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Voice of America, 21 December 1995

From: yanni@ix.netcom.com (Ioannis Bousnakis)

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAYS EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] 95: U.S. / MIDDLE EAST BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

  • [03] A BOSNIAN DREAM BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

  • [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

  • [05] BOSNIA AID (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

  • [06] BOSNIA SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [07] BOSNIA / U-S TROOPS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [08] PERRY/BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [09] TURKEY/ELECTIONS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

  • [10] TURKEY/ISLAM BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

  • [11] YUGO ATROCITIES (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)


  • [01] THURSDAYS EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09344
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY, DECEMBER 21ST //

    INTRO: TWO TOPICS CONTINUE TO DRAW ATTENTION FROM U-S NEWSPAPER EDITORAL WRITERS -- SPECIFICALLY, THE WHITE HOUSE-CONGRESSIONAL BATTLE OVER A FEDERAL BUDGET AND THE HAITIAN ELECTIONS. OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER THE EDITORIAL MICROSCOPE THIS THURSDAY BEFORE CHRISTMAS INCLUDE TALK OF A WIDER PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST; PRESIDENT CLINTON'S VETO OF A SECURITIES BILL, AND U-N PEACEKEEPERS GIVING WAY TO NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA. NOW, FOR A CLOSER LOOK, HERE IS _________________ WITH TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: BEGINNING WITH THE BUDGET BATTLE, WHICH HAS PARTS OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT SHUT DOWN FOR THE SIXTH CONSECUTIVE DAY, "NEWSDAY" ON LONG ISLAND MAKES A SEASONAL REFERENCE IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, TITLED: "HEADS UP, [PAY ATTENTION] SANTA, OBSTRUCTIONISTS IN WASHINGTON ARE PUTTING COAL IN AMERICA'S CHRISTMAS STOCKINGS."

    VOICE: "AS OF YESTERDAY MORNING, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON AND CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS HAD A TENTATIVE -- AND OVERDUE -- AGREEMENT TO SEND FURLOUGHED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES BACK TO THEIR JOBS WHILE CONTINUING NEGOTIATIONS FOR A BALANCED BUDGET IN SEVEN YEARS. AS OF YESTERDAY AFTERNOON, THE AGREEMENT WAS IN RUINS. MERRY CHRISTMAS FROM YOUR GOVERNMENT... THIS FIASCO JUST CONFIRMS A SUSPICION THAT THE BIGFOOT [CLUMSY, UNCARING] POLITICIANS IN WASHINGTON ARE DETERMINED TO MILK [USE] THE BUDGET FIGHT FOR MAXIMUM PARTISAN ADVANTAGE."

    TEXT: IN NEW YORK, "THE TIMES" LEAD EDITORIAL HEADLINE COMMANDS: "MAKE A BUDGET DEAL NOW."

    VOICE: "THE NEGOTIATIONS ARE AT AN IMPASSE AT LEAST AS MUCH BECAUSE MR. CLINTON HAS NOT SHOWN HIS OWN HAND ON WHERE HE WANTS THE BUDGET TO GO. WITH A SUBSTANTIAL PART OF THE GOVERNMENT STILL SHUT DOWN IN THE WEEK BEFORE CHRISTMAS, BOTH SIDES NEED TO TAKE THE PROCESS MORE SERIOUSLY AND MAKE CONCESSIONS TO GET THINGS GOING."

    [ OPT ]

    TEXT: AND HERE IN THE NATION'S CAPITOL, "THE WASHINGTON POST" FUMES:

    VOICE: "THE HOUSE REPUBLICANS HAVE TO DECIDE WHAT THEIR GOAL IS. DO THEY WANT TO FIX THE GOVERNMENT OR BUST IT? ... THE REPUBLICANS HAVE DONE AN ENORMOUS SERVICE THIS YEAR. THEY HAVE FORCED THE GOAL OF FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY BACK TO THE TOP OF THE AGENDA... THEY HAVE IT WITHIN THEIR POWER NOW TO CONSOLIDATE THEIR GAINS. THE ALTERNATIVE ... IS TO OVERSHOOT AND ACCOMPLISH RELATIVELY LITTLE."

    [ END OPT ]

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE HAITI ELECTIONS, TODAY'S "DENVER POST" IS SOMEWHAT SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE OUTCOME, BUT SAYS THE SITUATION THERE "CAN ALWAYS GET WORSE."

    VOICE: "WHEN IT COMES TO EVALUATING POLITICAL PROGRESS IN HAITI, ALL THINGS ARE RELATIVE. LAST SUNDAY'S ELECTION ... MUST BE COUNTED A SUCCESS FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON'S ADMINISTRATION, BUT ONLY RELATIVE TO THE OTHER POSSIBLE OUTCOMES... THE ELECTION DOES NOT MEAN THAT ALL IS WELL IN HAITI OR THAT DEMOCRACY HAS BEEN PERMANENTLY INSTALLED. FAR FROM IT. [OPT] ..... [HOWEVER] ... THIS MUCH MUST BE SAID. MEASURED RELATIVELY, AGAINST WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN .... PROSPECTS FOR LONGTERM DEMOCRACY IN HAITI ... LOOK BETTER THAN THEY DID."[END FOPT]

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" THIKS PROGRESS IN HAITI IS BEING MEASURED IN, WHAT IT CALLS, "SMALL STEPS."

    VOICE: "THERE IS GOOD NEWS AND BAD NEWS IN HAITI THIS WEEK FOLLOWING THE LATEST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. THE GOOD NEWS IS THAT IT WASN'T THE SAME VIOLENT, BLOODY, CHAOTIC MESS WE SAW THE LAST TIME AROUND. THE BAD NEWS IS THAT NO ONE VOTED. [OPT] IN FACT, INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS ESTIMATE THAT FEWER THAN 30 PERCENT OF ELIGIBLE VOTERS TURNED OUT... [END OPT] THIS TIME AROUND, HAITI HAS WON A BATTLE, BUT IT STILL REMAINS TO BE SEEN IF, WITH AMERICAN HELP, HAITI WILL WIN THE WAR."

    TEXT: A LONG EDITORAL IN TODAY'S "BOSTON GLOBE" EXAMINES THE CHANCE THAT REAL PROGRESS MAY NOW BE POSSIBLE IN PEACE TALKS BETWEEN SYRIA AND ISRAEL.

    VOICE: "... NEVER BEFORE HAVE THERE BEEN SUCH PERSUASIVE SIGNS THAT THE LEADERS IN JERUSALEM AND DAMASCUS ARE PREPARED TO MAKE PEACE... FOR THE FIRST TIME, THE MASTER OF DAMASCUS [PRESIDENT HAFEZ EL ASSAD] HAS LET IT BE KNOWN THAT HE IS PREPARED TO ENTER INTO A WARM PEACE WITH OLD BORDERS, ACCORDING TO THE WELL-INFORMED WEEKLY JERUSALEM REPORT. EQUALLY SIGNIFICANT IS HIS REPORTED ASSURANCE THAT THE MULLAHS WHO RULE TEHRAN WILL ACCEPT ANY DEAL SYRIA MAKES WITH ISRAEL ON HEZBOLLAH,' THE IRANIAN-BACKED SHIITE MILITIA THAT CONDUCTS GUERRILLA WARFARE AGAINST ISRAEL AND ITS PROXIES IN SOUTHERN LEBANON. "

    TEXT: SEVERAL U-S PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON A BILL TO REFORM SECURITIES TRADING THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON VETOED TUESDAY NIGHT. "USA TODAY" REACTS THIS WAY.

