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Voice of America, 15 February 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [03] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

  • [04] BOSNIA CONFERENCE BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [05] BOSNIA DIPLOMACY (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

  • [06] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [07] U-S/BOSNIA TROOPS (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/15/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09430
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 15TH //

    INTRO: THE CAMPAIGN FOR PRESIDENT CONTINUES TO DOMINATE THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF MANY U-S NEWSPAPERS THIS THURSDAY, AS THEY LOOK TO THE FIRST PRIMARY ELECTION, IN NEW HAMPSHIRE, NEXT TUESDAY. AMONG TODAY'S OTHER TOPICS ARE THE VERBAL JOUSTING BETWEEN CHINA AND THE U-S; ISRAEL'S FORTHCOMING ELECTION, AND REPUBLICAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE BOB DOLE'S RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED NATIONS. NOW, HERE IS ____________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: CALLING THE PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY CAMPAIGN IN NEW HAMPSHIRE A "PASSION PLAY", THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" GOES ON TO SAY:

    VOICE: "IF IOWA'S PRESIDENTIAL CAUCUSES TESTED THE CANDIDATES' APPEAL TOT HE RELIGIOUS RIGHT, NEXT WEEK'S NEW HAMPSHIRE PRIMARY SHAPES UP AS A TEST OF ECONOMIC PLATFORMS. SO THE FOCUS WILL BE ON THE FLAT TAX FANTASIES OF STEVE FORBES AND ESPECIALLY THE FAUX POPULISM OF PAT BUCHANAN. ALTHOUGH BOTH MEN ARE CAPABLE OF VEERING TOWARD THE WACKY [CRAZY], IT IS A DEBATE WORTH HAVING."

    TEXT: IN BALTIMORE, "THE SUN" IS CONCERNED THAT WITHOUT PHIL GRAMM IN THE REPUBLICAN RACE, TOO MANY PEOPLE WILL FALL INTO THE PAT BUCHANAN CAMP WITHOUT SCRUTINIZING HIS PLATFORM.

    VOICE: "PHIL GRAMM'S WITHDRAWAL FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL RACE GIVES T-V COMMENTATOR PAT BUCHANAN A VIRTUAL LOCK ON THE VOTES OF SOCIAL CONSERVATIVES AND LEAVES THREE OTHER REPUBLICANS -- BOB DOLE, LAMAR ALEXANDER AND STEVE FORBES -- BATTLING IT OUT FOR THE ALLEGIANCE OF ECONOMIC CONSERVATIVES. THIS IS NOT A PLEASANT PROSPECT FOR THE PARTY MAINSTREAM, WHICH FEARS MR. BUCHANAN COULD WRECK G-O-P CHANCES IN 1996 AS HE DID IN 1992."

    TEXT: AMONG TODAY INTERNATIONAL TOPICS, THE LEAD EDITORIAL IN "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" APPROVES OF THE TOUGHER U-S STAND AGAINST CHINA FOR ITS VEILED THREATS AGAINST TAIWAN.

    VOICE: "[OPT] THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION HAS PUT CHINA ON FIRM NOTICE THAT ITS MILITARY THREATS AGAINST TAIWAN ARE IRRESPONSIBLE AND COULD UNDERCUT BEIJING'S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UNITED STATES. [END OPT] THE WARNING WAS PRECISELY THE SIGNAL NEEDED FROM AN ADMINISTRATION WHOSE POLICY OF 'STRATEGIC AMBIGUITY' TOWARD CHINA AND TAIWAN IS BEING SEVERELY TESTED BY AN INCREASINGLY BELLIGERENT CHINESE REGIME. [OPT] ..... AS BEIJING AND TAIPEI PREPARE FOR THE CHINESE NEW YEAR, A NEW SPIRIT OF COOPERATION AND GOODWILL IS DESIRABLE. THIS WILL BE THE YEAR OF THE RAT. WILL BEIJING TAKE ON THE NEGATIVE WESTERN ATTRIBUTES OF THE SYMBOL.?" [END OPT]

    TEXT: ONE OF THE NATION'S LEADING CONSERVATIVE DAILIES, THE "UNION LEADER" IN MANCHESTER, NEW HAMPSHIRE, ALSO TAKES AIM AT CHINA, AND SAYS THE UNITED STATES NEEDS TO RE-EXAMINE ITS TRADE RELATIONS WITH BEIJING.

