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Voice of America, 1 July 1996

Voice of America Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA / KARADZIC (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)
  • [03] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: HELPING BOSNIANS HELP THEMSELVES
  • [04] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: MOSTAR BRIDGES (PART II) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] U-S-KARADZIC (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [06] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09654
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M, MONDAY, JULY 1ST //

    INTRO: AMERICAN NEWSPAPER READERS CAN FIND A WIDE VARIETY OF SUBJECTS DISCUSSED IN THE EDITORIAL COLUMNS THIS MONDAY. AMONG THEM ARE CONTINUED COMMENTS ON THE TERRORIST BOMBING IN SAUDI ARABIA LAST WEEK, THE FUTURE OF UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI, AND INDIA AND THE NUCLEAR ARMS DEBATE. NOW, HERE IS _______________ WITH A FEW QUOTES AND A CLOSER LOOK AT SOME OF THE COMMENTARIES IN TODAY'S U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: YESTERDAY, PRESIDENT CLINTON LED MEMORIAL SERVICES FOR THE 19 U-S AIR FORCE PERSONNEL KILLED BY THE BOMBING IN DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA. MR. CLINTON TOLD THEIR FAMILIES THAT "AMERICA STANDS WITH YOU IN SORROW AND IN YOUR OUTRAGE." IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, MONDAY, THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT ONE LESSON LEARNED IS: "DON'T IGNORE THE OBVIOUS."

    VOICE: "DEFENSE SECRETARY WILLIAM PERRY, IN T-V INTERVIEWS FROM A SHIP IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, SAID SUNDAY THE TERRORIST ATTACK...IS LIKE OTHER TRAGEDIES: IN RETROSPECT, THINGS COULD HAVE BEEN DONE DIFFERENTLY. PERRY'S RIGHT UP TO A POINT. BUT WHAT SEPARATES THIS TRAGEDY FROM OTHERS IS THAT U-S MILITARY COMMANDERS KNEW ABOUT THE THREAT AND DEVISED WAYS TO REDUCE DANGER TO THEIR TROOPS, THEN FAILED ON THE FOLLOW-THROUGH... U-S TROOPS DESERVE THE BEST PROTECTION POSSIBLE. THEY DIDN'T GET IT AT KHOBAR TOWERS."

    TEXT: WILLIAM PFAFF, A SYNDICATED COLUMNIST WHOSE WRITING APPEARS IN THE BALTIMORE SUN, AND OTHER NEWSPAPERS, SAYS THAT THE BOMBING -- IN HIS WORDS -- "WAS FORESEEABLE AND UNNECESSARY."

    VOICE: "THERE WILL BE MORE SUCH ATTACKS. EACH MUST BE EXPECTED TO DEEPEN AMERICA'S ENGAGEMENT IN SAUDI ARABIA. [OPT] EACH ENLARGEMENT OF THE AMERICAN PRESENCE, THERE AND IN NEIGHBORING STATES, WILL MAKE MATTERS WORSE. F-B-I AGENTS ARE NOW IN SAUDI ARABIA TO INVESTIGATE THE BOMBING. GREATER C-I-A AND F-B-I INVOLVEMENT IN SAUDI ANTI-TERRORIST INTELLIGENCE AND POLICE OPERATIONS WILL FOLLOW. [END OPT] AMERICAN PRESSURES ON THE SAUDI GOVERNMENT TO ADOPT THE POLICIES WASHINGTON RECOMMENDS WILL STEADILY INCREASE. ALL OF THIS WILL BE DIRECTED TO SUPPRESSING THE RADICAL ISLAMIC MOVEMENT AND STRENGTHENING (AND, NO DOUBT, 'REFORMING') THE SAUDI GOVERNMENT. IT WILL ALL HAVE EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE EFFECT. ONE CAN TODAY SAY WITH REASONABLE CONFIDENCE THAT WITHIN 15 YEARS AT MOST, IF PRESENT AMERICAN AND SAUDI ARABIAN POLICIES ARE PURSUED, THE SAUDI MONARCHY WILL BE OVERTURNED, AND A RADICAL AND ANTI-AMERICAN GOVERNMENT WILL TAKE POWER IN RIYADH."

    TEXT: ACCORDING TO SOME NEWS REPORTS, UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI MAY NOT BE RENOMINATED FOR A SECOND TERM OF OFFICE. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL EDITORIALIZES THAT MR. BOUTROUS-GHALI "HAS GOOD REASON TO FEEL HURT."

