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Voice of America, 20 December 1995

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] 95: U.N. / NATO -- BOSNIA BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [03] 95: U.N. YEAR OF REFLECTION BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

  • [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

  • [05] BOSNIA / DEPLOYMENT (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [06] BOSNIA / NATO (S O'NITER) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

  • [07] BOSNIA / U-N BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [08] NATO / BOSNIA (S) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

  • [09] NATO / SOLANA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [10] U-S/BOSNIA BRIDGE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [11] U-S/MISSILES/TURKEY (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [12] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)


  • [01] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09342
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 20TH //

    INTRO: SEVERAL OF AMERICA'S MAJOR DAILY NEWSPAPERS ARE EDITORIALIZING TODAY (WEDNESDAY) ABOUT THE ELECTIONS IN RUSSIA AND HAITI, AS WELL AS A VARIETY OF DOMESTIC TOPICS, INCLUDING THE WHITEWATER CONTROVERSY AND THE BUDGET IMPASSE THAT HAS SHUT DOWN MUCH OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, AND SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS STILL ON THE LOOSE IN BOSNIA. FOR DETAILS, HERE IS _________________ WITH TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: SUNDAY'S ELECTION IN RUSSIA THAT SAW A RESURGENCE FOR THE COMMUNIST PARTY IS STILL A PRIME TOPIC WITH U-S EDITORIAL WRITERS. FOR EXAMPLE, AT "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND, TODAY'S EDITORIAL HEADLINE READS: "RUSSIANS TO BORIS YELTSIN: 'SHAPE UP OR SHIP OUT' [IE: IMPROVE YOUR PERFORMANCE OR RESIGN."

    VOICE: "THE COMMUNIST VICTORY IN RUSSIA'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS, FOR ALL ITS IRONY AND DRAMA, IS LESS IMPORTANT THAN THE TWO SOBERING AND SOMEWHAT CONTRADICTORY LESSONS TO BE DRAWN FROM THE VOTE: RUSSIANS HAVE TAKEN TO DEMOCRACY AND ARE NOT ABOUT TO GO BACK TO TOTALITARIAN RULE, BUT THEY ARE HUGELY DISSATISFIED WITH THE RESULTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REFORMS ENACTED IN THE NAME OF DEMOCRACY. LET'S NOT FORGET THAT, DISSATISFIED OR NOT, RUSSIANS 'VOTED' [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS]... AND THEIR VOTE WAS A CLEAR WARNING TO PRESIDNET BORIS YELTSIN, WHOSE POLICIES OF ECONOMIC REFORM HAVE CUASED ORDINARY RUSSIANS A GREAT DEAL OF PAIN WITHOUT MUCH GAIN IN THEIR STANDARD OF LIVING. HE SHOULD TAKE HEED."

    TEXT: IN NEW YORK CITY, "THE NEW YORK POST" IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE GAINS OF THE RECONSTITUTED COMMUNISTS AND THE QUASI-FASCIST PARTY -- AS THE PAPER IDENTIFIES IT -- OF ULTRANATIONALIST VLADIMIR ZHIRINOVSKY.

    VOICE: "WE DOUBT THAT ANY WESTERNER HAS A GOOD IDEA OF HOW TO SALVAGE THE REFORM PROCESS IN RUSSIA. BUT THE FIRST PART OF WISDOM IS FOR AMERICANS TO STOP DENYING THAT SOMETHING HAS GONE TERRIBLY WRONG, AND TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT RUSSIA MAY WELL BE SLIDING BACK -- AT LEAST TOWARD AUTHORITARIANISM, IF NOT TO OUTRIGHT DICTATORSHIP. [OPT] ... IT'S PEOPLE HAVE GONE TO THE POLLS AND THE LEADING VOTE-GETTERS HAVE TURNED OUT TO BE DETERMINED COMMUNISTS AND FASCISTS. IT'S TIME TO STOP PRETENDING OTHERWISE. IT'S TIME TO SOUND THE ALARM." [END OPT]

    TEXT: NOT TRUE, SAYS "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER," WHICH THINKS THERE IS STILL HOPE FOR DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA:

    VOICE: "IT'S MUCH TOO EARLY TO PUSH THE PANIC BUTTON OVER THE STRONG SHOWING BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY IN RUSSIA'S ... ELECTIONS... THIS COMMUNIST PARTY IS MORE OF A THROWBACK TO OLD-STYLE REDS THAN THE KIND OF COMMUNISTS-TURNED-SOCIAL-DEMOCRATS WHO HAVE WON RECENT ELECTIONS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES LIKE POLAND... BUT DON'T EXPECT A RETURN TO THE BAD OLD DAYS OF THE HAMMER AND SICKLE... AS DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS TAKE ROOT IN RUSSIA, NOT EVEN THE COMMUNISTS CAN TURN BACK THE CLOCK TO ONE-PARTY RULE."

    TEXT: TURNING TO LAST SUNDAY'S ELECTIONS IN HAITI, TODAY'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL" CALLS THE VOTE "A REASON FOR HOPE," ADDING:

    VOICE: "WHAT'S IMPRESSIVE IN HAITI'S CASE IS THAT THIS IS THE FIRST TIME POWER IS BEING TRANSFERRED PEACEFULLY. THAT'S IMPORTANT FOR THE FUTURE STABILITY OF THE COUNTRY. THAT, IN TURN, HAS AN EFFECT ON HAITI'S NEIGHBORS. DISRUPTION IN YEARS PAST HAS LED TO WAVES OF HAITIANS TRYING TO ENTER THE UNITED STATES ILLEGALLY, WITH FLORIDA BEING A FAVORITE DESTINATION. [OPT] ...... HAITI HAS SUFFERED ENOUGH TENSION AND TURMOIL. IT'S TIME TO MOVE ON TO A NEW CHAPTER, A NEW PRESIDENT AND NEW HOPE." [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES," A BIT MORE SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE VOTE, ASKS "WHO WILL RULE HAITI?" -- WONDERING WHETHER THE ELECTION WINNER, RENE PREVAL, WILL BE MERELY A PUPPET FOR THE OUTGOING JEAN-BERTRAND ARISTIDE.

    VOICE: "MR. ARISTIDE GIVES EVERY INDICATION OF INTENDING TO RULE INDIRECTLY THROUGH HIM, [MR. PREVAL] PERHAPS BY HAVING HIMSELF DESIGNATED PRIME MINISTER. THAT WOULD BE UNFORTUNATE. THE FORMAL ACHIEVEMENT OF A DEMOCRATIC PASSAGE OF POWER WOULD BE MEANINGLESS IF MR. ARISTIDE CONTINUED RULING BEHIND MR. PREVAL."

