZONE. HE SAYS CONGRESS HAS NOT EVEN PROVIDED FOR A PROCEDURE FOR ENLARGING THE TWO-YEAR OLD NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- NAFTA.

    MR. TARULLO ALSO SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION IS NOT PREPARED TO NEGOTIATE AWAY ITS EXISTING RESTRICTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE. HOWEVER, HE SAYS AT THE UPCOMING U-S/E-U SUMMIT IN MADRID DECEMBER THIRD, THERE WILL BE TALKS ON THE ISSUE AS PART OF EFFORTS TO EXPAND COOPERATION.

    TRADE ANALYST CLYDE PRESTOWITZ OF THE ECONOMIC STRATEGY INSTITUTE SAYS SUCH A TRADE ARRANGEMENT -- IF AGREED TO -- WOULD BE BENEFICIAL TO BOTH SIDES:

    ///PRESTOWITZ ACTUALITY///

    WE HAVE ESTIMATED THAT IF THERE WERE A FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE U-S AND EUROPE THE RESULT FOR THE U-S WOULD BE ABOUT 35-BILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF INCREASED EXPORTS AND ANYWHERE FROM 50 TO 150-BILLION DOLLARS IN INCREASED G-N-P (GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT).

    ///END ACTUALITY///

    MR. PRESTOWITZ, HOWEVER, PREDICTS INTERNAL POLITICAL MATTERS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE ATLANTIC WILL FORESTALL SERIOUS NEGOTIATIONS ON A FREE TRADE ZONE UNTIL AT LEAST 1997. (SIGNED). NEB/PT 21-Nov-95 9:07 PM EST (0207 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [16] RUSSIA / BOSNIA REACT (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188990
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS PRAISED THE BALKAN PEACE ACCORD, BUT EXPRESSED DOUBTS ABOUT COMMITTING TROOPS TO A NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE. PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS RUSSIA HOPES TO PLAY A HIGH-PROFILE ROLE AS THE PEACE PROCESS MOVES FORWARD.

    TEXT: WITHIN HOURS AFTER THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF SUCCESS IN DAYTON, PRESIDENT YELTSIN ISSUED A STATEMENT WELCOMING THE AGREEMENT. HE PRAISED BALKAN LEADERS FOR SHOWING THE COURAGE TO PUT ASIDE MUTUAL HATREDS TO END WHAT HE DESCRIBED AS THE MOST TRAGIC CONFLICT IN POST-WORLD WAR TWO EUROPE.

    BUT AS THE FULL IMPACT OF THE ACCORD SANK IN WEDNESDAY, THE KREMLIN BEGAN TO SHOW SIGNS OF FRUSTRATION AT ITS DIMINISHED ROLE IN THE BALKAN PEACE PROCESS. MOREOVER, POLITICAL OPPONENTS SERVED NOTICE RUSSIA'S ALLEGED FOREIGN POLICY FAILURES WOULD BE AN ISSUE IN UPCOMING ELECTIONS.

    DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER NIKOLAI AFANASYEVSKY TOLD THE INTERFAX NEWS AGENCY MOSCOW REMAINS READY TO HOST ANOTHER SUMMIT OF BALKAN LEADERS. MR. AFANASYEVSKY SAID HE IS CONVINCED THE MOSCOW MEETING WILL BE CRUCIAL TO SETTLEMENT OF THE CONFLICT.

    A WESTERN DIPLOMAT WEDNESDAY SAID NO FURTHER SUMMITS ARE PLANNED, BUT DID NOT RULE OUT SUCH A MEETING. MEANWHILE, PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S CRITICS ARE CHARACTERIZING THE DAYTON ACCORD AS ANOTHER MISSED OPPORTUNITY TO RE-ESTABLISH MOSCOW AS A POWER IN WORLD DIPLOMACY. COMMUNIST PARTY LEADER GENNADY ZYUGANOV SAID RUSSIA HAD NOT ONLY BEEN SIDELINED IN DAYTON, BUT HAD BEEN KICKED OUT OF THE YUGOSLAV SETTLEMENT, AND WAS ABOUT TO BE KICKED OUT OF THE BALKANS ALTOGETHER.

