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Voice of America, 18 December 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA/U-N (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA / MUJAHEDIN BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZENICA, BOSNIA)

  • [05] BOSNIA AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION THEORY BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)

  • [06] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [07] BOSNIA / TUZLA BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (TUZLA)

  • [08] EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN VIEWS OF BOSNIA (1) BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

  • [09] EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN VIEWS OF BOSNIA (2) BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

  • [10] I-M-F / BOSNIA BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)

  • [11] JOULWAN/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [12] MORE THOUGHTS ON BOSNIA BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [13] NATO/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [14] U-S/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

  • [15] U-S TROOPS/ HUNGARY (S-ONLY)) BY STEFAN BOS (BUDAPEST)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09338
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    (EDITOR'S ADVISORY : PLEASE NOTE CORRECTED NUMBER)
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY DECEMBER 18TH //

    INTRO: SEVERAL AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS ARE EDITORIALIZING ABOUT BOSNIA AGAIN THIS MONDAY, ALONG WITH OTHER TOPICS SUCH AS THE BUDGET STANDOFF THAT HAS IDLED THOUSANDS OF GOVERNMENT WORKERS; U-S RELATIONS WITH CHINA IN THE WAKE OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS; MORE TROUBLE IN CAMBODIA AND THE WIDENING GULF BETWEEN RICH AND POOR CHILDREN IN THE U-S. NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: IN FLORIDA, THIS MONDAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS, "THE ORLANDO SENTINEL" IS STRUCK BY THE CONTRASTS DISPLAYED IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    VOICE: "A GRAND CEREMONY LAST WEEK CELEBRATING THE FORMAL SIGNING OF A PEACE TREATY FOR BOSNIA SHARPLY CONTRASTED WITH THE DEVASTATION OF THE PRECEDING SEVERAL YEARS. GONE, FOR THE MOMENT, WERE THE ..... EXPLOSIONS, GUNFIRE ..... KILLINGS, PROPERTY DESTRUCTION AND OTHER MAYHEM THAT CHARACTERIZED THE CONFLICT. IN THEIR PLACE WAS A DOCUMENT, FRESHLY SIGNED BY THE KEY GROUPS, THAT COMMITTED ALL TO WORK TOWARD RECONCILIATION. THAT BIT OF PAPER OFFERS A THIN LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST THE RECALCITRANCE OF CENTURIES, IN MANY RESPECTS FRESHENED AND HARDENED BY RECENT ATROCITIES. ..... INDEED, SHOULD THE PEACE PLAN FALTER, THE POTENTIAL FOR EVEN GREATER CARNAGE COULD EMERGE. MAY THE MISSION BE PRODUCTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL, AND MAY THE TROOPS COME HOME AS SOON AS POSSIBLE."

    TEXT: IN BOSTON, MEANWHILE, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" TALKS ABOUT THE CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE OVER THE SENDING OF U-S TROOPS, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "CONGRESS DID THE RIGHT THING IN ACQUIESCING TO PRESIDENT CLINTON'S DEPLOYMENT OF AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA, ALTHOUGH IT DID SO GRUDGINGLY AND CONCEDED AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE TO THE WHITE HOUSE. IT TURNED ITS BACK ON ISOLATIONISM AND REAFFIRMED U-S LEADERSHIP AND COMMITMENT TO NATO. ...... AS U-S TROOPS TAKE UP THEIR POSITIONS IN BOSNIA, THEY SHOULD KNOW THAT AMERICANS' SUPPORT AND PRAYERS GO WITH THEM."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY ON THIS TOPIC, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE MUSES:

    VOICE: "WITH THE SIGNING OF THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT, THE SUPREME TEST OF THE CLINTON PRESIDENCY AND THE DOLE CANDIDACY BEGINS. THE POLITICAL FUTURE OF BOTH THESE RIVALS, ODDLY JOINED IN A FOREIGN INTERVENTION BOTH WOULD RATHER AVOID, HANGS IN THE BALANCE. IF THE COMMITMENT GOES AWRY, BOTH WILL SUFFER. U-S LEADERSHIP TO THE END OF THE CENTURY, NOW SEEMINGLY DESTINED FOR ONE OF THESE TWO MEN, COULD GO TO OTHERS."

    TEXT: TURNING TO DOMESTIC TOPICS, THERE IS A PARTIAL SHUTDOWN OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT AGAIN THIS MONDAY BECAUSE THERE IS NO AGREEMENT ON THE BUDGET, DRAWING THIS COMMENT FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST" [OPT] IN TODAY'S LEAD EDITORIAL.[END OPT]

    VOICE: "ASSUME THAT SOONER OR LATER, IF ONLY FOR FEAR OF THE PUBLIC DISGUST THAT THEY HAVE ALREADY EARNED, OUR ELECTED LEADERS WILL CUT OUT THE GRANDSTANDING AND REOPEN BOTH THE GOVERNMENT AND THE BUDGET TALKS. ASSUME FURTHER THAT THE TALKS ARE SERIOUS AND NOT JUST EFFORTS TO FIND A FIX THAT WILL GET THEM THROUGH THE ELECTION. MEDICAID WILL AGAIN BECOME THE HARDEST ISSUE THEY HAVE TO RESOLVE - - NOT THE SPENDING CUTS SO MUCH AS THE FUTURE STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM, AND WHAT SHOULD BE THE LONG-TERM ROLE OF THE FEDERAL VERSUS STATE GOVERNMENTS."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" IS CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT IT SEES AS CHINA'S LATEST "CHALLENGE TO WASHINGTON" IN VIEW OF RECENT EVENTS.

    VOICE: "IF THE UNITED STATES INTENDS TO DEVELOP A RELATIONSHIP OF MUTUAL RESPECT WITH CHINA, IT MUST DEFEND ITS INTERESTS AS VIGOROUSLY AS BEIJING DOES. NOW IS THE TIME, FOR CHINA HAS SHOWN A DANGEROUS NEW BELLICOSITY IN MATTERS FROM HUMAN RIGHTS TO MILITARY THREATS. ..... THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION, HAVING DONE ALL IT REASONABLY COULD TO SMOOTH RELATIONS, INCLUDING AN OCTOBER MEETING BETWEEN PRESIDENTS CLINTON AND JIANG, NOW NEEDS TO RECOGNIZE THAT A LESS INDULGENT POLICY IS REQUIRED ....."

    TEXT: ALSO SPEAKING OF CHINA, AND SPECIFICALLY THE TRIAL AND IMPRISONMENT OF DISSIDENT WEI JINGSHENG, TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" COMMENTS:

    VOICE: "HIS REAL CRIME WAS PUBLISHING 'A SERIES OF ARTICLES OVERSEAS TO SLANDER AND ATTACK THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT, THE LEADERSHIP OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY AND THE SOCIALIST SYSTEM AND TO ADVOCATE THE INDEPENDENCE OF TIBET.' [MR.] WEI, IN OTHER WORDS, EXPRESSED THE WRONG IDEAS. A GANGSTER GOVERNMENT THAT HAS NO MANDATE FROM THE CHINESE PEOPLE, MUCH LESS FROM HEAVEN, CANNOT TOLERATE THE PUBLIC EXPRESSION OF CRITICISM."

    TEXT: STILL IN THE SAME REGION, "THE WASHINGTON POST" LAMENTS THE NEW TROUBLES GRIPPING CAMBODIA, SUGGESTING:

    VOICE: "CAMBODIA, VICTIM OF OTHERS' WARS AS WELL AS ITS OWN TERRIBLE CIVIL WAR AND GENOCIDE, IS WIDELY HAILED AS A PRIME EXHIBIT OF UNITED NATIONS RESCUE. BUT TWO YEARS AFTER THE U-N HELD ELECTIONS AND TOOK OUT THE PEACEKEEPERS, THERE ARE DISTURBING REPORTS OF REPRESSION AND CORRUPTION. ..... A MISPLACED SYMPATHY FOR WHAT WAS CONSIDERED A NOBLE U-N MISSION HAS INFLUENCED WASHINGTON AND OTHER CAPITALS TO KEEP THEIR CONCERN OVER DRUGS DISCREET. ..... NOW CAMBODIA IS REPORTED TO BE HEADING FOR THE OFFICIAL AMERICAN LIST OF COUNTRIES REGARDED AS NARCOTICS OUTLAWS."

    TEXT: LASTLY, AND BACK AT HOME "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE WIDENING GULF BETWEEN RICH AND POOR CHILDREN AND HOW ACCESS TO COMPUTERS COULD CHANGE THAT IF THE NATION WANTS TO ELIMINATE OR EVEN REDUCE IT. THE PAPER SAYS A NATIONAL STRATEGY IS NEEDED, AND SOON.

    VOICE: "IN THE COMING DECADES, COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY COULD HELP BRIDGE THE YAWNING GULF BETWEEN HAVES AND HAVE-NOTS - - OR MAKE IT WIDER. DECISIONS BEING MADE RIGHT NOW IN CONGRESS, AND IN THOUSANDS OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS THE LAND, WILL DO MUCH TO DECIDE THAT. ..... THE NATION [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] NEEDS TO TAKE VIGOROUS STEPS TO HELP SCHOOLS TACKLE THE HIGH-TECH MISSION. SCHOOLS (ALONG WITH LIBRARIES AND HOSPITALS) DESERVE SPECIAL HELP GETTING WIRED AND GETTING ONLINE."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT HIGH-TECHNOLOGY NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS FROM THE U-S PRESS. NEB/ANG/T-B-A

    18-Dec-95 11:39 AM EST (1639 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=U-S COLUMNISTS ROUNDUP: BOSNIA #13
    NUMBER=6-09337
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=KLEINFELDT
    CONTENT=
    (ED. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF A CONTINUING SERIES ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND THE REACTION OF SELECTED AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS)

    INTRO: HEAVY FOG AND SNOW ARE MAKING IT DIFFICULT FOR AMERICAN FLIGHTS TO LAND IN BOSNIA. 20,000 TROOPS FROM THE UNITED STATES ARE TO BE PART OF A NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN THE REGION. ON MONDAY, NEWSPAPER COLUMNISTS IN THE U.S. CONTINUE TO OFFER A VARIETY OF OPINIONS ON AMERICA'S ROLE IN THE BOSNIAN MISSION, AS WE HEAR IN THIS SAMPLING OF COMMENTS APPEARING IN SOME OF THE COUNTRY'S LEADING DAILIES. OUR READER IS ______________________.

