Browse through our Interesting Nodes on the Greek Dining & Food Industry Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923) Read the Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (24 July 1923)
HR-Net - Hellenic Resources Network Compact version
Today's Suggestion
Read The "Macedonian Question" (by Maria Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou)
HomeAbout HR-NetNewsWeb SitesDocumentsOnline HelpUsage InformationContact us
Tuesday, 24 May 2022
 
News
  Latest News (All)
     From Greece
     From Cyprus
     From Europe
     From Balkans
     From Turkey
     From USA
  Announcements
  World Press
  News Archives
Web Sites
  Hosted
  Mirrored
  Interesting Nodes
Documents
  Special Topics
  Treaties, Conventions
  Constitutions
  U.S. Agencies
  Cyprus Problem
  Other
Services
  Personal NewsPaper
  Greek Fonts
  Tools
  F.A.Q.
 

Voice of America, 10 December 1995

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] BOSNAI PEACE/MOSTAR BY DOUG ROBERTS (MOSTAR)

  • [02] BOSNIA/PRESIDENT (L-ONLY) BY DOUG ROBERTS (ZENICA)

  • [03] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA ( LONDON)

  • [04] GORE / BOSNIA (L) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)


  • [01] BOSNAI PEACE/MOSTAR BY DOUG ROBERTS (MOSTAR)

    DATE=12/10/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31901
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN LESS THAN A WEEK, HEAVILY ARMED NATO COMBAT TROOPS WILL BEGIN TO DEPLOY IN BOSNIA TO IMPLEMENT THE PEACE PLAN NEGOTIATED IN DAYTON OHIO LAST MONTH. NATO FORCES WILL ESTABLISH AND CONTROL A ZONE OF SEPARATION BETWEEN BOSNIA'S MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION AND THE SERB ENTITY. BUT THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE WILL NOT BE PRESENT IN ONE OF BOSNIA'S BLOODIEST BATTLE GROUNDS, NOR WILL IT HAVE ANY DIRECT ROLE IN EFFORTS TO DEAL WITH ONE OF THE COUNTRIES THORNIEST UNRESOLVED PROBLEMS. THE BATTERED SOUTHERN TOWN OF MOSTAR REMAINS ESSENTIALLY DIVIDED BETWEEN ITS CROAT AND MUSLIM COMMUNITIES DESPITE 17 MONTHS OF WORK BY ADMINISTRATORS FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION TO REUNITE THE CITY. FROM MOSTAR DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS.

    TEXT: UNDER AN ICY WINTER RAIN, MOSTAR IS A DEPRESSING PLACE. POT HOLED STREETS ARE FLOODED ON BOTH THE CROAT AND MUSLIM SIDES OF THE CITY AND MORE THAN 20 MONTHS AFTER THE FIGHTING ENDED HERE, THE FORMER CONFRONTATION LINE REMAINS A STARK, URBAN EYE SORE -- GUTTED SHELLED POCKED BUILDINGS INTERSPERSED WITH PILES OF RUBBLE AND TWISTED METAL.

    THE EASTERN MUSLIM SIDE OF MOSTAR WAS HARDEST HIT DURING THE WARFARE. SO IT IS MORE THAN A LITTLE SURPRISING TO HEAR GLIMMERS OF OPTIMISM FROM ORDINARY CITIZENS AS WELL AS MUSLIM MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES. LIFE IS DEFINITELY GETTING BETTER, SAYS NIJAZ BATLAK AS HE WORK ON HIS LATEST PAINTING IN A SMALL STUDIO ON KUJUNDZILUK STREET IN MOSTARS HISTORIC TURKISH QUARTER. WE HAVE ELECTRICITY AND RUNNING WATER NOW SAYS THE GRAY HAIRED ARTIST, AND THERE IS ENOUGH TO EAT. MR. BATLAK ALSO BELIEVES THERE IS ALSO HOPE FOR RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS. I AM VERY OPTIMISTIC, HE SAYS, THAT WE CAN LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN.