    VOICE: "MAYBE TRADE WITH CHINA IS NOT WORTH THE AGGRAVATION, ESPECIALLY SINCE "CHINA GETS BY FAR THE BETTER PART OF THE DEAL... CONSIDER THAT OUR TRADE DEFICIT WITH CHINA ... WAS 35-BILLION DOLLARS LAST YEAR. THIS YEAR THE DEFICIT IS EXPECTED TO RISE TO NEARLY 50 BILLION DOLLARS... IF THE BEIJING GOVERNMENT PERSISTS IN IGNORING ITS AGREEMENTS, THEN PERHAPS CHINA IS NOT THE PARTNER WE WANT, ECONOMICLALY OR OTHERWISE."

    TEXT: IN NEW ENGLAND, "THE BOSTON GLOBE" WRITES ABOUT ANOTHER ASIAN CONCERN -- THE AGREEMENT RECENTLY REACHED BETWEEN ONE OF BURMA'S LARGEST HEROIN LORDS, KHUN SA, AND THE BURMESE MILITARY JUNTA KNOWN AS SLORC.

    VOICE: "...LAST MONTH KHUN SA SURRENDERED TO THE SLORC IN EXCHANGE FOR PROTECTION FOR HIMSELF AND HIS POPPY FIELDS, AND NOW THE JUNTA'S FOREIGN MINISTER DECLARES: 'THERE IS NO QUESTION OF EXTRADITION WITH ANY COUNTRY.' THE [U-S] JUSTICE DEPARTMENT DANGLED A TWO-MILLION- DOLLAR REWARD FOR INFORMATION LEADING TO THE CAPTURE OF KHUN SA -- A GESTURE OF EXTREME NAIVETE. TO BELIEVE SLORC WOULD EXTRADITE THE DRUG LORD, ONE MUST FALL FOR THE DELUSION THAT THE GENERALS WERE NOT HIS BUSINESS PARTNERS ALL ALONG."

    TEXT: STILL ON THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE, TODAY'S "ORLANDO SENTINEL" SAYS, DESPITE SOME EARLY SETBACKS, THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT SHOULD BE GIVEN MORE TIME TO WORK.

    VOICE: "THOUGH IT'S TRUE THAT THERE HAVE BEEN SOME TRADE DISRUPTIONS, THEY WERE ANTICIPATED. THE BROAD PROMISE REMAINS VERY GOOD... IT WOULD BE ILL-ADVISED TO JUDGE THE ACCORD BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF ONE YEAR OR TWO -- ESPECIALLY WITH AN UNEXPECTED ECONOMIC CRISIS FACTORED IN. THE BROAD PROMISE OF NAFTA REMAINS VERY GOOD."

    TEXT: AND ON THE MIDDLE EAST, "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" APPLAUDS THE PROSPECT OF EARLY ELECTIONS IN ISRAEL, CALLING THE DECISION OF PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES "POSITIVE FOR ALL SIDES IN THE MIDDLE EAST PEACE EQUATION."

    VOICE: "[MR.] PERES'S CHOICE OF AN EARLY ELECTION WILL BE CRITICIZED BY SOME AS POLITICAL OPPORTUNISM, SIDETRACKING THE PEACE TALKS. BUT HE'S PROBABLY WISE TO TAKE UP THE POLITICAL TASK WHILE THE CLIMATE'S FAVORABLE. A CONFIRMING VOTE WITHIN ISRAEL COULD PUT THE PEACE PROCESS, WITH BOTH THE SYRIANS AND THE PALESTINIANS, MORE SECURELY ON TRACK."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" TODAY CRITICIZES SENATOR BOB DOLE FOR JOINING THE GROWING NUMBER OF LEGISLATORS CRITICAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS, AND WHO AGREE THE UNITED STATES SHOULD NOT PAY ITS FULL DUES ASSESSMENT TO THE WORLD BODY.

    VOICE: "THE REPUBLICAN ASSAULT ON THE UNITED NATIONS HAS GOTTEN OUT OF HAND. IT IS NOT JUST ... SENATOR HELMS THAT IS ON THE WARPATH; [ANGRY AND UPSET] ... IT IS MAINSTREAM FIGURES SUCH AS SENATOR DOLE WHO ARE TAKING THEIR WHACKS [JOINING IN ON THE CRITICISM]. IF MR. DOLE WERE SERIOUS ABOUT PROTECTING INNOCENT AMERICANS FROM THE FANTASY OF A WORLD-GOVERNMENT TAX, [PROPOSED BY SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROUS BOUTROUS-GAHLI AS A WAY OF MAKING UP U-N THE BUDGET DEFICIT] HE WOULD LEAD THE DRIVE TO GET THE UNITED STATES TO PAY THE ONE-POINT-SIX BILLION IT IS BEHIND IN REGULAR DUES AND THE ONE-POINT-SEVEN BILLION IT OWES FOR PEACEKEEPING."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: FINALLY, ANOTHER COMMENT ON THE HISTORIC STRUGGLE OF MAN AGAINST MACHINE -- THE CHESS DUEL BETWEEN REIGNING WORLD GRAND MASTER BARRY KASPAROV AND A COMPUTER, CALLED DEEP BLUE. TODAY'S "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" OFFERS THIS THOUGHT:

