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Voice of America, 25 April 1996

Voice of America Directory

From: "Ioannis V. Bousnakis" <ivb19@nfi.com>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [02] BOSNIA / SERBS RETURN BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

  • [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

  • [04] CHERNOBYL / RADIATION (S ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (KIEV)

  • [05] GERMANY / BOSNIA (S & L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

  • [06] ROMANIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

  • [07] U-S/BOSNIA WITHDRAWAL (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

  • [08] U-S / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)


  • [01] THURSDAY'S HEADLINES BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=04/25/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09545
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON THURSDAY, APRIL 25TH //

    INTRO: THE U-S SENATE'S VERSION OF HEALTH CARE REFORM IS A POPULAR TOPIC THIS THURSDAY IN MANY OF THE NATION'S EDITORIAL COLUMNS, FOLLOWED BY A WIDE ARRAY OF OTHER SUBJECTS. THEY INCLUDE: THE P-L-O ABANDONING ITS CALL FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ISRAEL; ITALY'S NEW GOVERNMENT; THE ON-GOING PLIGHT OF VIETNAMESE BOAT PEOPLE; [OPT] THE LAWSUIT JUDGMENT AGAINST A NEW YORK MAN WHO SHOT AND PARALYZED A WOULD-BE ROBBER, [END OPT] AND THOUGHTS ABOUT THIS "TAKE-YOUR-DAUGHTER-TO-WORK-DAY IN AMERICA." NOW HERE WITH SOME QUOTES IS _________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: BEGINNING FIRST WITH THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS LEADING DAILY, TODAY'S "DENVER POST" LEADS ITS EDITORIAL COLUMN WITH SOME THOUGHTS ON THE SENATE'S VERSION OF HEALTH CARE REFORM, PASSED EARLIER THIS WEEK.

    VOICE: "HEALTH CARE REFORM IS HEADED TO A CONGRESSIONAL CONFERENCE COMMITTEE, NOW THAT THE U-S SENATE HAS PASSED A MEASURE THAT DIFFERS SUBSTANTIALLY FROM AN EARLIER PROPOSAL ADOPTED BY THE HOUSE. THE SENATE VERSION IS THE BETTER OF THE TWO PLANS AND IS THE VERSION CONGRESS ULTIMATELY OUGHT TO EMBRACE... THE HOUSE VERSION IS WEIGHED DOWN BY CONTENTIOUS SIDE ISSUES THAT THREATEN TO DERAIL THE HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM EFFORT."

    TEXT: THE SENATE ACTION ALSO GETS TOP EDITORIAL TREATMENT IN "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION," WHICH ECHOES "THE DENVER POST" POSITION:

    VOICE: "THE SENATE HAS PRODUCED MORE APPROPRIATE LEGISLATION THAN THE BILL PASSED BY THE HOUSE, WHICH MUDDIED ITS MEASURE WITH SOPS TO SPECIAL INTERESTS... THE SENATE BILL ... MAKES HEALTH INSURANCE MORE PORTABLE -- THAT IS, IT GUARANTEES WORKERS THE CHANCE TO BUY THEIR COVERAGE IF THEY CHANGE OR LOSE THEIR JOBS... MILLIONS MORE AMERICANS WOULD BENEFIT FROM OTHER PROPOSALS IN THE SENATE BILL, SUCH AS A PROVISION INCREASING TO 80 PERCENT FROM 30 PERCENT THE AMOUNT OF HEALTH INSURANCE COSTS SELF-EMPLOYED WORKERS CAN DEDUCT FROM THEIR TAXES ... AND A PROPOSAL ALLOWING SMALL BUSINESSES TO BAND TOGETHER TO BUY HEALTH INSURANCE, THEREBY GETTING BETTER PRICES."

    TEXT: "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER" IS NOT AS ENTHUSIASTIC, CALLING THE SENATE MOVE "BABY STEPS," AND ADDING:

    VOICE: "CONGRESS FORFEITED ANY PRETENSE TO COMPREHENSIVE REFORM THE LAST TIME AROUND. TO SHOW IT CAN DO SOMETHING, IT'S BEST THAT THIS BILL BE KEPT NARROW AND VETO PROOF. THAT'S THE LEAST CONGRESS CAN DO, HAVING SIDESTEPPED THE FAR MORE DIFFICULT HEALTH-COVERAGE ISSUE: WHAT TO DO ABOUT THE STEADY EROSION OF BENEFITS THAT IS LEAVING GREATER AND GREATER NUMBERS OF WORKERS AND CHILDREN WITHOUT ANY COVERAGE."

    TEXT: MOVING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, CHANGES IN THE PALESTINIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL CHARTER VOTED IN YESTERDAY, DRAWS THIS REACTION FROM LONG ISLAND "NEWSDAY" IN NEW YORK:

    VOICE: "... THE PALESTINIANS' PARLIAMENT-IN-EXILE TOOK A HISTORIC STEP TOWARD THE ULTIMATE DESTINATION YESTERDAY WHEN IT VOTED OVERWHELMINGLY TO PURGE ITS 32-YEAR-OLD CHARTER OF PASSAGES DEMANDING ISRAEL'S DESTRUCTION... THE PALESTINE NATIONAL COUNCIL KEPT A COMMITMENT THAT YASSER ARAFAT HAD MADE IN PEACE NEGOTIATIONS WITH ISRAEL ... COINCIDENTALLY ON THE 48TH ANNIVERSARY OF ISRAEL INDEPENDENCE ACCORDING TO THE HEBREW CALENDAR."