    TEXT: THE U-S SENATE'S WHITEWATER INVESTIGATION OF AN ARKANSAS REAL ESTATE DEAL IN WHICH PRESIDENT AND MRS. CLINTON BRIEFLY HAD A FINANCIAL INTEREST BEFORE HE BECAME PRESIDENT CONTINUES TO DRAW EDITORIAL COMMENT. WRITING IN THE "NEW YORK DAILY NEWS", WASHINGTON BUREAU CHIEF LARS-ERIK NELSON SAYS:

    VOICE: "BILL AND HILLARY CLINTON HAVE SECRETLY -- SECRETLY! -- BEEN FOUND INNOCENT OF ANY WRONGDOING IN THE WHITEWATER AFFAIR. THEIR VINDICATION IS CONTAINED IN A CONFIDENTIAL FINAL REPORT PREPARED FOR THE GOVERNMENT'S RESOLUTION TRUST CORPORATION .... [OPT] IT WAS SHOWN TO THE DAILY NEWS BY CONGRESSIONAL DEMOCRATS. THE INVESTIGATION FOUND ... THE CLINTONS WERE NOT INVOLVED IN THE DAY-TO-DAY MANAGEMENT OF THE FAILED WHITEWATER REAL ESTATE VENTURE, THAT THEY LOST 42-THOUSAND DOLLARS AND THAT THEIR INVESTMENT DID NOT -- AS CHARGED -- CAUSE THE COLLAPSE OF THE MADISON GUARANTY SAVINGS AND LOAN COMPANY. [END OPT] THIS IS A BREATHTAKING RESULT."

    TEXT: HOWEVER, IN "USA TODAY" SOME OF THE MEMORY LAPSES UNDER OATH BY FORMER AND CURRENT WHITE HOUSE STAFF BEING QUESTIONED BY THE SENATE COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING WHITEWATER, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE:

    VOICE: "TO THOSE OLD ENOUGH TO REMEMBER OR INTERESTED ENOUGH TO READ ABOUT IT, THIS WHOLE [WHITEWATER] MELODRAMA SOUNDS LIKE A PATHETIC RERUN OF PREVIOUS PRESIDENTIAL STONEWALLS [REFUSING TO COOPERATE OR ANSWER QUESTIONS.] ... BOTH CLINTONS HAVE ADAMANTLY DENIED ANY WRONGDOING, DISMISSING IT AS MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING. IF THAT'S TRULY THE CASE, ... DON'T OBFUSCATE, COOPERATE."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" LEAD EDITORIAL, COMMENTING ON THE BUDGET IMPASSE THAT HAS FORCED A PARTIAL SHUTDOWN OF GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS FOR THE FIFTH DAY, NOTES:

    VOICE: "IT'S POSSIBLE TO GET THE DEFICIT DOWN WITHOUT DOING GRIEVOUS SOCIAL HARM, BUT TO ACCOMPLISH THAT EACH PARTY HAS TO ABANDON SOME PAST POSITIONS AND TAKE SOME POLITICAL RISKS. IT ISN'T YET CLEAR THAT THEY WILL... THE RIGHT WAY TO GET THE DEFICIT DOWN IS TO STAY AWAY FROM TAX CUTS, MAKE SOME SERIOUS SAVINGS IN SOCIAL SECURITY AND MEDICARE, AND TAKE IT EASIER ON THE ... POOR. "

    TEXT: "THE POST" IS ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT REPORTS THAT INDIA MAY BE ABOUT TO SET OFF A NUCLEAR DEVICE:

    VOICE: "INDIA APPARENTLY IS PREPARING A NUCLEAR TEST. THE GOVERNMENT DENIES IT, BUT ALONG LINES OF THE DENIAL THAT PRECEDED ITS FIRST 'PEACEFUL' TEST IN 1974. [OPT] THE EVIDENT PURPOSE IS TO GIVE INDIA'S CHAMPING [ANXIOUS/ENERGETIC] NUCLEAR TECHNICIANS A CHANCE TO IMPROVE CERTAIN WARHEADS FOR ITS NEW MISSILES BEFORE NEXT YEAR, TARGET DATE FOR AGREEMENT ON A GLOBAL TEST BAN. [END OPT] ... IF IT DOES, THE TEST WOULD BE A DEFIANT SLAP AT GLOBAL NONPROLIFERATION [OPT] AND WOULD LEAVE INDIA IN THE COMPANY OF CHINA AND FRANCE, DISCREDITED BY THEIR TESTING. [END OPT]

    TEXT: "THE BOSTON GLOBE" REACTS TO THE NEWLY RELEASED VIDEO TAPE FOOTAGE OF ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN'S KILLING, THIS WAY:

    VOICE: "A VIDEO CAMERA IS AGAIN THE STAR WITNESS TO TRAGEDY, THIS TIME YITZHAK RABIN'S ASSASSINATION AT A PEACE RALLY IN TEL AVIV LAST MONTH. ... AN AMATEUR VIDEOGRAPHER IS EMERGING AS A HIGH-TECH FLY ON THE WALL [OBSERVER] WHO HAPPENED TO HAVE THE LENS IN FOCUS FOR HISTORY. ... IN 1995, SOMEONE IS ALMOST ALWAYS WATCHING... HIS WORK WILL MAKE ANOTHER NATION WINCE FOREVER AND SERVES AS A REMINDER THAT PRIVACY IS ILLUSORY."

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, ON THE SUBJECT OF BOSNIAN WAR CRIMINALS, "THE LOS ANGELS TIMES" OFFERS THIS OBSERVATION:

    VOICE: "GENERAL RATKO MLADIC, THE BOSNIAN SERB WARLORD, IS REPORTED HOLED UP IN A MOUNTAIN BUNKER AND DRINKING HEAVILY. DUSAN TUDIC, ACCUSED OF MURDER, RAPE AND TORTURE OF BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, SITS IN A DUTCH JAIL. THESE TWO AND 50 OTHERS -- ETHNIC SERBS AND CROATIANS AND ONE MUSLIM -- HAVE BEEN INDICTED AS WAR CRIMINALS, THE WORST OF A BRUTAL LOT IN A CONFLICT WITHOUT PITY. NONE SHOULD BE GIVEN THESE MEN IF THEY ARE FOUND GUILTY... HISTORY SHOWS THAT SOMETIME, SOMEWHERE THERE IS A BULLET WAITING FOR MEN LIKE THESE."