    VOICE: "WORLD CHESS CHAMPION GARY KASPAROV REFERS TO HIS HIGH-TECH OPPONENT AS 'THIS MONSTROUS MACHINE.' THAT CHARACTERIZATION ADDS A TOUCH OF MEDIEVAL DRAMA TO THE MAN-VERSUS-MACHINE CONTEST THAT'S RIVETING MILLIONS OF CHESS ENTHUSIASTS ... BUT ... THE IBM COMPUTER ... IS ... AFTER ALL, [ONLY] AN EXTRAORDINARY SECOND COUSIN OF THE UNIT THAT SITS IN OUR OFFICES AND STUDIES. ONE OF DEEP BLUE'S BUILDERS ADMITTED NERVOUSNESS BECAUSE 'YOU NEVER KNOW IF THE COMPUTER IS EVEN GOING TO WORK.' [MR.] KASPAROV DOESN'T HAVE THAT WORRY, WHICH IS WHY THIS INFORMATION-AGE BATTLE OF TITANS MAY NOT GO DOWN AS ANOTHER INSTANCE OF HUMAN SKILL DISPLACING SKILLED HUMANS."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT OBSERVATION FROM THE "CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR", WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF REVIEW OF SOME OF TODAY'S EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN THE U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH

    15-Feb-96 10:59 AM EST (1559 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=U-S COLUMNISTS ROUNDUP: BOSNIA #17
    NUMBER=6-09432
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    (ED. NOTE: THIS IS ONE OF A CONTINUING SERIES ON DEVELOPMENTS IN BOSNIA AND REACTION APPEARING IN SELECTED AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COLUMNS)

    INTRO: AMERICAN TROOPS, ALONG WITH SOLDIERS FROM OTHER NATO COUNTRIES, ARE NOW IN BOSNIA HELPING TO IMPLEMENT AND ENFORCE THE PEACE AGREEMENT SIGNED BY THE WARRING PARTIES IN DAYTON, OHIO. NEWSPAPER COLUMNS IN AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS CONTINUE TO DISCUSS THE SITUATION IN THE REGION. HERE IS A SAMPLING OF SOME OF THEIR RECENT COMMENTS. OUR READER IS _______________.

    TEXT: DOUG BANDOW IS A SENIOR FELLOW AT THE CATO INSTITUTE, AND A NATIONALLY-SYNDICATED COLUMNIST. IN A COLUMN APPEARING IN THE WASHINGTON TIMES, MISTER BANDOW QUESTIONS WHY THE UNITED STATES IS EVEN INVOLVED. HE WRITES THAT: THE ONLY SERIOUS CASE FOR U.S. INTERVENTION WAS HUMANITARIAN. BUT WHY ONLY BOSNIA? THE KHMER ROUGE KILLED TWO-MILLION CAMBODIANS. ROUGHLY ONE AND A HALF MILLION HAVE PERISHED IN THE SUDAN IN INTERNAL STRIFE. THE DEATH TOLLS FOR ANGOLA AND RWANDA RANGE UPWARD OF 500-THOUSAND. PERHAPS 150-THOUSAND LIBERIANS DIED IN A BITTER THREE-SIDED CIVIL WAR. BURUNDI THREATENS TO EXPLODE. YET IN NONE OF THOSE NATIONS DID AMERICA DO ANYTHING OTHER THAN SEND MONEY. ONE NEED NOT BE A CYNIC," CONTINUES DOUG BANDOW, "TO QUESTION WASHINGTON'S WILLINGNESS TO RISK BATTLE ONLY WHEN THE LIVES OF WHITE EUROPEANS ARE AT STAKE. MOREOVER, THERE IS NOTHING HUMANITARIAN ABOUT SUPPOSED HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION. OFFICIALS IN WASHINGTON," ARGUES THE COLUMNIST, "WILL NOT DO THE DYING: YOUNG AMERICANS, LIKE SGT. 1ST CLASS DONALD DUGAN (KILLED IN BOSNIA), ... WILL. THIS UNFAIRNESS IS INEVITABLE WHEN U-S SECURITY MUST BE DEFENDED. BUT NO ONE HAS THE RIGHT TO 'DO GOOD' WITH OTHER PEOPLE'S LIVES. THE LACK OF CONSCRIPTION CHANGES NOTHING. TODAY'S SOLDIERS VOLUNTEERED TO DEFEND AMERICA, NOT GARRISON THE GLOBE."

