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Voice of America, 1 April 1996

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>

Voice of America Directory

CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA SITREP (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [03] CROATIA / WAR CRIMES BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

  • [04] E-U BEEF (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (LUXEMBOURG)

  • [05] MAD COWS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

  • [06] PERRY / BALKANS / DEFENSE (L UPDATE-CORRECTION) BY DAVID GOLLUST (TIRANA)

  • [07] ROMANIA / ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)


  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/01/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09505
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY, APRIL FIRST //

    INTRO: AMERICAN PRESIDENTS WILL SOON HAVE A NEW WAY TO CUT SPENDING. THE SO-CALLED LINE-ITEM VETO IS DISCUSSED TODAY IN A NUMBER OF AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE PASSAGE BY THE U-S CONGRESS OF A NEW FARM BILL, AND COMMENT ON A MAJOR PROBLEM FOR THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY. NOW, HERE IS ________________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE LINE-ITEM VETO, WHICH BECOMES LAW EARLY NEXT YEAR, ALLOWS THE PRESIDENT TO SELECTIVELY DECIDE WHICH PARTS OF LEGISLATION TO APPROVE AND WHICH TO VETO. IN THE PAST THE ONLY OPTION WAS TO EITHER ACCEPT OR REJECT THE WHOLE BILL. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL ASKS: "WHO SAYS THE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM DOESN'T WORK? CONGRESS FINALLY GAVE THE PRESIDENT A LINE-ITEM VETO LAST WEEK, ONLY 12 YEARS AFTER RONALD REAGAN FIRST ASKED FOR IT."

    VOICE: "PASSING THE ITEM VETO NOW IS RONALD REAGAN'S REVENGE ON THE LIBERALS WHO THWARTED HIM ON SPENDING DURING THE 1980S. THEIR PROFLIGACY BROUGHT THE PUBLIC VIEW OF CONGRESS SO LOW THAT ITS NEW MEMBERS NOW FEEL OBLIGED TO HAND SOME OF THEIR OWN POWER TO THE EXECUTIVE.... (OPT) TWELVE YEARS SEEM LIKE A LONG TIME FROM PROPOSAL TO PASSAGE, BUT IN THE DIFFICULT AMERICAN SYSTEM IT OFTEN TAKES THAT LONG TO BREAK THE BACK OF BUSINESS AS USUAL." (END OPT)

    TEXT: IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL MONDAY, THE BALTIMORE SUN SAYS THAT THE LINE- ITEM VETO GIVES PRESIDENTS NEW AUTHORITY TO CUT SPENDING AND IS A DIRECT RESPONSE TO PUBLIC DEMAND.

    VOICE: "FOR YEARS, STARTING WITH THE NEW DEAL, AMERICANS FAVORED HIGHER SPENDING FOR POPULAR PROGRAMS THEY ASSOCIATED WITH A BENIGN GOVERNMENT. BUT AFTER PRESIDENT REAGAN TOOK OFFICE, PROCLAIMING GOVERNMENT IS THE ENEMY, A SEA CHANGE BEGAN. MR. REAGAN TRIPLED THE NATIONAL DEBT BY CUTTING TAXES WITHOUT REINING IN APPROPRIATIONS. AND AS FEDERAL INTEREST COSTS SKYROCKETED, THE PUBLIC LEARNED TO HATE DEFICITS AND LOVE THE IDEA OF A BALANCED BUDGET. THE RESULT? PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS BEEN WILLING TO DEFY HIS OWN PARTY...TO GET BEHIND A LINE-ITEM VETO PLAN HE WORKED OUT WITH SENATE MAJORITY LEADER BOB DOLE. WITH A LINE ITEM VETO IN PLACE, FUTURE PRESIDENTS WILL HAVE NO EXCUSES. FOR THE FIRST TIME, THEY WILL HAVE AUTHORITY TO ENFORCE SPENDING CUTS AND ELIMINATE REVENUE-LOSING TAX BREAKS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: WILLIAM RASPBERRY, A COLUMNIST FOR THE WASHINGTON POST, TELLS READERS THAT "THE LINE-ITEM VETO, USED WISELY, MIGHT LEAD TOWARD A SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTION IN THE FEDERAL DEBT. BUT," CONTINUES MR. RASPBERRY, "THAT ISN'T THE ONLY POSSIBILITY."

    VOICE: "PICTURE A PRESIDENT WHO OPPOSES NOT JUST THE FRILLS OF A FEW BUT THE WILL OF THE MAJORITY OF THE LEGISLATORS. PERHAPS HE IS LOOKING AT A VITAL PIECE OF HEALTH-CARE LEGISLATION OR A BILL TO SUPPLEMENT STATE SPENDING ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS. NOW IMAGINE HIM GOING THROUGH THE BILLS, STRIKING ONE LINE BECAUSE IT REFERS TO FUNDS THAT MIGHT BE USED FOR ABORTIONS FOR LOW-INCOME WOMEN, ELIMINATING ANOTHER TO PREVENT FUNDING FOR THE TEACHING OF EVOLUTION, OR KNOCKING OUT A THIRD SO AS TO LIMIT OUTLAYS FOR BILINGUAL EDUCATION. NOW, MAYBE NONE OF THOSE ITEMS (ALL DELIBERATELY INCLUDED IN THE LEGISLATION) COULD SURVIVE THE FIRE THEY WOULD ATTRACT AS SEPARATE BILLS. VIEW IT THAT WAY, AND YOUR FEELINGS ABOUT THE LINE-ITEM VETO MAY DEPEND ON YOUR FEELINGS ABOUT THE LINES THAT ARE VETOED."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE COMMENTS ON A VISIT TO THE WHITE HOUSE, LAST FRIDAY, BY PRESIDENT SULEYMAN DEMIREL OF TURKEY.