    TEXT: AND THAT CONCLUDES THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME EDITORIALS IN THE U-S PRESS THIS WEDNESDAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS. NEB/ANG/PCH

    20-Dec-95 11:24 AM EST (1624 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] 95: U.N. / NATO -- BOSNIA BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=YEAREND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32025
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE MAIN STORY IN EUROPE THIS YEAR WAS THE ISSUE OF WAR AND PEACE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. WHEN THE WAR SPUN OUT OF THE UNITED NATIONS' CONTROL, NATO WAS CALLED IN FIRST TO STOP THE SERBS AND THEN TO HELP IMPLEMENT A NEW PEACE AGREEMENT. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE BLOODY WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA OFFICIALLY ENDED ON DECEMBER 14TH WHEN A PEACE AGREEMENT WAS SIGNED IN PARIS.

    THE FIGHTING STOPPED EARLIER AFTER THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL BELATEDLY REALIZED IT HAD TO SALVAGE SOMETHING FROM AN INHERENTLY FLAWED U-N PEACE-KEEPING MISSION.

    WHILE U-N RELIEF AID SAVED THOUSANDS OF CIVILIAN LIVES, HUNDREDS OF U-N SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, INJURED OR HUMILIATED, MAINLY BY THE BOSNIAN SERBS, DURING THE THREE-AND-A-HALF YEAR LONG CONFLICT IN BOSNIA.

    THE SERBS' CONTEMPT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS FINALLY BECAME UNBEARABLE TO THE MAJOR POWERS IN AUGUST AFTER THE SERBS CAPTURED THE U-N / DECLARED SAFE AREA OF SREBRENICA AND, APPARENTLY, MASSACRED THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE THERE.

    NATO WARPLANES BEGAN A SYSTEMATIC BOMBING CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE SERBS WHILE THE UNITED STATES TOOK OVER PEACE EFFORTS.

    THE SERBS SUFFERED MAJOR BATTLEFIELD DEFEATS WHEN THE CROATIAN ARMY SUPPORTED BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT AND CROAT OFFENSIVES. PEACE BECAME POSSIBLE.

    ON DECEMBER 20TH, THE U-N MILITARY MISSION TO BOSNIA FINALLY ENDED. NATO FORCES BEGAN TO IMPLEMENT MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE PEACE ACCORD.

    THE COMMANDER OF THE NATO OPERATION, AMERICAN ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH TOLD HIS SENIOR OFFICERS: GENTLEMEN, IT'S TIME. LET'S GET ON WITH IT.

    NATO IS NOW EMBARKING ON ITS MOST AMBITIOUS MILITARY OPERATION, BACKED BY 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS ON THEIR WAY TO BOSNIA. BUT, IT IS NOT JUST A NATO OPERATION. ABOUT 20 COUNTRIES THAT DO NOT BELONG TO THE WESTERN ALLIANCE, INCLUDING RUSSIA, WILL BE INVOLVED. STILL, IT MAY BE AN ALL OR NOTHING GAMBLE FOR NATO. SUCCESS IN BOSNIA WILL ASSURE NATO'S FUTURE. BUT, FAILURE COULD LEAD TO THE END OF THE WESTERN ALLIANCE AND OF THE POLITICAL CAREERS OF WESTERN LEADERS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/CF
    20-Dec-95 1:24 PM EST (1824 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] 95: U.N. YEAR OF REFLECTION BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=YEAREND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32020
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: 12/20

    INTRO: 1995 FOR THE UNITED NATIONS WAS A YEAR OF REFLECTION. THE WORLD ORGANIZATION CELEBRATED ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY AND LOOKED FOR SIGNALS OF WHERE IT SHOULD BE GOING FOR THE NEXT HALF CENTURY. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REVIEWS THE U-N'S YEAR -- WITH SOME PERSPECTIVE FOR THE FUTURE:

    TEXT: KINGS, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS -- FROM OVER 140 NATIONS -- GATHERED FOR THREE DAYS AT THE UNITED NATIONS THIS PAST OCTOBER TO OBSERVE FIVE DECADES OF U-N EXISTENCE. IT WAS THE LARGEST GATHERING OF ITS KIND IN U-N HISTORY.

    THE U-N'S PRESENT CARETAKER, SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI, WAS THRILLED WITH THE OBSERVANCE:

    // BOUTROS-GHALI ACT //

    FOR THREE DAYS, WE HAVE BEEN A COMMUNITY OF ONE. WE HAVE UNDERSTOOD THE CHANGE. WE HAVE RECOGNIZED THE COMPLEXITY. WE HAVE LOOKED TO THE FUTURE AND SEE THE WAY FORWARD.

    // END ACT //

    BUT THERE WAS NO COMPLACENCY. IRELAND'S PRESIDENT -- MARY ROBINSON -- WARNED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT THE UNITED NATIONS WOULD PERISH UNLESS GOVERNMENTS REVITALIZE IT:

    // ROBINSON ACT //

    IF WE DON'T INFUSE THE UNITED NATIONS WITH A NEW SENSE OF PURPOSE AND A NEW SENSE OF DIRECTION -- A GENUINE GLOBAL ETHIC -- THEN I FEAR THAT THE PRAISE WE GIVE TO THE U-N FROM THIS ROSTRUM OVER THESE DAYS WILL COME IN TIME TO BE READ AS ITS EPITAPH.

    // END ACT //

    GOVERNMENTS WANT A REFORMED U-N TO MOVE INTO ITS NEXT HALF CENTURY -- A LEANER, BUT NOT MEANER, ORGANIZATION THAT CAN STILL MEET THE NEEDS OF AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX, INTERDEPENDENT AND POPULOUS PLANET. AFTER 50 YEARS, THE FEAR AND MEMORY OF A GLOBAL WAR HAS RECEDED. BUT BITTER REGIONAL CONFLICTS RAGED IN 1995 -- IN CENTRAL ASIA, AFRICA, IN THE BALKANS.

    THERE IS FINALLY HOPE FOR PEACE IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA AS THE NEW YEAR APPROACHES. BUT THE UNITED NATIONS LOST GROUND OVER THE LAST 12 MONTHS AS ITS PEACEKEEPERS WERE SEEN TO BE HELPLESS PAWNS IN EUROPE'S WORST CONFLICT SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. THE U-N EMERGED FROM THE COLD WAR WITH WHAT SOME SAY WAS ALMOST TOO MUCH CREDIBILITY. IT ENDED 1995 WITH TOO LITTLE.