    BUT, THE AUTHOR OF ANOTHER COLUMN SEES THE NEED FOR AN EXPANDED MISSION IN BOSNIA. DANIEL N. NELSON IS A PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AT OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY IN NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. ALSO, A NATO RESEARCH FELLOW, PROFESSOR NELSON WRITES IN THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR THAT TO MAKE PEACE IN A YEAR, IFOR - (THE NATO FORCE --PRON. EYE-FOUR) "MUST DO MORE." HE WRITES THAT "DESPITE CASUALTIES AMONG IFOR TROOPS, WAR FATIGUE HAS INDUCED A GRUDGING COOPERATION FROM ALL SIDES, ENABLING PRESIDENT CLINTON AND NATO LEADERS TO CLAIM SUCCESS. BUT IFOR IS ALREADY ADRIFT, WITH GROWING UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND LIMITS OF NATO TROOPS." COLUMNIST NELSON SAYS "THE 'BOTTOM LINE' OF THIS MASSIVE NATO UNDERTAKING IS BEING QUESTIONED: WHAT IS IFOR FOR?" AND, HE ARGUES: "UNDER THE TERMS OF THE ACCORD REACHED IN DAYTON, OHIO, IFOR IS TO ENFORCE A PEACE, IN THE WORDS OF ITS PRESS OFFICE, BY "GETTING FORCES AWAY FROM THE ZONES OF SEPARATION (AND BY) MOVING ARMIES BACK INTO BARRACKS. MILITARY ASPECTS OF IFOR'S DEPLOYMENT ARE NOT CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM, HOWEVER. EVEN WHERE UNIFORMED MILITARIES ARE SEPARATED AND DEMOBILIZED, INFRASTRUCTURE LIES SHATTERED. POLICE ARE NOWHERE TO BE FOUND, MAFIAS 'GOVERN' BY THEIR OWN RULES, WAR CRIMINALS ARE ON THE LOOSE WITH THEIR MILITIAS INTACT. ABSENT PROGRESS BY CARL BILDT'S MISSION TO RESUSCITATE CIVIL INSTITUTIONS, ONLY IFOR'S PRESENCE CAN LAY THE CORNERSTONE FOR A SEMBLANCE OF LASTING PEACE."

    THOSE ARE SOME OF THE COMMENTS OF DANIEL N. NELSON, A NATO RESEARCH FELLOW AND A PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AT OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY IN NORFOLK, VIRGINIA.

    AND, FINALLY, TRUDY RUBIN, WHOSE COLUMN APPEARS TWICE A WEEK IN THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, CAUTIONS THAT PEACE IS IMPERILED "FOR WANT OF FUNDS." SHE WRITES THAT: "HAVING ACHIEVED A NEAR MIRACLE IN ENDING THE FIGHTING IN BOSNIA, AMERICA AND ITS EUROPEAN ALLIES MAY STILL SNATCH DEFEAT FROM THE JAWS OF VICTORY IF THEY DON'T COUGH UP PROMISED FUNDS TO HELP RECONSTRUCT THE COUNTRY. THIS IS THE URGENT MESSAGE FROM TWO KEY PLAYERS IN THE BOSNIAN PEACE EFFORT -- THE MAN WHO NEGOTIATED THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD C. HOLBROOKE, AND GLOBAL FINANCIER GEORGE SOROS, WHO HAS GIVEN HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO TRY TO BUILD DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS IN RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE." MS. RUBIN NOTES THAT, "COMPARED TO NATO'S ROBUST MILITARY OPERATION IN BOSNIA, THE COMPANION CIVILIAN OPERATION CALLED FOR IN DAYTON IS DISORGANIZED, UNDERSTAFFED AND UNDERFUNDED. IT IS ALSO (UNFORTUNATELY) BEING RUN BY THE EUROPEANS, WHO HAVE BEEN SQUABBLING WITH WASHINGTON OVER WHO WILL BEAR THE COSTS."