    VOICE: "HE WOKE UP ONE MORNING RECENTLY TO READ THAT THE CLINTONITES HAVE DECIDED HE'S GOT TO GO. A FOREIGN POLICY OF 'ASSERTIVE MULTILATERALISM' WAS A CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IDEA, AND NO ONE'S PUSHED IT HARDER THAN THE SECRETARY-GENERAL. BUT MR. BOUTROS-GHALI SHOULD UNDERSTAND THERE'S NOTHING PERSONAL IN THE CLINTON TEAM'S DECISION; IT'S JUST BUSINESS. WITH THE CLINTON PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN UNDER WAY, THEY'VE SIMPLY DECIDED TO THROW MR. BOUTROS-GHALI OFF THE TRAIN. [OPT] TO BE SURE, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION AND MR. BOUTROS-GHALI WORKED TOGETHER ON SOME MAJOR FOREIGN INITIATIVES. UNFORTUNATELY THEY TURNED OUT TO BE FIASCOES, SUCH AS SOMALIA AND MOST OF BOSNIA. IF MR. BOUTROS-GHALI HAS BEEN PAYING ATTENTION TO U.S. POLITICS THE PAST THREE YEARS, HE'S KNOW THAT THIS CANDIDATE WOULD SEPARATE HIMSELF FROM ANYONE OR THING RESEMBLING A RE-ELECTION LIABILITY, NO MATTER WHAT." [END OPT]

    TEXT: NEGOTIATIONS IN GENEVA, SWITZERLAND, TO COME UP WITH A TREATY TO EXTEND THE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TO INCLUDE UNDERGROUND TESTING WERE RECESSED LAST WEEK FOR GOVERNMENTS TO REASSESS THEIR POSITIONS. THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS THAT ALL IS NOT GOING WELL.

    VOICE: "THE TREATY IS HUNG UP PRINCIPALLY OVER HOW IT IS TO ENTER INTO FORCE: WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE FIVE DECLARED NUCLEAR POWERS (THE UNITED STATES, RUSSIA, CHINA, FRANCE, BRITAIN) OR ALSO WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE THREE UNDECLARED 'THRESHOLD' NUCLEAR STATES (INDIA, PAKISTAN, ISRAEL). PAKISTAN AND ISRAEL COULD PROBABLY BE TAKEN CARE OF, BUT THE INDIANS ARE DIGGING IN THEIR HEELS. [OPT] SPURRED AT FIRST TO STAND OFF CHINA, THEY ALSO USE THEIR NUCLEAR CAPABILITY TO STAND OFF PAKISTAN AND, EVEN AS THEIR POLITICS SLIP RIGHT AND THEIR GOVERNMENTS GET WEAKER, TO SATISFY FELT REQUIREMENTS OF NATIONAL PRESTIGE. [END OPT] INDIA INITIATED THE INTERNATIONAL CALL FOR A TEST BAN IN 1954. AS RECENTLY AS LAST YEAR IT JOINED AN INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS SUPPORTING AN EARLY TREATY. BUT NOW IT HAS BECOME AN OBSTACLE TO A TREATY, SHIELDING ITS PURPOSES BEHIND A NEW CALL FOR GLOBAL NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT FIRST. THIS PROPOSAL IS A NONSTARTER. ANYWAY, IF THAT IS TRULY INDIA'S PURPOSE, IT IS ONE BEST SERVED BY THE PROMPT CONCLUSION OF AN ENFORCEABLE TEST BAN."

    TEXT: AN EDITORIAL IN TODAY'S NEW YORK TIMES MAKES THE POINT THAT "ECONOMIC SANCTIONS CAN BE A LEGITIMATE AND USEFUL WAY FOR THE UNITED STATES TO PRESSURE OTHER COUNTRIES TO CHANGE OFFENSIVE POLICIES."

    VOICE: "BANNING AMERICAN COMPANIES FROM TRADING WITH OR INVESTING IN IRAN, FOR EXAMPLE, MAKES TEHERAN PAY A PRICE FOR EXPORTING TERRORISM, SEEKING TO ACQUIRE NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND GROSSLY ABUSING HUMAN RIGHTS. IT ALSO ADDS CREDIBILITY TO WASHINGTON'S DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS TO ENLIST EUROPEAN AND ASIAN COUNTRIES IN THE SANCTIONS. REGRETTABLY, MOST OTHER COUNTRIES REMAIN UNPERSUADED. IN FRUSTRATION, THE HOUSE HAS VOTED UNANIMOUSLY TO IMPOSE PENALTIES ON FOREIGN COMPANIES THAT INVEST IN IRAN'S OIL INDUSTRY OR SEE SENSITIVE GOODS TO LIBYA, ANOTHER TARGET OF AMERICAN SANCTIONS. THE SENATE IS EXPECTED TO ENDORSE THE MEASURE AS WELL, AND PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS HE WILL SIGN IT. [OPT] FOREIGN COMPANIES THAT VIOLATE THE LAW WOULD BE PROHIBITED FROM DRAWING LOANS FROM PRIVATE AMERICAN BANKS AND LOSE ELIGIBILITY FOR UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT CREDITS AND LOAN GUARANTEES... [END OPT] TODAY'S TRADING PATTERNS INVOLVE MANY COUNTRIES AND TO BE MOST EFFECTIVE, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS NEED TO BE APPLIED INTERNATIONALLY. BUT THE WAY TO ACHIEVE CONCERTED ACTION IS BY DIPLOMATIC PERSUASION, NOT BY OVERREACHING ACTS OF CONGRESS."