    SIXTY-THOUSAND SOLDIERS FROM 84 COUNTRIES SERVE IN 16 OPERATIONS AROUND THE WORLD. ABOUT 90 HAVE DIED THIS PAST YEAR ALONE. SECRETARY-GENERAL BOUTROS-GHALI SAYS THE WORLD UNFAIRLY CRITICIZES U-N PEACEKEEPERS, WHO NORMALLY OPERATE WITH LIMITED RESOURCES. HE BELIEVES THE U-N IN THE FUTURE WILL HAVE TO DEPEND MORE ON MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS, LIKE THE NATO-LED FORCE IN BOSNIA:

    // BOUTROS-GHALI ACT //

    TO BE A CIVIL SERVANT IS TO BE TRAINED THAT NOBODY WILL TELL YOU THANK YOU. SO YOU HAVE TO ACCEPT THIS. SECONDLY, WHICH IS VERY IMPORTANT, WE WELCOME ANY INITIATIVE COMING FROM A GROUP OF STATES, FROM A REGIONAL ARRANGEMENT. THIS IS BASED ON THE CHARTER.

    // END ACT //

    THE U-N THIS PAST YEAR SUCCESSFULLY TOOK OVER FROM A U-S LED FORCE IN HAITI. WITH U-N ASSISTANCE, ANGOLA'S CIVIL WAR BEGAN TO GIVE WAY IN 1995 TO RECONSTRUCTION AND RECONCILIATION. U-N OBSERVERS ARE ASSISTING A RUSSIAN-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN GEORGIA. SMALL U-N MISSIONS ARE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT FORMER SOVIET TERRITORY.

    BUT AS THE WORLD RUSHES TOWARD THE 21ST CENTURY, THE U-N IS MOSTLY BELEAGUERED -- FODDER FOR A GROWING CADRE OF CRITICS. IT IS FACING ITS WORST EVER FINANCIAL CRISIS -- WITH THE U-S CONGRESS RELUCTANT TO PAY OVER A BILLION DOLLARS IN U-S ARREARS.

    REFORM OF THE U-N HAS VIRTUALLY STALLED. U-N OFFICIALS SAY THEY CAN DO NOTHING WITHOUT A DEPENDABLE SUPPLY OF MONEY. ATTITUDES IN WASHINGTON ARE CONSIDERED PIVOTAL TO THE U-N'S SOLVENCY -- PERHAPS EVEN ITS SURVIVAL IN THE LONGER TERM. (SIGNED)

    UN/EJ/CF
    20-Dec-95 1:05 PM EST (1805 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / NATO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190331
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NEW COMMANDER OF THE NATO FORCE THAT WILL BE IMPLEMENTING THE BOSNIAN PEACE PLAN SAYS HE EXPECTS TO KNOW WITHIN THE NEXT FEW MONTHS IF THE MISSION WILL BE A SUCCESS. V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN SARAJEVO REPORTS U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH SPOKE WEDNESDAY TO REPORTERS IN THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL, AND CALLED THE PEACE AGREEMENT AN OPPORTUNITY TO MOVE AWAY FROM THE RAVAGES OF WAR.

    TEXT: ADMIRAL SMITH ACKNOWLEDGED THE NATO FORCE UNDER HIS COMMAND WOULD FACE SOME TOUGH CHALLENGES. AND HE SAID IT WOULD BE NAIVE TO THINK THERE WOULD NOT BE CASUALTIES ALONG THE WAY.

    BUT UNLIKE THE COMMANDER OF THE UNITED NATIONS FORCE THAT HE HAS REPLACED, ADMIRAL SMITH SEEMED CONFIDENT THE NATO TROOPS WOULD BE ABLE TO ESTABLISH A SECURE ENVIRONMENT.

    // SMITH ACT //

    OUR COMMON GOAL IS STEADY PROGRESS TOWARDS A BETTER BOSNIA. A BOSNIA IN WHICH ITS CITIZENS CAN ENVISION LIVES WITHOUT FEAR AND FUTURES FOR THEIR CHILDREN.

    // END ACT //

    TO CARRY OUT THAT MISSION HE WILL HAVE 60-THOUSAND HEAVILY ARMED TROOPS ON THE GROUND IN THE NEXT TWO MONTHS, AND THE SUPPORT OF NATO'S POWERFUL AIR FORCES.

    ASKED WHY NATO EXPECTED TO SUCCEED IN A MISSION THAT HAD FRUSTRATED THE UNITED NATIONS FOR NEARLY THREE YEARS AND COST THE LIVES OF 110 PEACEKEEPERS, THE ADMIRAL SAID THE ANSWER IS SIMPLE.

    // SMITH ACT //

    BECAUSE THE UNITED NATIONS DID NOT HAVE A SIGNED PEACE AGREEMENT AND WE DO.

    // END ACT //

    NEVERTHELESS, NATO TROOPS WILL IMMEDIATELY FACE THE CHALLENGE POSED BY BOSNIAN SERBS WHO REJECT THE DAYTON AGREEMENT, AND HAVE VOWED TO FIGHT TO THE DEATH BEFORE THEY WILL GIVE UP THE PARTS OF SARAJEVO THEY CONTROL.

    IN A MIXTURE OF BLUSTER AND DIPLOMACY, THE ADMIRAL AGAIN SAID THE NATO FORCE HE LEADS DOES NOT THREATEN ANYONE. BUT, HE SAID HE EXPECTS TO SEE THE AGREEMENT IMPLEMENTED ON TIME AND HIS TROOPS ARE PREPARED TO TAKE THE NECESSARY STEPS TO ENSURE IT IS.

    ON THURSDAY, ADMIRAL SMITH WILL PRESIDE OVER THE FIRST MEETING OF A JOINT COMMISSION, THAT WILL BRING TOGETHER MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE WARRING FACTIONS TO DEAL WITH ANY PROBLEMS THAT ARISE IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AGREEMENT.

    WITH THE FIRST SERIES OF DEADLINES ON THE TRANSFER OF TERRITORY AND THE DISARMING OF ARMED CIVILIAN GROUPS NOW LESS THAN 30 DAYS AWAY, THERE WILL LIKELY BE PLENTY TO TALK ABOUT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/CF
    20-Dec-95 1:39 PM EST (1839 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA / DEPLOYMENT (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190329
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO FORCES ARE STARTING TO CARRY OUT THEIR MISSION OF HELPING IMPLEMENT THE NEW PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS NATO TROOPS ARE SPREADING OUT AND ARE ASSERTING THEIR AUTHORITY WITH A NEW SERB PLEDGE OF COOPERATION.

    TEXT: AS SOON AS THE UNITED NATIONS TURNED OVER ITS PEACE MISSION TO NATO, AMERICAN TROOPS TOOK OVER THE UNITED NATIONS-CONTROLLED AIRBASE AT TUZLA IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA.