    THOSE WORDS, WRITTEN BY TRUDY RUBIN OF THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER, CONCLUDE ANOTHER ROUND-UP OF U-S PRESS OPINION ON AMERICA'S ROLE IN BOSNIA.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    15-Feb-96 1:47 PM EST (1847 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BOSNIA / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192808
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL CIVILIAN MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA SAYS HE IS "VERY CONCERNED" BY THE DELAYS IN THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS. DAVID FOLEY REPORTS FROM SARAJEVO A MEETING OF THE PRESIDENTS OF BOSNIA, SERBIA, AND CROATIA WILL BE HELD IN ROME THIS WEEKEND TO TRY TO GET THE PEACE PROCESS BACK ON TRACK.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS SAY THE CRISIS IN BOSNIA IS BY FAR THE MOST SEVERE TEST OF THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT SINCE IT WAS SIGNED LAST DECEMBER. THE BOSNIAN SERBS ARE REFUSING TO ATTEND KEY MEETINGS IN AN ONGOING DISAGREEMENT ABOUT THE EXTRADITION OF TWO SUSPECTED SERB WAR CRIMINALS.

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE BOSNIAN SERB ARMY AND NATO HAVE ALSO BROKEN DOWN.

    THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, CARL BILDT, SAYS THE MEETING OF THE BOSNIAN, SERBIAN, AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS IN ROME THIS WEEKEND WILL BE CRUCIAL TO PUTTING THE DAYTON PEACE PROCESS BACK ON TRACK.

    // ACT BILDT //

    THE ROME MEETINGS WILL AIM AT REAFFIRMING THE DAYTON PROCESS. LOOKING AT COMPLIANCE AND NON-COMPLIANCE AS WE SEE IT, THE NON-ATTENDANCE BY THE BOSNIAN SERB SIDE IS OF COURSE AN OBVIOUS SOURCE OF CONCERN THAT MUST BE SORTED OUT ONCE AND FOR ALL IN ROME.

    // END ACT //

    MR. BILDT SAYS FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND THE LONG OVERDUE RELEASE OF ALL PRISONERS OF WAR WILL ALSO BE HIGH ON THE AGENDA. HE WAS CRITICIZED THE BOYCOTT OF TALKS BY BOSNIAN SERBS LEADERS, AND HE SAID THEY WERE TRYING TO BEND THE DAYTON AGREEMENT TO SUIT THEM.

    // ACT BILDT //

    IF THEY WANT TO BE AN OUTCAST, THAT IS NOT IN THE INTERESTS OF THEIR CITIZENS. THEIR CITIZENS WANTS PEACE AS WELL, THEY WANT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AND THAT COMES THROUGH COOPERATION.

    // END ACT //

    THE COMMENTS CAME ON THE SAME DAY MR. BILDT'S DEPUTY MICHAEL STEINER UNVEILED A NEW PLAN TO GRADUALLY SHIFT CONTROL OF SERB-HELD AREAS OF SARAJEVO TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT. HE SAID UNDER THE PLAN, GOVERNMENT POLICE WOULD SOON MOVE INTO THE SERB AREAS, NEIGHBORHOOD BY NEIGHBORHOOD.

    MR. STEINER INSISTED THE NEW PLAN WOULD PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF FRIGHTENED SERB CIVILIANS. BUT HE SAID IT WAS NOT AGREED IN ADVANCE WITH THE SERB AUTHORITIES.

    // ACT STEINER //

    WE ARE NOT IN A NEGOTIATING PHASE ANY MORE. WE HAVE THE PEACE AGREEMENT. NEGOTIATIONS ARE OVER.

    // END ACT //

    DESPITE THE BEST EFFORTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR, ONLY A FEW SERBS ARE LIKELY TO CHOOSE TO REMAIN BEHIND. ECONOMIC LEVERS ARE AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE NEW PLAN, AND OFFICIALS SAY LARGE AMOUNTS OF RECONSTRUCTION WORK WILL START IN THE SERB AREAS AT THE SAME TIME THE BOSNIAN POLICE ARRIVE, IN AN EFFORT TO GIVE PEOPLE A REASON TO STAY.

    // OPT //

    MR. BILDT IS CALLING ON DONOR COUNTRIES TO SPEED PROMISED FUNDS, AND HE SAYS THERE IS SERIOUS RISK OF SHORTFALL IN RECONSTRUCTION MONEY.

    // OPT ACT BILDT //

    WE NEED TO SEND A SIGNAL BEFORE THE ELECTIONS THAT PEACE BRINGS BENEFITS TO EACH AND EVERYONE. THAT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT, I THINK, TO THE CLIMATE IN THE ELECTIONS, AND THE ELECTIONS, OF COURSE, ARE CRUCIAL TO SETTING UP OF THE JOINT INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE GOING TO BRING THE COUNTRY GRADUALLY BACK TO TOGETHER AGAIN.