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK POST" IS NOT NEARLY AS ENTHUSIASTIC IN ITS ASSESSMENT OF THE PALESTINIAN ACTION:

    VOICE: "LAST NIGHT, THE CONVENTION OF MURDERERS AND HOSTAGE-TAKERS THAT HAS GATHERED IN GAZA THIS WEEK VOTED TO REPEAL ARTICLES OF THE 1964 P-L-O CHARTER THAT CALL EXPLICITLY FOR ISRAEL'S DESTRUCTION... THE DECISION ... WAS HASTENED BY DOMESTIC POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN ISRAEL. A FAILURE TO ACT NOW ON THE PART OF THE P-L-O WOULD HAVE INJURED THE CHANCES OF PRIME MINISTER SHIMON PERES -- [PRIME MINISTER] RABIN'S SUCCESSOR -- TO DEFEAT HIS OPPONENT ... IN THE MAY [29TH] NATIONAL ELECTION... THE FACT THAT IT WAS NECESSARY TO GATHER THIS PANTHEON OF THUGS IN ORDER TO ADVANCE THE 'PEACE PROCESS' SAYS SOMETHING ABOUT ISRAEL'S PAINFUL HISTORY ... THIS IS THE CROWD ON WHICH ISRAEL IS COMPELLED TO RELY IN ITS ONGOING QUEST FOR PEACE."

    TEXT: THE NEW ITALIAN GOVERNMENT ELECTED OVER THE WEEKEND, WHICH NOW INCLUDES COMMUNISTS, DRAWS THIS RESPONSE FORM "THE NEW YORK TIMES."

    VOICE: "THE CHURNING AND RESHAPING OF ITALIAN POLITICS THAT BEGAN WITH THE SPECTACULAR CORRUPTION SCANDALS OF 1991 CROSSED A SIGNIFICANT THRESHOLD THIS WEEK. THE SURPRISING ELECTORAL SUCCESS OF THE CENTER-LEFT OLIVE TREE COALITION BROUGHT ITALIAN COMMUNISTS, UNDER A NEW NAME AND PLATFORM, INTO OFFICE FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE WORLD WAR TWO. DESPITE THE COMMUNIST PEDIGREE, THEY ARE BY RECENT HISTORY ... A RELATIVELY MODERATE AND RESPONSIBLE GROUP DEDICATED TO MAINTAINING THE DEMOCRATIC FOUNDATIONS OF ITALIAN SOCIETY... ITALIANS VOTED NOT FOR IDEOLOGY BUT FOR CLEAN AND WORKABLE GOVERNMENT."

    TEXT: "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" REFLECTS ON THE CONTINUING PLIGHT OF VIETNAMESE BOAT PEOPLE WHO HAVE SPENT YEARS IN ASIAN REFUGEE CAMPS BUT NOW ARE BEING SENT BACK HOME. THE PAPER SAYS THE CLOSING OF THE CAMPS IS A GOOD THING, BUT WORRIES ABOUT THE CHILDREN.

    VOICE: "... REFUGEES, INCLUDING YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN WHO WERE INFANTS WHEN THEIR PARENTS SAILED AWAY TO UNCERTAINTY, WILL HAVE TO RETURN TO VIETNAM TO APPLY FOR PASSAGE TO AMERICA. THESE CAMP DWELLERS ARE NOT THE RETURNEES THAT VIETNAM WANTS... THE REFUGEES, WITH REASON, LOOK UPON A RETURN TO THEIR COUNTRY WITH TREPIDATION. BUT THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER RECIPIENT COUNTRIES HAVE NO RATIONAL ALTERNATIVE. THE BOAT PEOPLE ARE GONE FROM POLITICAL VIEW..."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: TWELVE YEARS AGO, FOUR YOUNG BLACK MEN APPROACHED AN OLDER WHITE MAN, BERNARD GOETZ, ON A NEW YORK SUBWAY, DEMANDING MONEY. HE PULLED AN UNLICENSED GUN AND SHOT ALL FOUR, PARALYZING ONE. THOUGH HE WAS ACQUITTED OF CRIMINAL CHARGES, GOETZ WAS SUCCESSFULLY SUED BY THE PARALYZED MAN AND ORDERED TO PAY HIM 43-MILLION DOLLARS IN DAMAGES. TODAY'S "MIAMI HERALD" REACTS WITH AN EDITORIAL TITLED: "BEYOND MERE SELF-DEFENSE."