    EVEN SYMPATHETIC ANALYSTS ADMIT RUSSIA'S LEADERS FACE MANY CONTRADICTIONS AS THEY ATTEMPT TO BALANCE NATIONAL INTERESTS WITH THEIR DESIRE TO PLAY A GREATER ROLE IN WORLD AFFAIRS. ONE EXAMPLE IS THE PLAN TO INCLUDE RUSSIAN TROOPS IN A NATO-LED BALKAN PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    RUSSIA HAS RESISTED AMERICAN PRESSURE TO PLACE ALL TROOPS IN THE FORCE UNDER NATO COMMAND. AFTER INTENSE NEGOTIATIONS, THE TWO NATIONS THIS MONTH ANNOUNCED A FACE-SAVING COMPROMISE THAT WOULD ALLOW RUSSIAN FORCES TO MAINTAIN SOME MEASURE OF AUTONOMY WITHIN THE NATO COMMAND STRUCTURE.

    BUT DESPITE THAT ANNOUNCEMENT, PRESIDENT YELTSIN SAID TUESDAY THE ISSUE IS STILL UNRESOLVED, AND WOULD BE DECIDED LATER. DEFENSE MINISTER PAVEL GRACHEV, WHO NEGOTIATED THE EARLIER COMPROMISE, WILL TRAVEL TO BRUSSELS NEXT WEEK FOR MORE TALKS ON THE QUESTION WITH HIS AMERICAN COUNTERPART. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/JWH/BG
    22-Nov-95 12:22 PM EST (1722 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [17] THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09284
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: THE PEACE ACCORD SIGNED IN DAYTON, OHIO, WEDNESDAY, BY THE LEADERS OF ALL THREE WARRING FACTIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IS CREATING A TIDAL WAVE OF COMMENT IN THE U-S PRESS. BOTH IN EDITORIAL COLUMNS AND PIECES FROM INDIVIDUAL COMMENTATORS, THE AGREEMENT AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IS BEING DISSECTED. WE HAVE A BRIEF SAMPLING NOW FROM ________________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: IN THE MIDWEST, THAT REGION'S LARGEST DAILY, "THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE", CALLS THE ACHIEVEMENT "A TENUOUS PEACE IN THE BALKANS" AND QUOTES A VERY FAMOUS DUTCH SCHOLAR ON THE SUBJECT:

    VOICE: "'THE MOST DISADVANTAGEOUS PEACE,' THE RENAISSANCE SCHOLAR ERASMUS WROTE, 'IS BETTER THAN THE MOST JUST WAR.' INDEED, THAT MIGHT BE THE MOST ADVANTAGEOUS WAY TO VIEW THE BOSNIA ACCORD THAT EMERGED TUESDAY. IT IS, TO BE SURE, A MOMENTOUS STEP TOWARD ENDING THE HORRIFYING CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS. ..... WE PRAY THAT THE AGREEMENT SUCCEEDS, AND RECOGNIZED THAT SEVERAL PREVIOUS AGREEMENTS WERE BROKEN WITHIN DAYS, AND RECOGNIZE THAT THERE ARE MANY WAYS IN WHICH THIS ONE COULD SHATTER. .... THERE IS A PLAN, BUT THERE IS A LONG ROAD TO PEACE."