    TEXT: RECENT POLLS SHOW THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S APPROVAL RATING IS INCREASING. MISTER CLINTON FACES RE-ELECTION NEXT NOVEMBER. RICHARD BENEDETTO, IN A COLUMN APPEARING IN MONDAY'S USA TODAY NEWSPAPER, SAYS THAT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY IS NOW FACING "FRUSTRATION WITH CLINTON'S NEW-FOUND GRASP OF FOREIGN POLICY LEADERSHIP AT A CRITICAL TIME IN THE ELECTION CYCLE." MR. BENEDETTO WRITES THAT REPUBLICAN LEADERS "KNOW MUCH OF CLINTON'S POLITICAL RISE IN RECENT MONTHS IS DUE TO HIS PLAYING DOWN HIS ROLE AS A DOMESTIC PRESIDENT AND SHOWING HIMSELF AS A KEY PLAYER ON THE WORLD STAGE. AND THERE'S LITTLE THEY CAN DO TO COUNTER IT. REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS ARE FORCED TO GO ON TV DAILY TO ARGUE THEIR POSITION ON THE BUDGET, A TASK THAT WINS FEW FRIENDS WHEN ONE IS TRYING TO BRING FEDERAL SPENDING UNDER CONTROL. MEANWHILE, CLINTON ENTERS THE BUDGET FRAY ONLY AT CRITICAL POINTS, AND MAINLY TO POINT OUT THE NASTY THINGS HE SAYS THE BAD OLD GOP IS TRYING TO DO TO CHILDREN, THE POOR AND THE ELDERLY. THEN," CONTINUES THE USA TODAY COLUMNIST, "HE'S ABLE TO APPEAR ABOVE IT ALL BY GARNERING TV PICTURES GREETING CHEERING CROWDS IN NORTHERN IRELAND, DISCUSSING MIDDLE EAST AFFAIRS WITH ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES AT THE WHITE HOUSE AND ATTENDING TO BOSNIA PEACE IN PARIS."

    BUT, AMOS PERLMUTTER, WRITING IN THE WASHINGTON TIMES, ARGUES THAT THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORDS, "AGREED UPON IN DAYTON AND SIGNED IN PARIS, ARE POLITICALLY FLAWED." MISTER PERLMUTTER, A PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND SOCIOLOGY AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, AND EDITOR OF THE JOURNAL OF STRATEGIC STUDIES, WRITES THAT "THE PROBLEM IS THAT THE AGREEMENT CLINGS TO THE FALSE BELIEF IN A FACTION CALLED BOSNIA." ACCORDING TO THE PROFESSOR, "THERE IS NO SUCH STATE OR POLITICAL COMMUNITY. THE TERM 'MUSLIMS' IN YUGOSLAVIA IS USED TO DESCRIBE DESCENDANTS OF SLAVS WHO CONVERTED TO ISLAM UNDER THE PERIOD OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE. ONLY IN 1971 WERE THEY OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED AS A DISTINCT 'YUGOSLAV' NATION; THEY MAKE UP NO MORE THAN 10 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, MOSTLY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, WHERE THEY ARE 39 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION. MOST OF THEM SPEAK SERBO-CROAT, A FEW SPEAK MACEDONIAN, BUT FOR ALL INTENTS AND PURPOSES THEY ARE A SMALL SLAVIC MINORITY IN A VERY DANGEROUS PLACE."

    WILLIAM RASPBERRY, WHOSE COLUMN APPEARS REGULARLY IN THE WASHINGTON POST, DISCUSSES A CONVERSATION HE HAD WITH DENNIS CUDDY, A RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA-BASED INTERNATIONAL CONSULTANT AND PART-TIME HISTORY PROFESSOR. MISTER RASPBERRY ASKS IF RACE IS A FACTOR IN THE DECISION TO INTERVENE IN BOSNIA. HE WRITES THAT "NEITHER CUDDY NOR I IS WILLING TO DESCRIBE AS RACIST THE DIFFERENT U.S. RESPONSES TO BOSNIA AND RWANDA. BUT NEITHER ARE WE WILLING TO SAY THAT RACE IS NO PART OF IT. 'WE DIDN'T INTERVENE TO STOP THE SLAUGHTER IN RWANDA', CUDDY SAYS, 'BUT IF WE HAD VITAL OIL INTERESTS THERE (AS WE DID IN KUWAIT), WE PROBABLY WOULD HAVE INTERVENED. WE ALSO OVERLOOK THE SLAVE LABOR IN CHINA AND CONTINUE TO GRANT IT MOST-FAVORED-NATION STATUS BECAUSE OF ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS. THAT'S WHY I KEEP COMING BACK TO THE LIKELIHOOD THAT IT IS ECONOMIC FACTORS RATHER THAN RACE OR THE SURVIVAL OF NATO THAT ARE DRIVING OUR PARTICIPATION IN BOSNIA." WILLIAM RASPBERRY GOES ON TO SAY THAT "THERE MAY BE A LESS COMPLICATED EXPLANATION: SOME COMBINATION OF THE SENSE OF MORAL RESPONSIBILITY THAT GOES WITH BEING THE SOLE SURVIVING SUPERPOWER, U.S. ECONOMIC INTERESTS AND GENUINE CONCERN ABOUT THE BEASTLINESS OF NOW-SUSPENDED WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA -- A CONCERN THAT IS MAGNIFIED BECAUSE IT IS HAPPENING IN EUROPE." AND, CONCLUDES THE WASHINGTON POST COLUMNIST: "MAYBE NONE OF THESE THINGS ALONE WOULD MOVE US TO MILITARY INVOLVEMENT. BUT ALL OF THEM TOGETHER MIGHT. NOR CAN I SAY IT'S A WRONG DECISION -- EVEN IF IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO FASHION A RATIONAL STATEMENT OF THE CASE. IT WAS SO MUCH EASIER IN THE OLD DAYS, WHEN ALL THAT WAS NEEDED WAS TO CAST OUR ACTIONS AS OPPOSITION TO INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM." THAT'S THE VIEW OF SYNDICATED COLUMNIST WILLIAM RASPBERRY.

    TINA ROSENBERG, IN A COLUMN APPEARING IN THE LOS ANGELES TIMES AND NEWSDAY, PUBLISHED IN LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, TAKES A LOOK AT WHAT SHE CALLS AN "HISTORIC" ASPECT OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD. MS. ROSENBERG, A FELLOW AT THE WORLD POLICY INSTITUTE, AND WINNER OF THIS YEAR'S NATIONAL BOOK AWARD FOR NONFICTION," WRITES THAT THE PARIS ACCORD CONTAINS "NO AMNESTY FOR MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS. IN 1993," SHE WRITES, "THE UNITED NATIONS ESTABLISHED THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, AND SO FAR, THE TRIBUNAL HAS INDICTED 52 PEOPLE -- 42 BOSNIAN SERBS, THREE YUGOSLAVS AND SEVEN BOSNIAN-CROATS -- FOR GENOCIDE, WAR CRIMES, GRAVE BREACHES OF THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY. THE TRIBUNAL'S SUPPORTERS FEARED THE INDICTMENTS WOULD BE BARGAINED AWAY. INSTEAD, THE ACCORDS BIND EACH PARTY TO FULL COOPERATION AND AUTHORIZES NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION FORCES TO ARREST THE INDICTED. THE ACCORDS SPECIFY THAT NO INDICTED PERSON MAY SERVE IN AN ELECTED OR APPOINTED POSITION IN THE NEW GOVERNMENTS. THIS IS DRAMATIC, INDEED," NOTES TINA ROSENBERG. "IF THE PARTIES COMPLY WITH WHAT THEY SIGNED -- BY NO MEANS A SURE THING -- FOR THE FIRST TIME INTERNATIONAL PROSECUTION FOR WAR CRIMES WILL NOT BE RESERVED SOLELY FOR THOSE WHO LOSE A WAR. JUSTICE WILL NO LONGER BE AN INSTRUMENT SERVING ONLY THE POWERFUL."

    THOSE THOUGHTS, IN A COLUMN BY TINA ROSENBERG, APPEARING IN THE LOS ANGELES TIMES, AND NEWSDAY, CONCLUDE ANOTHER ROUND-UP OF U-S PRESS OPINION ON AMERICA'S ROLE IN BOSNIA. 18-Dec-95 9:26 AM EST (1426 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] BOSNIA/U-N (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190218
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WEDNESDAY, THE UNITED NATIONS WILL HAND OVER ITS RESPONSIBILITIES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO NATO, WHICH WILL HAVE TO IMPLEMENT THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. MANY LESSONS HAVE BEEN LEARNED DURING THE LARGEST AND MOST EXPENSIVE U-N PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION IN HISTORY. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO LOOKS BACK AT WHAT THE UNITED NATIONS HAS ACCOMPLISHED IN BOSNIA AND AT ITS FAILURES.

    TEXT: THE SENIOR U-N OFFICIAL IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA GAVE HIS LAST PRESS CONFERENCE MONDAY IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. AMBASSADOR ANTONIO PEDAUYE PAID TRIBUTE TO THE MORE THAN 100 U-N SOLDIERS WHO LOST THEIR LIVES AND THE MORE THAN ONE-THOUSAND U-N PERSONNEL WHO WERE INJURED DURING THE BITTER CONFLICT IN BOSNIA. HE ALSO TALKED ABOUT WHAT HE SAW AS THE MOST IMPORTANT ROLE THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE, KNOWN AS UNPROFOR, PLAYED IN THE WAR.

    /// ACT - PEDAUYE ///

    DURING ITS THREE AND A HALF YEARS HERE, UNPROFOR WAS ABLE TO OPEN ROADS, CLEAR MINES, ESCORT CONVOYS, NEGOTIATE FRONT LINE CROSSINGS, SO THAT UNHCR AND OTHERS WERE ABLE TO BRING IN AN AVERAGE OF 1,000 TONNES OF FOOD AID PER DAY TO 2.7 MILLION BENEFICIARIES.