    VOICE: "CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO BIG DEMOCRATIC PARTY CONTRIBUTORS -- TRIAL ATTORNEYS AND NEW HIGH-TECH COMPANIES -- PRESIDENT CLINTON DID SOMETHING SMART THIS WEEK. HE SIDED WITH INVESTORS AND TAXPAYERS IN A BATTLE FOR FAIR SECURITIES-LITIGATION REFORM. [MR.] CLINTON VETOED A BILL AIMED AT LIMITING FRIVOLOUS LAWSUITS AGAINST CORPORATIONS THAT SIMPLY WENT TOO FAR."

    TEXT: BUT THAT IS NOT HOW "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" SEES IT:

    VOICE: "THE MEASURE ... WAS A COMPROMISE, DESIGNED TO PROVIDE RELIEF TO COMPANIES HIT BY A BLIZZARD OF MERITLESS SUITS WHENEVER A COMPANY'S STOCK DROPS FOLLOWING OPTIMISTIC PREDICTIONS BY CORPORATE OFFICERS. AS SENT TO THE WHITE HOUSE, IT HAD THE SUPPORT OF ROUGHLY HALF OF CONGRESS' DEMOCRATS... THE SURPRISING VETO ... SUGGESTS THERE MUST BE A PRETTY POWERFUL FORCE OUT THERE SOMEWHERE FOR A PRESIDENT IN RE-ELECTION MODE TO STIFF [CHEAT OR WORK AGAINST THE GOALS OF] HIS OWN PARTY. [OPT] LET'S SEE, ABOUT THE ONLY SIGNIFICANT GROUP OPPOSED TO THE MEASURE IS - - YOU GUESSED IT - - THE TRIAL LAWYERS WHO SPECIALIZE IN THIS TYPE OF LITIGATION." [END OPT]

    TEXT: RETURNING TO OVERSEAS MATTERS, "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" NOTES THE DEPARTURE OF UNITED NATIONS FORCES FROM BOSNIA WITH THESE THOUGHTS:

    VOICE: "THE NATO PRESENCE EFFECTIVELY PUTS AN END TO A DANGEROUS MISCONCEPTION THAT FLOURISHED JUST AFTER THE END OF THE COLD WAR: THAT LIGHTLY ARMED U-N TROOPS COULD ENFORCE A PEACE WHEN THE COMBATANTS STILL WANTED TO FIGHT. IN FACT, THE AMERICANS, FRENCH AND BRITISH DID THE UNITED NATIONS A GREAT DISSERVICE BY VOTING TO SEND U-N TROOPS TO BOSNIA IN THE FIRST PLACE."

    TEXT: ON A RELATED TOPIC, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" TODAY LEADS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH THESE THOUGHTS:

    VOICE: "MANAGING THE ONGOING TRANSITION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE WILL BE A LONG-TERM TASK. MANY OF THESE NATIONS, NEWLY FREE FROM SOVIET/RUSSIAN DOMINATION, WANT TO REESTABLISH THEIR TIES TO THE REST OF THE CONTINENT. THE TRICK SWILL BE TO MANAGE THEIR ACCESSION TO NATO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION IN A WAY THAT TAKES RUSSIAN FEARS INTO ACCOUNT... IT IS POSSIBLE -- AND WISER -- TO INCLUDE RUSSIA IN THE PROCESS RATHER THAN LOCKING IT OUT, WHICH WOULD ONLY FEED RUSSIA'S TRADITIONALLY ANTI-WESTERN SLAVOPHILES."

    [ OPT ]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, THIS COMMENT FROM "THE MIAMI HERALD" ABOUT THE BATTLE OF THE TOMATOES IN FLORIDA, BROUGHT ABOUT BY PARTS OF THE NAFTA AGREEMENT ALLOWING MEXICAN FARMERS TO SHIP THEIR PRODUCE NORTH WITHOUT TRADE BARRIERS.

    VOICE: "NO ONE DOUBTED THAT THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT WOULD BE A HARD KNOCK FOR FLORIDA'S FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INDUSTRY... BUT FEW THOUGHT THINGS WOULD GET SO BAD SO FAST. ACROSS FLORIDA, VEGETABLE FARMERS ARE STAGING RALLIES AND DUMPING CROPS IN PARKING LOTS ... TO CALL ATTENTION TO THEIR PLIGHT. WASHINGTON MUST HEED THEM. ... PRESIDENT CLINTON ... SHOULD ISSUE AN EXECUTIVE ORDER DECLARING A MORATORIUM ON MEXICAN IMPORTS."

    [ END OPT ]

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FOUND IN SOME U-S PAPERS THIS THURSDAY. NEB/ANG/PCH 21-Dec-95 11:07 AM EST (1607 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] 95: U.S. / MIDDLE EAST BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=YEAREND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32042
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS HOPING FOR A YEAR OF OPPORTUNITY IN 1996, SEEKING TO BRING ABOUT A COMPREHENSIVE PEACE SETTLEMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST. ISRAELI AND SYRIAN OFFICIALS ARE MEETING AT THE WYE PLANTATION IN RURAL MARYLAND (NEAR WASHINGTON) IN LATE DECEMBER (DEC.27-29) IN A NEW PHASE AIMED AT OBTAINING AN AGREEMENT ON THE FUTURE OF THE GOLAN HEIGHTS. RON PEMSTEIN HAS TRAVELED WITH SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER THROUGHOUT THE YEAR AND REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT ON THE AMERICAN EFFORT TO ADVANCE THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS.

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER ANNOUNCED THE RESUMPTION OF DIRECT ISRAELI-SYRIAN TALKS THREE TIMES IN 1995 ON TRIPS TO THE MIDDLE EAST. IN MARCH, HE ARRANGED A NEW MEETING OF THE ISRAELI AND SYRIAN AMBASSADORS TO WASHINGTON. THEY STALLED IN DISCUSSING MILITARY ISSUES INVOLVED IN AN ISRAELI WITHDRAWAL FROM THE GOLAN HEIGHTS. IN JUNE, MR. CHRISTOPHER RETURNED TO THE MIDDLE EAST TO ARRANGE A MEETING OF ISRAELI-SYRIAN MILITARY CHIEFS OF STAFF AT FORT MCNAIR HERE IN WASHINGTON. THOSE TALKS STALLED AFTER TWO DAYS BECAUSE OF DISAGREEMENTS ABOUT HOW A WITHDRAWAL SHOULD BE MONITORED.

    FOR SIX MONTHS AFTERWARD, THE ISRAELI-SYRIAN NEGOTIATIONS LAY DORMANT. IT WAS ONLY AFTER THE ASSASSINATION OF ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER YITZHAK RABIN IN NOVEMBER THAT SIGNALS CAME FROM BOTH DAMASCUS AND JERUSALEM THAT THEY WERE READY TO TALK AGAIN UNDER AMERICAN MEDIATION. PRESIDENT CLINTON SAID AFTER TALKING WITH SYRIAN PRESIDENT HAFEZ AL-ASSAD THINGS HAD CHANGED.

    // CLINTON ACT //

    THE SYRIAN LEADER AND THE SYRIAN PEOPLE NOW SEE, THE EXCEPTIONAL PRICE THAT FORMER PRIME MINISTER RABIN AND PRIME MINISTER PERES HAVE BEEN WILLING TO PAY IN THEIR SEARCH FOR PEACE. I THINK THAT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL NEW REALITY HERE. I DON'T THINK ANY OF THE DETAILS MATTER NEARLY AS MUCH AS THAT FUNDAMENTAL NEW REALITY.

    // END ACT //

    AS HE ANNOUNCED THE RE-OPENING OF ISRAELI-SYRIAN TALKS FOR THE THIRD TIME, SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER SAID THIS TIME WILL BE DIFFERENT.