    TEXT: THERE IS CONSIDERABLE SKEPTICISM ON THE EDITORIAL BOARD OF "THE DALLAS MORNING NEWS," THE LARGEST PAPER IN THE SOUTHWEST, WHICH COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "WHEN BOSNIA'S WARRING PARTIES APPEARED DEADLOCKED OVER A PEACE ACCORD, STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICOLAS BURNS VOWED, 'WE'RE NOT GOING TO DRAG THEM ACROSS THE FINISH LINE.' BUT THAT APPEARS TO BE EXACTLY WHAT THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION DID TO GET THE PRESIDENTS OF CROATIA, SERBIA AND BOSNIA TO RESOLVE THEIR IMPASSE TUESDAY. ..... THE RESULTING BREAKTHROUGH IS A MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENT FOR THE ADMINISTRATION. SO FAR. THERE IS CONCERN WHETHER THE AGREEMENT WILL HOLD UP. WERE ANY OF THE PARTICIPANTS PRESSURED INTO AGREEING TO SOMETHING THEY CANNOT SELL BACK HOME ...? DID THE ADMINISTRATION PRESS A FLAWED PLAN IN ORDER TO HAVE SOMETHING TO SHOW AFTER THREE WEEKS OF TALKS?"

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER'S" SENIOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS COLUMNIST, TRUDY RUBIN, ALSO HAS HER DOUBTS ABOUT THE EFFICACY OF THE ACCORD.

    VOICE: "I BELIEVE THERE IS A CHANCE [THE] PEACE ACCORD ... CAN END THE BOSNIAN FIGHTING OVER THE LONG TERM. BUT IT WILL REQUIRE CONVINCING BOSNIAN MUSLIMS - - AND [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] SOME KEY U-S MEMBERS OF CONGRESS - - THAT AN UNJUST PEACE IS BETTER THAN CONTINUED WAR. ..... IT IS EXCRUCIATINGLY PAINFUL - - AFTER 43 MONTHS OF BRUTAL FIGHTING TO SAVE A UNIFIED BOSNIA - - FOR BOSNIAN ... LEADERS TO ACCEPT A PEACE THAT EFFECTIVELY PARTITIONS THE COUNTRY. ....WASHINGTON SHOULD BE CAREFUL NOT TO GIVE CREDENCE TO THE WIDESPREAD BELIEF IN THE REGION THAT AMERICA INTENDS TO LET THE WAR RIP [RESUME FORCEFULLY] ONCE NATO PEACEKEEPERS LEAVE BOSNIA. IF ALL SIDES FINALLY BELIEVE AMERICA WANTS THE WAR OVER, THEY MAY BE WILLING TO SETTLE FOR AN UNSATISFACTORY PEACE."

    TEXT: AND ON NEW YORK'S LONG ISLAND, "NEWSDAY" RAISES AN INTERESTING QUESTION ABOUT THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE THAT WILL ENFORCE THE DAYTON ACCORD.

    VOICE: "IF THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, THE SERBS AND THE CROATS WERE TRULY COMMITTED TO PEACE, WOULD THEY NEED [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] A TOTAL OF 60-THOUSAND FOREIGN TROOPS TO GUARANTEE THEIR GOOD INTENTIONS? MAYBE THE PEACEKEEPERS ARE NEEDED TO HELP THE COMBATANTS CURB THEIR WORST TENDENCIES WHEN THE BALKAN SNOWS MELT IN THE SPRING. BUT WILL [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S RESOLVE MELT, TOO, WHEN THE FIRST U-S CASUALTIES BEGIN TO ARRIVE BACK HOME IN BODY BAGS AS THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN WARMS UP?"

    TEXT: THE MISSION IN BOSNIA MAY BE CAUSING CONSTERNATION IN THE AMERICAN MILITARY, SAYS RETIRED U-S ARMY COLONEL HARRY G. SUMMERS, JR., A DISTINGUISHED FELLOW OF THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE. HIS NATIONALLY SYNDICATED COLUMN APPEARS IN TODAY'S "WASHINGTON TIMES."