    VOICE: "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WASHINGTON AND ANKARA RESEMBLES THE HUB OF A STRATEGIC WHEEL. ONE OF THE SPOKES GOES TO THE INTERNAL STABILITY OF NATO, SINCE THE PRINCIPAL SECURITY OBSESSION OF TURKISH LEADERS CONTINUES TO BE THEIR CEASELESS CONFLICT WITH GREECE... MISSING FROM THE PRESIDENTS' AGENDA FRIDAY WAS AGREEMENT ON A SALE TO TURKEY OF 10 U-S SUPER COBRA ATTACK HELICOPTERS MANUFACTURED BY BELL TETRON... AMERICA'S BROADEST INTERESTS CAN BE SERVED BY PREVENTING AN ARMS RACE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE AEGEAN. THIS MEANS PREVENTING DEFENSE CONTRACTORS FROM SHAPING POLICY AND ACTIVELY SHEPHERDING ATHENS AND ANKARA TOWARD A DIPLOMATIC RESOLUTION OF THEIR DISPUTES."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES EDITORIALIZES THAT "THE SEEMINGLY INVINCIBLE TOBACCO INDUSTRY THAT HAS BRUSHED OFF ATTACKS BY EVERYONE FROM SURGEONS GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES TO INDIVIDUAL LUNG CANCER VICTIMS IS SUDDENLY CROUCHING FOR COVER." THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT THE COMPANIES HAVE "BEEN BATTERED BY LAWSUITS FROM A SLEW OF STATE GOVERNMENTS, FIVE FEDERAL GRAND JURY INVESTIGATIONS, NEW REVELATIONS BY WHISTLE-BLOWERS ABOUT INTERNAL CORPORATE DECEIT, A NERVOUS STOCK MARKET AND THE SURPRISE DEFECTION OF ONE OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY'S OWN MEMBER COMPANIES."

    VOICE: "UNTIL THE PAST YEAR OR SO, VIRTUALLY EVERYONE NOT WORKING IN THE INDUSTRY THOUGHT OF NICOTINE AS A NATURAL, IMMUTABLE PART OF THE TOBACCO PLANT. ONCE THE PUBLIC -- AND PROSPECTIVE JURORS -- GRASP THE FACT THAT NICOTINE LEVELS IN CIGARETTES CAN BE PUSHED UP OR DOWN SO THAT THEY PRODUCE THE MOST 'SATISFACTION', THE INDUSTRY'S STRING OF SUCCESSES IN THE COURTROOM MAY COME TO AN END. WHERE JURORS ONCE SAW SICK LITIGANTS AS RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR OWN FATES, THEY MAY NOW SEE THEM AS HAPLESS VICTIMS OF AN INDUSTRY THAT SET OUT CYNICALLY TO ENSNARE THEM."

    TEXT: LAST WEEK, THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS PASSED A FAR-REACHNG FARM BILL. ACCORDING TO THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, THE ACTION "PROVED THAT WORTHWHILE LEGISLATION CAN EMERGE IN AN ELECTION YEAR AMID ENDLESS BUDGET WRESTLINGS."

    VOICE: "THE '96 ACT MARKS A TURNING POINT IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FARMERS AND GOVERNMENT. IT VEERS AWAY FROM THE PRICE-SUPPORT SYSTEM PUT IN PLACE DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION, WHEN A THIRD OF AMERICANS DEPENDED ON FARM INCOME AND WHEN INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS WAS MINIMAL. FARMERS WHO SIGNED ON WITH THE OLD PROGRAM HAD TO PLANT WHAT, AND HOW MUCH, GOVERNMENT PLANNERS REQUIRED. WHAT THEY LOST IN FREEDOM, HOWEVER, THEY GAINED IN STABILIZED INCOME. MANY OF TODAY'S BUSINESS-ORIENTED, TECHNICALLY SOPHISTICATED FARMERS CHAFED UNDER THAT SYSTEM. OTHER, OFTEN SMALLER OPERATORS PINNED THEIR LIVELIHOODS TO IT, AND THE BATTLE TO CONTINUE SUBSIDIES COULD REVIVE. PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS PROMISED TO PUSH FOR A STRONGER 'SAFETY NET' NEXT YEAR IF HE'S REELECTED."

    TEXT: ON THE SAME SUBJECT, THE WASHINGTON TIMES HAS THIS TO SAY ABOUT THE FARM BILL.