    /// END ACT ///

    IF U-N SOLDIERS HAD NOT BEEN ON THE GROUND IN BOSNIA, TENS-OF-THOUSANDS MAY WELL HAVE DIED OF HUNGER OR DISEASE, AND THIS WILL BE REMEMBERED AS THE TRIUMPH OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN BOSNIA. THE UNITED NATIONS WAS ALSO ABLE TO NEGOTIATE LITERALLY HUNDREDS OF MAJOR AND MINOR CEASE-FIRE AGREEMENTS. THAT MANY AGREEMENTS WERE NEVER IMPLEMENTED OR LASTED MERE DAYS OR EVEN HOURS, IS MORE A TESTAMENT TO THE INTRACTABLE NATURE OF THE WAR, THAN TO THE FAILINGS OF THE UNITED NATIONS.

    BUT ALONG WITH THE SUCCESSES OTHER INCIDENTS WILL BE REMEMBERED, PERHAPS AS LESS HEROIC. U-N OFFICIALS ALWAYS STRUGGLED WITH THEIR ROLE IN BOSNIA.

    WHEN THE PEACE FORCE WAS FIRST PROPOSED IN 1992 A SENIOR U-N OFFICIAL VISITED THE COUNTRY AND REPORTED TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL BOSNIA WAS COMPLETELY INAPPROPRIATE FOR U-N PEACE-KEEPERS. WESTERN GOVERNMENTS, VIA THE SECURITY COUNCIL, OVERRULED THAT JUDGEMENT. POLITICIANS WERE FEELING THE HEAT AS TELEVISION SCREENS AT HOME SHOWED ETHNIC ATROCITIES AND STARVING REFUGEES, AND THE PEACEKEEPERS WERE SENT IN.

    AMBASSADOR PEDAUYE SAID IN SOME WAYS THE MISSION WAS DOOMED FROM THE START.

    /// ACT - PEDAUYE ///

    IT HAS BEEN AN IMPOSSIBLE JOB. TO DEPLOY IN A COUNTRY WITH A PEACE-KEEPING MISSION WITHOUT ANY PEACE TO KEEP, AND NOT EVEN A CEASE-FIRE.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT IT WAS THE FAILURE TO PROTECT THE U-N DECLARED SAFE AREAS THAT WILL BE REMEMBERED AS PERHAPS THE UNITED NATION'S DARKEST HOUR. AN ESTIMATED FIVE-THOUSAND PEOPLE WERE ALLEGEDLY EXECUTED BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS AFTER THE FALL OF THE SAFE AREA OF SREBRENICA IN EASTERN BOSNIA.

    UNDER PRESSURE, AMBASSADOR PEDAUYE TRIED TO POINT THE FINGER OF BLAME IN MANY DIRECTIONS. HE SAID THE FAILURE OF INTERNATIONAL WILL TO CONFRONT THE BOSNIAN-SERBS, THE LACK OF SUFFICIENT TROOPS AND MILITARY FORCE TO IMPLEMENT SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS, AND THE UNWILLINGNESS OF CONTRIBUTING NATIONS TO ACCEPT CASUALTIES ALL LED TO THE FALL OF SREBRENICA AND THE TOLERANCE OF ATTACKS ON OTHER SAFE-AREAS.

    IT WAS THE SENIOR U-N CIVILIAN OFFICIAL IN THE REGION, YASUSHI AKASHI, WHO OVERRULED THE REQUEST FOR AIRSTRIKES AGAINST THE SERBS AS THEY ATTACKED SREBRENICA. AFTER IT FELL HE LOST THE ABILITY TO OVER-RULE HIS GENERALS, AND HE RESIGNED A FEW MONTHS LATER.

    AS A WARY AND UNSTABLE PEACE SETTLES OVER BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAVE LEARNED SOME OF LESSONS. NATO OFFICIALS ARE NOW FACED WITH THE SAME PROBLEMS, BUT UNLIKE THE UNITED NATIONS, THEY MAKE NO MENTION OF NEUTRALITY, INSISTING ONLY THAT THEY WILL BE IMPARTIAL. A SMALL THING, PERHAPS, BUT IT COULD PROVE TO MAKE ALL THE DIFFERENCE. (SIGNED) NEB/RAE 18-Dec-95 2:43 PM EST (1943 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / MUJAHEDIN BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (ZENICA, BOSNIA)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31989
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: UNDER TERMS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD, FOREIGN FORCES ARE OBLIGED TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH. AMONG THEM -- SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS OF MUSLIM MILITANTS FROM ARAB AND ASIAN STATES WHO FOUGHT AS VOLUNTEERS FOR BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-LED GOVERNMENT. WESTERN OFFICIALS ARE CONCERNED THAT THESE ISLAMIC WARRIORS, KNOWN AS MUJAHEDIN, COULD POSE A THREAT TO THE NATO TROOPS WHO WILL BE POLICING THE PEACE AGREEMENT. BUT, AS V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS FROM THE CENTRAL TOWN OF ZENICA, THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT HAS PLEDGED THAT THE MUJAHEDIN WILL LEAVE THE COUNTRY.

    TEXT: THE DARK-HAIRED, BEARDED MAN IN GREEN COMBAT FATIGUES STRODE PURPOSEFULLY THROUGH THE OPEN-AIR MARKET, NEGOTIATING HIS PURCHASES WITH A COMBINATION OF HAND GESTURES AND A SMATTERING OF THE LOCAL DIALECT.

    HE RESPONDED TO A GREETING IN ARABIC, BUT WHEN ACCOSTED BY AN AMERICAN REPORTER, HE COLDLY REFUSED TO SAY MORE, AND WALKED QUICKLY AWAY.

    FOR THE MUJAHEDIN, AMERICA AND THE WEST ARE JUST AS MUCH THE ENEMY AS BOSNIA'S SERBS.

    THERE WERE SEVERAL INCIDENTS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA EARLY LAST MONTH INVOLVING THESE ISLAMIC HOLY WARRIORS AND BRITISH TROOPS OF THE U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE.

    ONE FOREIGN MUSLIM WAS SHOT DEAD BY BRITISH SOLDIERS AFTER HE DREW A PISTOL AT A CHECKPOINT. LATER, AN AMERICAN CITIZEN WORKING FOR THE U-N IN TUZLA WAS MURDERED, AND OFFICIALS THERE BELIEVE MUJAHEDIN WERE RESPONSIBLE.

    ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF THESE HOLY WARRIORS IN BOSNIA VARY WIDELY. BRITISH COMMANDERS BELIEVE THERE ARE _NO_ MORE THAN 800. OFFICERS IN BOSNIA'S CROAT MILITIA, WHO HAVE ALSO REPORTED TROUBLE WITH THE MUJAHEDIN, SAY THERE MAY BE AS MANY AS 30-THOUSAND.

    A BOSNIAN ARMY OFFICER, WITH ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT RECORDS, PUTS THE FIGURE AT 28-HUNDRED STILL ON ACTIVE DUTY, WITH ANOTHER 850 DISABLED DURING THE WAR, NOW STAYING AT LOCAL HOSPITALS AND CLINICS.

    // OPT //

    THE BOSNIAN OFFICER, WHO REQUESTED ANONYMITY, SAYS THE BULK OF THE MUJAHEDIN ARE FROM IRAN, AFGHANISTAN, AND SEVERAL ARAB STATES INCLUDING ALGERIA AND EGYPT. THEIR NUMBERS HAVE GROWN DURING THE COURSE OF THE WAR, HE ADDS, WITH SEVERAL THOUSAND LOCAL CONVERTS.

    // OPT //

    CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF, THE OFFICER SAYS THE FOREIGN MUJAHEDIN ARE _NOT_ FORMALLY ATTACHED TO THE BOSNIAN ARMY. THEY OPERATE INDEPENDENTLY, HE SAYS, TAKING ORDERS ONLY FROM THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF THE SARAJEVO GOVERNMENT. // END OPT
    //

    MANY BOSNIAN MUSLIMS VOICE RESENTMENT AT WHAT THEY SEE AS HEAVY-HANDED ATTEMPTS BY THE MUJAHEDIN, AS WELL AS FOREIGN MUSLIM CLERICS, TO IMPOSE STRICT OBSERVANCE OF ISLAMIC CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES, INCLUDING THE VEIL FOR WOMEN AND A BAN ON ALCOHOL AND PORK.

    BUT AT THE SAME TIME, LOCAL MUSLIMS HERE SAY THEY GREATLY APPRECIATE THE ROLE OF THE MUJAHEDIN IN THE WAR WITH BOSNIAN SERB FORCES.

    // OPT //

    BOSNIAN ARMY VETERANS SAY THE FOREIGN MUSLIM FIGHTERS ARE FEARLESS IN COMBAT. THEY HAVE UNDERTAKEN THE MOST DANGEROUS MISSIONS, SAYS ONE BOSNIAN OFFICER, STORMING ENTRENCHED POSITIONS AND FREQUENTLY OPERATING BEHIND SERB LINES. // END OPT //

    THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, WHICH WAS SIGNED IN PARIS LAST WEEK, SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT ALL FOREIGN FORCES ARE TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY WITHIN A MONTH. U-S ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE TRAVELLED TO SARAJEVO EVEN BEFORE THE SIGNING CEREMONY, TO STRESS TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT THAT THIS INCLUDES THE MUJAHEDIN.

    BRITISH ARMY COMMANDERS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA SAY THE MUJAHEDIN HAVE BEEN LESS VISIBLE SINCE THE PEACE PLAN WAS ANNOUNCED. THERE ARE REPORTS THAT A FEW HAVE BEEN DETAINED BY BOSNIAN POLICE OFFICERS.

    BUT RESIDENTS OF ZENICA AND BOSNIAN ARMY OFFICERS HERE DOUBT THAT THE MUJAHEDIN WILL BE FORCED TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY.

    MANY HAVE BEEN GIVEN BOSNIAN CITIZENSHIP AND IDENTITY PAPERS, THEY SAY, AND SOME HAVE MARRIED LOCAL WOMEN.

