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Voice of America, 97-05-14

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBANIA POL (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [02] CHESS, APPLE, CHYRSLER, DENTISTS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] GERMANY / BOSNIA / TRIAL (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [05] NATO/RUSSIA OVERNITER (S) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [06] RUSSIA / NATO ONITER (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [07] TURKEY/KURDS (UPDATE) (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [08] U-S-CROATIA OVERNIGHTER (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [09] U-S /NATO REACT (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [10] U-S REACT / NATO (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [11] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] ALBANIA POL (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214237
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN ENVOY FOR ALBANIA, FRANZ VRANITZKY, IS RETURNING TO TIRANA THURSDAY TO ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE A NEW DISPUTE ABOUT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS. AS V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS, THE ELECTIONS ARE DUE TO BE HELD JUNE 29TH.

    TEXT: MR. VRANITZKY WILL BE MEETING THE ALBANIAN POLITICIANS WITH WHOM HE NEGOTIATED AN ELECTION ACCORD LAST WEEK. THAT SIX-POINT AGREEMENT SET DOWN PROCEDURES FOR THE ELECTION AND CALLED FOR THE DISBANDING OF CITIZEN MILITIAS WHICH OPERATE OUTSIDE GOVERNMENT CONTROL IN SOUTHERN ALBANIA.

    PRESIDENT BERISHA HAS INFURIATED THE POLITICAL OPPOSITION BY HAVING THE OUTGOING PARLIAMENT -- WHICH HIS PARTY CONTROLS -- APPROVE AN ELECTION LAW DIFFERENT FROM WHAT MR. VRANITZKY NEGOTIATED. MR. BERISHA'S DEMOCRATS WANT SINGLE-MEMBER ELECTION DISTRICTS, WHILE THE OPPOSITION FAVORS PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. THE VRANITZKY ACCORD HAD PROVIDED FOR A MIX OF THE TWO SYSTEMS.

    THE OPPOSITION PARTIES SAY THE VOTING LAW FAVORS THE DEMOCRATS AND THEY ARE THREATENING TO BOYCOTT THE JUNE ELECTION UNLESS THE MEASURE IS OVERTURNED.

    MR. BERISHA WEDNESDAY TOLD A PARTY RALLY THE DEMOCRATS WILL WIN THE JUNE ELECTION.

    THE SOCIALIST PRIME MINISTER, BASHKIM FINO, RETURNED (WEDNESDAY) FROM THE UNITED STATES AND APPEALED FOR THE LATEST DISPUTE TO BE OVERCOME. HE SAID IT IS ESSENTIAL ALBANIA AVOID SLIDING BACK INTO THE CHAOS, OF FEBRUARY AND MARCH, THAT PROMPTED THE FORMATION OF AN INTERIM GOVERNMENT AND THE DISPATCH OF A SIX-THOUSAND MEMBER STABILIZATION FORCE LED BY ITALY.

    ITALY ANNOUNCED WEDNESDAY IT WILL HOST A GATHERING ON ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO ALBANIA IN MID-JUNE. ITALY ALSO WILL HOST A PLANNING SESSION ON MAY 26TH TO BE ATTENDED BY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, AID DONORS, AND COUNTRIES WITH PEACEKEEPING TROOPS IN ALBANIA.

    THE ALBANIAN CRISIS WAS TRIGGERED BY PUBLIC ANGER AT THE COLLAPSE OF INVESTMENT COMPANIES THAT WIPED OUT THE SAVINGS OF THOUSANDS OF POOR PEOPLE. PROTESTERS BLAMED PRESIDENT BERISHA FOR THE FINANCIAL FRAUD THAT STALLED WHAT HAD BEEN POST-COMMUNIST EUROPE'S FASTEST GROWING ECONOMY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/RAE
    14-May-97 12:22 PM EDT (1622 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CHESS, APPLE, CHYRSLER, DENTISTS BY DAN NOBLE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=COMPUTER SERIES
    NUMBER=3-27318
    TELEPHONE=619-1014
    EDITOR=SWANEY
    CONTENT=

    INTRO: ON THIS EDITION OF COMPUTER DIGEST:

    AN IBM COMPUTER WINS A CHAMPIONSHIP CHESS MATCH,

    APPLE COMPUTER PREVIEWS A NEW OPERATING SYSTEM,

    A MAJOR AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURER INTENDS TO WEAN EMPLOYEES AWAY FROM PAPER,

    AND, HIGH-TECHNOLOGY MAY REDUCE RADIATION EXPOSURE TO DENTAL PATIENTS. *****

    CHESS

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR REPORTS THAT "FOR 40 YEARS, ONE OF THE GRAND CHALLENGES OF ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH HAS BEEN TO BEAT THE REIGNING CHESS CHAMPION IN A FULL MATCH." ON SUNDAY, MAY 11, IN NEW YORK CITY, A COMPUTER BUILT BY IBM DID JUST THAT -- IT BEAT CHESS CHAMPION GARRY KASPAROV IN A SIX-GAME COMPETITION. CHUNG-JEN TAN, LEADER OF THE IBM TEAM, SAYS THAT THE COMPANY'S MAIN GOAL "WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THE POWER OF PARALLEL PROCESSING -- HOW COORDINATING MANY COMPUTERS TO WORK ON A SINGLE PROBLEM CAN SOLVE VERY COMPLICATED PROBLEMS, SUCH AS CHESS." MR. TAN ADDS THAT THE SAME METHOD "CAN BE APPLIED TO VARIOUS REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS, SUCH AS FINANCIAL MODELING, WHICH WILL EVENTUALLY AFFECT CONSUMERS." *****

    APPLE

    TEXT: THIS WEEK (FYI - TUESDAY, MAY 13), APPLE COMPUTER DEMONSTRATED AN EARLY VERSION OF A NEW OPERATING SYSTEM, CODE-NAMED RHAPSODY. THE NEW YORK TIMES SAYS THAT APPLE, WHICH PRODUCES THE POPULAR LINE OF MACINTOSH COMPUTERS, HOPES THAT THE DEVELOPMENT "WILL RESTORE THE COMPANY'S REPUTATION FOR SOFTWARE THAT IS AS INNOVATIVE AS IT IS EASY TO USE." THE NEWSPAPER SAYS THAT GILBERT AMELIO, APPLE'S CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE, DISCLOSED THAT THE NEW SYSTEM "WOULD WORK ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS BASED ON THE INTEL CORPORATION'S MICROPROCESSORS, AND WOULD RUN ON EITHER OF THE MICROSOFT CORPORATION'S OPERATING SYSTEMS, WINDOWS 95 OR NT." ACCORDING TO THE PAPER: "THIS NEW, SO-CALLED CROSS-PLATFORM CAPABILITY IS IMPORTANT TO SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS, WHO HAVE BEEN INCREASINGLY UNWILLING TO WRITE PROGRAMS SOLELY FOR THE MACINTOSH." *****

    CHRYSLER

    TEXT: THE CHRYSLER CORPORATION IS ONE OF SEVERAL LARGE AMERICAN COMPANIES THAT ARE TURNING THEIR INTERNAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS INTO PRIVATE, SCALE MODELS OF THE INTERNET'S WORLD WIDE WEB. THE WALL STREET JOURNAL NOTES THAT CHRYSLER'S SO-CALLED "INTRANET" IS STILL "VERY MUCH A WORK IN PROGRESS." THE JOURNAL SAYS THAT "'CULTURAL AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS STILL MUST BE OVERCOME BEFORE THE AUTO MAKER WILL REALIZE SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES -- AND COST SAVINGS -- IT SEEKS." THE JOURNAL ADDS THAT ALREADY, CHRYSLER'S EXPERIENCE "SUGGESTS THAT INTRANETS ARE A CHEAPER, FASTER AND MORE CONVENIENT WAY FOR MANAGERS TO BROADCAST INFORMATION TO STAFFERS, MONITOR PROJECTS AND CUT DOWN ON TIME-WASTING DATA SEARCHES AND BURDENSOME PAPERWORK." CHRYSLERS'S SYSTEM LINKS THE COMPANY'S SUPERCOMPUTERS, MAINFRAMES, WORKSTATIONS AND DESKTOP PERSONAL COMPUTERS. ACCORDING TO THE JOURNAL, ONE OF THE PROBLEMS THAT REMAINS IS CONVINCING WORKERS TO RELY ON HIGH-TECH COMMUNICATION. SOME "HEW TO THE OLD RULE THAT NO CHANGE IS OFFICIAL UNTIL IT'S IN BLACK AND WHITE," AND ISSUED IN PRINTED FORM. *****