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR EXAMINES ANOTHER PIECE OF LEGISLATION, THIS TIME, THE DEBATE IN THE U-S SENATE OVER THE REAUTHORIZATION OF THE MAGNUSSON ACT, WHICH GOVERNS THE NATION'S FISHERIES.

    VOICE: "THE MAGNUSSON ACT'S ORIGINAL INTENT WAS TO HALT THE PLUNDER OF AMERICAN FISHERIES BY FOREIGN FACTORY SHIPS AND MODERNIZE THE AMERICAN INDUSTRY... THE LAW DID LITTLE TO PROTECT THE FISHERIES, HOWEVER. INSTEAD OF FOREIGN VESSELS, NEW LARGE AMERICAN SHIPS, FINANCED BY FEDERAL LOANS AND EQUIPPED WITH SONAR AND HUGE NETS, OVERFISHED THE GROUNDS. FISH STOCKS ARE NOW DEPLETED TO THE POINT WHERE COD, HADDOCK AND OTHER POPULAR SPECIES ARE AT THEIR LOWEST MEASURED LEVELS EVER. [OPT] THE FISHERIES-MANAGEMENT COUNCILS, ESPECIALLY IN THE NORTHEAST, HAVE PROVEN INEFFECTIVE AT ENDING THE FREE-FOR-ALL. IN NEW ENGLAND, THE TRADITIONAL GEORGES BANKS FISHING GROUNDS HAVE HAD TO BE CLOSED AS AN EMERGENCY MEASURE. [END OPT] THE NEW BILL, LIKE A HOUSE MEASURE ALREADY PASSED, WOULD HELP PREVENT OVERFISHING... WE URGE SENATORS NOT TO DELAY AND TO PASS THE BILL THIS SEASON."

    TEXT: ON THAT VIEW EXPRESSED IN THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM MONDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/DN/PCH
    01-Jul-96 10:56 AM EDT (1456 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [02] BOSNIA / KARADZIC (L) BY DAVID FOLEY (SARAJEVO)

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-199576
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: INTERNATIONAL OFFICIALS IN BOSNIA SAY THE BOSNIAN-SERB PRESIDENT RADOVAN KARADZIC HAS NOT COMPLIED WITH DEMANDS FOR HIS RESIGNATION, AND HE REMAINS IN POWER. DAVID FOLEY IN SARAJEVO REPORTS THE OFFICIALS STOPPED SHORT OF RECOMMENDING THE RE-IMPOSITION OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON THE BOSNIAN SERBS. BUT THEY ARE CALLING FOR A STRONG RESPONSE FROM WORLD LEADERS.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS FROM THE OFFICE OF CARL BILDT, THE SENIOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR IN BOSNIA, SAY MR. KARADZIC HAS AGREED TO TRANSFER HIS PRESIDENTIAL POWERS TO ONE OF HIS DEPUTIES, BUT IT IS NOT ENOUGH.

    POINTING TO SATURDAY'S ANNOUNCEMENT BY SEVERAL WORLD LEADERS, AT A SUMMIT IN FRANCE, CALLING FOR MR. KARADZIC TO STEP DOWN IMMEDIATELY AND PERMANENTLY FROM ALL PUBLIC FUNCTIONS, MR. BILDT'S DEPUTY, MICHAEL STEINER, LISTED THE EVIDENCE THE BOSNIAN-SERB WAS STILL IN POWER.

    HE SAID SENIOR BOSNIAN SERB OFFICIALS IN THEIR HEADQUARTERS AT PALE, INSIST MR. KARADZIC IS STILL PRESIDENT. HE NOTED MR. KARADZIC WAS RE-ELECTED AS LEADER OF HIS POLITICAL PARTY SATURDAY. AMBASSADOR STEINER ALSO SAID MR. KARADZIC WAS ONCE AGAIN APPEARING IN PUBLIC, AND REMAINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHOOSING HIS PARTY'S CANDIDATES FOR ELECTIONS IN SEPTEMBER.

    /// ACT - STEINER ///

    THAT IS NOT WHAT THE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT AND HEADS OF STATE IN LYON, ALL UNITED, THE EIGHT, HAVE REQUESTED. IT IS EXACTLY NOT WHAT THEY HAVE REQUESTED.

    /// END ACT ///

    DESCRIBING THE CURRENT IMPASSE AS "NOT TOLERABLE," MR. STEINER CALLED ON WORLD LEADERS TO ACT.

    /// ACT - STEINER ///

    IT IS NOW UP TO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO FOLLOW UP ITS SOLEMN WORDS WITH ACTIONS, BECAUSE THIS WILL BE THE ONLY THING, THE ONLY LANGUAGE, WHICH IS UNDERSTOOD IN THESE CIRCLES IN PALE.

    /// END ACT ///

    HE STOPPED SHORT OF RECOMMENDING THE RE-IMPOSITION OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    UNDER THE DAYTON AGREEMENT AND EXISTING U-N RESOLUTIONS, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS CAN BE IMPOSED ON BOTH THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND NEIGHBORING SERBIA, A MOVE WHICH WOULD DAMAGE SERBIAN PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, WHO IS SEEN AS THE GUARANTOR OF THE ACCORD.