    // CHRISTOPHER ACT //

    WELL, I SENSED A NEW DETERMINATION, I SENSED A NEW IMPORTANCE OF MOVING RAPIDLY, PICKING UP THE PACE. IN ADDITION TO THAT, THESE DISCUSSIONS WILL DIFFER FROM PRIOR DISCUSSIONS IN THEIR COMPREHENSIVENESS. THE NEGOTIATORS ARE GOING TO BE CONSIDERING THE BROADEST RANGE OF ISSUES AND THE NEGOTIATORS ON BOTH SIDES HAVE THE FULL CONFIDENCE OF THEIR GOVERNMENTS, IN ORDER TO EXPLORE THE ISSUES. SO, THERE'S A WHOLE PANOPLY OF THINGS THAT POTENTIALLY MAKES THESE DISCUSSIONS, I THINK, DIFFERENT IN QUALITY, DIFFERENT IN CHARACTER FROM THE PRIOR DISCUSSIONS.

    // END ACT //

    IT IS CLEAR THE AGREEMENT THIS TIME IS BASED ON CERTAIN ASSUMPTIONS. SYRIA BELIEVES ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES IS READY TO TURN OVER THE GOLAN HEIGHTS IN A MATTER OF MONTHS, NOT YEARS. ISRAEL BELIEVES SYRIA DOES NOT WANT TO BE EXCLUDED FROM A PEACE PROCESS THAT HAS ADDED JORDAN AND THE PALESTINIANS DURING THE PAST TWO YEARS THAT SHOULD CONTAIN ECONOMIC BENEFITS FOR EVERYONE.

    BOTH SIDES MAY BE DISAPPOINTED DURING THE WEEKS AHEAD AS THEIR SENIOR OFFICIALS ENGAGE AND SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER MAKES HIS 16TH MIDDLE EAST TRIP -- BEGINNING JANUARY 10TH -- TO EXPLORE THE NEXT STEP. U-S OFFICIALS HAVE NOT RULED OUT CONDUCTING A SHUTTLE MISSION BETWEEN JERUSALEM AND DAMASCUS IF THE TIME IS RIGHT.

    MANY OF THE ISSUES BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL RATHER THAN TECHNICAL BUT SOME ARE BASIC. DOES ISRAEL WITHDRAW TO THE BORDER LINE AS IT WAS IN 1967 OR ONLY TO THE INTERNATIONAL BORDER AS IT WAS UNDER THE BRITISH MANDATE IN 1923? THE 1967 BORDER WOULD GIVE SYRIA ACCESS TO THE GALILEE AND CONTROL OF THE SOURCES OF THE JORDAN RIVER.

    EVEN A DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES TOWARD A PEACE TREATY WOULD BE A VICTORY FOR SECRETARY OF STATE CHRISTOPHER AS HE COMPLETES WHAT IS EXPECTED TO BE HIS LAST YEAR IN OFFICE, EVEN IF PRESIDENT CLINTON IS RE-ELECTED.

    MR. CHRISTOPHER SAYS IF PROGRESS CAN BE MADE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA, HE HOPES TO INCLUDE PEACE WITH LEBANON AS WELL.

    // CHRISTOPHER ACT //

    I LOOK FORWARD IN 1996 TO A RESUMPTION OF ACTIVE NEGOTIATION ON THE LEBANESE TRACK AS A FUNCTION OF PROGRESS ON THE SYRIAN TRACK. I CAN'T ASSURE YOU THAT THAT WILL TAKE PLACE, BUT I CAN ASSURE YOU THAT I AND MY COLLEGUES HERE AT THE STATE DEPARTMENT WILL DO EVERYTHING WE CAN TO MOVE FORWARD ON BOTH TRACKS BECAUSE PEACE WILL NOT BE COMPLETE -- THE CIRCLE OF PEACE WILL NOT BE COMPLETE -- UNTIL ISRAEL HAS A PEACE WITH SYRIA AND LEBANON AS WELL AS THE TREMENDOUS PROGRESS THEY'VE MADE WITH PALESTINE AND JORDAN.

    // END ACT //

    THE REALITY IS THAT PEACE WITH LEBANON IS DEPENDENT ON PEACE WITH SYRIA. AMERICAN DIPLOMATS HAVE BEEN DISAPPOINTED BEFORE WHEN THEY THOUGHT SYRIA AND ISRAEL WERE READY TO COMPLETE THE CIRCLE OF PEACE. (SIGNED)

    NEB/RP/CF
    21-Dec-95 12:27 PM EST (1727 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] A BOSNIAN DREAM BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-08799
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: PERHAPS NO ONE IS WATCHING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA MORE CLOSELY THAN THE MORE THAN ONE-MILLION BOSNIAN REFUGEES DISPERSED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. MOST OF THEM REPRESENT THE MIXED-MARRIAGE, COSMOPOLITAN ELITE WHO REJECTED ETHNIC POLITICS AND WERE ABLE TO LEAVE THEIR COUNTY. BUT THIS BACKGROUND ONLY PARTLY EXPLAINS THE HOPE MANY OF THESE DISPLACED BOSNIANS HAVE BEGUN TO EXPRESS -- THAT IF EXTREMIST NATIONALIST POLITICIANS ARE DISARMED AND DISABLED, IT JUST MIGHT BE POSSIBLE FOR SERB, CROAT AND

    MUSLIM TO LIVE TOGETHER AGAIN IN BOSNIA. VOA'S PAMELA

    TAYLOR TALKED WITH SEVERAL BOSNIANS WHO HAVE SETTLED IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES AND PREPARED THIS REPORT:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 SOUND OF CROWD IN BOOKSTORE RUNS [:30]

    TEXT: A BOOKSTORE IN DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON D-C HAS BECOME THE UNOFFICIAL GATHERING PLACE FOR MANY BOSNIANS RECENTLY ARRIVED IN THE AREA. SERBS GATHER ACROSS THE STREET AT A GREEK CAFE. RECENTLY, ABOUT A DOZEN BOSNIANS SHOWED UP AT THE BOOKSTORE TO EXAMINE A COPY OF A MAGAZINE PRODUCED IN ENGLISH BY THE SARAJEVO GROUP KNOWN AS FAMA. IT WAS CLEVERLY PATTERNED AFTER AMERICA'S 'LIFE' MAGAZINE, WITH HIGH QUALITY GLOSSY PHOTOS AND PROFILES OF SOME OF SARAJEVO'S BEST AND BRIGHTEST. ALTHOUGH THE LETTER 'E' IN 'LIFE' WAS PRINTED BACKWARDS TO AVOID POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT PROBLEMS, ATTORNEYS FOR THE AMERICAN MAGAZINE BRIEFLY THREATENED A LAWSUIT. THEY RECONSIDERED WHEN IT WAS POINTED OUT THE MAGAZINE WAS NOT FOR PROFIT.

    CHRISTIE EVANS, A YOUNG AMERICAN ENTRUSTED WITH A PRECIOUS FIVE COPIES OF THE LIMITED EDITION OF 800 MAGAZINES, DECIDED TO CONVENE THE BOOKSTORE EVENT SO THAT AS MANY FORMER SARAJEVANS AS POSSIBLE COULD EXAMINE IT:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 EVANS RUNS [:565] "[OPT] IT WAS IMPORTANT FOR ALL THE BOSNIANS TO SEE THIS BECAUSE THEY WOULD IMMEDIATELY RECOGNIZE THE PEOPLE AND WHAT THEY WERE SAYING AS THEY CAME ACROSS THE PAGES IN VERY SUBTLE TONES. I THINK EVERYONE IS SO NOSTALGIC FOR THE WAY THINGS WERE THAT IF YOU HOLD OUT A PIECE OF HOPE LIKE THE LIFE MAGAZINE, THAT THIS IS THE WAY IT IS STILL AND THIS IS THE WAY IT COULD BE, THAT PEOPLE WOULD FLOCK BACK. [END OPT] I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD REFER TO MULTI-CULTURALISM IN SARAJEVO IN THE PAST TENSE. I DON'T THINK WE CAN DO THAT YET AND AND I DON'T THINK WE SHOULD. I THINK ITS STILL ALIVE AND WELL AND THAT'S WHAT THE LIFE MAGAZINE SHOWS US. HERE'S ARE LIVING PEOPLE, FLESH AND BLOOD AND HERE ARE THEIR HOPES, THEIR VISION AND WE SHOULDN'T EXAMINE SARAJEVO YET AS VULTURES AND PROCLAIM DEATH."