    BUT THAT SENSE OF OPTIMISM IS NOT FOUND AMONG ORDINARY CROATS. ACROSS THE NERETVA RIVER ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE CITY. MANY THERE STILL LOOK ON THE MUSLIM'S AS ENEMIES AND FEW SEEM TO WANT MOSTAR TO BE REUNITED. WE WANT TO LIVE SEPARATELY, SAYS IVAN CORIC WHO RUNS A SMALL HOTEL IN WEST MOSTAR. THERE IS TOO MUCH BAD BLOOD BETWEEN US, HE ADDS AND THE MUSLIMS WHO LEFT WEST MOSTAR DURING THE FIGHTING MUST NOT BE ALLOWED TO RETURN. WE CAN BE CORRECT WITH EACH OTHER ADDS ANTE RAJIC , A RETIRED CROAT BUTCHER, BUT WE CAN NEVER LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN.

    FOR THE PAST 17 MONTHS, A TEAM OF EUROPEAN UNION ADMINISTRATORS HAS BEEN ATTEMPTING TO RECONSTRUCT MOSTAR AND REUNITE ITS TWO COMMUNITIES. THE E-U HAS HAD CONSIDERABLE SUCCESS IN RESTORING ESSENTIAL SERVICES WITH AN ONGOING INVESTMENT PROGRAM THAT ALREADY TOTALS 150 MILLION DOLLARS. IN ADDITION TO THE RESUMPTION OF WATER AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES, SCHOOLS ON BOTH SIDES OF THE CITY HAVE BEEN REOPENED, A PROGRAM TO RENOVATE DAMAGED HOMES HAS BEGUN, ALONG WITH ANOTHER AIMED AT REVIVING INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION.

    BUT THE E-U HAS BEEN MUCH LESS SUCCESSFUL AT THE POLITICAL LEVEL AMID CLEAR RELUCTANCE ON THE PART OF THE CROAT LEADERSHIP TO REINTEGRATE THE CITY. THE FATE OF MOSTAR WAS ADDED TO THE AGENDA OF LAST MONTHS DAYTON PEACE CONFERENCE, AND THE TWO SIDES SIGNED AN AGREEMENT AIMED AT STRENGTHENING AND ACCELERATING THE PROCESS OF REUNIFICATION. THE ACCORD BROADENED FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE CROAT AND MUSLIM HALVES OF MOSTAR, AND IT SET TIMETABLES FOR MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS, THE FULL ESTABLISHMENT OF A JOINT POLICE FORCE AND THE RETURN OF THOSE EXPELLED FROM THEIR HOMES DURING THE WARFARE.

    THE DAYTON AGREEMENT LEFT THE E-U SPOKESMAN HERE DRAGAN GASIC VERY HOPEFUL ABOUT THE FUTURE OF MOSTAR. BUT WE ARE STILL BEING CAUTIOUS, HE ADDS, BECAUSE THERE HAVE BEEN SO MANY AGREEMENTS THAT WERE NEVER IMPLEMENTED. CROAT AND MUSLIM LEADERS HAVE STILL NOT AGREED ON THE SHAPE OF THE FUTURE MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION. THE MUSLIMS WANT A COMPLETELY UNITED MOSTAR, WHILE CROAT LEADERS ARE CONTINUING TO INSIST ON TWO DISTINCT DISTRICTS.

    BUT CROAT AND MUSLIM LEADERS ARE NO LONGER OPENLY CONDEMNING EACH OTHER AND EACH SAYS THE OTHER HAS BEGUN TO SHOW GREATER FLEXIBILITY. THERE HAVE BEEN SOME SMALL BUT IMPORTANT STEPS FORWARD IN THE PAST FEW WEEKS SAYS RUSMIR CISIC THE MUSLIM CHAIRMAN OF EAST MOSTARS CITY COUNCIL. AND HE ADDS THERE ALSO HAVE BEEN SOME CHANGES IN THE ATTITUDE OF THE CROAT LEADERSHIP. ACROSS TOWN, JOZO MARIC A SENIOR CROAT LEADER MAKES AN ALMOST IDENTICAL STATEMENT. WE ARE SEEING THE FIRST GOOD SIGNS, HE SAYS, BUT MUSLIM LEADERS ARE BEGINNING TO UNDERSTAND OUR DESIRE TO MAINTAIN OUR SEPARATE IDENTITY.