    VOICE: "THIS ... ENDS A LONG, TANGLED SAGA OF CRIME, JUSTICE, AND RACE, A SAGA ALSO REFLECTED IN THE CONTRAST BETWEEN JURY DECISIONS ON THIS CASE. [OPT] A 1987 JURY ACQUITTED HIM OF CRIMINAL CHARGES, SAVE A MINOR ONE... A NEW JURY NOW SAYS THAT HE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR MR. CABEY'S PARALYSIS... PERCEPTIONS HAVE CHANGED GREATLY ... IN 1984 NEW YORKERS OF ALL RACES CHEERED BERNHARD GOETZ... CRIME AT THE TIME WAS SOARING, THE SUBWAYS WERE A NECESSARY TERROR, AND JUSTICE SEEMED NONEXISTENT. NOW THE CRIME RATE IS DOWN ... AND AMERICANS ALSO HAVE SEEN INJUSTICE, ESPECIALLY AGAINST PEOPLE OF COLOR, ON NIGHTLY T-V. [END OPT] ... THOSE WHO WOULD TAKE THE LAW INTO THEIR OWN HANDS WOULD DO WELL TO REMEMBER THIS VERDICT."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THIS IS THE FOURTH ANNUAL "TAKE OUR DAUGHTERS TO WORK DAY" IN AMERICA TO TRY TO GIVE GIRLS A SENSE OF DAILY CONDITIONS IN THE TYPICAL WORKPLACE. "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" COMMENTS ON PUBLIC CRITICISM OF THE EVENT BECAUSE IT EXCLUDES BOYS.

    VOICE: "... YES, THERE ARE PROBLEMS... THAT BOYS ARE LEFT OUT IS ONE FREQUENTLY MENTIONED. A DAY DEVOTED TO GIRLS IN THE WORKPLACE SHOULD NOT IMPLY THAT BOYS DON'T HAVE THEIR OWN CHALLENGES AND DON'T REQUIRE GOOD PARENTING AND MENTORING... BUT LISTEN TO THE BOYS THEMSELVES: IN THE SURVEY, [COMMISSIONED BY THE MS FOUNDATION FOR WOMEN AND SEVENTEEN MAGAZINE] 75 PERCENT OF THE BOYS SAY WOMEN FACE JOB DISCRIMINATION; 61 PERCENT SAY WOMEN HAVE TO WORK HARDER TO ACHIEVE THE SAME LEVEL OF SUCCESS AS MEN. ONE DAY AT THE OFFICE WON'T CHANGE THAT FOR THESE FUTURE FEMALE WORKERS, BUT IT'S A START."

    TEXT: AND ON THAT GENDER-CONTENTIOUS ISSUE, WE DEPART THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.

    NEB/ANG/PCH
    25-Apr-96 12:01 PM EDT (1601 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / SERBS RETURN BY DOUGLAS ROBERTS (GENEVA)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-33101
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FEW REFUGEES FROM THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT HAVE BEEN ABLE TO RETURN TO THEIR HOMES. U-N AND RELIEF AGENCY OFFICIALS FEAR UNLESS RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS ARE ACCELERATED, THERE ARE LIKELY TO BE SUBSTANTIAL DELAYS IN THE REPATRIATION PROCESS. BUT IN ONE PART OF CENTRAL BOSNIA, LARGE NUMBERS OF REFUGEES HAVE RETURNED. UNDER THE WATCHFUL EYES OF BRITISH TROOPS PART OF THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE, MORE THAN 30-THOUSAND SERB CIVILIANS HAVE GONE BACK TO THEIR HOMES IN THE TOWNS OF MRKONJIC GRAD AND SIPOVO. DOUGLAS ROBERTS FILED THIS BACKGROUND REPORT FROM MRKONJIC GRAD.

    TEXT: /// ACT OF SOUND ON A MRKONJIC GRAD STREET CORNER

    ///

    ON AN EARLY SPRING MORNING, SMALL CROWDS HAVE GATHERED ALONG A NARROW STREET NEAR THE MAYOR'S OFFICE IN THIS MARKET TOWN. THE CROWDS, MOSTLY MEN, SIP POTENT PLUM BRANDY, CHATTING AND SMOKING CIGARETTES UNDER PALE SUNSHINE.

    FOR MANY OF THESE SERBS, IT IS A REUNION OF SORTS, SEEING EACH OTHER FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE THEY FLED THEIR HOMES LAST AUTUMN WHEN CROAT FORCES CAPTURED THIS AREA IN ONE OF THE FINAL OFFENSIVES OF THE BOSNIAN CONFLICT.

    /// SANKO JAGUZEVIC ACT IN SERBO-CROAT ///

    THEY DROVE US OUT, SAYS STANKO JAGUZEVIC, AND THEN THEY LOOTED AND BURNED EVERYTHING.

    MR. JAGUZEVIC COMES FROM A SMALL FARMING VILLAGE A FEW KILOMETERS OUTSIDE MRKONJIC GRAD. HE SAYS THERE IS NOTHING LEFT OF THE VILLAGE NOW AND ALL HIS LIVESTOCK WERE SLAUGHTERED.

    FOR THE TIME BEING, HE IS LIVING IN AN ABANDONED APARTMENT. HE HAS NO WORK AND LITTLE MONEY. HE CLUTCHES A SMALL PLASTIC BAG. INSIDE IS A ROUND LOAF OF BREAD, DONATED BY A HUMANITARIAN AGENCY. IT IS ALL HE EXPECTS TO EAT THIS DAY.