    TEXT: [OPT] IN FACT, MS. EVANS SAYS 'LIFE' CREATOR, SUADA KAPIC [SWAD-AH KAHP-ITCH] OF FAMA, WANTED THE MAGAZINE TO CONVEY TWO MESSAGES FOR PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES AND FOR THAT REASON IT WAS PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 EVANS RUNS [:42] "THIS IS HER MESSAGE, SHOWING HERE IS CONCRETE EVIDENCE THAT THERE ARE PEOPLE IN SARAJEVO WHO HAVE CHOSEN TO LIVE IN SARAJEVO, WHO RETAIN A MULTI-ETHNIC PHILOSOPHY WHO HAVE CREATED PRODUCTIVE LIVES DESPITE THE WAR AND WHO WILL PROBABLY BE THE SPECIFIC PEOPLE TO REBUILD IT ONCE THE WAR HAS ENDED. ITS ACTUALLY BEEN USEFUL SO FAR BECAUSE PEOPLE ARE GOING TO SARAJEVO TO HELP REBUILD THE MULTI-ETHNIC COMMUNITY AGAIN AND HAVE USED THE MAGAZINE TO INTRODUCE THEMSELVES TO THE MULTI-NATIONAL INTELLIGENTSIA WHO STILL LIVE IN SARAJEVO." [END OPT]

    TEXT: ONE SARAJEVAN WHO FOUND THE MAGAZINE A MOVING TESTIMONY TO THE CITY HE LEFT BEHIND IS PEDGA KOJEVIC [PED-GAH KOH-YEH-VITCH], A BOSNIAN SERB WHO WORKED AS A JOURNALIST AND TELEVISION CAMERAMAN THROUGHOUT THE WAR. AS HE LEAFED THROUGH THE PHOTOGRAPHS OF FORMER ACQUAINTANCES, HE WONDERED IF THE SARAJEVO THEY REPRESENT IS DOOMED:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 KOJEVIC (SNEAK ABOVE, VOICE BEGINS AT :18 IN, OUT AT :40, FADE REST UNDER TEXT) RUNS [1:24] "ALL THESE SERBS WHO ARE NOW DEMONSTRATING, THEY KNOW WHAT THEY DID TO SARAJEVO FOR THE LAST FOUR YEARS AND NOW THEY ARE AFRAID. I WOULD BE AFRAID AS WELL. I MEAN, I'M A SERB. I WOULD BE AFRAID. (TAYLOR) AFRAID OF RETALIATION? (KOLJEVIC) OF COURSE, IF YOU'VE BEEN KILLING SOMEBODY FOR FOUR YEARS AND NOW THOSE GUYS ARE COMING BACK. I MEAN THERE ARE SERBS AND SERBS, JUST AS THERE ARE MUSLIMS AND MUSLIMS, AND CROATS AND CROATS."

    TEXT: WHAT PEDGA KOJEVIC MEANT IS, THERE ARE GOOD PEOPLE AND BAD PEOPLE ON ALL SIDES, EVEN IN THE SAME FAMILY. IN HIS CASE, MR. KOJEVIC SAID, MEMBERS OF HIS OWN FAMILY WHO JOINED THE BOSNIAN SERB NATIONALISTS WERE IN EFFECT TRYING TO KILL HIM AS THE SERBS SHELLED SARAJEVO FOR THEASE PAST FOUR YEARS. MR. KOJEVIC SAYS THERE ARE 40-THOUSAND SERBS LIKE HIMSELF IN SARAJEVO TODAY WHO HATE WHAT BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC HAS DONE TO THEIR COUNTRY AND THEIR FAMILIES. [OPT] ANOTHER SARAJEVAN WHO CAME TO THE BOOKSTORE WITH HIS WIFE, BUT ASKED THAT HIS NAME NOT BE USED, WON THE NICKNAME 'SARAJEVO'S WAR HERO' FOR HIS EFFORTS TO BRING IN FOOD AND OTHER PROVISIONS THROUGH THE SERB BLOCKADE. HE TURNED THE MAGAZINE'S PAGES, SILENTLY LOOKING AT THE PEOPLE HE ONCE KNEW WHO STAYED BEHIND. HIS WIFE DOESN'T WANT TO RETURN NOW. SHE IS AFRAID HE HAS TOO MANY ENEMIES THERE. [END OPT]

    ARNELA KONAKEVIC [ARE-NEH-LA KOHN--AH-KEH-VITCH] WAS A WELL-KNOWN SINGER IN SARAJEVO BEFORE SHE CAME TO THE UNITED STATES. SHE NOW PREFORMS ON OCCASION AT THE BOOKSTORE AND AT OTHER PLACES IN THE U-S CAPITAL. ARNELA SAYS SHE LEFT A PROMISING CAREER IN SARAJEVO AFTER LEARNING HER NAME WAS ON A DEATH LIST OF ARTISTS AND INTELLECTUALS DRAWN UP BY BOSNIAN SERB NATIONALISTS:

    TAPE: CUT # 4 KONAKEVIC RUNS [:49] "I CAME HERE TWO YEARS AGO TO DELIVER MY BABY; HE IS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN. WHERE YOUR CHILD IS BORN, YOU HAVE TO BE THERE. I HAVE A LOT OF FRIENDS THERE AND HERE. I HAVE A LOT OF FRIENDS WHO ARE SERBS, YOU KNOW AND WHO ARE NOT ON KARADZIC'S SIDE. YOU KNOW, IN SARAJEVO THERE ARE NOT JUST THREE RELIGIONS. THERE ARE JEWS AND OTHERS. SO IT MUST BE (MULTI ETHNIC). I CANNOT IMAGINE SARAJEVO ETHNICALLY CLEANSED, JUST CROATIANS OR JUST MUSLIMS. THIS IS IMPOSSIBLE."

    TEXT: MS. KONAKEVIC THEN AGREED TO SING A FEW BARS * OF ONE OF HER OWN COMPOSITIONS, WHICH SHE SOMETIMES SINGS AROUND WASHINGTON THESE DAYS. IT IS A SONG ABOUT PEACE, WHICH SHE WROTE BEFORE THE WAR BROKE OUT. (SIGNED)

    TAPE: CUT # 5 KONAKEVIC SINGING (SNEAK AT *, UP AND UNDER TO FILL) RUNS [:42]

    NEB/PAM/PCH
    21-Dec-95 5:05 PM EST (2205 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L) BY KYLE KING (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190367
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, THE COMMANDER OF THE NEW NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN BOSNIA, SAYS HE HAS RECEIVED ASSURANCES FROM THE WARRING MILITARY FACTIONS THAT THEY WILL RESPECT THE DAYTON AGREEMENT. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: ADMIRAL SMITH RECEIVED ASSURANCES DURING THE FIRST MEETING OF THE JOINT MILITARY COMMISSION, THAT IT WILL TRY TO IRON OUT DISPUTE THAT ARISE AS THE PEACE TREATY IS BEING IMPLEMENTED.