    VOICE: "NOW, ACCORDING TO THE SO-CALLED FREEDOM TO FARM ACT, FARMERS CAN PLANT WHICHEVER EX-SUBSIDY CROPS THEY CHOOSE AND HOWEVER MANY ACRES THEY WANT. PRICE AND SUPPLY DECISIONS FOR THESE COMMODITIES WILL NOW BE MADE IN THE FREE MARKET. IN PLACE OF PRICE-BASED SUBSIDIES, THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND FARMERS WILL SIGN CONTRACTS SPECIFYING FIXED, BARELY DECLINING ANNUAL PAYMENTS OVER A SEVEN-YEAR 'TRANSITION' PERIOD. WITH HIGH MARKET PRICES FOR MANY EX-SUBSIDY CROPS CURRENTLY PREVAILING, THESE 'TRANSITION PAYMENTS' WILL OCCUR, AT LEAST INITIALLY, AT A TIME WHEN FARM INCOME WOULD BE SUBSTANTIAL EVEN WITHOUT THEM."

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT WILL HEAR AN APPEAL THAT SEEKS TO MAKE ENGLISH THE SOLE LANGUAGE FOR "ALL GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS AND ACTIONS" IN THE UNITED STATES. ACCORDING TO AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES, "THIS IS AN ARIZONA CASE OF LITTLE IMPORTANCE, BUT SYMBOLICALLY IT REFLECTS A DISTURBING TREND TOWARD XENOPHOBIA IN THE STATES OF THE SOUTHWEST."

    VOICE: "THE ISSUE AROSE IN NOVEMBER 1988 WHEN ARIZONA'S VOTERS APPROVED A MEASURE STATING THAT ALL BUSINESS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND GOVERNMENT OFFICES MUST BE CONDUCTED IN ENGLISH... BEYOND THE DECISION BY THE SUPREME COURT, WHATEVER THAT MAY BE, THE CASE RAISES SOME COMMON-SENSE QUESTIONS LIKE: WHY WOULD ANYONE WANT TO PUNISH INSTEAD OF REWARD SOMEONE WHO CAN SERVE THE PUBLIC IN TWO LANGUAGES? WHY WOULD ANY PUBLIC SERVANT, OR PRIVATE CITIZEN FOR THAT MATTER, REFUSE TO DO BUSINESS WITH SOMEONE WHO SPEAKS ANOTHER LANGUAGE? WHO ARE THESE LANGUAGE VIGILANTES WHO DESIGNATE THEMSELVES PUBLIC DEFENDERS OF LIMITATIONS? AMERICA WAS NOT BUILT, NOR CAN IT ADVOCATE, ON INSECURITIES LIKE THIS."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SCANNING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN TODAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    01-Apr-96 10:55 AM EST (1555 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [02] BOSNIA SITREP (L UPDATE) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195153
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    // EDS: NEW INFO IN 5TH, 5TH GRAFS OF TEXT //

    INTRO: A BOSNIAN CROAT, INDICTED FOR WAR CRIMES, HAS DECLARED HIS INNOCENCE AND IS PREPARING TO FACE TRIAL IN THE HAGUE. AT THE SAME TIME, INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATORS HAVE ARRIVED IN THE BOSNIAN TOWN OF TUZLA TO GATHER MORE EVIDENCE OF THE SERB MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS FROM THE ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA. V-O-A'S CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS.

    TEXT: BOSNIAN CROAT GENERAL TIHOMIR BLASKIC FLEW FROM ZAGREB TO THE HAGUE, SAYING HE IS INNOCENT OF WAR CRIMES.

    THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL INDICTED THE FORMER BOSNIAN CROAT MILITARY COMMANDER IN CONNECTION WITH THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF MUSLIMS IN THE LASVA VALLEY IN CENTRAL BOSNIA IN 1992 AND 1993.

    A DEFENSE LAWYER SAYS GENERAL BLASKIC WILL FORMALLY PLEAD INNOCENT TO THE WAR CRIMES CHARGES WHEN HIS TRIAL BEGINS. THE LAWYER SAYS HE BELIEVES THE GENERAL WILL _NOT_ BE CONVICTED.

    GENERAL BLASKIC WILL BE THE FIRST BOSNIAN CROAT TO APPEAR BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, A TEAM OF INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATORS HAS ARRIVED IN THE NORTHEASTERN TOWN OF TUZLA.

    THE TEAM INTENDS TO INTERVIEW SURVIVORS, VISIT SUSPECTED MASS GRAVES AND GATHER OTHER EVIDENCE LINKED TO THE MASSACRE OF MUSLIMS AFTER THE SERBS CAPTURED THE ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA IN EASTERN BOSNIA. MEANWHILE, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAS BECOME THE WORLD BANK'S NEWEST MEMBER. THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT SIGNED AGREEMENTS IN SARAJEVO TO RECEIVE WORLD BANK LOANS FOR BOSNIA'S POST WAR ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION.

    WORLD BANK DIRECTOR JAMES WOLFENSOHN SAYS BOSNIA'S MEMBERSHIP IN THE INSTITUTION IS _NOT_ JUST AN ECONOMIC MATTER. HE SAYS IT IS SOMETHING THAT SHOULD MAKE LIFE BETTER FOR PEOPLE AND SHOULD ALSO IMPROVE THE PROSPECTS FOR REAL PEACE IN BOSNIA.