    MR. MARIC BELIEVES THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN WILL MAKE IT EASIER TO RESOLVE MOSTARS PROBLEMS, EVEN THOUGH THE NATO IMPLEMENTATION FORCE WILL HAVE NO DIRECT ROLE HERE. MANY CROATS ARE BITTER ABOUT THE RESULTS OF THE DAYTON CONFERENCE AND WHAT THEY PERCEIVE AS THE CONCESSIONS MADE THERE BY CROATIA'S PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN AT THE EXPENSE OF THE BOSNIAN CROATS. BUT MR. MARIC SAYS ONLY A PEACE PLAN GUARANTEED BY NATO CAN CREATE THE CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO SOLIDIFY THE MUSLIM CROAT FEDERATION AND TO FINALLY END MOSTAR'S DILEMMA. (SIGNED) NEB/DR/CB-T/LWM 10-Dec-95 3:20 PM EST (2020 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA/PRESIDENT (L-ONLY) BY DOUG ROBERTS (ZENICA)

    DATE=12/10/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189815
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: LESS THAN A WEEK BEFORE NATO COMBAT FORCES BEGIN TO DEPLOY IN BOSNIA, PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC SAYS PEACE IS AT HAND. DOUG ROBERTS REPORTS THE BOSNIAN LEADER SPOKE AT A MILITARY CEREMONY SUNDAY IN THE TOWN OF ZENICA .

    TEXT: PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC CAME TO ZENICA TO HONOR THE BOSNIAN ARMY'S THIRD CORPS, ESTABLISHED THREE-YEARS AGO, SOON AFTER THE OUTBREAK OF THE CONFLICT.

    ABOUT EIGHT-THOUSAND TROOPS LINED UP IN PARADE FORMATION ON A LOCAL SOCCER FIELD. AS MR. IZETBEGOVIC ARRIVED, WEARING A THICK ARMY COAT, THE TROOPS CHANTED ISLAMIC SLOGANS -- ALLAHU AKBAR, GOD IS GREAT -- AND JIHADD, HOLY WAR. THE THIRD CORPS IS KNOWN FOR ITS FANATIC DEVOTION TO ISLAM. MANY OF ITS TROOPS ARE BEARDED AND WEAR THE GREEN HEADBANDS OF TRADITIONAL MUSLIM WARRIORS.

    HUNDREDS OF MUSLIM FUNDAMENTALISTS FROM ARAB AND ASIAN STATES HAVE FOUGHT ALONG SIDE THE THIRD CORPS. UNDER THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT THESE FOREIGN MUSLIMS, KNOWN AS MUJAHEDEEN, ARE TO LEAVE BOSNIA BY 30-DAYS AFTER SIGNATURE OF THE PEACE AGREEMENTS.

    BOSNIAN MILITARY AND OTHER SOURCES SAY MANY OF THE MUJAHEDEEN HAVE BEEN GRANTED BOSNIAN CITIZENSHIP AND ARE NOT LIKELY TO LEAVE. ANALYSTS SAY THE ISSUE COULD SPELL TROUBLE FOR RELATIONS BETWEEN THE SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT AND NATO COMMANDERS CONCERNED ABOUT POSSIBLE TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOK TRAVELED TO SARAJEVO LAST WEEK, IN PART, TO STRESS TO THE BOSNIAN LEADERSHIP IT MUST HONOR ITS COMMITMENT TO ENSURE THE MUJAHIDEEN LEAVE THE COUNTRY.

    PRESIDENT IZETBOGOVIC DID NOT TOUCH ON THE ISSUE IN SUNDAY'S ADDRESS. HE PRAISED THE THIRD CORPS FOR ITS VALOR AND BRAVERY. HE SAID THE TROOPS FOUGHT FOR FREEDOM AND SET AN EXAMPLE FOR ALL.