    /// SMITH ACT ///

    WE ARE DELIGHTED FRANKLY TO RECEIVED STATEMENTS OF THE REPRESENTATIVES, EACH OF WHOM SAID THEY HAVE PASSED INSTRUCTIONS ON TO THEIR FORCES TO COOPERATE FULLY WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION FORCE. WE HAVE SEEN THAT IN EVIDENCE BY THE WAY THEY ARE REACTING ON THE GROUND TO GENERAL WALKERS FORCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL MICHAEL WALKER, THE COMMANDER OF THE 60-THOUSAND RAPID REACTION CORP GROUND TROOPS EXPECTED IN BOSNIA, WILL CONTINUE MEETING REGULARLY WITH THE COMMISSION AS HIS FORCES BEGIN PATROLLING THE COUNTRY.

    ONE OF THE FIRST MAJOR CHALLENGES THOSE TROOPS WILL FACE WILL BE IN THE SERB HELD DISTRICTS OF SARAJEVO, WHERE MANY PEOPLE SAY THEY ARE STILL UNSURE WHAT THE DAYTON ACCORD WILL BRING.

    UNWILLING TO LIVE UNDER THE CONTROL OF THE MUSLIM GOVERNMENT THEY HAVE BEEN FIGHTING FOR NEARLY FOUR YEARS, SOME SERBS HAVE VOWED TO FIGHT TO RETAIN CONTROL OF THEIR DISTRICTS.

    SERB LEADERS HAVE TOLD PEOPLE TO STAY IN THEIR HOMES, BUT MANY LOCAL RESIDENTS ARE SAID TO BE FURIOUS ABOUT THE CONTRADICTORY SIGNALS THEY HAVE BEEN GETTING SINCE THE ACCORD WAS SIGNED.

    EUROPEAN UNION REPRESENTATIVE CARL BILDT, WHO TOOK PART IN THE FIRST MEETING OF THE JOINT MILITARY COMMISSION, AFTERWARD TOLD REPORTERS IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE SERBS IN SARAJEVO TO STAY IN THEIR HOMES.

    /// BILDT ACT ///

    I HOPE THAT EVERYONE IS GOING TO URGE THEM TO STAY BECAUSE A NEW MASS MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IS NOT GOING TO BE IN THE INTERESTS OF ANYONE.

    /// END ACT ///

    FOR NOW, NATO COMMANDERS IN SARAJEVO ARE TRYING TO REASSURE THE WAR-WEARY PEOPLE OF BOSNIA THAT THE NEW IMPLEMENTATION FORCE WILL BRING THE STABILITY THEY NEED TO START REBUILDING THEIR SHATTERED LIVES. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/MMK
    21-Dec-95 9:32 AM EST (1432 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] BOSNIA AID (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (BRUSSELS)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190366
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // REISSUE: CORRECTS NUMBER IN INTRO (500 STED 566) //

    INTRO: A CONFERENCE IN BRUSSELS TO SEEK FUNDS FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BOSNIA APPARENTLY HAS ENDED IN SUCCESS. FIRM PLEDGES OF NEW MONEY TOTALLED 500-MILLION DOLLARS, SLIGHTLY SHORT OF THE WORLD BANK TARGET OF 518-MILLION. JOHN FRASER IN BRUSSELS REPORTS OFFICIALS CONFIDENTLY EXPECT ANOTHER 36-MILLION DOLLARS IN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS.

    TEXT: EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSIONER HANS VAN DEN BROEK SAYS THE OBJECTIVE HAS BEEN REACHED.

    THE MONEY IS NOW THERE TO START THE RECONSTRUCTION OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, TO PUT THE ECONOMY BACK ON ITS FEET, AND TO HELP RESTORE NORMAL DAILY LIFE TO THE WAR-RAVAGED LAND.

    THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS CONTRIBUTED MORE THAN 166-MILLION DOLLARS, THE WORLD BANK HAS GIVEN 156-MILLION DOLLARS, AND THE UNITED STATES HAS INCREASED ITS OFFER FROM 36-MILLION TO 56-MILLION DOLLARS.

    MR. VAN DEN BROEK SAYS THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS SENT A POSITIVE MESSAGE OF HOPE TO THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA.

    BOSNIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER MUHAMED SACIRBEY SAYS HE IS VERY PLEASED WITH THE OUTCOME OF THE CONFERENCE. BUT, HE SAYS A BIGGER TEST WILL COME AT A LARGER CONFERENCE IN MARCH, AT WHICH MORE THAN FIVE-BILLION DOLLARS WILL BE SOUGHT TO SUPPORT BOSNIA DURING THE NEXT THREE TO FOUR YEARS.

    /// ACT SACIRBEY ///

    I THINK THERE REALLY WAS A SHOWING OF SUPPORT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MORE NEEDS TO BE DONE HERE, OF COURSE, TO MAINTAIN THE MOMENTUM AND TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE NEXT PLEDGING CONFERENCE. AND THE REAL TEST HERE WILL BE IN THREE-MONTHS WHEN WE DO HAVE THE NEXT PLEDGING CONFERENCE, WHICH WILL PROBABLY COVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS OF THE COMMITMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO BOSNIA'S RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT. AND WE THINK THE GOAL THERE WILL BE SOMEWHERE AROUND FIVE-BILLION DOLLARS. SO, OBVIOUSLY, THE DEMANDS ARE MUCH GREATER AND THE PREPARATION AND COMMITMENT THEREFORE MUST ALSO BE GREATER.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. SACIRBEY ADDED BOSNIA MUST NOW PROCEED WITH INTEGRATION INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. HE ARGUES THAT HIS COUNTRY IS NOT ON THE DOORSTEP OF EUROPE -- BUT IS PART OF EUROPE. HE SAYS BOSNIA CAN HELP FORM A BRIDGE BETWEEN EUROPE AND THE ISLAMIC WORLD.

    BOTH HE AND MR. VAN DEN BROEK EMPHASIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF PREVENTING INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS FROM PARTICIPATING IN PUBLIC LIFE IN THE NEW BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/JF/JWH/RAE
    21-Dec-95 9:21 AM EST (1421 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] BOSNIA SITREP (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190372
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COMMANDER OF NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS MET WITH SENIOR MUSLIM, SERB, AND CROAT MILITARY OFFICERS IN SARAJEVO. WHILE NATO FORCES BEGIN TO IMPLEMENT MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, DONOR COUNTRIES HAVE PLEDGED 500 MILLION DOLLARS IN AID TO BOSNIA OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE NATO COMMANDER, AMERICAN ADMIRAL LEIGHTON SMITH, CONFERRED AT THE SARAJEVO AIRPORT WITH THE CHIEFS OF STAFF OF THE FORMER WARRING FORCES IN BOSNIA.

    ADMIRAL SMITH EXPLAINED TO THEM WHAT HE EXPECTS THEM TO DO TO MAKE NATO'S PEACE MISSION IN BOSNIA AS SAFE AND AS EFFECTIVE AS POSSIBLE.

    NATO GROUND TROOPS HAVE ALREADY MOVED INTO SERB-HELD TERRITORY. IN ONE AREA, SERB SOLDIERS INVITED BRITISH TROOPS TO HAVE A DRINK OF SLIVOVITZ, A POPULAR PLUM BRANDY.

    A SERB WOMAN AND HER DAUGHTER WAVED TO THE BRITISH SOLDIERS AS THEY PASSED BY IN HEAVILY ARMORED FIGHTING VEHICLES.

    NATO FORCES ARE DISMANTLING OR TAKING OVER MUSLIM, SERB OR CROAT MILITARY CHECKPOINTS AROUND SARAJEVO. THE CHECKPOINTS BLOCKED THE MOVEMENTS OF U-N PERSONNEL OR CIVILIANS DURING THE THREE-AND-A-YEAR WAR IN BOSNIA.