    MR. BILDT IS SAID TO BE SPEAKING TO WORLD LEADERS, PERHAPS IN AN EFFORT TO GET SUPPORT FOR A NEW SANCTIONS RESOLUTION FROM THE U-N SECURITY COUNCIL THAT WOULD AFFECT ONLY THE BOSNIAN SERBS.

    BESIDES SANCTIONS, MR. BILDT HAS FEW REMAINING LEVERS TO PRY MR. KARADZIC FROM POWER. OFFICIALS SAY STRONG WORDS HAVE MEANT LITTLE TO THE BOSNIAN SERBS. NATO COMMANDERS SAY THEY HAVE NO INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTURE MR. KARADZIC. OBSERVERS SAY MR. MILOSEVIC HAS SO FAR NOT BEEN WILLING OR ABLE TO FORCE MR. KARADZIC TO STEP DOWN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DF/JWH/RAE
    01-Jul-96 11:11 AM EDT (1511 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [03] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: HELPING BOSNIANS HELP THEMSELVES

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25393
    WRITER=KATE PORTEUS TELEPHONE=205-3222
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: AS WAR RAGED IN THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA BETWEEN THE THREE ETHNIC FACTIONS, MANY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS THE RED CROSS AND U-S-A-I-D WORKED DELIGENTLY TO BRING MUCH-NEEDED HUMANITARIAN AID TO THE PEOPLE OF BOSNIA. BECAUSE THE SITUATION WAS SO DESPERATE, MANY OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS WERE ABLE TO ONLY FOCUS ON PROVIDING AID FOR IMMEDIATE NEEDS -- SUCH AS FOOD, FUEL AND MEDICAL SUPPLIES. BUT KATE PORTEUS TELLS OF ONE AID ORGANIZATION THAT'S BEEN ABLE TO WORK WITH THE FUTURE IN MIND:

    TAPE: CUT #1 SCHRAM RUNS [0:09] "THE FASTER WE ARE OUT OF THERE, THE FASTER THE COMMUNITY CAN SUSTAIN THE PROGRAM BY ITSELF WITHOUT ANY FURTHER INTERVENTION, THAT IS OUR MEASURE OF SUCCESS."

    TEXT: STACEY SCHRAM IS WITH INTERNATIONAL ACTION AGAINST HUNGER-- ALSO KNOWN AS A-I-C-F AFTER THE ORIGINAL FRENCH GROUP ACTION INTERNATIONALE CONTRA FAIM. IT'S AN AID GROUP THAT'S HELPED APPROXIMATELY 200-THOUSAND PEOPLE IN BOSNIA-HEREZGOVINA SINCE 1993. MS. SCHRAM SAYS ONE PROGRAM TO DISTRIBUTE SEEDS FOR FOOD CROPS HAS BEEN A MAJOR ELEMENT OF THE GROUP'S SUCCESS.

    THE PROGRAM BEGAN IN AND AROUND GORNJI VAKUF, A THRIVING CITY NORTHWEST OF SARAJEVO, THAT WAS DEPENDENT ON MANUFACTURING AND TRADE BEFORE THE WAR. WHEN THE FIGHTING BEGAN, THE REGION BECAME ISOLATED AND WAS CUT OFF FROM ESSENTIAL SUPPLIES. EXISTING AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY AROUND THE CITY WAS NOT SUFFICIENT TO MEET THE FOOD NEEDS; VERY QUICKLY, HUNGER WAS A FACT OF LIFE IN WHAT HAD ONCE BEEN A PROSPEROUS TOWN. EVERYONE, INCLUDING MANY WHO HAD NO AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE, HAD TO TURN TO FARMING TO SURVIVE. STACY SCHRAM SAYS IT WAS THE HUNGER THAT LED TO THE A-C-I-F SEED PROGRAM:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 SCHRAM RUNS [0:0] "EVERY FAMILY IN THAT AREA WHO REQUESTS SEEDS ARE GIVEN THEM. SO THEY CAN GROW THEIR OWN POTATOS, THEY CAN GROW THEIR ONIONS, THEY CAN GROW THEIR OWN MIXED VEGTABLES. WE ALSO FOCUSED ON THE LARGER CROPS -- WHEAT AND BARLEY -- SO THEY CAN MILL FLOUR."

    TEXT: A-I-C-F HAD TO OVERCOME MANY DIFFICULTIES TO ESTABLISH A SUCCESSFUL AID PROGRAM. ETHNIC TENSIONS, STACEY SCHRAM SAYS, WERE MAJOR CONCERNS. IN AN AREA OF BOSNIAN-CROAT CONTROL, WOULD BOSNIAN-SERB AND BOSNIAN-MUSLIMS GET ENOUGH SEEDS AND LAND TO PLANT? A-C-I-F TOOK PRECAUTIONS TO MAKE SURE DISTRIBUTION WAS EQUITABLE TO ALL ETHNIC GROUPS. MS SCHRAM SAYS MONITORS GUARANTEED THAT EVERYONE WHO ORDERED SEEDS RECEIVED THEM, AND A-C-I-F WORKED CLOSELY WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM ALL ETHNIC GROUPS TO HELP SOLVE THEIR PROBLEMS.