    VIRTUALLY ALL THE SERBS WHO HAVE RETURNED TO MRKONJIC GRAD AND NEARBY AREAS ARE FACING A SIMILAR PLIGHT.

    THIS REGION, KNOWN AS THE ANVIL, WAS THE LARGEST CHUNK OF TERRITORY TO CHANGE HANDS AS A RESULT OF THE DAYTON PEACE PLAN.

    THE CROAT TROOPS WHO CAPTURED THE AREA WITHDREW WHEN NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCES ARRIVED IN DECEMBER. BUT BEFORE THEY LEFT, THE CROATS WENT ON A RAMPAGE OF LOOTING AND BURNING THAT LEFT MUCH OF THE AREA IN RUINS.

    BRITISH ARMY COMMANDERS ESTIMATE ABOUT 60-PERCENT OF THE HOMES IN MRKONJIC GRAD WERE DESTROYED. IN NEARBY SIPOVO, THE FIGURE IS CLOSE TO 90-PERCENT.

    FROM THE OUTSIDE, THE HILLTOP ORTHODOX CHURCH IN SIPOVO LOOKS UN-TOUCHED. BUT THAT ILLUSION IS QUICKLY SHATTERED WHEN FATHER RADE STAVROFOR, THE BLACK-ROBED ORTHODOX PRIEST, PULLS BACK THE WOODEN PLANKS COVERING THE ENTRANCE AND ESCORTS A VISITING REPORTER INSIDE.

    /// ACT OF STAVROFOR IN SERBO-CROAT ///

    THE WALLS AND CEILING ARE FIRE-BLACKENED. THERE IS A LONG FUSE MARK ON THE MARBLE FLOOR. THE PRIEST DISPLAYS THE REMNANTS OF AN ANTI-TANK MINE. IT APPARENTLY FAILED TO EXPLODE, BUT DID IGNITE A FIRE THAT BADLY DAMAGED THE INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH.

    THE PRIEST'S ADJOINING HOME WAS COMPLETELY DESTROYED. AND SINCE HIS RETURN IN FEBRUARY, FATHER STAVROFOR HAS BEEN SLEEPING IN HIS CAR.

    MANY OF THE BRITISH TROOPS OPENLY VOICE ADMIRATION FOR THE SERB CIVILIANS WHO HAVE RETURNED, DESPITE THE DEVASTATION AND THE HARSH CONDITIONS.

    MAJOR RUPERT JANES IS A BRITISH ARMY INFORMATION OFFICER.

    /// JANES ACT ///

    I AM AMAZED BY THEIR RESILIENCE, THE FACT THAT THEY COME BACK HERE. I THINK THEY TAKE IT AS A MATTER OF COURSE THAT THEY WERE DRIVEN FROM THEIR HOMES. THEY CAME BACK. THEY FOUND THEM TRASHED. BUT THEY JUST GET ON WITH THEIR LIVES. AND THAT IS JUST THE NORMAL STATE OF AFFAIRS IN THE BALKANS. I THINK. IT IS VERY SAD AND VERY IMPRESSIVE AT THE SAME TIME.

    /// END ACT ///

    MANY OF THE SERB RETURNEES SAY THEY CAME BACK PRINCIPALLY TO RECLAIM THEIR PROPERTY, TO ENSURE THEIR HOUSES AND APARTMENTS WERE NOT TAKEN BY OTHER REFUGEES.

    WHAT IS IMPORTANT IS TO POSSESS A HOME, SAYS RATMIR TODOROVIC AS HE ESCORTS A VISITOR THROUGH HIS DENUDED FOURTH FLOOR APARTMENT IN THE CENTER OF SIPOVO.

    /// TODOROVIC ACT IN SERBO-CROAT ///

    MR. TODOROVIC SAYS THERE IS NOTHING LEFT. EVEN THE LIGHT SWITCHES AND BATHROOM FIXTURES WERE STOLEN. HE RETURNED IN FEBRUARY TO FIND THE FLOORS LITTERED WITH SHATTERED GLASS AND PILES OF TRASH.

    A SOFT-SPOKEN HIGH-SCHOOL BIOLOGY TEACHER IN HIS FORTIES, MR. TODOROVIC STAYS IN HIS APARTMENT ONLY ON WEEK-ENDS, TO CLEAN UP AND REPAIR WHAT HE CAN. HIS WIFE AND TWO CHILDREN REMAIN IN THE SERB STRONGHOLD OF BANJA LUKA TO THE NORTH. HE DOES NOT KNOW WHEN HE WILL ABLE TO BRING HIS FAMILY BACK. HE SAYS THERE IS NOTHING FOR THEM HERE, NOT EVEN A SPOON.

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY PROVIDES THE RETURNING SERBS WITH SOME BASIC SUPPLIES -- PLASTIC SHEETING, WOOD-BURNING STOVES, AND EMERGENCY RATIONS.

    BRITISH ARMY ENGINEERS HAVE STRETCHED THE LIMITS OF THEIR PEACEKEEPING MANDATE BY RESTORING ESSENTIAL SERVICES, INCLUDING WATER, ELECTRICITY, AND THE SEWAGE SYSTEM -- AND HELPING TO CLEAR AWAY THE MOUNDS OF RUBBLE AND TRASH THAT LINE VIRTUALLY EVERY STREET.