    THE LOANS BEING EXTENDED TO THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT ARE WORTH ABOUT 270-MILLION DOLLARS. THE LOANS WILL PAY FOR THE REBUILDING OF ROADS, BRIDGES AND AIRPORTS, FOR RENEWED AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND FOR THE REPAIR OF WATER SANITATION SYSTEMS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/ART
    01-Apr-96 12:40 PM EST (1740 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [03] CROATIA / WAR CRIMES BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/1/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-32883
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE HAS GAINED CUSTODY OF THREE NEW SUSPECTS OVER THE PAST 24 HOURS. ON SUNDAY, THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT HANDED OVER TWO MEN REPORTEDLY INVOLVED IN LAST SUMMER'S MASSACRES IN THE BOSNIAN MUSLIM ENCLAVE OF SREBRENICA. AND ON MONDAY, AT THE URGING OF THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT, A TOP BOSNIAN CROAT MILITARY COMMANDER FLEW FROM ZAGREB TO THE HAGUE TO GIVE HIMSELF UP TO OFFICIALS OF THE TRIBUNAL. V-O-A'S DOUGLAS ROBERTS REPORTS THAT COMMANDER, GENERAL TIHOMIR BLASKIC, IS ONE OF SEVEN BOSNIAN CROATS CHARGED IN CONNECTION WITH MASSACRES AND ETHNIC CLEANSING DURING THE MUSLIM-CROAT WAR OF 1993 AND 94.

    TEXT: GENERAL BLASKIC WAS CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE BOSNIAN CROAT MILITIA. PROSECUTORS IN THE HAGUE SAY HE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR A WAVE OF ATTACKS ON MUSLIM VILLAGES IN THE LASVA RIVER VALLEY OF CENTRAL BOSNIA IN THE SUMMER OF 1993.

    HE WAS FORMALLY INDICTED BY THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL LAST NOVEMBER. BUT JUST 24 HOURS LATER, CROATIA'S PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN PROMOTED THE GENERAL, GIVING HIM A SENIOR POST IN THE CROATIAN ARMED FORCES.

    THAT MOVED PROMPTED A STORM OF INTERNATIONAL PROTEST, AND WARNINGS TO ZAGREB THAT ITS BUDDING TIES WITH THE WEST WOULD SUFFER UNLESS IT COOPERATED WITH THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL.

    IN FEBRUARY, THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT PROPOSED A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT THAT WOULD MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO EXTRADITE CROATIAN CITIZENS INDICTED BY THE TRIBUNAL. GENERAL BLASKIC AND THE OTHER CROAT SUSPECTS ARE BOSNIANS, BUT THEY CARRY CROATIAN PASSPORTS.

    BUT THE PROPOSED AMENDMENT FACES STIFF OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENT FROM RIGHT-WING MEMBERS OF THE RULING CROATIAN DEMOCRATIC UNION. AND SOME ZAGREB ANALYSTS SAY IT IS BY _NO_ MEANS CERTAIN THAT IT WILL BE APPROVED.

    GENERAL BLASKIC AGREED TO SURRENDER VOLUNTARILY TO THE TRIBUNAL AFTER ZAGREB CAME UNDER RENEWED PRESSURE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER MEMBERS OF THE BIG POWER CONTACT GROUP.

    BUT CROATIAN OFFICIALS INSIST THE GENERAL IS _NOT_ A WAR CRIMINAL. ZAGREB'S COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (SLOBODAN LANG) WROTE IN A RECENT NEWSPAPER ARTICLE THAT HE WOULD BE PROUD TO WALK THE STREETS WITH GENERAL BLASKIC, ADDING THAT HE IS GUILTY OF NOTHING MORE THAN HELPING TO ORGANIZE THE DEFENSE OF THE CROAT PEOPLE.

    GENERAL BLASKIC'S LAWYER HAS SAID HE IS CERTAIN THE GENERAL WILL BE ACQUITTED, ADDING THAT HE HAS DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE TO PROVE HIS INNOCENCE.

    INDEPENDENT CROATIAN ANALYSTS AGREE THAT THE CASE AGAINST GENERAL BLASKIC APPEARS WEAK, AND THEY SUGGEST THAT IS WHY THE ZAGREB GOVERNMENT AGREED TO HAND HIM OVER.

    THESE SAME ANALYSTS SAY THERE IS COMPELLING EVIDENCE AGAINST SOME OF THE OTHER CROATS INDICTED BY THE TRIBUNAL.

    THESE INCLUDE DARIO CORDIC, FORMER HEAD OF THE CROAT POLITICAL PARTY IN BOSNIA, AS WELL AS POLICE, MILITIA, AND POLITICAL LEADERS FROM THE TOWNS OF VITEZ, MOSTAR, AND KISELJAK.