    VOICE: "BOSNIA HAS BECOME THE NIGHTMARE OF OUR SENIOR MILITARY OFFICERS, FOR THEY FIND THEMSELVES ABOUT TO DO THE VERY THING THEY PLEDGED NOT TO DO WHEN THEY WERE JUNIOR OFFICERS ON THE BATTLEFIELD IN VIETNAM. THEY ARE ABOUT TO PUT THE LIVES OF THEIR TROOPS IN JEOPARDY IN PURSUIT OF A MISSION FOR WHICH THEY HAVE GRAVE RESERVATIONS. LIKE THEIR PREDECESSORS A GENERATION AGO, THEY ARE IMPALED ON THE HORNS OF A TERRIBLE DILEMMA. THEIR PROFESSIONAL MILITARY JUDGMENT HAS SERIOUS DOUBTS ABOUT THE WISDOM OF DEPLOYING AMERICAN GROUND TROOPS INTO THE MIDDLE OF A BALKAN CIVIL WAR. YET THEY ARE DUTY BOUND TO FAITHFULLY EXECUTE THE ORDERS OF THEIR COMMANDER IN CHIEF, PRESIDENT CLINTON."

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, "NEW YORK TIMES" FOREIGN AFFAIRS COLUMNIST THOMAS FRIEDMAN HAS SOME ADVICE FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON ON CONVINCING THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO SUPPORT THE PEACEKEEPING MISSION. HE BEGINS WITH A QUESTION.

    VOICE: "HOW WILL WE KNOW WHEN THIS MISSION HAS SUCCEEDED? ..... THE STAKES FOR YOU [PRESIDENT CLINTON] COULD NOT BE HIGHER. IF THIS PEACE MISSION SUCCEEDS, YOUR WHOLE FOREIGN POLICY WILL BE JUDGED VERY DIFFERENTLY THAN IT HAS BEEN UP TO NOW. BUT IF YOU CAN'T GET THE PUBLIC'S SUPPORT FOR THIS MISSION, OR IF THIS MISSION FAILS ... BECAUSE IT TURNS OUT NOT TO HAVE BEEN EITHER LIMITED OR CLEARLY DEFINED, [AS YOU SAID IT WAS IN YOUR SIGNING ANNOUNCEMENT] EVERYTHING ELSE YOU'VE ACHIEVED IN FOREIGN POLICY WILL BE FORGOTTEN. ..... TO MAKE IT A SUCCESS WILL REQUIRE YOU TO EXHIBIT SOMETHING ... YOU HAVE NEVER EXHIBITED BEFORE - - A SUSTAINED, PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT WITH FOREIGN POLICY. THAT IS THE ONLY WAY YOU CAN SELL THIS. BUT FIRST, YOU HAVE TO TELL US EXACTLY WHAT YOU'RE SELLING."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE COME TO THE END OF THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL OPINION CONCERNING THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD.

    ANG/NL

    22-Nov-95 1:23 PM EST (1823 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [18] THE CASE FOR US TROOPS IN BOSNIA BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08738
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE BOSNIAN PEACE DOCUMENT THAT IS EXPECTED TO BE SIGNED NEXT MONTH IN PARIS RELIES HEAVILY ON THE INVOLVEMENT OF 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS AS PART OF A LARGER 60-THOUSAND PERSON NATO CONTINGENT. NOW THAT A PEACE SETTLEMENT HAS BEEN AGREED ON BY ALL SIDES, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON HAS BEGUN A CAMPAIGN TO PERSUADE THE U-S CONGRESS TO BACK HIM IN THE DECISION TO SEND AMERICAN SOLDIERS TO POLICE THE ACCORD EVEN THOUGH CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL IS NOT

    STRICTLY REQUIRED. VOA'S PAMELA TAYLOR TALKED WITH SOME

    EXPERTS ON CONGRESSIONAL FOREIGN POLICY MATTERS ABOUT THE TASK FACING THE PRESIDENT.