    THE AMERICAN FORCE NOW IN BOSNIA IS SMALL. BUT IT IS PLANNED TO EVENTUALLY INCLUDE ABOUT 20-THOUSAND TROOPS.

    IN A RICHLY SYMBOLIC MOVE, TWO U-S GENERALS, ONE IN BOSNIA AND THE OTHER IN CROATIA, MET ON THE BANKS OF THE SAVA RIVER, WHICH DIVIDES THE TWO COUNTRIES.

    THE GENERALS LINKED UP IN AN AREA WHERE THOUSANDS OF U-S TROOPS, WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT WILL ENTER BOSNIA ONCE BRIDGES ARE PUT UP OVER THE RIVER.

    IN CENTRAL BOSNIA, A STRONG, ARMOR-BACKED BRITISH FORCE ENCOUNTERED _NO_ OPPOSITION AS IT ENTERED THE CROAT-HELD TOWN OF MRKONJIC GRAD.

    THE CROATS HAVE BEEN LOOTING AND BURNING HOMES THERE BEFORE THE TOWN REVERTS TO SERB CONTROL UNDER THE NEW BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. THERE IS NOW A STRONG INTERNATIONAL FORCE IN MRKONJIC GRAD FOR THE FIRST TIME.

    JUST IN CASE OF TROUBLE THERE, TROOPS OF BRITAIN'S SECOND LIGHT INFANTRY REGIMENT CARRIED A NOTICE THAT EXPLAINED THEIR RIGHT OF FREE MOVEMENT TO ANYONE WHO MIGHT HAVE CHALLENGED IT.

    THE NOTICE TELLS THE FORMER WARRING FORCES THEY CAN _NOT_ RESTRICT NATO MOVEMENTS. THE NOTICE SAYS, IN THESE WORDS, IF YOU DO _NOT_ ALLOW ACCESS WITHIN FIVE MINUTES, WE WILL MOVE THROUGH ANYWAY.

    WITH NATO DETERMINED _NOT_ TO REPEAT THE MISTAKES OF THE FAILED U-N MILITARY MISSION IN BOSNIA, A NEW, SENIOR SERB OFFICIAL, RAJKO KASAGIC, HAS CALLED ON ALL SERBS TO COOPERATE WITH NATO FORCES.

    ACCORDING TO THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY, TANJUG, THE SERB OFFICIAL SAYS THE SERBS' FUTURE WILL DEPEND ON GOOD RELATIONS WITH NATO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/ART
    20-Dec-95 1:14 PM EST (1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIA / NATO (S O'NITER) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190334
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COMMANDER OF THE NEW NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA, U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, SAYS HE EXPECTS SOME TOUGH PROBLEMS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. BUT V-O-A'S KYLE KING IN SARAJEVO REPORTS ADMIRAL SMITH SAYS HE IS CONFIDENT NATO WILL BE ABLE TO MEET THE CHALLENGE.

    TEXT: AFTER LESS THAN ONE FULL DAY ON THE JOB, ADMIRAL SMITH WILL BE GETTING HIS FIRST TASTE OF BOSNIAN POLITICS WHEN HE MEETS WITH MILITARY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THREE WARRING FACTIONS.

    THE MEETING AT THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT (THURSDAY) WILL BE THE FIRST OF A JOINT MILITARY COMMISSION THAT IS BEING SET UP TO TRY TO QUICKLY RESOLVE PROBLEMS THAT ARISE AS NATO IMPLEMENTS THE ACCORD.

    ALTHOUGH ADMIRAL SMITH HAS LEFT LITTLE DOUBT THAT HIS TROOPS WILL BE PREPARED TO NEUTRALIZE ANY THREAT THEY ENCOUNTER, HE SAYS THE IDEA IS TO BE FLEXIBLE AND TRY TO RESOLVE PROBLEMS BEFORE THEY GET OUT OF HAND.

    ONE OF THE EARLY CHALLENGES WILL BE DEALING WITH HARDLINE BOSNIAN SERBS WHO ARE VOWING TO FIGHT TO THE DEATH BEFORE THEY WILL GIVE UP THE SECTIONS OF SARAJEVO THEY CONTROL.

    ADMIRAL SMITH SAID SERB OFFICIALS HAVE SO FAR EXPRESSED A WILLINGNESS TO COMPLY WITH THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT. BUT HE ACKNOWLEDGES THE SITUATION IN SARAJEVO IS TOUGH -- A PROBLEM THAT COULD WELL DEFINE WHETHER THE PARTIES ARE WILLING TO ACCEPT THE ACCORD THEY HAVE ALREADY SIGNED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/ART
    20-Dec-95 2:09 PM EST (1909 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] BOSNIA / U-N BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32015
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING ROLE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS FINALLY ENDED WITH A NATO-LED FORCE TO HELP IMPLEMENT A NEW PEACE AGREEMENT. THE THREE-AND-ONE-HALF YEAR U-N ROLE WAS AN IMPOSSIBLE MISSION FROM THE BEGINNING BECAUSE THE WORLD'S MAJOR POWERS NEVER AGREED TO MAKE IT EFFECTIVE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, HAS REPORTED ON THE WAR IN BOSNIA SINCE IT BEGAN IN 1991. HE NOW REPORTS WHAT WAS WRONG WITH THE FAILED U-N MILITARY OPERATION IN BOSNIA.

    TEXT: THERE IS A LOT OF TALK ABOUT LEARNING THE LESSONS OF THE UNSUCCESSFUL U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. THE MAIN LESSON, IT IS SAID, IS THAT YOU SHOULD NOT SEND PEACEKEEPERS TO A COUNTRY WHERE THERE IS NO PEACE. BUT, IT IS NOT SO MUCH A QUESTION OF LEARNING NEW LESSONS AS IT IS UNDERSTANDING HISTORY, HUMAN NATURE, AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS.

    IT IS HARDLY A REVELATION THAT A WARRING FORCE, NOT WILLING TO FIGHT TO THE DEATH LIKE THE BOSNIAN SERBS, WILL STOP FIGHTING IF CONFRONTED BY A DETERMINED AND SUPERIOR FORCE LIKE NATO.

    WHAT WAS OBVIOUS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION IN BOSNIA WAS THAT ITS LIMITED MANDATE REFLECTED A LACK OF WILLINGNESS AMONG THE MAJOR POWERS TO DO ANYTHING REALLY DECISIVE TO STOP THE WAR.