    U-S ARMY CIVIL AFFAIRS ADVISORS ARE WORKING ALONGSIDE BRITISH FORCES, HELPING TO ASSESS THE DAMAGE AND TO DETERMINE THE REGION'S INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL RECOVERY NEEDS.

    BUT THERE IS NO SIGN OF ANY SIGNIFICANT RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT IN THIS REGION SO FAR. AID AGENCY REPRESENTATIVES SAY THERE ARE AS YET NO FUNDS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND SEEDS SO BADLY NEEDED HERE.

    BRITISH COMMANDERS FEAR UNLESS A FULL-SCALE RECOVERY PROGRAM BEGINS SOON, THE BOSNIAN PEACE PROCESS COULD BE PUT IN JEOPARDY. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DBR/ADEN/RAE
    25-Apr-96 11:55 AM EDT (1555 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] BOSNIA SITREP (L) BY WAYNE COREY (VIENNA)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196297
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: U-S TROOPS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA HAVE INTERVENED TO BREAK UP A CLASH BETWEEN SERB AND MUSLIM CIVILIANS. V-O-A CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT WAYNE COREY REPORTS IT IS THE LATEST INCIDENT REFLECTING THE REFUSAL OF ONE ETHNIC GROUP TO ALLOW MEMBERS OF ANOTHER ETHNIC GROUP TO VISIT THEIR FORMER HOMES.

    TEXT: THE INCIDENT OCCURRED WHEN ABOUT 250 MUSLIMS TRIED TO ENTER A SERB-HELD VILLAGE IN NORTHERN BOSNIA WHERE THEY USED TO LIVE. ONE OR TWO HAND GRENADES AND STONES WERE THROWN. AT LEAST ONE MUSLIM WAS SLIGHTLY HURT.

    U-S TROOPS INTERVENED TO BREAK UP THE CONFRONTATION. A NATO SPOKESMAN IN SARAJEVO SAYS THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS DID NOT OPEN FIRE. WEDNESDAY, ETHNIC CROATS REFUSED TO ALLOW A GROUP OF SERBS TO VISIT THEIR FORMER HOMES AND THE GRAVES OF RELATIVES IN A TOWN IN WESTERN BOSNIA.

    THE NATO-LED INTERNATIONAL PEACE FORCE EARLIER CALLED ON POLITICAL LEADERS OF THE RIVAL FACTIONS IN BOSNIA NOT TO PROVOKE TROUBLE BETWEEN CIVILIANS.

    NATO HAS ACCUSED FACTION LEADERS OF CYNICALLY MANIPULATING THE DESIRES OF CIVILIANS ANXIOUS TO AT LEAST SEE THEIR FORMER HOMES IN TERRITORY NOW CONTROLLED BY ANOTHER FACTION.

    THE FREE MOVEMENT OF CIVILIANS IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AND MOST WIDELY-IGNORED PROVISIONS OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT.

    THE U-N REFUGEE AGENCY SAYS A LOT MORE PRESSURE WILL HAVE TO BE PUT ON THE FORMER WARRING FORCES TO PERMIT FREE MOVEMENT OR BOSNIA WILL BE A PARTITIONED COUNTRY.

    A U-N REFUGEE AGENCY OFFICIAL SAYS HARD-LINE SERB LEADERS ARE ESPECIALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR BLOCKING FREE MOVEMENT. IF MAYORS OF SERB TOWNS SHOW FLEXIBILITY ON THE ISSUE, HE SAYS THEY ARE HAMMERED BY THE SERB LEADERSHIP IN PALE.

    IN ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT, THE HEAD OF THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE, ANTONIO CASSESE, IS CALLING FOR ECONOMIC SANCTIONS TO BE REIMPOSED AGAINST YUGOSLAVIA AND THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    MR. CASSESE SAYS THE SANCTIONS SHOULD BE RESTORED BECAUSE YUGOSLAVIA AND THE SERBS ARE NOT COOPERATING ENOUGH WITH THE TRIBUNAL'S INVESTIGATION OF WAR CRIMES IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/WC/JWH/RAE
    25-Apr-96 12:06 PM EDT (1606 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CHERNOBYL / RADIATION (S ONLY) BY PETER HEINLEIN (KIEV)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196287
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ABNORMALLY HIGH LEVELS OF RADIATION HAVE BEEN DETECTED AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER STATION, ON THE EVE OF THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE WORLD'S NUCLEAR ACCIDENT. PETER HEINLEIN REPORTS FROM UKRAINE'S CAPITAL, KIEV.

    TEXT: A SPOKESMAN FOR THE STATION SAID (THURSDAY) A MINOR RELEASE OF RADIATION OCCURRED DURING THE NIGHT, AS WORKERS REPLACED PART OF A FILTER ON CHERNOBYL REACTOR NUMBER THREE.

    HE SAID THE LEVEL OF RADIATION WAS FROM TWO TO SEVEN TIMES HIGHER THAN NORMAL, BUT POSED NO DANGER TO STAFF ON DUTY AT THE TIME.