    THE BOSNIAN PRESIDENT SAID WITH THE WAR ENDING MANY SOLDIERS WILL SOON BE DEMOBILIZED. HE SAID THEY MUST RETURN TO SCHOOLS AND JOBS, BECAUSE EDUCATION AND HARD WORK ARE NEEDED TO WIN THE BATTLE FOR PEACE. (SIGNED) NEB/RAE 10-Dec-95 2:21 PM EST (1921 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA CONFERENCE (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA ( LONDON)

    DATE=12/10/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189813
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DURING THE WEEKEND, AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BOSNIA ENDED ITS WORK IN LONDON. IN THIS REPORT FROM THE BRITISH CAPITAL, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL GATHERING.

    TEXT: THE LONDON PEACE IMPLEMENTATION CONFERENCE CAME JUST A FEW WEEKS AFTER THE WARRING FACTIONS IN BOSNIA INITIALED A PEACE ACCORD IN DAYTON, OHIO -- AND JUST A FEW DAYS BEFORE THE PEACE AGREEMENT IS OFFICIALLY SIGNED AT THE ELYSEE PALACE IN PARIS.

    THE LONDON GATHERING BROUGHT TOGETHER MORE THAN 40-COUNTRIES AS WELL AS THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN BOSNIA, SUCH AS NATO AND THE UNITED NATIONS.

    AT THE END OF THE TWO-DAY CONFERENCE, BRITISH FOREIGN SECRETARY MALCOLM RIFKIND TOLD REPORTERS PARTICIPANTS AGREED TO ESTABLISH A PEACE IMPLEMENTATION COUNCIL TO HELP GUIDE BOSNIA'S ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION. THE COUNCIL WILL BE HEADED BY FORMER SWEDISH PRIME MINISTER CARL BILDT -- THE CURRENT EUROPEAN NEGOTIATOR FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    MR. RIFKIND SAID CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS COMMITTED THEMSELVES TO CONTRIBUTE IN A SUBSTANTIAL WAY TO BOSNIA'S ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION. HE SAID THEY ALSO AGREED TO PROTECT AND PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEW BOSNIA.

    /// RIFKIND ACT ///

    EVERYONE WANTS PEACE IN BOSNIA. OUR MEETING HAS ENSURED THAT SOME OF THE CLOUDS SURROUNDING IMPLEMENTATION HAVE PARTED. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS NOW CLEARER ABOUT THE CHALLENGE IT FACES AND THE WAY IN WHICH THAT CHALLENGE WILL BE MET.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BILDT SAID SOON AFTER THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORDS ARE OFFICIALLY SIGNED IN PARIS, HE WILL SEND A TASK FORCE TO DEAL WITH THE SPECIAL PROBLEMS FACED BY THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, SARAJEVO.

    /// BILDT ACT ///

    A NUMBER OF PROPOSALS HAVE BEEN PUT FORWARD IN ORDER TO BUILD TRUST AND BUILD CONFIDENCE TO ENSURE THAT WE HAVE A SARAJEVO, THAT IS UNIFIED, AND A SARAJEVO WHERE ALL -- BE THEY SERB, CROAT, BOSNIAN, MUSLIM -- CAN LIVE IN FREEDOM AND SECURITY AND FEEL IT AS THEIR CITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SPEAKING ON BRITISH RADIO, BRITAIN'S MINISTER FOR OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT -- LYNDA CHALKER -- SAID THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY MUST DRAW ON THE SKILLS OF THE PEOPLE IN BOSNIA FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THEIR COUNTRY.

    // CHALKER ACT //

    WHAT WE HAVE IN BOSNIA IS MANY PEOPLE OF GOOD SKILLS, WELL-TRAINED. WE HAVE TO ENABLE THEM TO DO THE BUILDING. WE HAVE TO INVOLVE THEM IN IT AND GETTING BACK FROM OVERSEAS THOSE PEOPLE WHO FLED FOR THEIR SAFETY DURING THE FIGHTING WHO CAN HELP TO ORGANIZE THE RECONSTRUCTION PHASE THEMSELVES WILL BE AN IMMEDIATE PRIORITY.