    WHEN SERB ARTILLERY BEGAN TO INDISCRIMINATELY SHELL SARAJEVO, MILITARY EXPERTS ARGUED THAT IT WOULD BE DIFFICULT FOR AIRCRAFT TO ATTACK THAT ARTILLERY. THE EXPERTS SAID GROUND TROOPS WOULD HAVE TO GO IN TO CLEAR AWAY THE SERB WEAPONS AND THAT WOULD LEAD TO VICIOUS AND PROLONGED FIGHTING. THEN, THE EXPERTS SAID AIR DROPS OF RELIEF SUPPLIES TO BESIEGED MUSLIM ENCLAVES IN EASTERN BOSNIA WERE NOT MILITARILY FEASIBLE. AIRDROPS WERE ACTUALLY CARRIED OUT LATER.

    IT SEEMED THAT VIRTUALLY EVERYONE, WHO HAD THE MILITARY MUSCLE, THOUGHT IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE OR INAPPROPRIATE TO USE IT TO SAVE INNOCENT LIVES IN BOSNIA.

    SHOCKING TELEVISION IMAGES OF BLOODY CORPSES OF CIVILIANS, MAIMED CHILDREN IN SARAJEVO AND EMACIATED MEN IN A SERB PRISON CAMP, MAY HAVE COMPELLED THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL TO AT LEAST PASS NUMEROUS RESOLUTIONS.

    THE RESOLUTIONS EFFECTIVELY PUT THE UNITED NATIONS AND ITS LIGHTLY ARMED PEACEKEEPERS ON THE SIDE OF THE MUSLIMS, THE MAIN VICTIMS OF THE WAR IN BOSNIA.

    EVENTUALLY, THE SECURITY COUNCIL DECLARED SIX MUSLIM ENCLAVES TO BE SAFE AREAS. U-N PEACEKEEPERS WERE TO DETER ANY ATTACKS ON THEM. BUT, U-N MEMBERS REFUSED TO PROVIDE THE ADDITIONAL TROOPS REQUESTED TO PROTECT THE SAFE AREAS. WHEN TWO SAFE AREAS, SREBRENICA AND ZEPA, FELL TO THE SERBS, THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MISSION FINALLY COLLAPSED.

    IT WAS ONLY A MATTER OF TIME BEFORE THE DESPERATE SECURITY COUNCIL CALLED FOR NATO AIRPOWER TO SAVE THE SITUATION. YET, THE UNITED NATIONS DEBACLE IN BOSNIA DID PRODUCE SOME HEROES. THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAVED THOUSANDS OF LIVES BY PROVIDING AID TO CIVILIANS WITH OR WITHOUT U-N PROTECTION.

    FRENCH GENERAL PHILIPPE MORILLON TOLD THE PEOPLE OF SREBRENICA HE WOULD STAY WITH THEM IN THEIR BESIEGED ENCLAVE UNTIL THEY WERE SAFE. WHEN HE LEFT, EVERYONE TRULY THOUGHT THEY WERE SAFE.

    A BRITISH OFFICER, COLONEL BOB STUART, INTIMIDATED BOSNIAN CROATS WHO COMMITTED ATROCITIES AGAINST MUSLIMS IN CENTRAL BOSNIA. AND, NO ONE DEPLORED SERB ATTACKS ON CIVILIANS OR ON U-N PERSONNEL MORE STRONGLY THAN U-N SPOKESMAN ALEXANDER IVANKO DESPITE VEILED SERB THREATS ON HIS LIFE.

    SOME U-N OFFICIALS BELIEVE THE LAST U-N COMMANDER IN SARAJEVO, BRITISH GENERAL RUPERT SMITH, MAY HAVE BEEN THE BEST ONE. ALEX IVANKO SAYS GENERAL SMITH SHOWED UP THE AMBIGUITIES AND CONTRADICTIONS OF THE U-N MANDATE AND FORCED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO TAKE A TOUGHER APPROACH IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    20-Dec-95 10:19 AM EST (1519 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] NATO / BOSNIA (S) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190311
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE PROBLEM PLAGUED U-N PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IN BOSNIA CAME TO AN UNEVENTFUL CLOSE TODAY, AS NATO'S IFOR, OR IMPLEMENTATION FORCE, FORMALLY TOOK CHARGE OF ENFORCING THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO THE DEPARTURE OF THE U-N PROTECTION FORCE KNOWN AS UNPROFOR.

    TEXT: A PLANE CARRYING U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH TRIED FOR AN HOUR TO LAND AT THE BATTLE SCARED SARAJEVO AIRPORT, BUT BAD WEATHER FORCED HIM TO MISS THE FORMAL CHANGE-OF-COMMAND CEREMONY.

    BRITISH GENERAL MICHAEL WALKER, THE COMMANDER OF NATO GROUND FORCES, MADE THE LONG AWAITED ANNOUNCEMENT.

    // WALKER ACT //

    TODAY THE 20TH OF DECEMBER, 1995, AT SARAJEVO, THE MILITARY TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY, BETWEEN UNPROFOR AND IFOR TOOK EFFECT AT 1100 HOURS.

    // END ACT //

    ADMIRAL SMITH, WHO WILL HAVE OVERALL COMMAND OF THE LARGEST OPERATION IN NATO'S HISTORY, IS EXPECTED TO ARRIVE IN THE CITY LATER IN THE DAY.

    IT WILL ULTIMATELY BE UP TO ADMIRAL SMITH TO INSURE THE WARRING FACTIONS IN BOSNIA COMPLY WITH THE TERMS OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT. THURSDAY, AS HE BEGINS TO SETTLE IN TO HIS NEW JOB, HE WILL MEET WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THREE WARRING FACTIONS TO LAY OUT THE MILITARY TERMS OF THE PEACE TREATY AND EXPLAIN NATO'S MANDATE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/CF
    20-Dec-95 7:35 AM EST (1235 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] NATO / SOLANA (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190316
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S NEW SECRETARY-GENERAL, JAVIER SOLANA, SAYS THE ALLIANCE WILL BE ABLE TO KEEP THE PEACE IN BOSNIA -- BUT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO BRING PERMANENT PEACE WITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF BOSNIANS THEMSELVES. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS MR. SOLANA MADE THE STATEMENT AT HIS BRUSSELS HEADQUARTERS AS NATO TOOK OVER FROM THE UNITED NATIONS IN BOSNIA.

    TEXT: NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA DESCRIBED THE ALLIANCE'S OPERATION THE LARGEST IN EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR TWO AS A MOMENTOUS EVENT.