    A STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE CHERNOBYL PRESS SERVICE SAID A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION RATED THE EVENT AS A "LEVEL ONE," A MINIMUM ON THE INTERNATIONAL SCALE FOR REPORTING NUCLEAR INCIDENTS.

    CHERNOBYL REACTOR NUMBER THREE IS ADJACENT TO REACTOR NUMBER FOUR, WHICH EXPLODED AND BURNED ON THE MORNING OF APRIL 26TH, 1986. THAT INCIDENT SPEWED RADIATION OVER A WIDE SWATH OF TERRITORY IN WHAT WAS THEN THE SOVIET UNION.

    THE SOVIET SUCCESSOR STATES OF UKRAINE, BELARUS, AND RUSSIA ARE HOLDING ELABORATE COMMEMORATIONS TO MARK THE ANNIVERSARY, INCLUDING A CANDLELIGHT PROCESSION AND MEMORIAL SERVICE AT A NEARBY TOWN AT THE EXACT MINUTE THE EXPLOSION OCCURRED TEN YEARS AGO. (SIGNED)

    NEB/PH/JWH/MMK
    25-Apr-96 8:23 AM EDT (1223 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] GERMANY / BOSNIA (S & L) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196306
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:
    /// EDS: USE OF OPTIONAL MATERIAL WILL EXPAND THE SHORT REPORT TO A LONG ///

    INTRO: LEADERS OF BOSNIA'S MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION HAVE AGREED TO A SERIES OF MEASURES AIMED AT BOOSTING THE CREDIBILITY OF THEIR SOMETIMES SHAKY ALLIANCE. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS BOSNIAN MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFICIALS, WHO WORKED OUT THE DETAILS DURING TALKS IN BONN GERMANY, ARE VOWING TO MAKE THE AGREEMENTS WORK.

    TEXT: GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL, WHO HOSTED THE TALKS AT THE GOVERNMENT GUEST HOUSE OUTSIDE BONN, SAYS THE AGREEMENTS MOVE THE FEDERATION A GOOD WAY FORWARD DOWN A DIFFICULT ROAD.

    ALTHOUGH THE AGREEMENTS REACHED AT THE ONE-DAY MEETING DEAL WITH A RANGE OF SUBJECTS, THE MAIN ACCOMPLISHMENT WAS THE ACCORD TO CREATE A JOINT FEDERATION POLICE FORCE.

    IF CARRIED OUT, THE AGREEMENT WOULD MERGE RIVAL POLICE UNITS, SLASH THE OVERALL NUMBER OF POLICE IN FEDERATION TERRITORY, AND PUT THEM ALL IN NEW, NEUTRAL GREY UNIFORMS.

    DURING THE TALKS, OFFICIALS ALSO AGREED TO ESTABLISH A NETWORK OF HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS WHO WILL BE POSTED AROUND THE FEDERATION.

    BOSNIAN MUSLIM AND CROAT OFFICIALS, WHO ONLY LAST MONTH WERE UNABLE TO REACH ANY COMPROMISE ON SUCH ISSUES, HAVE VOWED TO MAKE THE NEW AGREEMENTS STICK.

    // REST OPTIONAL //

    ALSO AT THE TALKS, BOSNIAN PRIME MINISTER HASSAN MURATOVIC DENIED NEWS REPORTS THAT IRANIAN TROOPS REMAINED IN HIS COUNTRY IN DEFIANCE OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORD. MR. MURATOVIC CALLED THE REPORTS SPECULATION DESIGNED TO WEAKEN THE FEDERATION.

    U-S UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE PETER TARNOFF SAYS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT APPEARS TO BE MOVING TO COMPLY WITH THE DAYTON ACCORD, BUT HE SAYS IT IS NOT YET CLEAR ALL FOREIGN FORCES HAVE LEFT.

    /// TARNOFF ACT ///

    I'M NOT GOING TO CHARACTERIZE THE PRESENCE, BUT WE HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE YET TO CERTIFY THAT THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT IS IN COMPLIANCE WITH ITS COMMITMENT IN DAYTON TO REMOVE ALL FOREIGN FORCES.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. TARNOFF ALSO DISMISSED REPORTS THE UNITED STATES IS PLANNING TO POSITION TROOPS IN HUNGARY WHEN THE YEAR-LONG MANDATE FOR THE NATO PEACEKEEPING FORCE RUNS OUT.

    THE U-S OFFICIAL SAID HE WAS CONFIDENT THE NATO-LED FORCE WOULD BE ABLE TO ACCOMPLISH ITS MANDATE ON TIME. (SIGNED)

    NEB/KBK/JWH/MMK
    25-Apr-96 2:12 PM EDT (1812 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] ROMANIA ECONOMY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196293
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ROMANIA'S NEW STOCK EXCHANGE HAS SCALED BACK ITS ALREADY LIMITED TRADING AMID CONTROVERSY OVER REGULATION AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS DEVELOPMENT OF A CAPITAL MARKET AND STOCK EXCHANGE IS A CONDITION FOR CONTINUED INTERNATIONAL LENDING TO CASH-SHORT ROMANIA.