    ONE SENIOR BOSNIAN OFFICER SAYS HE UNDERSTANDS NATO'S CONCERN OVER THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF THE MUJAHEDIN. BUT HE SAYS THE SELF-STYLED HOLY WARRIORS WILL CAUSE _NO_ TROUBLE AND WILL BE KEPT OUT OF SIGHT AS LONG AS THE PEACE PLAN HOLDS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/ART
    18-Dec-95 10:33 AM EST (1533 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    . -DATE=12/18/95 TYPE=CLOSE-UP (SPECIAL REPORT)
    NUMBER=4-08786
    TELEPHONE=619-1102
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    EDITOR'S NOTE: INSERTS ON FRIDAY 12/15/95 S-O-D REEL ANNCR: ON THURSDAY [12/14] IN PARIS, SERB, CROAT AND BOSNIAN MUSLIM LEADERS FORMALLY SIGNED AN AGREEMENT TO END THE NEARLY FOUR YEARS OF RUNAWAY ETHNIC VIOLENCE IN BOSNIA THAT HAS CLAIMED AN ESTIMATED 250- THOUSAND LIVES. THE ACCORD WAS THE RESULT OF 21 DAYS OF HIGH PRESSURE NEGOTIATIONS BROKERED BY THE UNITED STATES IN DAYTON, OHIO AND INITIALED ON NOVEMBER 21ST.

    BUT THE HOPE FOR A LASTING PEACE THAT THESE DEVELOPMENTS HAS INSPIRED IN MUCH OF THE WORLD IS NOT SHARED BY ALL

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION EXPERTS. VOA'S ADAM PHILLIPS SPOKE

    WITH SEVERAL EXPERTS WHO ARE FAMILIAR BOTH WITH THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ETHNIC CONFLICT AND PEACEMAKING AND WITH THE BOSNIA SITUATION. IN THIS REPORT, THEY EXPLORE THE DAYTON ACCORD AND ASSESS ITS PROSPECTS FOR SUCCESS "ON THE GROUND."

    TEXT: LATE LAST MONTH, AFTER NEARLY FOUR YEARS OF GENOCIDAL BLOODLETTING, MEN REPRESENTING THE BOSNIAN SERBS, CROATS AND MUSLIMS REACHED AN ACCORD IN DAYTON, OHIO TO DISARM THE BOSNIAN CIVILIAN POPULACE, ALLOW FOR THE SAFE RETURN OF ETHNIC REFUGEES AND PAVE THE WAY FOR DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS. BUT THE QUESTION ON EVERYBODY'S MIND IS: CAN THE CROATS, SERBS AND MUSLIMS OF BOSNIA REALLY MANAGE TO LIVE TOGETHER SIMPLY BECAUSE AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THEIR LEADERS TELLS THEM TO?

    UNDER THE ACCORD, BOSNIA IS SLATED TO REMAIN A SINGLE STATE WITHIN ITS CURRENT BORDERS, WITH SARAJEVO AS ITS MULTI-ETHNIC CAPITAL. THIS STATE IS TO BE DIVIDED ROUGHLY IN HALF BETWEEN THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WHO WILL GET THEIR OWN REPUBLIC, AND A CROAT-MUSLIM FEDERATION, EACH WITH ITS OWN ARMY. PROFESSOR RICHARD RUBINSTEIN [ROOH-BIN-STEEN], A CONFLICT RESOLUTION EXPERT AT GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY IN FAIRFAX, VIRGINIA, QUESTIONS WHETHER THE TREATY WILL WORK.

    TAPE CUT ONE RUBINSTEIN (:34) "WELL WHAT HAPPENED WAS THAT THE NEGOTIATORS ADOPTED A KIND OF 'PAPER SOLUTION.' THEY SAID 'YES, WE'LL HAVE A UNITED COUNTRY, BUT THE COUNTRY IS GOING TO BE COMPOSED OF THREE ENTITIES.' AND THEY USED THE WORD 'ENTITIES,' MEANING THESE WOULD BE THREE MORE OR LESS AUTONOMOUS AND INDEPENDENT AREAS WHICH WOULD SOMEHOW OR OTHER BE BOUND UP TOGETHER AS PART OF A COMMON COUNTRY. THAT MADE IT BE POSSIBLE FOR EVERYONE TO DECLARE AGREEMENT IN DAYTON, BUT IT REALLY BUILDS AN AMBIGUITY INTO THE AGREEMENT WHICH IS PROBABLY GOING TO A TEAR IT APART."

    TEXT: SIXTY THOUSAND NATO TROOPS ARE BEING PUT INTO BOSNIA FOR ABOUT A YEAR TO ENFORCE THE PEACE. BUT. DESPITE THE TROOPS AND THE LONGER- TERM "NATION BUILDING" EFFORTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND OTHER GROUPS, PROFESSOR RUBINSTEIN BELIEVES THAT FLAWS IN THE DAYTON NEGOTIATION PROCESS AND THE FOLLOW-UP MAY PROVE THE ACCORD'S UNDOING.

    TAPE CUT TWO RUBINSTEIN (:34) "YOU HAVE TO HAVE ALL THE PARTIES INCLUDED AND REPRESENTED. THE PARTIES HAVE TO IDENTIFY THE UNDERLYING ISSUES, NOT JUST THE CURRENT ISSUES IN DISPUTE. THEY HAVE TO BE GIVEN A RANGE OF CHOICES TO DEAL WITH, AND WHEN THEY REACH AGREEMENT, THE AGREEMENT SHOULD BE CLEAR, IT SHOULD BE COMPREHENSIVE AND IT SHOULD BE ENFORCEABLE. THE PARTIES SHOULD BE ABLE TO ENFORCE IT WITHOUT HAVING SOMEBODY HAVE TO COME IN WITH AN ARMY AND ENFORCE IT ON EVERYBODY. IF YOU DON'T HAVE THAT COMBINATION OF INGREDIENTS, YOU DON'T HAVE A RESOLUTION. YOU HAVE A SETTLEMENT THAT CAN BREAK DOWN VERY EASILY."

    TEXT: IT IS GENERALLY ACKNOWLEDGED THAT PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC OF SERBIA, PRESIDENT TUDJMAN OF CROATIA AND PRESIDENT IZETBEGOVIC OF BOSNIA FELT INTENSE POLITICAL PRESSURE FROM THE UNITED STATES TO SIGN THE TREATY. IT TOOK ONLY THREE WEEKS TO BROKER A SETTLEMENT TO A CONFLICT THAT HAD TAKEN YEARS -- SOME WOULD SAY CENTURIES -- TO UNFOLD. IN SUCH AN ATMOSPHERE, ACCORDING TO PROFESSOR RUBINSTEIN, IT IS OFTEN MERE BARGAINING POSITIONS, RATHER THAN THE ALL-IMPORTANT UNDERLYING ISSUES, THAT GET ADDRESSED. IN THE BOSNIAN CASE, THE POSITION OF ALL THE PARTIES WAS THAT THEY WANTED LAND FOR THEIR OWN ETHNIC GROUP ALONE.

    TAPE CUT THREE RUBINSTEIN (:52) "BUT UNDERLYING THIS ISSUE IS A TREMENDOUS FEAR PEOPLE HAVE THAT IF THEY ARE IN THE MINORITY IN SOMEBODY ELSE'S TERRITORY, THAT THEY WON'T BE PROTECTED, THAT THEY WON'T HAVE ANY RIGHTS, THAT THEY WILL BE SECOND CLASS CITIZENS, AND MAYBE EVEN MASSACRED. SO THEREFORE YOU HAVE TO DEAL WITH UNDERLYING ISSUE OF HOW DO YOU SECURE THE RIGHTS OF VULNERABLE MINORITIES IN A GOVERNMENT RUN BY AN ETHNIC MAJORITY. IF YOU DON'T DEAL WITH THAT ISSUE DIRECTLY, HOW ARE THEY GOING TO BE REASSURED THAT THEY ARE GOING TO BE OKAY? WELL, YOU CAN'T DO IT JUST BY SENDING TROOPS IN AND STICKING A GUN IN THEIR FACE AND SAYING 'WHEN THE GOVERNMENT OF SARAJEVO POLICE COME IN, YOU HAD BETTER DO WHAT THEY SAY!' IF YOU DO IT BY FORCE, IT'S NOT GOING TO WORK."

    TEXT: (OPT) STILL, EVERYONE AGREES THAT THE PRESENCE OF THE NATO TROOPS WILL PROBABLY PREVENT RENEWED HEAVY ETHNIC FIGHTING FOR THE YEAR OR SO THAT THEY ARE SLATED TO BE IN BOSNIA. AND MOST BOSNIANS, WEARY FROM THE PHYSICAL SUFFERING AND ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS OF THIS PROTRACTED WAR, WILL WELCOME THE CHANCE TO PUT THEIR LIVES BACK TOGETHER AND BEGIN THE PROCESS OF REBUILDING THEIR COMMUNITIES. (END OPT)

    WILLIAM URY [EWE-REE] IS A MEMBER THE HARVARD NEGOTIATION PROJECT AND THE CO-AUTHOR OF THE GROUNDBREAKING BESTSELLER "GETTING TO YES." FROM HIS 20 YEARS AS A CONFLICT NEGOTIATOR, HE SAYS THAT AGREEMENTS SUCH AS THE DAYTON ACCORD DO NOT, BY THEMSELVES, RESOLVE HOSTILITIES BETWEEN ETHNIC GROUPS. ON THE OTHER HAND, MR. URY SAYS SUCCESSFUL POLITICAL NEGOTIATIONS CAN SERVE AS WHOLESOME BEGINNINGS THAT SET THE STAGE FOR GREATER HARMONY BETWEEN PEOPLES ONCE THE OVERALL PEACE IS MADE "OFFICIAL."

    TAPE CUT FOUR URY (:22) "THESE PROBLEMS ARE NOT SOLVED IN A NIGHT OR IN ONE CONFERENCE. BUT WHAT YOU CAN DO IS GENERATE SIGNIFICANT MOMENTUM IN THE PROCESS -- IN A KIND OF DRAWN-OUT PROCESS -- FOR LEARNING TO LIVE WITH EACH OTHER. THAT'S DEFINITELY GOING TO BE PART OF THE PROCESS. IT'S NOT JUST A MATTER OF DIPLOMATICALLY WORKING OUT A MAP. YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE NOT JUST 'PEACE BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS' BUT 'PEACE BETWEEN PEOPLES.' "

    TEXT: JOSEPH MONTVILLE OF THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN WASHINGTON, D-C, OUTLINES THE PYSCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES HE BELIEVES WILL BE REQUIRED FOR TRUE HEALING TO TAKE PLACE IN BOSNIA.