    HE SAID THERE ARE NOW 17-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS IN BOSNIA -- ALMOST A QUARTER OF THE PLANNED FORCE OF 60-THOUSAND. AND HE SAID THE NUMBERS ARE INCREASING DAILY.

    MR SOLANA SAYS NATO FORCES HAVE THE ABILITY -- DESPITE THE BAD WEATHER -- TO GET ON WITH THE JOB. AND HE SAYS HE IS PLEASED BY THE COOPERATION SHOWN SO FAR BY ALL THE PARTIES IN BOSNIA.

    HE SAYS NATO HAS THE MEANS AND THE AUTHORITY TO ENSURE THAT THE PEACE AGREEMENT IS RESPECTED BY THE PARTIES. BUT HE SAYS THAT IN THE LONG-TERM, IT IS UP TO THE BOSNIANS THEMSELVES TO SECURE A LASTING PEACE.

    // ACT SOLNNA //

    NATO'S MILITARY ENGAGEMENT CANNOT ALONE SECURE A LONG-TERN PEACE. THAT CAN COME ONLY FROM A PROGRAM OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION. BY DEALING WITH THE MILITARY SIDE OF THIS EQUATION, NATO WILL HELP ASSURE AN ENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE FOR THE CIVIL AND POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION TO GO FORWARD.

    // END ACT //

    SECRETARY GENERAL SOLANA ADDED THAT NATO WANTS TO SEND THE CHRISTMAS SPIRIT TO ALL OF BOSNIA -- AND WILL WORK FOR LASTING PEACE.

    WHEN ASKED ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF COMMUNIST GAINS IN THE RUSSIAN ELECTION ON THAT COUNTRY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE BOSNIAN OPERATION, MR. SOLANA PREDICTED THERE WILL BE NO CHANGE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/CF
    20-Dec-95 9:08 AM EST (1408 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] U-S/BOSNIA BRIDGE (L-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/20/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190323
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FOR U-S COMBAT TROOPS TO ENTER BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA IN FORCE, MILITARY ENGINEERS MUST BUILD A FLOATING BRIDGE ACROSS THE SAVA RIVER ALONG THE BOSNIAN-CROATIAN BORDER. THE BRIDGING OPERATION -- TO BE CARRIED OUT WITHIN A FEW DAYS -- WILL BE THE FIRST TIME SUCH EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN DEPLOYED BY U-S FORCES OUTSIDE A TRAINING EXERCISE. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE FLOATING BRIDGE ACROSS THE SAVA WILL PROVIDE THE FIRST GROUND LINK BETWEEN THE U-S ARMY FORCE, NOW ASSEMBLING IN HUNGARY, AND THE SECTOR OF NORTHERN BOSNIA TO BE PATROLLED BY THE TROOPS UNDER THE BOSNIAN PEACE ACCORD.

    THE PERMANENT BRIDGES OVER THE SAVA WERE DESTROYED DURING NEARLY FOUR-YEARS OF FIGHTING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. ALTHOUGH SOME U-S TROOPS HAVE CROSSED INTO BOSNIA BY FERRY BOAT, THE PASSAGE OF THOUSANDS OF COMBAT VEHICLES, INCLUDING 70-TON U-S ABRAMS BATTLE TANKS, WILL HAVE TO AWAIT CONSTRUCTION OF THE FLOATING BRIDGE.

    U-S COMBAT ENGINEERS ARE ALREADY ON THE BANKS OF THE SAVA, AWAITING ARRIVAL OF THE HUGE SECTIONS OF THE BRIDGE, WHICH ARE BEING MOVED BY RAIL FROM GERMANY, THROUGH HUNGARY, AND INTO CROATIA. BAD WEATHER AND LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS HAVE DELAYED THE MOVEMENT OF THE BRIDGE, AS WELL AS OTHER VITAL EQUIPMENT. U-S MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THEY ARE CONFIDENT THE STRUCTURE WILL BE IN PLACE SHORTLY AFTER THE CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY.

    THE COMMANDER OF THE U-S ARMY'S ENGINEER SCHOOL AT FORT LEONARD WOOD MISSOURI, LIEUTENANT-GENERAL CLAIR GILL, SAYS 45-SECTIONS OF FLOATING ROADWAY WILL BE NEEDED TO CROSS THE SAVA -- WHICH IS MORE THAN 300-METERS WIDE AT THE DESIGNATED SITE.

    HE SAYS WHILE ARMY ENGINEERS HAVE PRACTICED BUILDING TEMPORARY BRIDGES FOR YEARS, IT WILL BE THE FIRST SUCH OPERATION AS PART OF AN ACTUAL COMBAT MISSION -- AND THE FAST-FLOWING RIVER AND WINTER CONDITIONS COULD PRESENT PROBLEMS:

    /// GILL ACTUALITY ///

    IN A TRAINING EXERCISE, IT IS ALL IN A DAY'S WORK. NOW, WHAT WE HAVE ADDED TO THIS IS A GREAT DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY. WE HAVE GOT AN AWFUL LOT OF CONDITIONS. WE HAVE GOT AN AWFUL LOT OF PRESSURE ON THESE PEOPLE TO GET THE BRIDGE IN, IN TIME, AND MAKE IT WORK. THE EXERCISE ITSELF IS A CHALLENGE IN TERMS OF THE SYNCHRONIZATION THAT IT TAKES TO MAKE THESE 85 PEOPLE, THAT YOU HAVE OUT THERE ON THE WATER, DOING ALL THE THINGS THAT THEY HAVE TO, TO CAPTURE THESE PIECES OF EQUIPMENT FLOATING ON A FAST RIVER. IF THE RIVER SPEEDS UP, IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY MORE CHALLENGING OPERATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE SEGMENTED OR RIBBON BRIDGE WAS FIRST DEVELOPED BY THE GERMANS IN WORLD WAR TWO AND IMPROVED BY THE SOVIET UNION. U-S FORCES DID NOT PERFECT THE TECHNOLOGY UNTIL AFTER A SECTION OF OF A SOVIET-SUPPLIED BRIDGE FELL INTO AMERICAN HANDS AFTER THE 1973 ARAB-ISRAELI WAR.

    SEGMENTS OF THE BRIDGE ARE DUMPED INTO THE RIVER AT THE CROSSING SITE AND PUSHED INTO POSITION BY SMALL BOATS. AFTER THE SECTIONS ARE LOCKED TOGETHER, THE BOATS ARE USED HOLD THE BRIDGE IN PLACE AGAINST THE CURRENT UNTIL IT CAN BE ANCHORED.