    TEXT: THE ROMANIAN STOCK EXCHANGE OPENED ONLY SIX-MONTHS AGO. ACTIVITY HAS BEEN SLOW. THERE WERE AND STILL ARE MORE TRADERS (40) ON THE FLOOR THAN THERE ARE STOCKS (13) TO BUY AND SELL. THIS WEEK THE BUCHAREST EXCHANGE SUSPENDED TRADING IN EIGHT OF THE 13 STOCKS, COMPLAINING THE COMPANIES WERE FAILING TO PROVIDE REQUIRED FINANCIAL INFORMATION. TRADING HAS BEEN CUT FROM TWO DAYS TO ONE DAY PER WEEK.

    THE STOCK EXCHANGE'S PROBLEMS ARE CONNECTED TO THE COMPLICATED MASS PRIVATIZATION UNDERWAY. FOUR-THOUSAND STATE COMPANIES ARE HAVING A MAJORITY OF THEIR SHARES DISTRIBUTED TO CITIZENS AT LARGE.

    THE BUCHAREST EXCHANGE HAD EXPECTED ABOUT ONE-THOUSAND OF THESE COMPANIES TO BE LISTED ON THE EXCHANGE ONCE THE PRIVATIZATION IS COMPLETED IN SIX TO 12 MONTHS. BUT, THE GOVERNMENT IS PROMOTING A RIVAL, LESS REGULATED OVER-THE-COUNTER MARKET WHERE IT EXPECTS MOST OF THE NEWLY-ISSUED SHARES TO BE TRADED.

    STEVEN FLORESCU ANALYZES THE BUCHAREST CAPITAL MARKET FOR VIENNA'S CREDITANSTALT BANK. HE BELIEVES IN A COUNTRY WHICH HAD NO PRIVATE COMPANIES FIVE-YEARS AGO AND WHERE PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE OF A MARKET ECONOMY REMAINS LOW, IT IS A MISTAKE TO HAVE COMPETING STOCK MARKETS.

    /// FLORESCU ACT ///

    OF COURSE, THIS (OVER-THE-COUNTER EXCHANGE) IS UNDERMINING THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE, WHICH IS DEFINITELY TRYING TO EMERGE AS A MAJOR FORCE IN THE FINANCIAL MARKET. BUT COMPANIES ARE RELUCTANT TO QUOTE ON IT BECAUSE THEY EXPECT 90-PERCENT OF TRADING TO BE OFF THE MARKET. AND THE BUCHAREST STOCK MARKET IS GOING TO LOWER ITS LISTING REQUIREMENTS IN ORDER TO BE MORE ATTRACTIVE. THIS WILL LOWER THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION, AND SO ON.

    /// END ACT ///

    IN ADDITION, THERE IS AN ADVERSARIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FINANCE MINISTRY AND MANY FOREIGN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. THE GOVERNMENT ROUTINELY LABELS INVESTMENT FUNDS AS FINANCIAL SPECULATORS. LAST MONTH THE I-N-G BANK OF THE NETHERLANDS HAD ITS TRADING LICENSE REVOKED AFTER GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS COMPLAINED THE THE BIG DUTCH BANK WAS MANIPULATING THE VALUE OF THE ROMANIAN CURRENCY. CURRENTLY, THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND IS NOT LENDING TO ROMANIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/BDW/ADEN/RAE
    25-Apr-96 11:18 AM EDT (1518 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] U-S/BOSNIA WITHDRAWAL (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196317
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS U-S AND OTHER PEACEKEEPING TROOPS WILL NOT MEET THEIR ORIGINAL LATE-DECEMBER TARGET FOR WITHDRAWING FROM BOSNIA. DEFENSE OFFICIALS SAY THE PULLOUT WILL TAKE AT LEAST ANOTHER MONTH BEYOND THAT. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE PENTAGON HAS ACKNOWLEDGED WHAT HAS BEEN APPARENT FOR SOME TIME -- THAT THERE HAS BEEN SLIPPAGE IN THE TIMETABLE FOR THE WITHDRAWAL FROM BOSNIA.

    WHEN THE DAYTON ACCORDS WERE SIGNED LATE LAST YEAR, THE ADMINISTRATION HAD SAID THE TROOP DRAWDOWN WOULD BE UNDERWAY BY LATE SUMMER AND COMPLETE BY THE DECEMBER 20TH EXPIRATION OF THE U-N PEACEKEEPING MANDATE.

    BUT IT HAS NOW BEEN AGREED, IN RESPONSE TO AN APPEAL FROM THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE, THAT VIRTUALLY THE ENTIRE 60-THOUSAND MEMBER FORCE WILL STAY ON TO PROVIDE SECURITY THROUGH THE BOSNIAN ELECTIONS IN LATE SEPTEMBER.