    TAPE CUT FIVE MONTVILLE (:52)

    "WHEN THERE HAS BEEN A WAR, TRAUMATIC LOSS, TERRIBLE VIOLENCE, THERE ARE VAST PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTANCES BETWEEN THE PARTIES. PEOPLE WHO ARE NEIGHBORS FEEL THAT THEY HAVE BEEN BETRAYED AND THEIR LOVED ONES WERE MURDERED. AND ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS TO BE DONE IN A DIALOGUE IS SIMPLY THE ARTICULATION OF WOUNDS AND THE PRESENTATION OF GRIEVANCES. SO THAT EACH SIDE CAN HEAR WHAT THE LOSSES WERE ON A PERSONAL BASIS. WHEN THEY CAN HEAR ABOUT THE LOSSES, THEIR OWN SENSE OF PERSONAL JUSTICE COMES INTO PLAY AND THEY BEGIN TO FEEL EMPATHIC OR SYMPATHETIC AND RECOGNIZE THAT THIS IS A WIDELY FEARED TRAGEDY AND THAT THE ETHNIC IDENTITY OF A PERSON DOES NOT AUTOMATICALLY MAKE THAT PERSON AN ENEMY BUT MORE LIKE A FELLOW SUFFERER."

    TEXT: CONFLICT RESOLUTION EXPERT JOESPH MONTVILLE OF THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES IN WASHINGTON D-C, BELIEVES THAT PERSONAL AND INTER-COMMUNAL HEALING MUST TAKE PLACE IN BOSNIA IN ORDER FOR LAST WEEK'S PEACE ACCORDS TO HAVE A LASTING IMPACT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AP/NES
    18-Dec-95 1:11 PM EST (1811 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION THEORY BY ADAM PHILLIPS (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190207
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE AIRLIFT OF U-S MILITARY PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT TO NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA HAS RESUMED SEVERAL DAYS AFTER BAD WINTER WEATHER SHUT DOWN THE AIRFIELD IN THE TOWN OF TUZLA. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS A RUSSIAN ADVANCE TEAM WAS ALSO HEADING TO THE REGION WHERE AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN SOLDIERS WILL HELP IMPLEMENT THE NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: THE SKY OVER TUZLA CLEARED ENOUGH MONDAY TO ALLOW SEVERAL U-S MILITARY FLIGHTS, CARRYING MAINLY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT.

    HUNDREDS OF U-S PARATROOPERS, WHO WILL PROVIDE SECURITY FOR THE TUZLA AIRFIELD, WERE STILL WAITING TO FLY THERE FROM THE NATO AIRBASE AT AVIANO IN ITALY.

    U-S MILITARY OFFICIALS INTENDED TO CHECK NEWLY-INSTALLED NAVIGATIONAL EQUIPMENT THAT WILL ENABLE MANY PLANES TO LAND IN TUZLA DESPITE THE POOR VISIBILITY THERE AT THIS TIME OF YEAR.

    A RUSSIAN ADVANCE TEAM IS GOING TO BELGRADE ON ITS WAY OVERLAND TO TUZLA TO PREPARE FOR THE ARRIVAL OF SEVERAL-THOUSAND RUSSIAN TROOPS THERE.

    THE RUSSIANS ARE ESTABLISHING A JOINT COMMAND WITH THE UNITED STATES IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA. IT IS THE REGION WHERE THE RUSSIANS AND ABOUT 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS WILL BE DEPLOYED AS PART OF THE NATO-LED PEACE MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    MOST OF THE AMERICANS WILL ARRIVE IN TUZLA NEXT MONTH AFTER TRAVELLING OVERLAND FROM A STAGING AREA IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY.

    IN SARAJEVO, U-N OFFICIALS SAY THERE ARE SIGNS BOSNIAN-SERB FORCES ARE WITHDRAWING SOME OF THEIR WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT FROM SERB-HELD DISTRICTS OF THE CITY.

    MOST SERBS OPPOSE THEIR DISTRICTS' PLANNED HANDOVER TO THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION. BUT, THE BOSNIAN-SERB ASSEMBLY HAS CALLED ON THEM TO REMAIN IN SARAJEVO.

    THE ACTUAL TRANSFER OF THE SERB-HELD SUBURBS TO MUSLIM-CROAT RULE COULD BE DELAYED TO ALLOW TIME FOR PASSIONS THERE TO COOL.

    AS SERB FORCES PULL OUT, NATO TROOPS WILL PROTECT SERB CIVILIANS WHO INTEND TO STAY IN SARAJEVO. GOVERNMENT FORCES MAY NOT MOVE INTO THE SERB DISTRICTS FOR MONTHS. MEANWHILE, IN DEFIANCE OF THE BOSNIAN-PEACE AGREEMENT, A SNIPER HAS WOUNDED A PASSENGER ON A TRAM IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL. THE WOUND WAS NOT SERIOUS, BUT THE WOMAN MAY HAVE BEEN BLINDED BY GLASS FRAGMENTS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    18-Dec-95 10:08 AM EST (1508 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31985
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TENS-OF-THOUSANDS OF NATO COMBAT TROOPS ARE BEGINNING TO DEPLOY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO ENFORCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT SIGNED LAST WEEK IN PARIS. ABOUT 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS WILL BE BASED IN THE NORTHEASTERN CITY OF TUZLA, WHERE THEY ARE AWAITED WITH A SENSE OF ANTICIPATION AND RELIEF. FROM TUZLA, V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS FILED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT.

    TEXT: I MET ASMIR AND ALEXANDER, QUITE LITERALLY, BY ACCIDENT.

    I HAD FALLEN DOWN ON A CONCRETE STEP, TEARING A DEEP GASH IN MY LEG. AT TUZLA'S MAIN HOSPITAL, IT WAS ASMIR, A YOUNG BOSNIAN DOCTOR, WHO DEFTLY CLEANED AND STITCHED THE WOUND, AND THEN ADMINISTERED A TETANUS SHOT.

    ASMIR REFUSED ALL PAYMENT FOR HIS LABORS, BUT AGREED TO MEET ME THE NEXT MORNING FOR BREAKFAST AT A LOCAL CAFE. HE BROUGHT ALONG ANOTHER DOCTOR FRIEND, ALEXANDER. OVER CUPS OF STRONG EXPRESSO, WITH ROCK MUSIC BLARING IN THE BACKGROUND, THE TWO YOUNG DOCTORS TOLD STORIES OF TUZLA THROUGH NEARLY FOUR-YEARS OF CONFLICT.

    IT IS A LARGE INDUSTRIAL TOWN, KNOWN FOR ITS FACTORIES AND THE ANCIENT SALT MINES THAT GAVE IT ITS NAME. IT WAS AND REMAINS ONE OF BOSNIA'S MOST ETHNICALLY-MIXED CITIES -- WITH SUBSTANTIAL SERB AND CROAT COMMUNITIES LIVING SIDE BY SIDE WITH THE MUSLIM MAJORITY, AND WITH TENS-OF-THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM REFUGEES FORCED FROM THEIR HOMES IN OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

    ASMIR AND ALEXANDER REFLECT TUZLA'S ETHNIC MAKE-UP. ASMIR IS A MUSLIM, HIS WIFE A SERB. ALEXANDER IS OF MIXED SERB AND CROAT PARENTAGE.

    NEITHER IS PARTICULARLY RELIGIOUS, AND BOTH ARE SCORNFUL OF THE ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM THAT HAS GAINED A FOOTHOLD AMONG SOME OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS DURING THE LONG YEARS OF CONFLICT.

    THEY SAY FUNDAMENTALIST PREACHERS, SOME OF THEM FOREIGN, NOW WIELD CONSIDERABLE INFLUENCE IN TUZLA'S OUTLYING VILLAGES, IMPOSING STRICT OBSERVANCE OF ISLAMIC PRACTICE AND CUSTOMS. BUT THE CITY ITSELF REMAINS DETERMINEDLY SECULAR AND COSMOPOLITAN; ITS NIGHTLIFE LIMITED ONLY BY THE 10:00 P-M CURFEW.

    AS DOCTORS, NEITHER ASMIR NOR ALEXANDER HAS BEEN ALLOWED TO LEAVE TUZLA SINCE THE WAR BEGAN. ALEXANDER SPENT 18-MONTHS IN THE BOSNIAN ARMY AS A FRONTLINE MEDIC -- AN EXPERIENCE HE WOULD JUST AS SOON FORGET. BUT OTHERWISE, BOTH HE AND ASMIR HAVE WORKED AT TUZLA'S MAIN HOSPITAL.

    THE HOSPITAL STAFF PERFORMED FROM 20 TO 80 SURGICAL OPERATIONS A DAY DURING THE WAR.

    ASMIR AND ALEXANDER TREATED SOME OF THE SURVIVORS OF THE MASSACRE EARLIER THIS YEAR IN THE MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA. THEY SAY, EVEN NOW, SOME OF THE MEN WHO ESCAPED THE SERB ONSLAUGHT OF SREBRENICA ARE MANAGING TO REACH TUZLA. BOSNIAN ARMY SCOUTS ARE CONTINUING TO COMB THE FORESTS ALONG THE FRONTLINE TO THE SOUTHEAST, SEARCHING FOR MORE SURVIVORS.

    FOR BOTH ASMIR AND ALEXANDER, THE WORST DAY OF THE WAR CAME LAST MAY, WHEN A SINGLE SERB SHELL CRASHED INTO A STREET OF OPEN-AIR CAFES. SEVENTY-ONE PEOPLE WERE KILLED AND MORE THAN 200 WOUNDED.

    ALEXANDER SAW THE FIRST REPORT OF THE SLAUGHTER ON BOSNIAN TELEVISION, AND RUSHED TO THE HOSPITAL. HE FOUND SEVERAL OF HIS FRIENDS AMONG THE WOUNDED, WRITHING IN AGONY IN THE LOBBY AND CORRIDORS.

    DESPITE THEIR EDUCATION AND SKILLS, BOTH ASMIR AND ALEXANDER HAVE HAD TO STRUGGLE TO SURVIVE, LIKE VIRTUALLY EVERYONE ELSE THROUGH THE LONG WAR.