    CROATIAN OFFICIALS MAINTAIN THAT ALL ARE IN BOSNIA, AND THUS OUTSIDE ZAGREB'S JURISDICTION. BUT INFORMED SOURCES SAY MR. CORDIC SPENDS MOST OF HIS TIME IN AN APARTMENT SUPPLIED BY THE DEFENSE MINISTRY IN THE CROATIAN CAPITAL. AND THEY SAY MOST OF THE OTHERS ARE NOW UNDER GUARD AT CROATIAN ARMY FACILITIES ON THE ADRIATIC COAST.

    SOME ZAGREB ANALYSTS BELIEVE THIS MAY INDICATE THAT ALL WILL SOON BE HANDED OVER TO THE TRIBUNAL. BUT OTHERS SAY THAT IS FAR FROM CERTAIN.

    CROATIAN OFFICIALS SAY THEY WILL COOPERATE WITH THE TRIBUNAL. BUT THEY SAY THERE MUST BE EQUAL JUSTICE FOR THOSE GUILTY OF CRIMES AGAINST THE CROAT PEOPLE.

    CROAT LEADERS IN BOSNIA SAY THEY HAVE ALREADY GIVEN THE TRIBUNAL EVIDENCE AGAINST NEARLY 400 MUSLIMS ALLEGEDLY INVOLVED IN KILLINGS AND OTHER CRIMES DURING THE MUSLIM-CROAT WAR. NONE HAS YET BEEN INDICTED. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/JWH/ART
    01-Apr-96 11:53 AM EST (1653 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [04] E-U BEEF (L ONLY) BY JOHN FRASER (LUXEMBOURG)

    DATE=4/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195159
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT: *INTRO: AGRICULTURE MINISTERS FROM THE 15 EUROPEAN UNION NATIONS ARE LOCKED IN TALKS IN LUXEMBOURG, TRYING TO AGREE TO A PACKAGE OF MEASURES TO RESTORE CONFIDENCE IN BRITISH BEEF. THEY ARE CONSIDERING THE MASS SLAUGHTER AND INCINERATION OF AROUND FOUR MILLION BRITISH CATTLE, WHICH COULD COST AS MUCH AS SIX BILLION DOLLARS. JOHN FRASER REPORTS FROM BRUSSELS.

    TEXT: THE LATEST SCARE CAME WHEN BRITISH SCIENTISTS UNCOVERED 10 NEW CASES OF THE HUMAN EQUIVALENT OF MAD COW DISEASE, B-S-E. THE EUROPEAN UNION RESPONDED BY BANNING ALL EXPORTS OF BRITISH BEEF, AND THE BRITISH ARE NOW ENGAGED IN DIFFICULT NEGOTIATIONS TO GET THAT BAN LIFTED.

    THE UNITED KINGDOM'S AGRICULTURE MINISTER DOUGLAS HOGG TOLD A CRISIS MEETING OF EUROPEAN UNION AGRICULTURE MINISTERS MONDAY THAT HE IS PREPARED TO ORDER THE SLAUGHTER OF ALL CATTLE OVER 30 MONTHS OF AGE, WHEN THEY COME TO THE END OF THEIR WORKING LIVES. THE ANIMALS WILL BE INCINERATED SO THEIR MEAT DOES NOT ENTER THE FOOD CHAIN. HE IS PREDICTING THAT AROUND 15-THOUSAND ANIMALS WILL BE KILLED PER WEEK FOR THE NEXT FIVE TO SIX YEARS.

    MR. HOGG HAS APPEALED TO THE EUROPEAN UNION TO HELP PAY FOR THE SLAUGHTER BY CONTRIBUTING 80 PERCENT OF THE COST.

    BRITAIN IS ALSO ASKING THE EUROPEAN UNION TO INTERVENE BY BUYING BRITISH BEEF TO SHORE UP THE MARKET PRICE. THE GOVERNMENT IS NEGOTIATING AN ADDITIONAL TARGETED CULLING OF THOSE HERDS WHICH HAVE BEEN MOST SERIOUSLY AFFECTED BY B-S-E.

    WHILE THE OTHER 14 EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS HAVE SHOWN SYMPATHY FOR THE BRITISH PROBLEM, NONE BELIEVE THE BRITISH HAVE YET COME UP WITH AN ADEQUATE PACKAGE OF MEASURES.

    AND ALL SEEM AGREED THAT BRITAIN IS ASKING FOR TOO MUCH CASH FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    SOME PROGRESS IS BEING MADE AT THE CRISIS MEETING OF EUROPEAN AGRICULTURE MINISTERS, BUT OFFICIALS SAY THERE IS NOW NO POSSIBILITY OF THE EXPORT BAN ON BRITISH BEEF BEING LIFTED, FOR SOME TIME AT LEAST. (SIGNED) NEB/JF/LTJ-T/SS 01-Apr-96 2:52 PM EST (1952 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [05] MAD COWS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/01/96
    TYPE=U-S OPINION ROUNDUP
    NUMBER=6-00000
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: A CATTLE DISEASE KNOWN AS BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY WAS FIRST IDENTIFIED IN 1986. MAD COW DISEASE -- AS IT IS OFTEN CALLED -- TURNS THE BRAIN INTO "A SPONGELIKE OR SWISS-CHEESE CONSISTENCY, CAUSING LOSS OF COORDINATION, DEMENTIA AND DEATH." SOME CATTLE IN BRITAIN HAVE BEEN FOUND TO BE INFECTED. NOW, THERE IS SOME CONCERN THAT A LINK MAY EXIST BETWEEN IT AND A RARE BUT FATAL BRAIN DISEASE THAT "STRIKES ONE IN A MILLION HUMANS." MANY U-S NEWSPAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON POSSIBLE HEALTH CONCERNS. WE HAVE A SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM _______________IN TODAY'S OPINION ROUNDUP.