    TAPE: CUT #3 SCHRAM RUNS [0:0] "THE WHOLE GOAL OF THIS WAS TO MAKE SURE THAT PEOPLE GOT FOOD TO SURVIVE THROUGH THE WINTER, THAT THEY DIDN'T HAVE TO RELY ON THE MORE DIRECT HUMANITARIAN AID, WHICH ARE THE FOOD KITS. WE WERE TRYING TO GET AWAY FROM THAT SO THAT THEY WOULD HAVE ENOUGH FOOD MATERIAL TO DO IT ON THEIR OWN."

    TEXT: THE KINDS OF PROBLEMS THAT PLAGUE FARMERS EVERYWHERE ALSO VEXED A-C-I-F AND THE PEOPLE OF GORNJI VAKUF. A POTATO BLIGHT THREATENED WHAT HAD BECOME A PRIMARY FOOD SOURCE. EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF THE HARVEST AMONG THE POPULATION WAS ALSO A PROBLEM.

    BEYOND RESTORING ESSENTIAL FOOD SUPPLIES IN THE MIDST OF WAR AND ISOLATION, STACEY SCHRAM SAYS THE GORNJI VAKUF PROGRAM ALSO CREATED SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND RENEWED SELF-RESPECT:

    TAPE: CUT # 4 SCHRAM RUNS [0:0] "THAT IS A BIG PART OF THE PROGRAM, THE DIGNITY PORTION OF IT. ALTHOUGH WE PROVIDED THE SEEDS, CERTAINLY, THE MUNICIPALTY AND THE PEOPLE WHO PLANTED THE SEEDS HAD TO DO ALL OF THE WORK, AND IT IS A TREMENDOUSLY DIFFICULT PROCESS."

    TEXT: MS. SCHRAM SAYS THAT A-C-I-F'S FIRST FORAY INTO FARMING, STARTED IN 1993, WAS SO SUCCESSFUL THE ORGANIZATION PUT ITSELF OUT OF BUSINESS IN THE AREA.

    TAPE: CUT #5 SCHRAM RUNS [0:0] "THE INTIAL PROGRAM IN THE BUGOJINO AND GORNJI VAKUF AREA, WHICH IS WHERE WE STARTED, HAS BEEN BROUGHT TO THE POINT WHERE THE SEEDS WERE REGENERATIVE. SO, THOSE SEEDS WILL REGENERATE FOR TWO MORE YEARS AND PROVIDE ENOUGH SEED MATERIAL FOR THAT ENTIRE AREA. SO, WE ARE NO LONGER CONDUCTING SEED PROGAMS IN THAT AREA."

    TEXT: WITH THE SIGNING OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS AND THE CESSATION OF FIGHTING, A-C-I-F HAS STARTED WORK IN A NEW REGION TO THE WEST OF GORNJI VAKUF WHERE SPRING SEEDS WERE DISTRIBUTED, AND FARMERS ARE NOW WAITING TO SEE IF FALL SEEDS, LIKE WHEAT AND BARELY, CAN ALSO BE PLANTED.
    NEB/KJP/PCH
    01-Jul-96 3:13 PM EDT (1913 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [04] CONFLICT RESOLUTION: MOSTAR BRIDGES (PART II) BY PAMELA TAYLOR (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=CURRENT AFFAIRS FEATURE
    NUMBER=3-25386
    TELEPHONE=619-1101
    EDITOR=PHIL HAYNES
    CONTENT= // TAPE INSERTS AVAILABLE FROM AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: THE TWO-YEAR EUROPEAN UNION (E-U) MANDATE TO ADMINISTER THE DIVIDED BOSNIAN CITY OF MOSTAR WAS SCHEDULED TO END ONCE FREE AND FAIR ELECTIONS WERE HELD AND A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS INSTALLED. BUT THE CITY IS FAR FROM UNITED DESPITE SUNDAY'S (JUNE 30TH) ELECTION RESULTS [EDS: CHECK LATEST]. THERE ARE CONCERNS ON ALL SIDES THAT A PREMATURE E-U DEPARTURE COULD RESULT IN A RENEWAL OF THE YEAR-LONG CROAT SIEGE OF MUSLIM-POPULATED EAST MOSTAR. WHEN VOA' PAMELA TAYLOR VISITED MOSTAR, SHE FOUND A SHATTERED CITY STRUGGLING TO REBUILD, IF NOT TO RE-UNITE:

    TEXT: TODAY MUCH OF THE OLD PART OF MOSTAR -- WHICH STRADDLES BOTH SIDES OF THE RUSHING NERETVA RIVER -- LOOKS MORE LIKE A BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPH FROM WORLD WAR TWO THAN THE COLORFUL BALKAN TOWN BELOVED BY POETS AND TRAVELLERS FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS. THE MINARETS THAT ONCE DOMINATED THE SKYLINE HAVE ALL BUT DISAPPEARED, ALONG WITH THE PICTURESQUE ORIENTAL BAZAAR AND RIVERFRONT CAFES.