    FOR NEARLY A YEAR AT THE OUTSET OF THE CONFLICT, THERE WAS NO ELECTRICITY IN TUZLA. NOW, THERE IS RUNNING WATER FOR NO MORE THAN SIX-HOURS PER DAY.

    FOOD WAS OFTEN IN CHRONICALLY SHORT SUPPLY. WE LIVED ON BEANS AND POTATOES, SAYS ALEXANDER.

    THE YOUNG DOCTOR SAYS HIS TOTAL SALARY FOR THE PAST FOUR-YEARS HAS AMOUNTED TO AROUND 200 DOLLARS (150 GERMAN MARKS), SUPPLEMENTED WITH A FEW PACKAGES OF HUMANITARIAN AID. TO MAKE ENDS MEET, HE WORKS AS A WAITER IN A PIZZA PARLOR WHEN HE IS NOT ON DUTY AT THE HOSPITAL. ASMIR SELLS LOTTERY TICKETS. BOTH SAY THEY ARE PHYSICALLY AND EMOTIONALLY EXHAUSTED.

    TO VARYING DEGREES, ALEXANDER AND ASMIR ARE CONFIDENT THE NATO FORCE WILL BRING A HALT TO TUZLA'S AGONY. ALEXANDER SAYS HE IS SURE THERE WILL BE PEACE THE MOMENT THE FIRST U-S COMBAT TROOPS SET FOOT IN THE TOWN.

    ASMIR IS LESS CERTAIN. HE BELIEVES THE NATO TROOPS WILL ENSURE THE GUNS REMAIN SILENT. BUT HE WORRIES ABOUT WHAT MAY HAPPEN IF THE PEACEKEEPERS LEAVE IN A YEAR.

    BOTH SEE NO REASON WHY BOSNIA'S MUSLIMS, CROATS, AND SERBS CANNOT LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN. BUT ASMIR BELIEVES REAL PEACE WILL COME ONLY WHEN THE PRESENT LEADERS OF ALL THREE COMMUNITIES ARE FORCED FROM POWER. THEY ARE ALL TO BLAME FOR THIS WAR, HE SAYS, AND THEY MUST GO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/RAE
    18-Dec-95 8:23 AM EST (1323 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] BOSNIA / TUZLA BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (TUZLA)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31990
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TWO VETERAN ANALYSTS OF THE BALKANS -- ONE BRITISH, ONE AMERICAN -- DISCUSSED THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT ON VOA. THEY NOTED SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES AS WELL AS AGREEMENTS BETWEEN EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS ABOUT SETTLING THE BOSNIA CONFLICT. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS (IN THIS, THE FRIST OF TWO SCRIPTS).

    TEXT: AMERICAN OPINION SEEMS TO BE SPLIT FIFTY-FIFTY ABOUT THE U-S COMMITMENT TO BOSNIA, SAYS PAUL BEAVER, A SENIOR CONSULTANT TO JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY IN BRITAIN. AFTER TRAVELING AROUND THE UNITED STATES, MR. BEAVER SAYS HE AND OTHER EUROPEANS ARE GLAD TO HAVE AMERICAN SUPPORT, BUT HE WISHES THERE WERE MORE AWARENESS THAT 22 OTHER NATIONS ARE PARTICIPATING:

    // BEAVER ACTUALITY //

    BRITAIN HAS 15 THOUSAND TROOPS THAT ARE GOING TO BE INVOLVED AGAINST THE AMERICANS' 20-THOUSAND. SO I HAVE ACTUALLY FELT THAT THE EUROPEAN PEACE KEEPING OPERATION OR THE NATO TROOPS FROM EUROPE AND OTHER NATIONS THAT ARE INVOLVED, HAVE BEEN SLIGHTLY OVERLOOKED BY THE NEW MEDIA HERE. A LOT OF AMERICAN DO NOT REALIZE THAT THERE ARE OTHER NATIONS INVOLVED.

    // END ACT //

    STEPHEN VAN EVERA, PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, AGREES THAT AMERICANS NEED MORE REALISM ABOUT THE CONFLICT:

    // VAN EVERA ACTUALITY //

    WE HAVE ALLOWED A SILLY DISCOURSE IN OUR COUNTRY ABOUT WHAT LEVEL OF LOSSES WE SHOULD ACCEPT BEFORE WE CHANGE OUR FOREIGN POLICY. THE MEDIA HAVE TAKEN TO SPEAKING ABOUT OUR TROOPS AS IF ANY LOSSES ARE UNACCEPTABLE. WE HAVE TO START RETURNING TO THE IDEA THAT OUR MILITARY ARE HERE TO SERVE, AND THAT DEPLOYMENT INVOLVES LOSSES AND COSTS. GROWN UP POWERS KNOW THAT AND EXPECT IT.

    // END ACT //

    BUT PROFESSOR VAN EVERA, CO-AUTHOR OF AN INFLUENTIAL ARTICLE ON BOSNIA IN "THE NEW REPUBLIC" MAGAZINE, SAYS EUROPEANS, TOO, ARE UNREALISTIC ABOUT PROVIDING ARMS TO THE UNDERDOG IN THE FIGHT -- THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS:

    // VAN EVERA ACTUALITY //

    THE EUROPEAN VIEW HAS BEEN THAT ARMS ARE LIKE GASOLINE IN A SITUATION LIKE THIS. IF YOU PUT THEM INTO THE SITUATION, YOU ENFLAME IT. I DO NOT THINK THERE CAN BE A DURABLE PEACE HERE UNLESS THE MUSLIM STATE IS IN A POSITION TO DEFEND ITSELF. THERE HAS GOT TO BE A STABLE MILITARY BALANCE IN THE AREA.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BEAVER, WHOSE SPECIALTY IS THE BALKANS, RESPONDS THAT THE MUSLIMS ARE NO LONGER THE UNDERDOG. MILITARY PARITY HAS BEEN ACHIEVED, HE SAYS, WITH MUSLIM-CROAT VICTORIES OVER THE SERBS:

    // BEAVER ACTUALITY //

    I THINK THAT THERE IS STILL A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF DISQUIET IN EUROPE ABOUT THE IDEA OF ARMING THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS MAINLY BECAUSE THE PEOPLE WHO ARE GOING TO DO THE ARMING WILL BE PERCEIVED TO HAVE TAKEN SIDES, AND THEY GIVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO HAVE SOME EXCUSE FOR SHOOTING AT PEOPLE.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BEAVER SAID THIS SHOOTING COULD BE DONE BY SOME OF THE MUSLIM FIGHTERS WHO HAVE COME FROM OTHER COUNTRIES AND WANT TO ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC STATE. BUT WHAT IF THESE RADICALS START ARMING THE BOSNIANS? ASKS MR. VAN EVERA:

    // VAN EVERA - BEAVER DIALOGUE //

    VAN EVERA: IF WE DO NOT DO IT, OTHERS WILL. I THINK IT IS INEVITABLE IF THE WEST WILL NOT PLAY THIS ROLE, IRAN IS GOING TO AND EXTREMISTS FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE MIDDLE EAST ARE GOING TO. WE DO IT, OR OTHERS WE LIKE A LOT LESS ARE GOING TO DO IT. BEAVER: IT IS PROBABLY BETTER TO HAVE THE DEVIL WE KNOW THAN THE DEVIL WE DO NOT KNOW? VAN EVERA: YES, I THINK SO. I THINK SO.

    // END ACT //

    BUT PROFESSOR VAN EVRA SAYS THE MUSLIMS MUST BE ARMED FOR DEFENSE, NOT FOR OFFENSIVE ACTION. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EW/CF
    18-Dec-95 10:36 AM EST (1536 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN VIEWS OF BOSNIA (1) BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-31991
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN A DISCUSSION ON VOA, TWO VETERAN ANALYSTS OF THE BALKANS PRESENTED EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN VIEWS OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. THERE WERE SOME POINTS OF DISPUTE, SOME OF AGREEMENT ABOUT HOW TO SETTLE THE BOSNIA CONFLICT. VOA'S ED WARNER REPORTS (IN THIS SECOND OF TWO SCRIPTS).

    TEXT: AMERICANS AND EUROPEANS HAVE DIVERGED ON THE QUESTION OF REESTABLISHING A MULTI-ETHNIC STATE IN BOSNIA. THE DAYTON AGREEMENT PROVIDES FOR ONE, BUT MANY EUROPEANS, INCLUDING PAUL BEAVER OF JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY, ARE SKEPTICAL. THEY ARE WARY OF AMBITIOUS U-S PLANS FOR NATION BUILDING.

    MR. BEAVER SAYS THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT HAS NOT BEEN RESOLVED, BUT IT HAS AT LEAST BEEN KEPT FROM SPREADING:

    // BEAVER ACTUALITY //

    THE EUROPEANS, OF COURSE, WOULD LIKE TO THINK THAT THEY ARE MORE REALISTIC ABOUT THIS, THAT THEY KNOW FROM 500 YEARS OF HISTORY THAT THE BALKANS HAVE BEEN A TURBULENT PLACE. WE HAVE BEEN RELATIVELY LUCKY SINCE THE END OF SECOND THE WORLD, I THINK, IN TERMS OF BATTLES AND FIGHTING GOING ON THERE. THERE HAS NOT BEEN THE SAME AMOUNT OF CONFLICT THAT YOU WOULD HAVE EXPECTED IN A SIMILAR PERIOD. THE EUROPEANS REALLY HAVE TRIED TO CONTAIN IT.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BEAVER ADDS THAT EUROPEANS MADE THE INITIAL MISTAKE OF RECOGNIZING BOSNIA AS A SOVEREIGN STATE BEFORE IT COULD DEFEND ITSELF. BUT NOW THEY ARE READY TO MAKE THE MOST OF THE CEASE-FIRE AND THE DAYTON AGREEMENT.