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH THE U-S CONGRESS IS IN A THANKSGIVING RECESS, THE WHITE HOUSE HAS BEGUN SENDING IT'S TOP BOSNIA NEGOTIATORS TO BRIEF THOSE MEMBERS OF CONGRESS STILL IN TOWN. THOSE OUT OF TOWN FOR THE THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY CAN EXPECT TELEPHONE CALLS FROM TOP ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS. NEXT WEEK, THE PRESIDENT IS EXPECTED TO MAKE A MAJOR NATIONAL TELEVISED ADDRESS TO EXPLAIN HIS IDEAS. THIS IS ALL PART OF AN EFFORT TO WIN THE SUPPORT OF CONGRESS AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE EVEN THOUGH THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT DOES NOT CONSTITUTIONALLY REQUIRE THE APPROVAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH TO SEND TROOPS ABROAD. AND NO U-S PRESIDENT HAS RECOGNIZED THE AUTHORITY OF THE WAR POWERS ACT, WHICH CALLS FOR CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL FOR SUCH ACTIONS. NEVERTHELESS, IN THE VIEW OF MOST POLITICAL OBSERVERS, PRESIDENT CLINTON NEEDS TO AVOID MAKING A POLITICALLY DIVISIVE DECISION WITH 1996 BEING AN ELECTION YEAR. [BEGIN OPT] CONGRESS DOES HAVE THE POWER TO BLOCK FUNDING FOR TROOP DEPLOYMENT. LAST WEEK, FOR EXAMPLE, THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES VOTED TO BLOCK FUNDING FOR THE ONE-AND-A HALF BILLION DOLLAR, 12 MONTH DEPLOYMENT WITHOUT CONGRESSIONAL APPROVAL. BUT THAT WAS BEFORE THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. [END OPT] LINDA JAMISON, A CONGRESSIONAL AFFAIRS ANALYST WITH THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (CSIS) IN WASHINGTON, THINKS PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS THE OPPORTUNITY TO DEMONSTRATE STRONG LEADERSHIP. SHE SAYS HE NEEDS TO PERSUADE CONGRESS AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE THAT THE WORLD'S LAST SUPERPOWER CANNOT IGNOR ITS RESPONSIBILITIES IN A POST COLD WAR WORLD:

    TAPE: CUT # JAMISON RUNS [:53] "IN THE PAST, THERE WAS BROAD BI-PARTISAN SUPPORT FOR POLICIES OF THE COLD WAR, FOREIGN POLICIES THAT WE PURSUED AS A NATION DURING THE COLD WAR. NOW WE'VE REALLY GOT NO BI-PARTISAN CONSENSUS FOR OUR FOREIGN POLICY. SO EVERY FOREIGN POLICY THAT'S CREATED AND CRAFTED HAS GOT TO BE SOLD INDIVIDUALLY TO MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND IN THE SITUATION OF BOSNIA, HOPEFULLY PEOPLE WILL SET ASIDE THEIR POLITICAL DIFFERENCES WITH THE PRESIDENT AND THEIR COLLEAGUES OVER ISSUES LIKE THE BUDGET IN ORDER TO THINK MORE BROADLY ABOUT WHAT THIS COUNTRY STANDS FOR IN THE WORLD. WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES IT WILL GO TO FIGHT FOR, WHAT ARE THE SITUATIONS WHICH WE BELIEVE ARE IMPORTANT ENOUGH TO SUPPORT OUR ALLIES BY SENDING TROOPS AS PEACEKEEPERS OR PEACE ENFORCERS OVERSEAS."

    TEXT: NORMAN ORENSTEIN (OREN-STEEN) OF THE AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE AGREES WITH MS. JAMISON THAT THE CONGRESS USUALLY STANDS BEHIND THE PRESIDENT ON MAJOR FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES. AND HE DOESN'T BELIEVE PRESIDENT CLINTON WILL NECESSARILY ENCOUNTER THE SAME PARTISAN OPPOSITION IN CONGRESS THAT HE RAN INTO ON THE BUDGET RESOLUTION:

    TAPE: CUT # ORENSTEIN RUNS [:41] "THIS IS NOT GOING TO BREAK DOWN ON PARTY LINES BECAUSE YOU'VE GOT A SIZEABLE NUMBER OF DEMOCRATS WHO ARE VERY RELUCTANT TO SEND TROOPS ANYWHERE. THESE ARE NOT PEOPLE WHO ARE GOING TO BE REFLEXIVE SUPPORTERS OF EVERYTHING BILL CLINTON STANDS FOR, HE'S GOING TO HAVE AT LEAST AS MUCH TROUBLE WITH MANY IN HIS OWN PARTY AS WITH REPUBLICANS. THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN IS YOU DO HAVE SOME REPUBLICANS WHO BELIEVE THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF, THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES HAS THE PRIME ROLE IN FOREIGN POLICY AND YOU DEFER TO SOME DEGREE TO HIM."

    TEXT: NEVERTHELESS, MR. ORENSTEIN SAYS THE PRESIDENT HAS HIS WORK CUT OUT FOR HIM CONVINCING CONGRESS THAT KEEPING PEACE IN BOSNIA IS WORTH PLACING YOUNG AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN HARM'S WAY. [BEGIN OPT] IT WILL BE ESPECIALLY TOUGH, HE THINKS, TO PERSUADE THOSE REPUBLICANS WHO FAVOR LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AS A WAY TO AVOID U-S TROOP INVOLVEMENT:

    TAPE: CUT # ORENSTEIN RUNS [:22] "THERE WERE MANY WHO TOOK IT (LIFTING THE ARMS EMBARGO) AS THE CHEAP AND EASY WAY OUT. YOU KNOW: 'LET THEM ARM THEMSELVES, IT DOESN'T COST US ANYTHING'. AND THEN WE CAN WASH OUR HANDS OF ANY RESPONSIBILITY HERE. NOW THEY HAVE A SPECIFIC VOTE TO CAST WHERE IT'S THEIR RESPONSIBILITY. THIS IS A SWEATY PALMS VOTE FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE HERE AND HOW THEY'LL VOTE WE CAN'T PREDICT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THERE ARE THOSE IN CONGRESS WHO ARE CONCERNED NOT SO MUCH WITH SENDING IN THE TROOPS, BUT IN HOW TO GET THEM OUT. PROFESSOR JOSHUA GOLDSTEIN (GOLD STINE) OF AMERICAN UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON D.C., THINKS A CASE CAN BE MADE FOR LIFTING THE EMBARGO AND SENDING IN TROOPS AS THE BEST WAY TO ASSURE AN EXIT STRATEGY.

    TAPE: CUT # GOLDSTEIN RUNS [:32] "CONGRESS WILL LOOK FOR TWO THINGS IN SENDING THIS FORCE, ONE THAT IT WILL BE A STRONG FORCE UNDER U-S COMMAND, WHICH IT WILL BE, NOT THE UNPROFOR, THE UN FORCES THAT HAD SO MANY PROBLEMS IN BOSNIA. AND SECONDLY, THEY'LL BE LOOKING FOR THE CREATION OF A BALANCE OF POWER BY HELPING THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT EQUALIZE ITS FORCES UP TO THE LEVEL THE SERB FORCES HAVE IN WEAPONRY. WITH THAT BALANCE OF POWER YOU THEN HAVE AN EXIT STRATEGY TO GET THE U-S FORCES BACK OUT WITHOUT THE WAR RESUMING."