    // END ACT //

    // OPT //

    SO FAR, THERE IS LITTLE EVIDENCE OF ANY TOGETHERNESS, BUT ONCE SERB-HELD SARAJEVO IS FULLY RETURNED TO GOVERNMENT CONTROL IN MID-MARCH, THERE IS EXPECTED TO BE FEWER INCENTIVES FOR THE SERBS TO STALL OR BLOCK THE PEACE PROCESS. OFFICIALS SAY THEY HOPE EVERYBODY WILL BE SAYING THE RIGHT THINGS AT THE ROME SUMMIT, BUT THEY WARN THE TEST WILL BE IF THOSE STATEMENTS ARE TURNED INTO ACTION. // END OPT // (SIGNED)

    NEB/DF/JWH/CF
    15-Feb-96 2:24 PM EST (1924 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BOSNIA CONFERENCE BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32458
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A CONFERENCE WILL BE HELD IN ROME THIS WEEKEND TO TRY TO OVERCOME PROBLEMS FACING IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PEACE AGREEMENT FOR BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. MILITARY ASPECTS OF THE AGREEMENT HAVE BEEN IMPLEMENTED FAIRLY SMOOTHLY, BUT AS V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS, ATTEMPTS TO CARRY OUT CIVIL ASPECTS OF THE ACCORD HAVE BOGGED DOWN.

    TEXT: THE USUAL ACTORS IN THE LONG-RUNNING BOSNIAN DRAMA -- THE SERBIAN, BOSNIAN AND CROATIAN PRESIDENTS -- WILL BE ON STAGE IN ROME FOR AN UNUSUALLY IMPORTANT PERFORMANCE, DIRECTED BY THE UNITED STATES, THE EUROPEAN UNION, AND RUSSIA.

    WHETHER THE ACTORS GET GOOD REVIEWS WILL DEPEND ON WHETHER THEY CONVINCE EVERYONE THEY ARE REALLY SERIOUS ABOUT IMPLEMENTING THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    AN AMERICAN OBJECTIVE IN ROME IS TO HAVE THE LEADERS OF THE FORMER WARRING FORCES CLEARLY AND PUBLICLY DECLARE YET AGAIN THAT THEY WILL FULFILL THE PROVISIONS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT THEY SIGNED LAST DECEMBER.

    THAT OBJECTIVE SHOULD BE EASY TO ACHIEVE. SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, BOSNIAN PRESIDENT ALIJA IZETBEGOVIC AND THE CROATIAN PRESIDENT, FRANJO TUDJMAN, ARE ALL FOR PEACE. AT LEAST, THEY HAVE SAID SO MANY TIMES, AND THEY WILL CERTAINLY SAY IT AGAIN.

    ON THE MILITARY SIDE, THE FORMER WARRING FORCES IN BOSNIA HAVE GENERALLY DONE WHAT THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO UNDER THE WATCHFUL EYE OF THE HEAVILY-ARMED NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE. THE REAL PROBLEM IS STILL TO TRANSLATE RHETORIC INTO REALITY CONCERNING MORE MUNDANE BUT CRUCIAL CIVIL ASPECTS OF THE PEACE ACCORD.

    AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN THREATS TO WITHHOLD VITAL POST-WAR AID IF THE PEACE TREATY IS NOT FULLY IMPLEMENTED ARE NOT HAVING THE DESIRED EFFECT.

    THE QUESTION IS WHAT KIND OF PRESSURE WILL ENCOURAGE OR COMPEL THE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS, SERBS, AND CROATS TO SWAP TERRITORY THEY MUST GIVE UP, SURRENDER ALLEGED WAR CRIMINALS, FREE THEIR REMAINING WAR PRISONERS, AND PLAN FREE, POST-WAR ELECTIONS?

    THIS IS WHAT AMERICAN PEACE ENVOY RICHARD HOLBROOKE, THE MAIN ARCHITECT OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT, AND HIS COLLEAGUES WILL HAVE TO DECIDE. IT WILL BE MR. HOLBROOKE'S LAST APPEARANCE IN THE BOSNIAN DRAMA BEFORE HE RETURNS TO A LUCRATIVE INVESTMENT JOB ON WALL STREET. HE AND SENIOR EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIAN OFFICIALS HAVE TO FIND WAYS TO RESOLVE TWO IMMEDIATE ISSUES.

    ONE IS A DISPUTE ABOUT THE HANDLING OF SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. THE OTHER IS THE BOSNIAN CROATS' REFUSAL TO ACCEPT THE E-U PLAN TO REUNIFY THE CROAT AND MUSLIM SECTORS OF THE TOWN OF MOSTAR.

    THE DETENTION AND EXTRADITION OF TWO SERB OFFICERS TO THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE HAS PROMPTED THE SERBS TO BREAK OFF CONTACTS WITH NATO AND TO BOYCOTT TALKS WITH THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION.