    TEXT: SEVERAL COUNTRIES RECENTLY BANNED THE IMPORT OF BRITISH BEEF. SO FAR, THE DISEASE "HAS STRUCK A SMALL BUT SIGNIFICANT SLICE OF BRITAIN'S 11- MILLION CATTLE." AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES NOTES THAT "THE GREAT MAJORITY WERE DAIRY COWS, WHOSE MILK IS NOT DEEMED A TRANSMISSION ROUTE, BUT PERHAPS 20 PERCENT WERE BEEF CATTLE."

    VOICE: "MAD COW DISEASE MAY DESTROY THE BRITISH BEEF INDUSTRY, TOPPLE THE GOVERNMENT OF JOHN MAJOR AND SLOW THE PUSH TOWARD EUROPEAN COOPERATION. BUT THE MOST MADDENING THING ABOUT THIS WANING ANIMAL EPIDEMIC IS THE GREAT UNCERTAINTY ABOUT WHETHER IT POSES A MAJOR OR TRIVIAL THREAT TO THE HEALTH OF THOSE EATING BRITISH BEEF... INDEED, IT IS STARTLING TO REALIZE WHAT A FRAIL SCIENTIFIC BASE HAS LED TOWARD SUCH MOMENTOUS CONSEQUENCES FOR BRITAIN AND ITS BEEF INDUSTRY. THE CURRENT CRISIS STEMS FROM CONCERN ABOUT 10 CASES OF HUMAN DISEASE WHOSE PATHOLOGY SEEMS DISTINCTIVE. THAT DIFFERENCE MAY BE A CLUE THAT SOMETHING NEW AND FRIGHTENING IS HAPPENING -- OR THE PATTERN MAY HAVE BEEN THERE ALL ALONG AND ONLY FOUND NOW BECAUSE THE BRITISH HAVE BEEN LOOKING HARDER THAN ANYONE ELSE. THERE IS STILL NO SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE THAT BEEF CAN TRANSMIT BRAIN DISEASE TO HUMANS, AND SOME EXPERTS EVEN SPECULATE THAT CHICKENS OR PIGS, WHICH CONTINUED TO BE FED GROUND-UP SHEEP BRAINS UNTIL RECENTLY, MIGHT CONCEIVABLY HAVE TRANSMITTED THE INFECTION TO HUMANS. WHAT A TRAGEDY IF BRITAIN DESTROYED ITS CATTLE HERD ONLY TO FIND LATER THAT THE REAL CULPRIT WAS A DIFFERENT ANIMAL."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON TIMES NOTES THAT IT WAS ON MARCH 20TH WHEN DOUGLAS HOGG, THE BRITISH MINISTER FOR AGRICULTURE, FIRST ANNOUNCED "A SPECULATIVE LINK" BETWEEN THE BOVINE AND HUMAN BRAIN DISORDERS.

    VOICE: "MR. HOGG PROBABLY UNDERTOOK THIS EXERCISE WITH THE BEST OF INTENTIONS, TRYING TO PLAY IT SAFE, TRYING TO INSULATE THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT FROM ANY POSSIBLE BLAME IN THE MATTER, HOPING TO REASSURE THE BRITISH CONSUMER THAT, REALLY, MOST BRITISH BEEF IS SAFE TO EAT. INSTEAD, HE MANAGED TO SET OFF A MASSIVE PUBLIC HEALTH SCARE... ADD TO THE CONFUSION THAT BRITAIN'S DEAR FELLOW EUROPEAN UNION PARTNERS REACTED BY GLEEFULLY SLAPPING BANS ON IMPORTS OF BRITISH BEEF WITHOUT DELAY, AS DID MANY OTHER COUNTRIES. THIS, OF COURSE, MUCH TO THE DELIGHT OF THEIR OWN FARMERS... BUT THE EUROPEAN OVERREACTION, TOO HAS BACKFIRED. TODAY EUROPEAN CONSUMERS SHUN NOT JUST BRITISH BEEF, BUT ALL BEEF, WITH SALES DECLINING 30 PERCENT ACROSS THE E-U. IN FACT, AMERICANS MAY BE SEEING THE ONLY RAY OF LIGHT IN THIS SORRY AND SURELY AVOIDABLE MESS. AT LEAST, NO ONE IS COMPLAINING ABOUT HORMONES IN AMERICAN BEEF THESE DAYS."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL IN THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER SUGGESTS THAT "IN THE MAD-COW CASE, THE FRIGHT MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN CONFINED TO GREAT BRITAIN HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR U-S GOVERNMENT REGULATION:"