    AND PENTAGON SPOKESMAN KEN BACON SAYS NATO'S SUPREME COMMANDER, U-S GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN, WANTS A SIZEABLE FORCE TO REMAIN IN THE COUNTRY RIGHT UP UNTIL THE MANDATE ENDS:

    /// BACON ACTUALITY ///

    THE MISSION WILL END ON DECEMBER 20TH, 1996. BUT ALL THE TROOPS WON'T BE OUT BY THEN. BECAUSE HE DOESN'T WANT TO LEAVE -- HAVE A SKELETAL FORCE -- ON HAND ON DECEMBER 20TH. HE WANTS A SIGNIFICANT FORCE THERE RIGHT UP UNTIL THE LAST DAY. SO THAT MEANS IT WILL TAKE A MONTH, MAYBE LONGER TO GET ALL THE TROOPS OUT AFTER DECEMBER 20TH.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BACON SAYS THAT WITH NATO HAVING REPAIRED ROADS AND BRIDGES, AND UPDATED AIRFIELDS IN BOSNIA, THE WITHDRAWAL PROCESS SHOULD BE FASTER AND LESS COMPLICATED THAN THE LENGTHY INTRODUCTION PROCESS LAST WINTER, THAT TOOK MORE THAN TWO MONTHS.

    THE PENTAGON SPOKESMAN ALSO DEFENDED THE ADMINISTRATION'S 1994 DECISION -- SECRET AT THE TIME -- TO "LOOK THE OTHER WAY" AS IRAN AIRLIFTED WEAPONS TO BOSNIA VIA CROATIA IN VIOLATION OF THE U-N ARMS EMBARGO AGAINST THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA.

    THE POLICY IS NOW UNDER INTENSE ATTACK BY REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS WHO ARGUE, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THAT IT HAS LED TO CONTINUING HEAVY IRANIAN INFLUENCE IN BOSNIA.

    BUT MR. BACON SAID THE APPROACH WAS SEEN BY THE ADMINISTRATION AS A WAY TO -- AMONG OTHER THINGS -- BE RESPONSIVE TO REPUBLICAN CALLS AT THE TIME FOR ACTION TO REDRESS THE ARMS IMBALANCE IN BOSNIA FAVORING THE SERBS:

    /// BACON ACT ///

    THE BOSNIAN PEOPLE WERE DRAMATICALLY LESS-WELL ARMED THAN THEIR SERBIAN OPPONENTS WERE. AND THERE WAS A PERCEIVED NEED IN CONGRESS AND WITHIN THE ADMINISTRATION TO FIND A WAY TO BALANCE THE FORCES. FACED WITH THAT CHALLENGE, THE ADMINISTRATION DECIDED THAT IT WAS -- EVERYTHING ELSE CONSIDERED -- AN ACCEPTABLE RISK TO TAKE TO HAVE SOME ARMS LEAK THROUGH THE EMBARGO TO BOSNIA. THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. BACON SAID THE IRANIAN SHIPMENTS -- FOR WHICH CROATIAN PRESIDENT FRANJO TUDJMAN OBTAINED TACIT U-S APPROVAL -- HELPED SHIFT THE POWER BALANCE TOWARD THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION AND OPEN THE WAY TO THE DAYTON ACCORDS.

    HE ALSO SAID THE IRANIAN PRESENCE IN BOSNIA HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED IN RECENT WEEKS DUE TO U-S PRESSURE -- AND THAT THE ADMINISTRATION SHOULD BE ABLE TO CERTIFY NEXT MONTH THAT BOSNIA'S GOVERNMENT HAS EXPELLED FOREIGN FORCES AND IS THUS ELIGIBLE FOR A U-S ORGANIZED MILITARY AID PROGRAM. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAG/CB/LWM
    25-Apr-96 5:19 PM EDT (2119 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [08] U-S / BOSNIA (S ONLY) BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=4/25/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-196309
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SAYS IT WILL SEEK AN EXPLANATION FROM THE GOVERNMENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ABOUT REPORTS THAT BOSNIA HAS BEEN USING IRANIAN-TRAINED COMMANDOS TO KILL OR CAPTURE ENEMIES IT SAYS ARE WAR CRIMINALS. V-O-A'S WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO CONFIRM THE DETAILS OF THE NEW YORK TIMES NEWSPAPER REPORT THURSDAY ABOUT THE EXISTENCE OF THE IRANIAN-TRAINED COMMANDO UNITS.

    BUT HE SAYS IF TRUE, THE PRESENCE OF THE COMMANDOS WOULD BE IN DEFIANCE OF THE BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT REACHED LAST DECEMBER IN THE U-S CITY OF DAYTON, OHIO.

    // MCCURRY ACTUALITY //

    WE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THOSE REPORTS. THEY WOULD APPEAR TO US, IF TRUE, TO BE A VIOLATION OF ASPECTS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS, AND WE WOULD INTEND TO RAISE THAT ISSUE VERY DIRECTLY, PROMPTLY AND CANDIDLY WITH THE GOVERNMENT OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    // END ACT //

    THE TIMES ARTICLE QUOTES UNNAMED CROAT OFFICIALS AND WESTERN DIPLOMATS SAYING THE OPERATION WAS REVEALED AFTER THE ARREST OF FIVE BOSNIAN MUSLIMS IN CROATIA ON APRIL EIGHTH. THE FIVE ARE SUSPECTED OF TRYING TO ASSASSINATE A RENEGADE MUSLIM LEADER, FIKRET ABDIC, WHO IS IN EXILE IN CROATIA. (SIGNED)

    NEB/DAT/PT
    25-Apr-96 3:01 PM EDT (1901 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

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