    TEXT: THE SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES (NEWT GINGRICH) SAYS EXTENSIVE HEARINGS WILL BE HELD ON THE ISSUE, BUT THE ADMINISTRATION MAY NOT WAIT FOR THE OUTCOME. IN THE END, REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE, SENATOR RICHARD LUGAR (OF INDIANA) THINKS THE CONGRESS MAY NEITHER APPROVE NOR BLOCK THE TROOP DEPLOYMENT. HE TOLD REPORTERS THAT CONGRESS COULD SIMPLY CAST AN ADVISORY RESOLUTION SAYING, 'MR. PRESIDENT, YOU MADE YOUR BED, NOW SLEEP IN IT [I.E. YOU MADE THE DECISION, NOW IT'S YOUR RESPONSIBILITY]. IF IT TURNS OUT BADLY, YOU'LL HEAR FROM US.' (SIGNED)

    NEB/PAM/GE
    22-Nov-95 3:03 PM EST (2003 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [19] U-S/BOSNIA SERBS (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188996
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS OPPOSITION TO THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD BY BOSNIAN SERB HARDLINERS WILL NOT BLOCK IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PACKAGE. THE PALE SERBS CONTEND THEY WERE NOT ADEQUATELY TOLD OF CONCESSIONS MADE IN THEIR NAME BY SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT INSISTS THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WAS FULLY EMPOWERED TO NEGOTIATE FOR THE BOSNIAN SERBS, AND THAT DISSATISFACTION BY SOME FIGURES IN PALE WILL NOT TORPEDO THE PEACE ACCORD.

    HARDLINERS IN PALE SAY THEY WERE INFORMED OF KEY TERRITORIAL CONCESSIONS BY MR. MILOSEVIC ONLY MINUTES BEFORE THE DAYTON ACCORD WAS INITIALLED. AND THERE ARE INDICATIONS THEY MAY SEEK TO CONVENE THE BOSNIAN SERB PARLIAMENT TO REJECT THE ACCORD. HOWEVER, AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT, SPOKESMAN NICK BURNS SAID ALL ASPECTS THE AGREEMENT INITIALLED TUESDAY WERE FIRM COMMITTMENTS BY THE JOINT SERBIAN AND BOSNIAN SERB DELEGATION HEADED BY PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC.

    HE INSISTED THAT THE MILITARY SITUATION HAD TURNED DECISIVELY AGAINST SERB RADICALS IN THE WEEKS LEADING UP TO THE DAYTON CONFERENCE, AND THAT THEY HAVE NO RATIONAL HOPE OF BLOCKING THE ACCORD OR RE-IGNITING HOSTILITIES:

    //BURNS ACTUALITY///

    THE FACT IS THEY WERE ON THE RUN THROUGHOUT LATE SUMMER AND THROUGHOUT THE AUTUMN. THE SITUATION TURNED AROUND AND THEIR DREAM OF A GREATER SERBIA VANISHED DURING THE CROATIAN OFFENSIVE AND CERTAINLY DURING THE NATO AIR CAMPAIGN OF THE FIRST TWO WEEKS OF SEPTEMBER. THE FACT IS ALL THE CONDITIONS OF THE WAR THAT HAD BEEN FAVORABLE TO THEM CHANGED. THEY HAVE NO HOPE TO RESTART THAT WAR RIGHT NOW. THAT'S CLEARLY THE VIEW OF PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WHO BELEIVES NOW THE TIME HAS COME FOR PEACE.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. BURNS ALSO SAID THERE IS CONSIDERABLE LEVERAGE THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY COULD EXERT IF THE SERB SIDE BACK-TRACKS FROM THE ACCORD -- INCLUDING THE RE-IMPOSITION OF U-N SANCTIONS THE UNITED STATES AND ITS ALLIES ARE NOW MOVING TO LIFT.

    THE SPOKESMAN ALSO PROVIDED WHAT AMOUNTS TO A PREVIEW OF THE CAMPAIGN THE ADMINISTRATION WILL MOUNT IN SUPPORT OF THE LEADING U-S ROLE IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. HE SAID IF CONGRESS BLOCKED THE U-S TROOP COMMITMENT, AS SOME LEADING REPUBLICANS THREATEN, IT WOULD AMOUNT TO A MORAL ABDICATION BY THE UNITED STATES OF ITS ROLE AS A WORLD LEADER. (SIGNED) WASH....