    STEPHEN VAN EVERA, PROFESSOR OF POLITICS AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SAYS THE EUROPEANS HAVE BEEN WRONG IN OPPOSING ARMS FOR THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS BUT LARGELY CORRECT IN THEIR POLITICAL STRATEGY. HE DOES NOT BELIEVE SERBS, CROATS AND MUSLIMS CAN COEXIST IN ONE STATE. FURTHER PARTITIONS WILL BE NEEDED, HE SAYS, TO AVOID ANOTHER OUTBREAK OF WAR:

    // VAN EVERA ACTUALITY //

    I THINK WE SHOULD REMEMBER THAT THE VICTORIES OVER THE SERBS LAST SUMMER WERE WON VERY LARGELY BY THE CROAT FORCES, NOT THE MUSLIM FORCES. AND THE MUSLIMS HAVE, AS YOU SAY, LARGE NUMBERS OF MEN UNDER ARMS, BUT THEY DO NOT HAVE HEAVY WEAPONS. I THINK IN ANY ONE-ON-ONE WAR TODAY BETWEEN THEM AND THE CROATS OR THE SERBS, THEY WOULD BE THE LOSERS.

    // END ACT //

    PAUL BEAVER SAYS MANY EUROPEANS THINK SUCH A WAR COULD OCCUR:

    // BEAVER-VAN EVERA DIALOGUE //

    BEAVER: WHAT IS A PROBLEM IS THE POSSIBILITY THAT THE MUSLIMS AND THE CROATS WITHIN BOSNIA WOULD FALL OUT, AND THEN I THINK THERE WOULD BE A SERIOUS IMBALANCE OF POWER FROM THE MUSLIM POINT OF VIEW. VAN EVERA: THAT IS ONE OF MY PREMISES. I THINK THIS CROAT-MUSLIM FEDERATION IS DOOMED. IT IS A MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE. IT WAS FORCED BY THE UNITED STATES. THE CROATS AGREED TO IT AS A MATTER OF CONVENIENCE SO THAT THEY COULD RECOVER THE TERRRITORIES THEY LOST TO THE SERBS DURING THE FIRST DAYS OF THE WAR. I PREDICT THEY WILL JUNK THIS CONFEDERATION AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. BEAVER: I DEFINITELY BELIEVE THAT THERE IS A VERY STRONG POSSIBILITY THAT PLACES LIKE MOSTAR DOWN IN THE FRENCH SECTOR WILL BECOME A FLASH POINT BECAUSE OF THE ANTIPATHY BETWEEN THE MUSLIMS AND THE CROATS. ALSO I THINK THAT THE INFLUENCE OF PRESIDENT TUDJMAN IN ZAGREB IS NOT AS BENIGN AS SOME PEOPLE WOULD GIVE IT. I THINK HE ACTUALLY FEELS THAT MOST OF THE CROATS IN BOSNIA ARE HIS SUBJECTS AS WELL.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR VAN EVERA SAYS PRESIDENT TUDJMAN ALSO CONSIDERS MUSLIMS HIS SUBJECTS. LIKE IT OR NOT, HE SAYS HE BELIEVES THE UNITED STATES SHOULD START PREPARING FOR THE BREAKUP OF THE MUCH DESIRED BUT ULTIMATELY UNOBTAINABLE MULTIETHNIC STATE. (SIGNED) NEB/WE/CF 18-Dec-95 10:46 AM EST (1546 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN VIEWS OF BOSNIA (2) BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190223
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SAYS IT EXPECTS TO PROVIDE IMMEDIATE FUNDS TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA NEXT WEEK UNDER A NEW EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM. V-O-A'S ANDREW BAIRD HAS THIS REPORT.

    TEXT: THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SAYS IT EXPECTS THAT ITS BOARD WILL APPROVE BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA FOR FULL I-M-F MEMBERSHIP AT A MEETING WEDNESDAY. MEMBERSHIP WILL ALLOW THE I-M-F TO IMMEDIATELY LEND BOSNIA APPROXIMATELY 20 MILLION DOLLARS UNDER A NEW POST-CONFLICT EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM.

    OF THESE FUNDS, BOSNIA WILL HAVE TO SPEND SOME OF THE MONEY TO REPAY AN IMPORTANT TEMPORARY LOAN FROM THE NETHERLANDS. THE NETHERLANDS IS LENDING BOSNIA APPROXIMATELY 16 MILLION DOLLARS TO PAY OFF ITS ARREARS TO THE I-M-F, ONE OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR I-M-F MEMBERSHIP.

    MASSIMO RUSSO, DIRECTOR OF THE I-M-F'S EUROPEAN ONE DEPARTMENT, SAID EVERYTHING IS IN PLACE FOR THE APPROVAL OF BOSNIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN THE I-M-F.

    // RUSSO ACT //

    WE EXPECT TO HAVE ALL THESE TRANSACTIONS APPROVED, ALONG WITH MEMBERSHIP ON WEDNESDAY, AND WE ALREADY WENT TO THE BOARD LAST WEEK WITH THE DOCUMENTATION TO SEEK, IN A FORMAL WAY, THE SUPPORT OF THE BOARD FOR THIS OPERATION. THIS WAS NECESSARY BECAUSE THE I-M-F MANAGING DIRECTOR, AFTER THAT MANIFESTATION OF SUPPORT BY THE BOARD, HAD TO SEND A LETTER OF COMFORT TO THE DUTCH GOVERNMENT SO THAT THEY COULD, IN TURN, PREPARE TO EXTEND A BRIDGE LOAN FOR BOSNIA TO PAY ARREARS TO THE BOARD.

    // END ACT //

    A BALANCE OF THREE-POINT-SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS IN EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE FUNDS WILL GO TO BOSNIA'S CURRENT CENTRAL BANK FOR USE IN REBUILDING THE ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITIES OF ITS ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS. ONCE BOSNIA BECOMES AN I-M-F MEMBER, OFFICIALS OF THE FUND SAY IT WILL BE ELIGIBLE TO DRAW ON ITS QUOTA, WORTH ABOUT 80 MILLION DOLLARS. BOSNIA OWES THE I-M-F'S SISTER INSTITUTION, THE WORLD BANK, NEARLY 450 MILLION DOLLARS. THE BANK SAYS IT HAS YET TO DECIDE HOW IT WANTS TO HANDLE THE MATTER.

    ANOTHER KEY ECONOMIC ISSUE IN BOSNIA IS THE CREATION OF A NEW CENTRAL BANK IN THE COUNTRY, WHICH WILL TAKE PLACE IN THE NEXT SIX TO NINE MONTHS. UNDER THE DAYTON ACCORDS, THE I-M-F IS DUE TO NOMINATE THE HEAD OF THE BANK, BUT MR. RUSSO SAID THAT THE FUND SO FAR HAS NO PARTICULAR CANDIDATE IN MIND. (SIGNED)

    NEB/AB/SKH
    18-Dec-95 3:59 PM EST (2059 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] I-M-F / BOSNIA BY ANDREW BAIRD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190189
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// THIS SHOULD BE USED AS AN ALTERNATE TO U-S / BOSNIA SHORT CR BY BERGER ///

    INTRO: NATO SUPREME COMMANDER GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN SAYS THERE ARE ENCOURAGING SIGNS THE WARRING PARTIES IN BOSNIA ARE COMPLYING WITH THE PARIS PEACE ACCORD. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS GENERAL JOULWAN ALSO PREDICTS THAT DESPITE BAD WEATHER THE U-S FIRST ARMORED DIVISION'S HEADQUARTERS WILL BE IN PLACE IN THE BOSNIAN NORTHEAST CITY OF TUZLA BY WEDNESDAY:

    TEXT: SPEAKING FROM NATO OFFICES IN MONS, BELGIUM, GENERAL JOULWAN SAYS ALL AIR-DEFENSE RADARS IN THE REGION HAVE BEEN SHUT DOWN, AS OUTLINED IN THE PEACE AGREEMENT. HE ALSO SAYS THE WARRING PARTIES ARE BEGINNING TO REMOVE THEIR FORCES FROM AREAS THAT WILL BE PATROLLED SOON BY NATO TROOPS SENT IN TO ENFORCE THE PEACE ACCORD.

    /// JOULWAN ACT ///

    WE ALSO HAVE SOME ENCOURAGING NEWS THAT THERE IS EVEN SOME MOVEMENT BY THE PARTIES OUT OF THE ZONE OF SEPARATION AND WE HOPE THAT WILL BE DONE VOLUNTARILY.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE NATO COMMANDER SAYS AT LEAST ONE OF THE WARRING PARTIES IS HELPING IDENTIFY AND REMOVE SOME OF THE MILLIONS OF LANDMINES THAT POSE A THREAT TO SOLDIERS AND CIVILIANS ALIKE.

    DESPITE INCLEMENT WEATHER, WHICH HAS DELAYED U-S TROOP TRANSPORTS TO TUZLA, HE SAYS OTHER NATO FORCES ARE MOVING INTO PLACE BY TRAIN, BUS AND AIRCRAFT.

    /// JOULWAN ACT ///

    WHAT WE WANT TO GET INTO TUZLA ARE THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRST ARMORED DIVISION AND WE HOPE TO MAKE THE TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY (FROM THE U-N) DATE OF WEDNESDAY.

    /// END ACT///

    THE NATO COMMANDER EXPECTS TO HAVE UP TO 15-HUNDRED U-S TROOPS IN TUZLA BY CHRISTMAS.

    HE SAYS IF INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS FALL INTO THE HANDS OF NATO TROOPS THEY WOULD BE DETAINED. HOWEVER, HE EMPHASIZES TROOPS WILL NOT BE ACTIVELY PURSUING THEM. (SIGNED)

    NEB/VB/SKH
    17-Dec-95 8:25 PM EST (0125 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] JOULWAN/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-09339
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: MANY PAPERS CONTINUE TO EDITORIALIZE ABOUT BOSNIA AND THE AMERICAN ROLE THERE. WE GET A SAMPLING OF THE LATEST NOW FROM _______________ IN TODAY'S U-S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: FIRST, THERE IS THE PEACEKEEPING MISSION ITSELF AND WHAT PAPERS THINK OF IT, HOW IT IS AFFECTING NATO, AND ITS CHANCES FOR SUCCESS. THEN THERE IS THE DEBATE IN CONGRESS AND AMONG THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ABOUT SENDING U-S TROOPS THERE AS PEACEKEEPERS.

    WE BEGIN OUR SAMPLING WITH THIS EDITORIAL FROM "THE HARTFORD COURANT."