    ON WEDNESDAY, FRENCH TROOPS BULLDOZED A NOTORIOUS SERB CHECKPOINT, WHICH OUTGOING U-N PEACEKEEPERS CALLED SIERRA FOUR. IT BLOCKED ACCESS TO SARAJEVO'S AIRPORT. THE THURSDAY EDITION OF ONE SARAJEVO NEWSPAPER (VERCENJE NOVINE) APPEARED ON THE STREETS WITH THE HEADLINE, "NO MORE SIERRA."

    THE THOUGHTS OF MANY PEOPLE IN BOSNIA ARE BEGINNING TO TURN TOWARD PEACE. THERE ARE EVEN EARLY SIGNS THAT PEOPLE ARE BEGINNING TO THINK ABOUT RECONCILIATION, AS A FEW LONG-SEPARATED FRIENDS OR RELATIVES MANAGE TO MEET AGAIN.

    IN BRUSSELS, 50 COUNTRIES AND MANY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE PLEDGED 500-MILLION DOLLARS IN AID TO HELP THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA GET THROUGH THE LONG AND COLD BALKAN WINTER.

    THERE ARE DIFFERENT ESTIMATES ABOUT THE OVERALL COST OF BOSNIA'S POST-WAR ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION. THE CONSENSUS, AT THIS POINT, IS THAT AT LEAST FIVE BILLION DOLLARS WILL BE NEEDED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/MMK
    21-Dec-95 10:37 AM EST (1537 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] BOSNIA / U-S TROOPS (L ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190381
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COMMANDER OF THE SMALL AMERICAN FORCE NOW IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, GENERAL WILLIAM NASH, SAYS HE HAS HAD A USEFUL MEETING WITH MUSLIM, SERB, AND CROAT COMMANDERS IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. HE ALSO SAYS THE BULK OF HIS TROOPS SHOULD BEGIN TO ARRIVE IN BOSNIA AFTER A BRIDGE IS BUILT NEXT WEEK ACROSS A RIVER ON THE BORDER BETWEEN CROATIA AND BOSNIA. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: SPEAKING AT HIS HEADQUARTERS IN TUZLA, GENERAL NASH SAYS THE COMMANDERS OF THE FORMER WARRING FORCES IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA KNOW WHAT THEY HAVE TO DO TO HELP AMERICAN AND OTHER NATO TROOPS IMPLEMENT THE NEW BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    /// NASH ACT ///

    IN ALL CASES, THEY WERE WELL AWARE OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PEACE ACCORD, NOT ONLY PLEDGED THEIR SUPPORT BUT REPORTED A VARIETY OF MEASURES THEY WERE TAKING, SUCH AS MINE-CLEARING AND STARTING TO PULL BACK FORCES, TO BE WELL AHEAD OF ANY DEADLINES THAT ARE WRITTEN.

    /// END ACT ///

    GENERAL NASH EXPECTS MOST OF HIS 20-THOUSAND TROOPS TO BEGIN TO ARRIVE IN BOSNIA AFTER A BRIDGE IS PUT OVER THE SAVA RIVER ON THE BOSNIAN/CROATIAN BORDER SOME TIME NEXT WEEK.

    /// NASH ACT ///

    I'M NOT GOING TO NAIL THE DATE DOWN BECAUSE, IF IT'S A SNOWY AND ICY DAY, I'M NOT GOING TO CROSS THE RIVER THAT DAY. WE'RE GONNA COME ACROSS IN A MEASURED, DELIBERATE MANNER...THIS IS NOT, I SAY AGAIN, IT IS NOT AN INVASION. THIS IS A PEACE ENFORCEMENT FORCE THAT'S COMING IN, AND WE'RE GONNA COME IN A VERY NON-PROVOCATIVE WAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    AN INITIAL OBJECTIVE OF ALL 60-THOUSAND NATO TROOPS, GOING TO BOSNIA, IS TO SEPARATE THE FORMER WARRING FORCES. BUT, GENERAL NASH SAYS THE MUSLIMS, CROATS AND SERBS CAN REALLY SEPARATE THEMSELVES.

    /// NASH ACT ///

    WELL, FIRST OF ALL, THE SEPARATION OF FORCES WILL BE DONE BY THE WARRING PARTIES. IN OTHER WORDS, THEY DO NOT NEED ME TO PICK THEM UP AND MOVE THEM BACK. WHAT WE WILL BE DOING IS MONITORING THAT AND LOOKING AT THAT IN PATROLLING THE ZONE OF SEPARATION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE U-S COMMANDER IN NORTHEASTERN BOSNIA ADDS MONITORING THE SEPARATION OF FORCES IN HIS AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY DOES NOT HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL THE FULL FORCE, BACKED BY TANKS, IS DEPLOYED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    21-Dec-95 1:03 PM EST (1803 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [08] PERRY/BOSNIA (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190399*
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// RE-RUNNING FOR FILE ///

    INTRO: TOP CLINTON ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS HAVE CONCEDED THAT THE TIMETABLE FOR MOVING U-S FORCES INTO BOSNIA IS SLIPPING DUE TO BAD WEATHER AND LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS. BUT THEY SAY ADEQUATE NUMBERS OF TROOPS WILL BE DEPLOYED IN PLENTY OF TIME FOR FULL-SCALE PEACEKEEPING DUTIES NEXT MONTH. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE CHAIRMAN OF MILITARY JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, GENERAL JOHN SHALIKASHVILI, SAYS THE PEACEKEEPING OPERATION IS "ESSENTIALLY ON TRACK" DESPITE WINTER WEATHER AND LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS THAT HAVE PUT THE DEPLOYMENT TIMETABLE ABOUT A WEEK BEHIND SCHEDULE.

    GENERAL SHALIKASHVILI SAID CONSTRUCTION OF A FLOATING BRIDGE NEEDED TO CARRY U-S TANKS AND TROOPS ACROSS THE SAVA RIVER FROM CROATIA INTO BOSNIA MIGHT NOT OCCUR UNTIL DECEMBER 30TH OR LATER.

    HOWEVER HE STRESSED THAT AMERICANS DO NOT TAKE UP THEIR FULL PEACEKEEPING DUTIES UNTIL JANUARY 19TH, WHEN THEY ARE DUE TO BEGIN PATROLLING THE FOUR-KILOMETER WIDE ZONE OF SEPARATION BETWEEN OPPOSING FORCES.

    FAR FROM BEING UPSET WITH THE PACE OF DEPLOYMENTS THUS FAR, THE TOP U-S GENERAL SAID HE IS GRATIFIED THAT THE FORCES ARE NOT BEING MOVED IN WITH UNNECESSARY HASTE:

    /// SHALIKASHVILI ACT ///

    I CONSIDER MUCH MORE RIGHT NOW, MUCH MORE IMPORTANT RIGHT NOW, THAT THOSE DEPLOYMENTS BE CONDUCTED SAFETY AND DELIBERATELY AND THAT WE DON'T NEEDLESSLY HURT PEOPLE THROUGH SOME ACCIDENT ON ICY ROADS AND FOGGY WEATHER, TRYING TO MEET SOME FICTICIOUS DEADLINE. I'M VERY HAPPY THAT THEY'RE TAKING THAT APPROACH BECAUSE THERE'S NO NEED FOR THAT KIND OF SPECIFIC DEADLINE RIGHT NOW.

    /// END ACT ///

    DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY, WHO SPOKE AT A NEWS CONFERENCE WITH GENERAL SHALIKASHVILI, SAID COMPLIANCE BY ALL SIDES WITH TERMS OF THE BOSNIAN ACCORDS IS ENCOURAGING THUS FAR, AND THAT PEACE IN THE COUNTRY -- WHILE STILL FRAGILE -- IS AN EMERGING REALITY.