    NEB/DAG/PT
    22-Nov-95 3:41 PM EST (2041 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [20] U-S TROOPS / BOSNIA (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=11/22/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-188993
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS NATO LEADERS COMPLETE PLANS FOR THE DEPLOYMENT OF THE PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA, U-S ARMY UNITS BASED IN GERMANY SAY THEY WILL BE WELL PREPARED FOR THE ASSIGNMENT. V-O-A'S KYLE KING VISITED THE TROOPS, AND FILED THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: WHEN PRESIDENT CLINTON MAKES THE DECISION TO ORDER U-S TROOPS TO BOSNIA, SOLDIERS AT THE FIRST ARMORED DIVISION BASED IN BAD KREUZNACH (GERMANY) WILL BE AMONG THE FIRST TO GO. THE 13-THOUSAND-MEMBER UNIT IS EXPECTED TO MAKE UP THE BULK OF THE AMERICAN CONTINGENT TO THE NATO-LED IMPLEMENTATION FORCE.

    DESPITE INTENSE TRAINING FOR THE MISSION, CAPTAIN JOHN SUTTLE SAYS IT WILL BE A TOUGH MISSION.

    /// SUTTLE ACT ///

    THE MAIN PROBLEM WILL BE DEALING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. I MEAN IT IS COLD IN BOSNIA. THE WINTER CONDITIONS ARE GOING TO BE VERY DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH. WE'VE RECEIVED COLD WEATHER TRAINING AND WE HAVE THE BEST COLD WEATHER EQUIPMENT IN THE WORLD, ON THE FACE OF THE PLANET, BUT EVEN SO IT'S GOING TO BE VERY COLD.

    /// END ACT ///

    OVER THE PAST MONTH THE UNIT HAS CONDUCTED EXTENSIVE EXERCISES IN AN EFFORT TO PREPARE FOR THE TYPES OF PROBLEMS IT MAY ENCOUNTER DURING THE MISSION.

    HIGH TECH COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE EQUIPMENT WILL ALLOW TROOPS TO ASK COMMANDERS AND CIVIL AFFAIRS EXPERTS FOR IMMEDIATE ADVICE IN ALMOST EVERY SITUATION.

    CAPTAIN SUTTLE SAYS THE TROOPS ARE NOW AT PEAK READINESS AND WILL ALSO HAVE A POWERFUL ARSENAL TO BACK THEM UP IF THE NEED ARISES.

    /// SUTTLE ACT ///

    THE DIVISION IS AN ARMORED DIVISION, SO WE HAVE LOTS OF TANKS, WE HAVE IN EXCESS OF 300 ARMORED VEHICLES THAT ARE THE BEST IN THE WORLD OF ANY MILITARY IN THE WORLD. SO YOU ARE GOING TO SEE THE M-1 ABRAMS MAIN BATTLE TANK, THE BRADLEY INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICLE, YOU'RE GOING TO SEE THE 155 SELF-PROPELLED HOWITZER FOR FIRE SUPPORT, YOU'RE GOING TO SEE APACHE ATTACK HELICOPTERS, SCOUT HELICOPTERS. BUT THE MOST IMPORTANT THING YOU'RE GOING TO SEE IS THE U-S SOLDIER, THE INDIVIDUAL SOLDIER, THAT'S OUR BIGGEST ASSET.

    /// END ACT ///

    WHEN THE DEPLOYMENT ORDERS FINALLY COME DOWN, THE FIRST ARMORED DIVISION IS EXPECTED TO SET UP ITS HEADQUARTERS IN TUZLA. ITS MAIN TASK WILL BE TO PATROL THE CONFRONTATION LINE, KEEPING THE WARRING FACTIONS APART.

    THE NATO OPERATION WILL BE THE MOST COMPLEX IN THE ALLIANCE'S HISTORY. AND EXPERTS SAY IT WILL TAKE WEEKS TO GET ALL THE TROOPS IN PLACE ONCE THE ORDERS ARE FINALIZED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/BG
    22-Nov-95 1:27 PM EST (1827 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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