    GENERAL GILL SAYS IT MAY TAKE AS LITTLE AS TWO-HOURS TO BRIDGE THE SAVA, ONCE ALL THE EQUIPMENT IS DELIVERED. U-S FORCES ARE TO PUT A SECOND BRIDGE ACROSS THE RIVER EARLY NEXT MONTH. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/RAE
    20-Dec-95 11:57 AM EST (1657 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] U-S/MISSILES/TURKEY (S ONLY) BY VICTOR BEATTIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/19/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190307
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS IT INTENDS TO MOVE FORWARD WITH A SALE OF 120 TACTICAL MISSILES TO TURKEY DESPITE PROTESTS FROM CYPRUS. V-O-A'S VICTOR BEATTIE REPORTS THE DISPUTE WITH NICOSIA COMES AS WASHINGTON ATTEMPTS TO PRESS AHEAD WITH AN EFFORT TO RESOLVE THE POLITICAL DIVISION ON THE MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND:

    TEXT: STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE MISSILE SALE TO TURKEY MAKES SENSE AND COMES WITH THE STANDARD AMERICAN RESTRICTIONS OF USE ONLY IN SELF-DEFENSE:

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    I CAN TELL YOU THAT U-S LAW LIMITS THE PURPOSES FOR WHICH WE CAN SELL MILITARY EQUIPMENT FOR SELF-DEFENSE PURPOSES AND I CAN TELL YOU THAT WE HAVE HAD DISCUSSIONS WITH THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT ON THIS. BUT I CAN ALSO SAY THAT WE INTEND TO GO FORWARD ON THIS BECAUSE IT IS IN OUR INTEREST TO GO FORWARD WITH IT.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BURNS SAYS THE ARMY TACTICAL MISSILE SYSTEMS, WHICH HAVE A RANGE OF ABOUT 160 KILOMETERS AND PACK A WARHEAD OF 950 CLUSTER BOMBS, ARE NEEDED BECAUSE OF WHAT HE CALLS TURKEY'S BAD NEIGHBORHOOD OF IRAQ AND IRAN.

    SOME MEMBERS OF CONGRESS OPPOSE THE SALE BECAUSE OF TURKEY'S HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION INSISTS THE MISSILES ARE UNSUITABLE FOR USE AGAINST DISSIDENTS.

    CYPRUS SAYS TURKEY USED MISSILES WHEN IT INVADED THE MEDITTERANEAN ISLAND IN 1974 FOLLOWING A SHORT-LIVED COUP BY GREEK-BACKED FORCES. SOME 35-THOUSAND TURKISH TROOPS REMAIN STATIONED THERE.

    MR. BURNS CONFIRMS WASHINGTON IS HOPING FOR PROGRESS IN THE CYPRUS ISSUE, WHICH DEFIED U-N EFFORTS FOR 20 YEARS. A U-S ENVOY TRAVELLED THERE LAST WEEK BUT LEFT APPARENTLY WITHOUT MAKING PROGRESS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/VB/SKH
    19-Dec-95 11:39 PM EST (0439 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [12] YUGO SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/19/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190303
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: YUGOSLAVIA HAS ANNOUNCED IT WILL PERMIT NATO PEACE FORCES TO PASS THROUGH ITS TERRITORY ON THEIR WAY TO BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. AT THE SAME TIME, AMERICAN MILITARY FLIGHTS ARE BEGINNING TO LAND AT THE BUDAPEST AIRPORT WITH SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR THE NEW U-S MILITARY STAGING AREA AND LOGISTICS BASE IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE YUGOSLAV GOVERNMENT IS WILLING TO ALLOW NATO PLANES TO LAND IN BELGRADE TO HELP CARRY OUT NATO'S PEACE MISSION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. ACCORDING TO THE YUGOSLAV NEWS AGENCY, TANJUG, THE GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO AGREED TO LET NATO FORCES USE YUGOSLAVIA'S ROADS, RAIL LINES AND WATERWAYS ON THEIR WAY TO NEIGHBORING BOSNIA.

    AS THE NATO DEPLOYMENT TO BOSNIA PICKS UP SPEED, AN AMERICAN MILITARY TRANSPORT PLANE HAS LANDED AT THE BUDAPEST AIRPORT FOR THE FIRST TIME AS PART OF THAT OPERATION. AN AGREEMENT IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN REACHED FOR THE AMERICAN AIR FORCE TO USE THE BUDAPEST AIRPORT TO FLY IN SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT FOR NEW U-S MILITARY FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY.

    THE SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT CAN BE TRANSPORTED OVERLAND FROM BUDAPEST TO THE TASZAR AIRFIELD WHEN HEAVY CLOUDS AND POOR VISIBILITY RESTRICT FLIGHTS FROM GERMANY DIRECTLY TO THAT BASE. AMERICAN MILITARY TRAINS ARE TRANSPORTING TROOPS AND MATERIEL FROM GERMANY TO THE AIRBASE AND TO THE U-S MILITARY STAGING AREA AND LOGISTICS BASE BEING DEVELOPED AT THE NEARBY TOWN OF KAPOSVAR. BUT, THE RAIL LINES THAT MUST BE USED ARE TOO CONGESTED TO ALLOW THE U-S MILITARY TO MOVE THE TRAINS FAST ENOUGH. A MASSIVE LOGISTICS OPERATION IS CLEARLY UNDERWAY TO GET 20-THOUSAND AMERICAN TROOPS TO BOSNIA AS PART OF THE NATO PEACE FORCE THERE AND TO ENSURE THEY HAVE THE NECESSARY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT.

    MOST OF THE AMERICANS WILL TRAVEL TO BOSNIA OVERLAND FROM SOUTHERN HUNGARY THROUGH CROATIA. TWO BRIDGES HAVE TO BE BUILT FIRST OVER THE SAVA RIVER ON THE CROATIAN/BOSNIAN BORDER. THE AMERICAN MILITARY PRESENCE IN SOUTHERN HUNGARY IS ALREADY GIVING A BIG FINANCIAL BOOST TO THE ECONOMICALLY-DEPRESSED REGION.

    HUNGARIAN CARPENTERS AND OTHER WORKERS ARE HELPING TO ERECT A SMALL TENT CITY WHERE U-S TROOPS WILL SPEND A FEW DAYS EN ROUTE TO BOSNIA. LOCAL OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS NOW FULL EMPLOYMENT IN THE KAPOSVAR AREA. IF SOMEONE IS NOT WORKING NOW, THE OFFICIALS SAY IT IS BECAUSE THAT PERSON SIMPLY DOES NOT WANT TO WORK. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/PT
    19-Dec-95 7:18 PM EST (0018 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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