    MR. PERRY SAID THAT WHAT MAY BE MORE IMPORTANT AND POSITIVE THAN THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA ITSELF IS THAT WITH COLD-WAR DIVISIONS NOW NEARLY FORGOTTEN, THE NATIONS OF EUROPE ARE WORKING TOGETHER IN A COMMON CAUSE:

    ///PERRY ACT///

    WHAT WE ARE SEEING IS A CONCERTED EFFORT -- THE LIKES OF WHICH REALLY HAS NOT HAPPENED SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR. ESSENTIALLY EVERY NATION IN EUROPE IS PARTICIPATING IN I-FOR AND PARTICIPATING IN THE RECONSTRUCTION MOVEMENT BECAUSE THEY SEE THIS AS THE FIRST MAJOR TEST OF SECURITY IN EUROPE AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

    //END ACT///

    SECRETARY PERRY IS DUE TO VISIT AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN BOSNIA -- AND U-S STAGING AREAS FOR THE BOSNIAN OPERATION IN ITALY, HUNGARY AND CROATIA -- IN AN OVERSEAS MISSION BEGINNING NEW YEARS DAY. (SIGNED) NEB/DAG/CB/LWM 21-Dec-95 5:55 PM EST (2255 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [09] TURKEY/ELECTIONS BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32033
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    /// TURKISH SOUND TO BUBBLE ///

    INTRO: TURKISH VOTERS GO TO THE POLLS SUNDAY TO ELECT A NEW 550-SEAT PARLIAMENT. PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER IS FIGHTING FOR HER POLITICAL LIFE, BUT NO CLEAR WINNER IS EXPECTED TO EMERGE. PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL WILL HAVE TO ASK ONE OF THE LEADING PARTIES TO FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN REPORTS FROM ISTANBUL THE FIGHT NOW APPEARS FOCUSED ON THE TWO LEADING CENTER-RIGHT PARTIES AND A PRO-ISLAMIST PARTY THAT HAS BEEN GAINING IN THE UN-OFFICIAL POLLS.

    TEXT: PRIME MINISTER CILLER'S POLITICAL FUTURE IS AT STAKE IN SUNDAY'S PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION. MANY ANALYSTS SEE SUNDAY'S VOTE AS A FINAL MATCH BETWEEN THE TWO LONG-TIME RIVALS OF THE CENTER-RIGHT -- MRS CILLER'S TRUE PATH PARTY AND HER MAIN OPPONENT MESUT YILMAZ OF THE MOTHERLAND PARTY.

    THAT FIGHT APPEARS TO BE FOCUSING MORE ON STYLE THAN SUBSTANCE SINCE MEMBERS OF BOTH PARTIES AGREE THERE IS LITTLE DIFFERENCE IN THEIR POLICIES.

    MRS. CILLER'S FORMER CENTRAL-BANK GOVERNOR RASDU SARACOGLU (RAZ-DOO SAH-RA-JOH-LOO) IS ONE OF DOZENS OF MINISTERS AND ADVISORS WHO HAVE DEFECTED TO THE MOTHERLAND PARTY IN RECENT MONTHS.

    /// SARACOGLU ACT ///

    SHE DOES NOT HAVE A STRONG TEAM AND ONE OF HER WEAKNESSES IS THAT SHE THINKS SHE CAN DO EVERYTHING, BUT THE ECONOMY IS TOO COMPLEX TO BE MANAGED AND DAILY POLICY DECISIONS TO BE MADE BY A SINGLE PERSON.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE BANKER-CANDIDATE ECHOS OTHER POLITICIANS WHO WANT TO SEE THE TWO CENTER-RIGHT PARTIES MERGE INTO ONE-STRONG PARTY INSTEAD OF EXCHANGING ACCUSATIONS OF CORRUPTION AND INCOMPETENCE. HE SAYS THAT WOULD STABILIZE THE CENTER-RIGHT AND OFFSET THE RISING POPULARITY OF THE PRO-ISLAMIST REFAH PARTY. REFAH LEADER NECMETIN ERBEKAN (NCH MEH TIN ER BEH KAN)HAS BEEN GAINING SUPPORT AMONG THE GROWING NUMBERS OF DISADVANTAGED AND DISENCHANTED. ANALYSTS AND DIPLOMATS WATCHING THE CAMPAIGN SAY IT IS THE PARTY TO BEAT.

    ELECTION POSTERS FEATURE PHOTOGRAPHS OF MRS. CILLER POINTING WESTWARD TO UNDERSCORE HER DETERMINATION TO LEAD TURKEY INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. HER DETERMINATION TO ENTER INTO A CUSTOMS UNION WITH THE EUROPEAN BLOC WAS AIMED, IN PART, AT BOOSTING HER RATING IN THE POLLS. BUT ISLAMIST CANDIDATES WIN VOTES BY ARGUING TURKEY HAS BEEN WORKING FOR MORE THAN 30-YEARS TO JOIN A EUROPEAN COMMUNITY THE CANDIDATES SAY WILL NEVER ACCEPT A MUSLIM MEMBER.

    WHILE THE POLITICIANS CAMPAIGN LOUDLY ON THEIR DIFFERENCES, FRUSTRATED VOTERS SAY THEY ALL SOUND THE SAME. MANY SAY THEY ARE STILL UNDECIDED OR JUST PLAIN FED UP.

    /// MAN IN THE STREET SOUND ///

    (TURKISH AND ENGLISH) I THINK EVERYONE IS GOING TO WAIT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE BEFORE THEY VOTE. THIS IS THE FIRST TIME I AM VOTING, BUT I AM GOING TO BOYCOTT THE ELECTION. I DO NOT THINK MY VOTE WILL MATTER. ALL THE PARTIES HAVE BEEN TRIED. I DO NOT SEE ANY OF THEM SUFFICIENT FOR TURKEY AND EVEN IF REFAH WINS THE ELECTION I DO NOT THINK IT IS GOING TO MATTER TOO MUCH.

    /// END ACT ///

    MOST VOTERS POINT TO THE ECONOMY AS THEIR MAIN CONCERN. NEARLY 20-PERCENT OF TURKEY'S WORKFORCE DOES NOT HAVE A JOB, INFLATION IS AT 80-PERCENT, AND THE CUSTOMS UNION AGREEMENT WITH EUROPE HAS MANY TURKISH FIRMS WORRIED THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO COMPETE.

    THE RACE TO LEAD TURKEY'S NEXT GOVERNMENT APPEARS HEADED FOR A MESSY COALITION BATTLE WITH NO CLEAR WINNER IN SIGHT. THE TALK OF FORMING A CENTER-RIGHT PARTNERSHIP OF THE TWO MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES COULD PROVE A LONG CONVERSATION -- ONE THAT COULD BE OVERTAKEN BY YET ANOTHER ELECTION EARLY NEXT YEAR. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LK/MH/RAE
    21-Dec-95 7:40 AM EST (1240 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [10] TURKEY/ISLAM BY LAURIE KASSMAN (ISTANBUL)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32034
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH VOTERS GO TO THE POLLS SUNDAY TO ELECT A NEW 550-SEAT PARLIAMENT. NO CLEAR WINNER IS EXPECTED AND THE MOST LIKELY RESULT WILL BE ANOTHER COALITION GOVERNMENT. ONE PARTY IN THE RACE, WHICH COULD MAKE OR BREAK THAT PLAN IS THE PRO-ISLAMIST REFAH PARTY -- IN ENGLISH, THE WELFARE PARTY. IT HAS GAINED SUPPORT AMONG THE VOTERS, BUT NOT AMONG THE OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT LAURIE KASSMAN IN ISTANBUL LOOKS AT WHY REFAH PARTY THREATENS ITS SECULAR OPPONENTS.