    VOICE: "THE U-S DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BANNED THE IMPORT OF BRITISH BEEF AND LIVESTOCK IN 1989, AFTER B-S-E (BOVINE SPONIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY) STARTED CLAIMING GROWING NUMBERS OF BRITISH CATTLE. UNLIKE IN BRITAIN, THE U-S-D-A'S ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE HAS ALSO HAD AN INTENSIVE CONTROL PROGRAM SINCE 1952 FOR A RELATED DISEASE IN SHEEP; IT IS THEORIZED THAT THE SHEEP'S RENDERED REMAINS IN FEED SUPPLEMENTS MIGHT HAVE TRANSMITTED THE DEADLY BRAIN AILMENT TO CATTLE... FUNNY, WHEN THE SPEECHIFYING OVER GOVERNMENT RED TAPE IS GOING THICK AND FAST, HOW YOU NEVER HEAR A POLITICIAN CALLING FOR FLOOD VICTIMS TO GO IT ALONE, OR FOR OPENING THE BORDER TO TAINTED MEAT. THE WORDS RISK ESCALATION SOMEHOW NEVER SHOW UP IN THE SAME SENTENCE WITH REGULATION."

    TEXT: AND, THE WASHINGTON POST WRITES THAT "WITH MAD COW DISEASE RUMORS CAUSING HAVOC IN ENGLAND, IT SEEMED A STRANGE WEEK FOR LEGISLATORS DEBATING THE NOW-PASSED FARM BILL TO HAVE SLIPPED IN A PROVISION THAT COULD ENDANGER A LONG-PLANNED IMPROVEMENT IN THIS COUNTRY'S MEAT INSPECTION SYSTEM."

    VOICE: "THE IMPROVEMENT, FIRST CALLED FOR BY A NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES STUDY IN 1986, WOULD REPLACE THE CURRENT INSPECTION SYSTEM -- WHICH DATES FROM 1906 AND RELIES ON INSPECTORS VISUALLY CHECKING MEAT CARCASSES FOR DIRT OR BACTERIA-LADEN FECAL MATTER -- WITH A MORE SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDED APPROACH THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE NOT EXACTLY NEW INFORMATION THAT MICROBES AND BACTERIA ARE TOO SMALL TO SEE. THE MODERNIZED SYSTEM WOULD ALSO HAVE THE ADVANTAGE OF DECREASING THE NUMBER OF MEAT INSPECTORS WHO WOULD HAVE TO BE PHYSICALLY PRESENT IN EVERY PLANT; INSTEAD, ANALYSIS OF THE LIKELIEST CONTAMINATION POINTS IN THE SLAUGHTERING AND PACKING PROCESS WOULD BE PAIRED WITH RANDOM TESTING AT THOSE POINTS FOR ACTUAL MICROBES."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF LOOK AT U-S EDITORIAL OPINION ABOUT THE MAD COW DISEASE AND PROTECTING MEAT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.

    NEB/DN/PCH
    01-Apr-96 11:25 AM EST (1625 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [06] PERRY / BALKANS / DEFENSE (L UPDATE-CORRECTION) BY DAVID GOLLUST (TIRANA)

    DATE=4/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195160
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    // RERUNNING TO CORRECT 1ST GRAF AFTER ACT TO READ CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IN 1993. ENGLISH SHOULD CUT THE WORD "BUSH" //

    INTRO: U-S DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY SAYS AMERICAN PEACEKEEPING TROOPS MAY REMAIN IN MACEDONIA AFTER THOSE IN BOSNIA ARE WITHDRAWN AT THE END OF THE YEAR. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS MR. PERRY SPOKE IN TIRANA AT THE END OF A MEETING OF DEFENSE MINISTERS FROM SOUTH BALKAN NATIONS, INCLUDING MACEDONIA.

    TEXT: MR. PERRY SAYS THE LITTLE NOTICED AMERICAN PRESENCE IN MACEDONIA HAS ACHIEVED ITS GOAL OF PREVENTING MILITARY CONFLICT IN THAT VOLATILE AREA. BUT HE SAYS THE COMMITMENT OF MORE THAN 500 SOLDIERS TO THE U-N FORCE PATROLLING MACEDONIA'S BORDER WITH SERBIA'S KOSOVO PROVINCE MAY CONTINUE AFTER THE NATO-LED FORCE IN BOSNIA -- I-FOR -- IS WITHDRAWN IN DECEMBER.

    THE DEFENSE SECRETARY TOLD REPORTERS AT THE CLOSE OF THE SIX-NATION MINISTERIAL MEETING THAT THE KOSOVO SITUATION IS ONE OF SEVERAL REASONS WHY THE MACEDONIA COMMITMENT IS OPEN-ENDED.

    /// PERRY ACT ///

    THERE ARE FACTORS AFFECTING THE SITUATION IN MACEDONIA, INCLUDING KOSOVO, WHICH ARE DIFFERENT FROM THE I-FOR SITUATION. CERTAINLY, A SUCCESSFUL CONCLUSION OF THE I-FOR MISSION WOULD BE A VERY POSITIVE FACTOR. BUT IT MAY NOT BE SUFFICIENT.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION FIRST DISPATCHED THE U-S TROOPS TO MACEDONIA IN 1993, AMID CONCERN THE BALKANS CONFLICT WOULD SPREAD TO KOSOVO, WHERE THE REGION'S ETHNIC ALBANIANS ACCUSE SERBIA OF MAJOR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS.