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT WAR CRIMINALS IN BOSNIA HAS TROUBLED THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY FOR YEARS. UNTIL VERY RECENTLY, THE INTERNATIONAL APPROACH HAS BEEN TO PURSUE A POLICY OF BENIGN NEGLECT.

    THE BOSNIAN SERB POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADERS ARE INDICTED WAR CRIMINALS. BUT, THEIR COOPERATION IS VITAL IF THE SERBS ARE TO IMPLEMENT THE PEACE AGREEMENT.

    SERBIA AND CROATIA HAVE SHOWN LITTLE INTEREST IN HANDING OVER SUSPECTED WAR CRIMINALS. BUT, CROATIA MAY FINALLY BE PREPARING TO TAKE LEGAL STEPS THAT WOULD PERMIT THEIR EXTRADITION.

    CROATIAN PRESIDENT TUDJMAN HOLDS THE KEY TO RESOLVING THE DISPUTE ABOUT MOSTAR WHICH THREATENS THE SURVIVAL OF THE MUSLIM / CROAT FEDERATION.

    AS ONE OF THE TWO ENTITIES WITHIN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, THE FEDERATION MUST NOT ONLY SURVIVE BUT FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY IF THERE IS TO BE GENUINE PEACE IN BOSNIA. BUT, PRESIDENT TUDJMAN, APPARENTLY, LIKES THE E-U REUNIFICATION PLAN FOR MOSTAR NO MORE THAN THE BOSNIAN CROATS DO. HE AND THE CROATS WANT A COMPROMISE, BUT THE EUROPEAN UNION RULES THAT OUT. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/CF
    15-Feb-96 9:38 AM EST (1438 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] BOSNIA DIPLOMACY (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192813
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES MEDIATOR AMONG THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS SAYS THE FACT THAT THE BOSNIAN, CROATIAN AND SERBIAN PRESIDENTS HAVE AGREED TO ATTEND A SUMMIT IN ROME THIS WEEKEND SHOWS THAT THE PEACE PROCESS IS STILL ALIVE. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: U-S ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE RICHARD HOLBROOKE, WHO BROKERED THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT LAST YEAR, SAID IN PARIS THAT, DESPITE THE NEW TENSIONS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, HE EXPECTS THE ROME CONFERENCE THIS WEEKEND TO REAFFIRM THE DAYTON AGREEMENTS.

    HE ALSO WARNED THAT THE BOSNIAN SERBS MUST CO-OPERATE WITH PEACEKEEPING FORCES.

    MR. HOLBROOKE, BRIEFING AMERICAN NEWS ORGANIZATIONS, SAID THE PARTIES TO THE DAYTON ACCORDS HAD ORIGINALLY BEEN EXPECTED TO MEET SOME TIME NEXT MONTH. BUT U-S SECRETARY OF STATE WARREN CHRISTOPHER DECIDED TO ADVANCE THE MEETING AS THE SITUATION HAS GROWN MORE TENSE.

    IN PARTICULAR, THE ARREST AND TRANSFER TO THE HAGUE OF A BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL AND COLONEL FOR INVESTIGATIONS INTO WAR CRIMES HAS MADE THE SITUATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA MORE VOLATILE.

    MR. HOLBROOKE SAID HE EXPECTS THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO BE REPRESENTED AT THE 24-HOUR ROME CONFERENCE THAT OPENS ON SATURDAY. HE SAID THAT IF GENERAL RATKO MLADIC MAINTAINED HIS STANCE OF NOT CO-OPERATING WITH THE NATO-LED PEACEKEEPING FORCES IN THE REPUBLIC, THE CONSEQUENCES COULD BE SERIOUS.

    IN MR. HOLBROOKE'S WORDS, PEOPLE WHO HAVE TESTED NATO'S RESOLVE IN THE PAST HAVE FOUND THAT "THAT RESOLVE IS VERY REAL." LAST AUGUST, NATO STARTED THE BOMBING RAIDS ON BOSNIAN SERB ARTILLERY AROUND SARAJEVO THAT ARE CREDITED WITH BRINGING THE BOSNIAN SERBS TO THE PEACE TALKS. BUT, MR. HOLBROOKE SAID, IT WILL BE UP TO THE MILITARY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO DETERMINE IF GENERAL MLADIC IS OVERSTEPPING THE MARK. MR. HOLBROOKE SAID THE INTERNATIONAL OPERATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVIA IS CREATING HISTORY. HE SAID THAT MUCH OF THE WORK DONE THERE HAS ABSOLUTELY NO PRECEDENT IN HISTORY.