    TEXT: /// SINGING AND CHANTING ///

    A YOUNG VEILED WOMAN CHANTS A POLITICAL POEM TO WELCOME REFAH'S LEADING CANDIDATES IN THE PARLIAMENTARY RACE. RED PARTY FLAGS FLUTTER ABOVE A SEA OF BLACK VEILS AND HEADSCARVES. THIS IS A WOMEN-ONLY RALLY FOR REFAH'S ALL MALE LIST OF CANDIDATES.

    MINE AKOZ (MIN-NAH AW-KUZ), WHO HEADS REFAH'S WOMEN'S COMMITTEE, SAYS 25-WOMEN WANTED TO RUN IN THE RACE, BUT WERE NOT SELECTED. PARTY LEADERS SAY THEY HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL TURKEY'S SECULAR LAWS CAN BE AMENDED TO ALLOW WOMEN IN HEAD-SCARVES TO ENTER GOVERNMENT.

    UN-OFFICIAL OPINION POLLS PREDICT REFAH COULD FINISH FIRST OR SECOND IN THE RACE, WITH ABOUT 20-PERCENT OF THE VOTE. BUT MAINSTREAM PARTIES ON THE RIGHT AND LEFT SAY THEY WOULD NEVER DEAL WITH A REFAH-CONTROLLED GOVERNMENT.

    POLITICAL SCIENTIST NILUFER NARLI (NEE-LUH-FER NAR-LEE), OF ISTANBUL'S MARMARA UNIVERSITY, EXPLAINS WHY TURKEY'S SECULAR PARTIES DO NOT WANT TO BE IDENTIFIED WITH REFAH.

    /// NARLI ACT ///

    IT IS AN ISLAMIST PARTY BECAUSE EVEN THOUGH IT DOES NOT OPENLY DECLARE ITSELF AS AN ISLAMIST PARTY BECAUSE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONSTRAINTS, BUT WHEN WE ANALYZE ITS POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY BECAUSE THEY WANT TO CHANGE THE SYSTEM, THE EXISTING REGIME AND ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC STATE. OF COURSE THEY DO NOT DECLARE THIS VERY OPENLY BECAUSE THIS IS AGAINST THE CONSTITUTION.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE PARTY'S PROGRAM IS CALLED THE JUST ORDER AND RELIES ON STATE CONTROL OF JUST ABOUT EVERYTHNG. BUT ONE VOTER SAYS THE PROGRAM IS VAGUE AND SEEMS TO CHANGE WITH THE NEIGHBORHOOD.

    REFAH PARTY APPEALS MOST TO THE DISENCHANTED AND DISADVANTAGED -- THE EXPLODING LOWER MIDDLE CLASS AND THE UNEMPLOYED WHO ARE CROWDED INTO SHANTYTOWNS ON THE EDGE OF LARGE CITIES. REFAH NOW CONTROLS MORE THAN HALF OF ISTANBUL'S DISTRICT COUNCILS.

    MISS NARLI SAYS IT IS WELL-ORGANIZED ON THE GRASS ROOTS LEVEL AND OFFERS BASIC HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT DOES NOT PROVIDE.

    /// NARLI ACT ///

    THEY HAVE BRANCH OFFICES IN EVERY WARD, WARDS ARE DIVIDED INTO STREETS AND EVEN THERE IS A PERSON WHO IS [IN] CHARGE OF THE PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES ON ONE OF THE STREETS. THEY KNOW ALL THE HOUSEHOLDS, THE LEVEL OF INCOME, THEIR ATTITUDES, THEIR PROBLEMS. IF ONE OF THE FAMILIES HAVE A PROBLEM, THEY APPROACH AND SAY THEY CAN SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS.

    /// END ACT ///

    REFAH IS GENERALLY SEEN AS THE PARTY TO BEAT IN AN ELECTION THAT IS HEADED FOR A MESSY COALITION BATTLE.

    FORMER CENTRAL BANK GOVERNOR RUSDU SARACOGLU (RUZ-DOO SAH-RAH-JOH-LOO) IS RUNNING FOR THE CENTER-RIGHT MOTHERLAND PARTY, WHICH HOPES TO REPLACE PRIME MINISTER TANSU CILLER'S TRUE PATH PARTY AS THE SENIOR COALITION PARTNER. HE SAYS HIS PARTY WILL NOT WORK WITH REFAH.

    /// SARACOGLU ACT ///

    WHEN YOU GO TO A COALITION YOU ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT DEALING WITH THE ORDINARY PEOPLE WHO VOTE FOR REFAH, YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT PEOPLE THAT MAKE UP THE POLITICAL MACHINERY OF REFAH, THE POLITICAL BRAINS OF REFAH. I WOULD RATHER NOT DEAL WITH THEM. I DO NOT THINK THEY ARE HONEST. I DO NOT TRUST THEIR INTEGRITY. I DO NOT TRUST THEIR INTENTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    EVEN PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL STRONGLY HINTS HE WILL NOT TURN TO REFAH TO LEAD A COALITION IF IT WINS THE MOST VOTES. ONE ANALYST SUGGESTS REFAH'S POPULARITY AT THE POLLS COULD ACTUALLY BE A DISADVANTAGE. HE SAYS REFAH WOULD HAVE MORE INFLUENCE IN PARLIAMENT IF IT COMES IN SECOND. (SIGNED)

    NEB/LK/MH/RAE
    21-Dec-95 8:03 AM EST (1303 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [11] YUGO ATROCITIES (S ONLY) BY ELAINE JOHANSON (UNITED NATIONS)

    DATE=12/21/95
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-190400
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL HAS AGAIN DEMANDED A FULL INVESTIGATION OF SITES IN THE SREBRENICA AREA OF BOSNIA WHERE SERBS ARE ALLEGED TO HAVE MASSACRED THOUSANDS OF MUSLIMS LAST JULY. IN A UNANIMOUS VOTE THURSDAY, THE COUNCIL CONDEMNED IN THE STRONGEST TERMS ALL VIOLATIONS OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. VOA CORRESPONDENT ELAINE JOHANSON REPORTS:

    TEXT: DESPITE A NEW BOSNIAN SERB CLAIM THAT MUSLIMS KILLED THEIR OWN PEOPLE IN SREBRENICA -- DIPLOMATS AT THE UNITED NATIONS ARE NOT SWAYED. U-S AMBASSADOR MADELEINE ALBRIGHT CALLED IT THE "BIG LIE" AS SHE LASHED OUT AT BELGRADE'S U-N DELEGATE THIS WEEK, WHO SAID HE WAS MERELY CONVEYING A MESSAGE FROM HIS BOSNIAN KIN.

    THE SERBIAN ENVOY HAD DELIVERED A LETTER TO THE SECURITY COUNCIL DETAILING WHAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS SAY REALLY HAPPENED IN SREBRENICA. THEY CHARGE THAT THE MUSLIM ARMY -- EAGER TO GO ON FIGHTING -- MERCILESSLY KILLED THEIR COMRADES WHO WANTED TO SURRENDER.

    THE COUNCIL NOTED WITH GRAVE CONCERN A RECENT REPORT BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL CITING SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE THAT THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY HAD CARRIED OUT THE EXECUTIONS. IT DEMANDED IMMEDIATE ACCESS TO THE AREA AND TO OTHER SITES IN BOSNIAN SERB TERRITORY WHERE THOUSANDS OF MISSING PERSONS MAY BE HELD PRISONER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/EJ/LWM
    21-Dec-95 6:13 PM EST (2313 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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