    MOSTAR'S MOST CELEBRATED LANDMARK, A GRACEFULLY ARCHED STONE BRIDGE, BUILT BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS IN 1566, NOW LIES AT THE BOTTOM OF THE NERETVA RIVER. BUILT TO LINK ORIENTAL ISLAM AND WESTERN CHRISTIANITY, THE 'STARI MOST' -- MEANING OLD BRIDGE -- WAS TARGETED DURING THE WAR BY SERB AND CROAT NATIONALISTS WHO VIEWED IT AS A SYMBOL OF TURKISH RULE. BUT TO THE REST OF THE WORLD THE BRIDGE'S DESTRUCTION WAS ONE OF THE MORE GRAPHIC SYMBOLS OF THE DISMEMBERMENT OF BOSNIA'S ONCE-FAMOUS MULTI-CULTURALISM. IN ITS PLACE, AN UGLY, SUSPENSION LINK BRIDGES THE CHASM. [OPT] ON EITHER SIDE, THE SOUNDS OF CONSTRUCTION FILL THE AIR:

    TAPE: CUT # 1 CONSTRUCTION SOUNDS (SNEAK ABOVE & UNDER) RUNS [:27] [END OPT]

    TEXT: THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE AND OTHER BRIDGES WERE BUILT WITH MONEY FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION, WHICH HAS SPENT MORE THAN 200-MILLION DOLLARS ON RECONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN MOSTAR. [END OPT] UNDER THE TERMS OF THE U-S BROKERED BOSNIAN-CROAT FEDERATION, THE E-U HAS REBUILT SCHOOLS AND BRIDGES, THE HOSPITAL AGAIN HAS CLEAN SHEETS AND THERE IS MEDICINE FOR PATIENTS. HOWEVER, ONLY WOMEN, CHILDREN AND FOREIGNERS MAY CROSS THE BRIDGES FREELY. MUSLIM MEN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 16 AND 60 MUST HAVE SPECIAL PERMISSION. AND WITHOUT SPECIAL PERMISSION, MUSLIMS CANNOT RECEIVE MEDICAL ATTENTION AT HOSPITALS ON THE WEST SIDE. NEITHER MAY SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM MUSLIM EAST MOSTAR ATTEND SCHOOL IN THE CROAT WESTERN PART OF THE CITY, AS THEY DID BEFORE THE WAR.

    BUT SOME POCKETS OF RESISTANCE TO THIS ETHNIC PARTITION REMAIN. MARINA CVJETANOVIC IS IN CHARGE OF FOUR KINDERGARTENS IN CROAT WEST MOSTAR; A FORMER COLLEAGUE AND FRIEND IS IN CHARGE OF FOUR OTHERS ON THE MUSLIM SIDE. THEY ARE PART OF ANOTHER E-U-ADMINISTERED PROJECT CALLED 'MLADI MOST', OR 'YOUNG BRIDGE', AN ATTEMPT TO REUNITE PEOPLE AT THE PRE-SCHOOL LEVEL OF EDUCATION. SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, MS. CVJETANOVIC SAYS REBUILDING SCHOOLS BECAME A TOP PRIORITY ONCE THE FIGHTING STOPPED:

    TAPE: CUT # 2 CVJETANOVIC/INTERPRETER "(SERBO-CROATIAN) DURING THE WAR ALL PRE-SCHOOLS ON BOTH SIDES OF MOSTAR HAD STOPPED WORKING. THE BUILDINGS WERE CONVERTED INTO REFUGEE CENTERS MAINLY BUT THEY WERE SHELLED CONSTANTLY. THAT'S WHY THE DAMAGE IS HERE. WHEN THE FIGHTING WOUND DOWN, THE E-U PUT A TOP PRIORITY ON REBUILDING SCHOOLS AND KINDERGARTENS. PRE-WAR MOSTAR HAD 11 KINDERGARTENS; ITS JUST A MATTER OF COINCIDENCE THAT FIVE ARE HERE AND SIX OR SEVEN ARE THERE, BUT THAT'S NOT IMPORTANT SO I DON'T WANT TO TALK ABOUT MOSTAR AS A DIVIDED CITY. IT'S A CITY THAT HAS TWO PARTS BUT THEY STILL KIND OF WORK -- WITH THESE CHILDREN -- TOGETHER."