    NEW YORK HOUSE MEMBER ELIOT ENGLE, AN ADVOCATE FOR ALBANIA IN THE CONGRESS WHO ACCOMPANIED MR. PERRY HERE, SAYS THE KOSOVO SITUATION REMAINS EXPLOSIVE.

    /// ENGLE ACT ///

    I THINK THAT IT IS STILL A VERY BIG POTENTIAL POWDER KEG. I THINK THE ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO DESERVE THE SAME RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION THAT WE SAY ALL PEOPLE ARE ENTITLED, AND CLEARLY THEY ARE THE MOST OPPRESSED PEOPLE ON THE CONTINENT TODAY.

    /// END ACT ///

    SECRETARY PERRY AND HIS COUNTERPARTS FROM ALBANIA, MACEDONIA, BULGARIA, TURKEY, AND ITALY AGREED TO HOLD AN UNPRECEDENTED JOINT MILITARY EXERCISE LATER THIS YEAR, IN WHICH UNITS FROM THE SIX COUNTRIES WILL RESPOND TO A SIMULATED NATURAL DISASTER.

    BULGARIA HAS AGREED TO HOST A FOLLOW-ON MINISTERIAL MEETING LATER THIS YEAR. AND IT IS HOPED THE FORUM CAN BE EXPANDED TO INCLUDE ROMANIA, OTHER FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLICS, AND GREECE, WHICH SPURNED AN INVITATION TO THE ALBANIA MEETING. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/JWH/MMK
    01-Apr-96 2:34 PM EST (1934 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America
    .


    [07] ROMANIA / ECONOMY (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-195140
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EASTERN EUROPE'S LARGEST PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM -- IN ROMANIA -- HAS ENTERED ITS THIRD AND FINAL PHASE. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THERE HAS BEEN A SUDDEN SPURT OF PUBLIC INTEREST IN ACQUIRING SHARES IN FOUR-THOUSAND ROMANIAN STATE ENTERPRISES.

    TEXT: MARCH 31ST WAS THE DEADLINE FOR ROMANIAN CITIZENS TO REGISTER THE PRIVATIZATION CERTIFICATES THEY RECEIVED FREE LAST YEAR. THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY THERE WAS A RUSH OF ACTIVITY AT THE ONE-THOUSAND POST OFFICES THAT SERVED AS REGISTRATION CENTERS. IN REGISTERING THE CERTIFICATES, CITIZENS CHOSE THE ENTERPRISES IN WHICH THEY WOULD LIKE TO BE SHAREHOLDERS. SHARE CERTIFICATES WILL BE DISTRIBUTED LATER THIS YEAR.

    OFFICIALS SAY THAT UP TO TWO-THIRDS OF THE OVER 15-MILLION ELIGIBLE ROMANIANS ENDED UP MEETING THE REGISTRATION DEADLINE. FOR THOSE WHO DID NOT, THERE IS STILL ONE LAST OPTION. UNTIL THE END OF THIS MONTH, THE CERTIFICATES MAY BE HANDED OVER TO ONE OF FIVE STATE-RUN INVESTMENT FUNDS. AFTER THE END OF THE MONTH THE PRIVATIZATION CERTIFICATES BECOME WORTHLESS.

    THE ROMANIAN MASS PRIVATIZATION HAS BEEN A REQUIREMENT FOR NEW LENDING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND AND WORLD BANK. THE GOVERNMENT HAS MOVED SLOWLY ON PRIVATIZATION AND PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS SHOW THAT CITIZENS WANT THE PROCESS SPEEDED. A STOCK EXCHANGE OPENED IN BUCHAREST ONLY SIX MONTHS AGO AND THE COMPANIES BEING PRIVATIZED WILL EVENTUALLY HAVE THEIR SHARES TRADED ON THE EXCHANGE.

    UNTIL RECENTLY, MIKE HICKS WAS THE BUCHAREST REPRESENTATIVE OF THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT.

    /// HICKS ACT ///

    THERE WILL BE AN EFFECT (FROM THE PRIVATIZATION) ON THE STOCK MARKET, BUT IT WILL BE INDIRECT. AND PROBABLY IT WILL TAKE SOME TIME FOR COMPANIES IN THE MASS PRIVATIZATION TO PERCOLATE UP (RISE) TO THE TOP TIER OF THE MARKET.

    /// END ACT ///

    EXPERTS SAY INTEREST IN THE PRIVATIZATION PROGRAM IS DIRECTLY LINKED TO PERCEIVED OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE MONEY. THE PRIVATIZATION CERTIFICATES HAD A NOMINAL VALUE OF ONE-MILLION LEI (ABOUT 330 U-S DOLLARS), WHICH IS FOUR TIMES THE AVERAGE MONTHLY WAGE IN ROMANIA. ANOTHER 15-HUNDRED ROMANIAN STATE ENTERPRISES ARE BEING AUCTIONED OFF TO THE HIGHEST BIDDERS. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/JWH/MMK
    01-Apr-96 9:21 AM EST (1421 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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