    THE AMERICAN ENVOY SAID THE DAYTON ACCORDS HAD TO SUCCEED. OTHERWISE, THE CONSEQUENCES WOULD BE INCALCULABLE. BUT, HE ADDED, THE FACT THAT THE LEADERS OF THE WARRING YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS HAVE ALL AGREED TO ATTEND THE ROME MEETING SHOWS THAT ALL THREE ARE STILL COMMITTED TO THE PEACE PROCESS. (SIGNED).

    NEB/JN/CF
    15-Feb-96 3:03 PM EST (2003 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] BOSNIA SITREP (S ONLY) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192797
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A SENIOR INTERNATIONAL OFFICIAL INVOLVED IN IMPLEMENTING THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT IS WARNING SERB LEADERS THEIR BOYCOTT OF TALKS WITH THE MUSLIMS AND CROATS WILL ONLY HURT THE SERB PEOPLE. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT, WAYNE COREY, REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE WESTERN OFFICIAL, MICHAEL STEINER OF GERMANY, SAYS THE SERB BOYCOTT WILL NOT STOP THE PLANNED TRANSFER OF SERB-HELD SARAJEVO SUBURBS TO THE MUSLIM/CROAT FEDERATION.

    MR. STEINER SAYS SARAJEVO WILL BE REUNITED UNDER FEDERATION CONTROL BY THE MARCH 19TH DEADLINE -- WITH OR WITHOUT THE PARTICIPATION OF SERB LEADERS IN THE HANDOVER ARRANGEMENTS.

    IF SERB LEADERS CONTINUE TO REFUSE TO DISCUSS THE TRANSFER, HE WARNS THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO REPRESENT THE INTERESTS OF NERVOUS SARAJEVO SERBS.

    TO ENCOURAGE SERB CIVILIANS TO REMAIN WHERE THEY LIVE NOW, MR. STEINER SAYS SERB POLICEMEN WILL BE INCLUDED IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT POLICE FORCE IN THE REUNITED SARAJEVO.

    THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADERSHIP IS AVOIDING CONTACTS WITH THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION TO PROTEST THE DETENTION AND EXTRADITION OF TWO SERB ARMY OFFICERS TO THE HAGUE.

    THE OFFICERS ARE BEING INVESTIGATED BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL FOR WAR CRIMES THEY MAY HAVE ORGANIZED, COMMITTED, OR WITNESSED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/JM
    15-Feb-96 11:56 AM EST (1656 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-S/BOSNIA TROOPS (S) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=2/15/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-192825
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S FORCES IN BOSNIA ARE BEING GIVEN MORE SPECIFIC GUIDELINES FOR ACTION IN CASE THEY ENCOUNTER ANY OF THE MORE THAN FIFTY PEOPLE UNDER INDICTMENT BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL. THE TWO-MONTH-LONG PROCESS OF MOVING U-S TROOPS INTO THE COUNTRY HAS BEEN COMPLETED. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT SAYS U-S TROOPS WILL USE FORCE IF NECESSARY TO DETAIN WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS. OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN WORKING TO DEFINE POLICY ON THE ISSUE SINCE LAST WEEK, WHEN BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC, WHO IS AMONG THOSE INDICTED, REPORTEDLY PASSED THROUGH NATO CHECKPOINTS ON A TRIP FROM PALE TO BANJA LUKA.

    WHILE U-S TROOPS ARE NOT CONDUCTING MANHUNTS, THEY ARE BEING GIVEN BETTER PICTURES AND INFORMATION TO HELP IDENTIFY THOSE INDICTED IF THEY ARE ENCOUNTERED IN THE COURSE OF NORMAL DUTIES. AND PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS THEY WILL DO WHATEVER PROVES NECESSARY TO MAKE AN ARREST:

    ///BACON ACTUALLY///

    THE RULES OF ENGAGEMENT ALLOW FOR THE USE AN APPROPRIATE AMOUNT OF FORCE TO PERFORM I-FOR'S (INTERNATIONAL FORCE) JOB AND TO PROTECT THE I-FOR FORCES IN THE COURSE OF PERFORMING ITS JOB. SO THEY CAN USE THE FORCE THAT'S NECESSARY AND APPROPRIATE TO APPREHEND THE WAR CRIMINALS.

    ///END ACT///

    THE PENTAGON ANNOUNCED LATE THURSDAY THAT THE U-S DEPLOYMENT TO BOSNIA IS NOW COMPLETE WITH SEVENTEEN-THOUSAND-685 TROOPS IN THE COUNTRY -- ABOUT TWO THOUSAND FEWER THAN EXPECTED WHEN THE OPERATION BEGAN IN LATE DECEMBER. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/PT
    15-Feb-96 6:17 PM EST (2317 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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