    TEXT: IN THIS SENSE THE CHANGES TO MOSTAR ARE MUCH GREATER THAN THE PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION WHICH IS VISIBLE TO THE EYE. BEFORE THIS WAR, MOSTAR WAS 35 PERCENT MUSLIM, 34 PERCENT CROAT AND 19 PERCENT SERB. TODAY THE CITY IS ROUGHLY DIVIDED BETWEEN CROATS AND MUSLIMS, MOST OF THEM NEWCOMERS. MOST OF THE SERBS HAVE FLED TO SERB-HELD LANDS. DAVID BOYES, A FIELD OFFICER WITH THE INTERNATIONAL RESCUE COMMITTEE (IRC), SAYS THAT IN PRE-WAR MOSTAR, AS IN SARAJEVO, NO ONE CARED ABOUT ETHNIC ORIGINS:

    TAPE: CUT # 3 BOYES RUNS [:20] "MOSTAR HAD THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGES OF MIXED MARRIAGES BEFORE THE WAR. IT WAS THE HIGHEST ETHNICALLY MIXED CITY AND THEY LIVED TOGETHER FOR A LONG TIME IN PEACE, LONG-TIME FRIENDS. EVERYBODY WENT TO THE SAME SCHOOLS, EVERYBODY KNOWS EVERYBODY. EVERYBODY'S MARRIED TO EVERYBODY, OR ARE COUSINS."

    TEXT: SUCH MULTI-ETHNIC HAMONY NOW SEEMS IN THE DISTANT PAST. [OPT] BUT IT WAS ONLY FOUR YEARS AGO THAT SERB NATIONALISTS TRIED TO SEIZE CONTROL OF THE ENTIRE NERETVA VALLEY TO SECURE AN OUTLET TO THE ADRIATIC SEA FOR THEIR DREAM OF UNITING ALL SERB LANDS IN A GREATER SERBIA. MUSLIMS FLEEING THE ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGNS IN EASTERN BOSNIA BEGAN FLOODING INTO MOSTAR, CAUSING THE CROAT POPULATION TO PANIC AT THE PROSPECT OF COMING UNDER MUSLIM DOMINATION. SO THEY TURNED ON THEIR FORMER MUSLIM ALLIES IN AN ETHNIC CLEANSING CAMPAIGN OF THEIR OWN WHICH INCLUDED BURNING AND DYNAMITING SERB AS WELL AS MUSLIM HOMES. [END OPT] TODAY, DIPLOMATS AND AID WORKERS SAY, MOSTAR IS RUN BY FORMER CROAT FIGHTERS FROM THE MOUNTAINS OF HERZEG-BOSNIA WHO ARE DETERMINED TO PRESERVE THEIR OWN CROAT STATELET, DESPITE THE DAYTON ACCORD WHICH CALLS FOR A UNITED BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    MANY INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS SAY THE WELL-MEANING EFFORTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TO RE-UNITE THE CITY HAVE LARGELY FAILED. IN ITS PLACE IS A CITY DESCRIBED BY RECENT VISITORS AS DIVIDED BETWEEN A EUROPEAN-MUSLIM GHETTO ON THE EAST SIDE AND A BALKAN VERSION OF LAWLESS DODGE CITY (A NOTORIOUS AMERICAN 'WILD WEST' CITY) IN THE CROAT-CONTROLLED WESTERN PART. IT REMAINS TO BE SEEN WHETHER SUNDAY'S ELECTION RESULTS WILL CONFIRM MOVES TOWARD PARTITION OR -- AS MOSTAR'S EDUCATORS AND MANY OTHERS WOULD HAVE IT -- BACK TOWARD INTEGRATION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PAM/PCH
    01-Jul-96 3:06 PM EDT (1906 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [05] U-S-KARADZIC (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-199593
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS REJECTED THE OFFER OF BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO TEMPORARILY TRANSFER HIS AUTHORITY AS PRESIDENT. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, ECONOMIC SANCTIONS REMAIN A POSSIBILITY IF MR. KARADZIC REMAINS IN CHARGE.

    TEXT: UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC SANCTIONS IMPOSED AGAINST SERBIA WERE SUSPENDED LAST JANUARY AS A REWARD FOR PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC SIGNING THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT. THE UNITED STATES HAS OFTEN THREATENED TO SEEK RENEWAL OF THE SANCTIONS IF SERBIA DOES NOT FULFILL THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE TREATY SUCH AS TURNING OVER SUSPECTS INDICTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS JULY FIRST WAS NOT THE AMERICAN DEADLINE FOR RADOVAN KARADZIC, ONE OF THE MAIN SUSPECTS, TO STEP DOWN FROM POWER. THAT WAS THE DEADLINE OF INTERNATIONAL MEDIATOR CARL BILDT. SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE UNITED STATES IS WILLING TO WAIT TO SEE IF SERBIA TAKES STRONGER ACTION TO REMOVE THE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER'S AUTHORITY BEFORE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ARE RENEWED.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THE RE-IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS IS A DISTINCT POSSIBILITY AT ANY TIME SHOULD WE DECIDE THAT THAT IS THE PROPER AND BEST COURSE OF ACTION. THE REIMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS CAN BE EASILY ARRANGED, EITHER THROUGH THE EFFORTS OF CARL BILDT OR THROUGH ADMIRAL (LEIGHTON) SMITH AND I THINK THAT MR. KARADZIC AND MR. MILOSEVIC SHOULD UNDERSTAND THAT THAT IS AN OPTION THAT WE HAVE AT OUR DISPOSAL. I WOULDN'T WANT TO LEAD YOU TO BELIEVE THAT IS SOMETHING WE ARE GOING TO EXERCISE TODAY. WE'D LIKE TO SEE THIS PLAY OUT.