    /// END ACT ///

    MRS. CHALKER SAID INVOLVING THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY MAY BEGIN TO HELP HEAL THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WOUNDS BROUGHT ON BY YEARS OF WAR. (SIGNED)

    NEB/ADEN/DW/RAE
    10-Dec-95 1:06 PM EST (1806 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] GORE / BOSNIA (L) BY JANE BERGER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/10/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-189811
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: VICE PRESIDENT AL GORE HAS CONDEMNED THE DESTRUCTION, BY BOSNIAN-CROAT FORCES, OF TOWNS AND VILLAGES TO BE TURNED OVER TO SERB CONTROL UNDER THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. CORRESPONDENT JANE BERGER REPORTS THE VICE PRESIDENT WAS ASKED ABOUT THE BOSNIAN SITUATION IN A (SUNDAY) U-S TELEVISION INTERVIEW (N-B-C MEET THE PRESS).

    TEXT: VICE PRESIDENT GORE SAID THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS WILL GO FORWARD, DESPITE REPORTED INCIDENTS OF ARSON AND LOOTING BY BOSNIAN-CROAT FORCES.

    THE VICE PRESIDENT WAS QUESTIONED ABOUT RISKS TO 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS WHO WILL TAKE PART IN THE NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION. HE SAID U-S FORCES WILL RETALIATE AGAINST THREATS. HE SAID THE RISKS OF NOT PARTICIPATING WOULD BE EVEN GREATER.

    /// GORE ACT ///

    THE RISKS OF NOT UNDERTAKING THIS MISSION ARE OVERWHELMING. THE DESTRUCTION OF NATO, THE LOSS OF A SIGNIFICANT MEASURE OF U-S INFLUENCE IN THE WORLD, THE RESTARTING OF THE WAR WITH THE ETHNIC SLAUGHTER AND THE RISK THAT THE WAR WOULD SPREAD, BRINGING GREECE AND TURKEY INTO A MUCH BROADER BALKAN WAR. WE HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY NOW, AT MINIMAL RISK, IN THE CONTEXT OF A PEACE AGREEMENT ACCEPTED BY ALL THE PARTIES, TO AVOID THOSE RISKS AND TO STOP THOSE PROBLEMS BEFORE THEY GET OUT OF CONTROL.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE VICE--PRESIDENT WAS ALSO ASKED ABOUT REPORTS IRAN MIGHT TAKE PART IN A COMMITMENT TO ARM THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT TO ENSURE THEIR STRENGTH IS EQUIVALENT TO THAT OF THE SERBS WHEN PEACEKEEPING TROOPS DEPART. MR. GORE SAID IRAN WILL HAVE NO PART IN THAT MISSION.

    /// GORE ACT ///

    WITH THE FULL KNOWLEDGE OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND THE SERBS, WE SAID WE ARE GOING TO MAKE THIS COMMITMENT TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT THAT WE WILL MAKE CERTAIN YOU HAVE THE EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING THAT YOU NEED. THE SERBS KNOW THAT. THEY ALSO KNOW THAT THE ALTERNATIVE TO US MAKING SURE IT GETS DONE IS THAT THE IRANIANS DO IT, AND THEY (THE IRANIANS) WILL NOT HAVE ANY ROLE IN THIS, I CAN GUARANTEE YOU THAT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. GORE SAID ALL PARTIES TO THE PEACE ACCORD HAVE AGREED TO REDUCE ARMAMENTS IN BOSNIA AND CREATE A MILITARY BALANCE AS PRECISELY AS POSSIBLE. HE SAID ALTHOUGH WEAPONS WILL BE REDUCED, THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT WILL HAVE TO BE ARMED TO BRING THAT BALANCE INTO EFFECT.

    VICE PRESIDENT GORE SAID PARTICIPANTS IN THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE MUST REMAIN EVEN-HANDED, SO THIRD PARTIES WILL PROVIDE THE BOSNIAN FEDERATION WITH THE MILITARY EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING THEY NEED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JB/RAE
    10-Dec-95 12:34 PM EST (1734 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    Yanni Boston, MA

    Back to Top
    Copyright © 1995-2022 HR-Net (Hellenic Resources Network). An HRI Project.
    All Rights Reserved.

    HTML by the HR-Net Group / Hellenic Resources Institute, Inc.
    voa2html v1.01 run on Sunday, 10 December 1995 - 23:48:17