    VOICE: "CONGRESS WAS FAR TOO GRUDGING IN ITS ACCEPTANCE OF AMERICA'S PEACEKEEPING ROLE IN BOSNIA. WITH THE VANGUARD OF 20-THOUSAND U-S TROOPS ALREADY ON THE GROUND IN THE BALKANS TO HELP IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT SIGNED IN PARIS ..... THE HOUSE CAME WITHIN FIVE VOTES OF PASSING A BILL TO CUT OFF ALL MONEY FOR THE DEPLOYMENT. ..... A MAJORITY IN THE HOUSE MADE ITSELF LOOK FOOLISH BY VOTING FOR A SECOND RESOLUTION THAT OPPOSES MR. CLINTON'S POLICY BUT EXPRESSES CONFIDENCE AND SUPPORT FOR U-S TROOPS. THAT'S A CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF TRYING TO HAVE IT BOTH WAYS, AND IT SENDS AMERICAN FORCES A DISCOMFORTING MESSAGE. HOW CAN YOU SUPPORT THE TROOPS BUT OPPOSE THEIR MISSION?"

    TEXT: IN BOSTON, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" PRAISES CONGRESS FOR ITS SLENDER VOTE OF SUPPORT, BUT WORRIES ABOUT SOME OF THE IDEAS THAT SURFACED DURING THE DEBATE.

    VOICE: "REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATORS MADE SOME DISTRESSING, ALBEIT SINCERE, ASSERTIONS DURING THE DEBATE. ONE IS THAT THE U-S HAS NO INTERESTS IN THE BALKANS. AMERICA'S PRIMARY FOREIGN-POLICY GOAL IN THIS CENTURY HAS BEEN A STABLE AND DEMOCRATIC EUROPE. U-S MEMBERSHIP IN NATO IS A DIRECT EXPRESSION OF THAT GOAL."

    TEXT: THE ORLANDO SENTINEL, IN AN EDITORIAL ENTITLED "A HARSH STUDY IN CONTRASTS"SAYS:

    VOICE: "A GRAND CEREMONY LAST WEEK CELEBRATING THE FORMAL SINGING OF A PEACE TREATY FOR BOSNIA SHARPLY CONTRASTED WITH THE DEVASTTATION OF THE PRECEDING SEVERAL YEARS . . . SHOULD THE PEACE PLAN FALTER, THE POTENTIAL FOR EVEN GREATER CARNAGE COULD EMERGE. THIS TIME, HOWEVER, MORE THAN RESIDENTS OF BOSNIA WOULD FIND THEMSELVES FACING INJURY AND DEATH. THAT'S BECAUSE A HIGE CONTINGNT OF BRAVE TOROPS SUPPLIED BY THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER COUNTIRES WILL BE SPENDING THE HOLIDAYS IN THE WAR-RAVAGED BALKANS, BOLSTERING THE PROMISE OF THE PEACE PACT . . . MAY THE MISSION BE PRODUCTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL, AND MAY THE TROOPS COME HOME AS SOON AS POSSIBLE."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE TALKS OF A SOMEWHAT UNINTENDED, AND, AS THE PAPER SEES IT, VERY POSITIVE CONSEQUENCE OF THIS LATEST DEPLOYMENT OF PEACEKEEPING TROOPS.

    VOICE: "WITH THE DISPATCH OF THOUSANDS OF TROOPS TO BOSNIA FROM THIS WEEK ONWARD, THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION IS TRANSFORMED. ..... NATO HAS BEEN TURNED BY UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCE INTO A PEACE-ENFORCEMENT UNIT THAT WILL TAKE ON FUNCTIONS ... CLEARLY BEYOND THE CAPABILITIES OF THE UNITED NATIONS. ..... IN FOREIGN POLICY THINK-TANK CIRCLES, THE CONCEPT IS GROWING THAT THE BOSNIA OPERATION, DIFFICULT AS IT IS, MAY PROVIDE NATO WITH THE MISSION IT HAS BEEN SEEKING SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIAL OPINION ON THE U-S AND NATO INVOLVEMENT IN KEEPING THE PEACE NOW THAT AN AGREEMENT HAS BEEN SIGNED TO END THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    NEB/ANG/NES
    18-Dec-95 2:13 PM EST (1913 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] MORE THOUGHTS ON BOSNIA BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190235
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COMMANDER OF THE NATO-LED PEACE FORCE GOING TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, AMERICAN ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, SAYS THE DEPLOYMENT IS PROCEEDING WELL. THE ADMIRAL IS NOW IN ZAGREB, WHERE HIS FORWARD HEADQUARTERS WILL BE LOCATED FOR SOME TIME. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: ADMIRAL SMITH HAS MOVED TO HIS NEW HEADQUARTERS IN ZAGREB AFTER LEAVING NAPLES WHERE HE HAS COMMANDED NATO FORCES IN SOUTHERN EUROPE. THE COMMANDER OF THE NATO PEACE IMPLEMENTATION MISSION IN BOSNIA EXPECTS TO BE BASED IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL FOR SOME TIME. THERE IS NO SUITABLE SPACE FOR HIS FORWARD HEADQUARTERS TO BE ESTABLISHED IN SARAJEVO.

    ADMIRAL SMITH WILL BE IN SARAJEVO ON WEDNESDAY, THOUGH, FOR THE FORMAL HANDOVER OF THE UNITED NATIONS PEACE-KEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO NATO.

    ALTHOUGH IT IS PROCEEDING SLOWLY, THE ADMIRAL BELIEVES THE DEPLOYMENT OF HIS NATO-LED FORCES TO BOSNIA IS GOING GENERALLY ACCORDING TO PLAN.

    HE SAYS IT IS BETTER TO SEND THE NATO TROOPS TO BOSNIA DURING THE WINTER, DESPITE WEATHER-RELATED PROBLEMS.

    HE SAYS THE TROOPS WILL BE IN PLACE TO DISCOURAGE THE FORMER WARRING FORCES, IF NECESSARY, FROM RESUMING THEIR FIGHTING WHEN WARMER WEATHER ARRIVES IN THE BALKANS IN THE SPRING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/CB/PT
    18-Dec-95 6:59 PM EST (2359 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [13] NATO/BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/18/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190234
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: AS U-S TROOPS BEGAN ARRIVING IN LARGE NUMBERS IN BOSNIA FOR PEACEKEEPING DUTY, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION ISSUED A NEW CALL ON BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES TO LEAVE OFFICE. THE BOSNIAN SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC AND MILITARY LEADER RATKO MLADIC STILL HOLD POWER DESPITE THE CHARGES AGAINST THEM BY THE TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS.

    TEXT: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT IS NOT PART OF THE MISSION OF NATO PEACEKEEPERS TO SEARCH FOR THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERS. BUT IT SAYS IF U-S FORCES DO ENCOUNTER THEM, THEY WILL BE APPREHENDED AND TURNED OVER TO WAR-CRIMES PROSECUTORS. THE WARNING CAME AS IMPROVING WEATHER ALLOWED A STEPPED-UP AIRLIFT OF AMERICAN COMBAT TROOPS INTO BOSNIA TO BEGIN THEIR PEACE IMPLEMENTATION DUTIES.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICK BURNS SAYS NOW IS THE TIME FOR MR. KARADZIC AND GENERAL MLADIC TO GIVE WAY TO NEW LEADERS WHO CAN JOIN IN BUILDING PEACE IN THE COUNTRY:

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THESE PEOPLE ARE NOT FREE TO ROAM, KARADZIC AND MLADIC, THE COUNTRYSIDE. IF THEY WALK INTO DOWNTOWN TUZLA AND ENCOUNTER AN AMERICAN SOLDIER, THEN THEY ARE GOING TO BE APPREHENDED. SO THEY HAVE TO BE THINKING NOW OF THEIR OWN FUTURES. THEIR FUTURE IS TO LEAVE POWER. THEIR DAY IS DONE. AND THEY OUGHT TO TURN OVER POWER, BOTH MILITARY AND POLITICAL, TO OTHER PEOPLE.

    //END ACT///

    THE PENTAGON SAYS THAT WITH AIRLIFT OF U-S SOLDIERS TROOPS TO BOSNIA GAINING MOMENTUM, WELL OVER ONE THOUSAND AMERICANS WILL ON STATION AT THE U-S REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS IN TUZLA BY LATE TUESDAY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CB/PT
    18-Dec-95 6:40 PM EST (2340 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [14] U-S/BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/17/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190188*
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING TO CHANGE FIRST LINE OF INTRO ///

    INTRO: THE LARGEST GROUP OF U-S TROOPS TO DATE TO BE DEPLOYED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ARRIVED IN CROATIA LATE SUNDAY. STEFAN BOS REPORTS FROM BUDAPEST, THE U-S SOLDIERS ARRIVED IN CROATIA AFTER LENGTHY BUREAUCRATIC PROCEDURES AT THE HUNGARIAN BORDER.

    TEXT: ABOUT ONE-HUNDRED THIRTY U-S FORCES CROSSED INTO CROATIA AFTER LENGTHY DOCUMENTS CHECKS BY HUNGARIAN BORDER GUARDS.

    THE TRAIN CARRYING THE TROOPS AND MILITARY EQUIPMENT WAS FINALLY ALLOWED TO ENTER CROATIA MORE THEN FOUR HOURS BEHIND SCHEDULE.

    THE U-S SOLDIERS HAD LEFT THEIR BASE IN GERMANY ON FRIDAY AND SPENT THE NIGHT IN THE SNOW COVERED RAILSIDINGS ON A WINDSWEPT HUNGARIAN FIELD.

    NATO OFFICIALS SAY THE U-S SOLDIERS WILL REPLACE A SHATTERED BRIDGE BETWEEN CROATIA AND BOSNIA TO ENABLE THOUSANDS MORE TROOPS TO REACH OVERLAND AN U-S BASE IN TUSAZLA.

    U-S MILITARY SPOKESMEN SAY IT WILL TAKE UP TO TWO WEEKS TO SECURE AT LEAST SOME BRIDGES DESTROYED OR DAMAGED DURING THE FOUR YEAR WAR IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    BUT CROATIAN RAILWAYMEN CAUTIONED THAT WITH THIS SPEED IT MIGHT TAKE MONTHS BEFORE ALL SCHEDULED 300 HUNDRED TRAINS WILL REACH THEIR DESTINATIONS IN CROATIA AND BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/SB/LWM
    17-Dec-95 9:34 PM EST (0234 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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