    ///END ACT///

    THE HOPE HERE IS THAT SERBIAN PRESIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL TAKE SERIOUSLY THE THREAT OF RENEWED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND WILL FORCE MR. KARADZIC TO LOSE ALL HIS AUTHORITY. MR. KARADZIC REMAINS HEAD OF THE SERBIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY AND HIS DESIGNATED SUCCESSOR AS PRESIDENT SAYS SHE REMAINS VICE PRESIDENT AND HE REMAINS PRESIDENT.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE WHOLE PROCESS REMAINS OBLIQUE AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN SAYS THE UNITED STATES HAS LITTLE INTEREST IN DEALING WITH VICE PRESIDENT BILJANA PLAVSIC.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    I'M NOT GOING TO WRITE ANY TESTIMONIALS TO MS. PLAVSIC. SHE'S PART OF THE LEADERSHIP OF A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR STARTING A WAR AND FOR VIOLATING THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF ANOTHER GROUP OF PEOPLE ON THE WORST SCALE THAT WE HAVE SEEN IN EUROPE SINCE THE NAZIS. SO I'M NOT GOING TO SAY ANYTHING GOOD ABOUT MS. PLAVSIC.

    ///END ACT///

    THE ONLY DISTINCTION SEEN HERE IS THAT MS. PLAVSIC HAS NOT BEEN INDICTED BY THE HAGUE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL AS MR. KARADZIC HAS. THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS IT WILL DEAL WITH HER WHEN IT HAS TO. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MMK
    01-Jul-96 4:00 PM EDT (2000 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [06] YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES (L ONLY) BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=7/1/96
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-199583
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE FORMER MAYOR OF SARAJEVO HAS TOLD THE YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL THE CITY WAS LITERALLY TAKEN HOSTAGE BY BOSNIAN SERBS. THE FORMER MAYOR, TARIK KUPUSOVIC, WAS GIVING EVIDENCE IN PUBLIC HEARINGS INTO WAR CRIMES CHARGES AGAINST BOSNIAN-SERB LEADERS RADOVAN KARADZIC AND RATKO MLADIC. GILLIAN SHARPE IN THE HAGUE REPORTS, AMONG OTHER CHARGES, BOTH MEN ARE ACCUSED OF MASTER-MINDING A SIEGE OF THE CITY AND DELIBERATELY TARGETING CIVILIANS.

    TEXT: TARIK KUPUSOVIC TOLD THE COURT SARAJEVO HAD ALWAYS BEEN A CITY OF TOLERANCE, A PLACE WHERE SERBS, MUSLIMS, CROATS, AND JEWS HAD LIVED TOGETHER FOR MORE THAN 400 YEARS.

    BUT HE SAID ALL THAT CHANGED IN 1992 AS THE BOSNIAN SERBS BEGAN ALMOST CONTINUOUS SHELLING FROM THE HILLS. HE SAID ABOUT 12-THOUSAND SARAJEVO CITIZENS WERE KILLED, OF THOSE, 16-HUNDRED WERE CHILDREN. WATER AND POWER WERE CUT OFF, HOUSES DESTROYED, AND MANY HISTORIC BUILDINGS WERE COMPLETELY SHATTERED.

    SPEAKING THROUGH AN INTERPRETER, MR. KUPUSOVIC SAID HE HAS NO DOUBT WHAT THE SERB SHELLING AND SNIPING CAMPAIGN WAS DESIGNED TO ACHIEVE.

    /// KUPUSOVIC INT. ACT ///

    THE PURPOSE WAS TO KEEP THE CITY HOSTAGE, IN A WAY, AND HOPELESS. IN A SITUATION WHERE EVERYTHING WOULD BE CONTROLLED BY KARADZIC'S SERBS, AND THEY WOULD BE LORDS OF PEACE AND WAR, WAR AND PEACE, LIFE AND DEATH, OF ENTIRE CITY AND ALL ITS INHABITANTS.

    /// END ACT ///

    WITH THE PROMISE AND FAILURE OF A NUMBER OF CEASEFIRES, PEOPLE DID INDEED LOSE HOPE. BUT HE SAID SARAJEVANS HAD A SPIRIT THAT WAS HARD TO CRUSH.

    THROUGHOUT THE SIEGE, CHILDREN WERE EDUCATED, PEOPLE TOOK CARE OF THEIR NEIGHBORS, AND THE WOMEN OF THE CITY -- WHO OFTEN WERE LOOKING AFTER WHOLE FAMILIES ON THEIR OWN -- DID THEIR BEST TO FIND MAKE-UP AND DECENT CLOTHES.

    MR. KUPUSOVIC DESCRIBED HIS DEPRESSION ON SEEING ONE OF THE CITY'S SHATTERED MOSQUES. BUT, HE SAID HE REMEMBERED SARAJEVO IS NOT THE BUILDINGS, IT IS THE PEOPLE. HE SAID AFTER THE MADNESS IS FINISHED, PEOPLE CAN REBUILD. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/RAE
    01-Jul-96 1:01 PM EDT (1701 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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