    DENTISTS

    TEXT: A NEW PROCESS, KNOWN AS COMPUTED DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY, "USES A PLASTIC MOUTHPIECE TO SEND INSTANT X-RAY IMAGES TO A COMPUTER MONITOR." THE PROCESS CUTS THE AMOUNT OF TIMES PATIENTS ARE EXPOSED TO RADIATION. IN FACT, DAVID SCHICK, THE LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, INVENTOR, TOLD THE USA TODAY NEWSPAPER THAT HIS INVENTION "USES 90% LESS RADIATION THAN TRADITIONAL FILM X-RAY SYSTEMS." AND, BECAUSE COMPUTED DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY "ELIMINATES THE USE OF DEVELOPING CHEMICALS, (IT) IS LESS HARMFUL TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND CAN CUT LONG-TERM COSTS FOR DENTISTS." AND, "BY HAVING A PATIENT'S X-RAY ON COMPUTER, DENTISTS CAN...SAVE, PRINT, COPY AND TRANSFER THE PICTURE OR ADD INFORMATION TO BE SAVED IN AN ELECTRONIC FILE." MORE THAN 25 AMERICAN DENTAL SCHOOLS HAVE ALREADY PURCHASED UNITS, AND APPROXIMATELY 1,000 DENTISTS NOW HAVE COMPUTED DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY MACHINES IN THEIR PRIVATE OFFICES. *****
    14-May-97 3:09 PM EDT (1909 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214246
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE TURNED IN A MIXED PERFORMANCE WEDNESDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON HAS THE CLOSING NUMBERS.

    TEXT: AFTER MORE THAN A WEEK OF CLIMBING HIGHER, THE KEY "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX OF BRITISH STOCKS WEDNESDAY GAVE UP A LITTLE GROUND AND CLOSED DOWN FOUR POINTS. THE KEY GERMAN "DAX 30" INDEX LOST GROUND AS WELL, SELLING DOWN 21-AND-A-HALF POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    BUT A NEW POLITICAL OPINION POLL IN FRANCE INDICATING THE RULING CONSERVATIVE GOVERNMENT OF JACQUES CHIRAC WILL PROBABLY WIN THE UPCOMING ELECTION WITH A COMFORTABLE MAJORITY, GAVE INVESTORS IN PARIS A REASON TO CELEBRATE. SO THEY BOUGHT STOCKS, DRIVING THE "CAC 40" INDEX UP MORE THAN 55-POINTS. MEANWHILE, THE U-S DOLLAR TRADED DOWN ABOUT ONE-CENT AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND, BUT UP A PFENNIG AGAINST THE GERMAN MARK. GOLD IN LONDON GAINED 60-CENTS TO CLOSE AT 348-DOLLARS-65 CENTS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    14-May-97 2:10 PM EDT (1810 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] GERMANY / BOSNIA / TRIAL (L ONLY) BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214229
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: IN GERMANY, CLOSING ARGUMENTS IN THE WAR CRIMES TRIAL OF A 34-YEAR-OLD BOSNIAN SERB MAN HAVE BEEN DELAYED AFTER A COURT-APPOINTED TRANSLATOR, OVERWHELMED WITH EMOTION AFTER WEEKS OF TESTIMONY, BROKE DOWN IN TEARS. AS V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS, PROSECUTORS IN THE CASE ARE DEMANDING A NINE-YEAR JAIL TERM FOR THE SUSPECT.

    TEXT: DEFENSE LAWYERS FOR NOVISLAV DJAJIC ASKED FOR THE RELEASE OF THEIR CLIENT AND WERE ABOUT TO WRAP UP THEIR CLOSING ARGUMENTS IN THE CASE, WHEN THE TRANSLATOR BROKE DOWN AND FORCED A DELAY IN THE TRIAL.

    MR. DJAJIC IS CHARGED WITH TAKING PART IN THE 1992 KILLING OF 14 MUSLIMS IN HIS HOME TOWN IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    THE CASE IS ONE OF TWO THAT THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE HAS REQUESTED BE TRIED IN GERMANY WHERE THE SUSPECTS WERE ARRESTED. TUESDAY, PROSECUTORS ENDED THEIR CASE AGAINST MR. DJAJIC, WITH A CALL FOR A NINE-YEAR PRISON TERM.

    WITNESSES TESTIFIED AT THE TRIAL THAT THE FORMER BOSNIAN SERB SOLDIER WAS A MEMBER OF A MILITARY UNIT THAT KILLED THE MUSLIMS DURING A CAMPAIGN OF ETHNIC CLEANSING.

    ALTHOUGH MR. DJAJIC IS NOT ACCUSED OF ACTUALLY KILLING ANY OF THE 14 VICTIMS, HE IS ACCUSED OF BEING AN ACCESSORY TO MURDER AND THE ATTEMPTED MURDER OF A MUSLIM MAN WHO ESCAPED THE INCIDENT.

    THERE WAS NO IMMEDIATE WORD FROM THE COURT ON WHEN THE VERDICT IN THE THREE-MONTH TRIAL WOULD BE ANNOUNCED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    14-May-97 11:08 AM EDT (1508 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] NATO/RUSSIA OVERNITER (S) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214249
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN SAYS NATO HAS AGREED NOT TO DEPLOY NUCLEAR WEAPONS OR TROOPS ON THE TERRITORY OF ANY NEW MEMBER STATES WITHIN THE ALLIANCE. VOA'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS MR. YELTSIN'S COMMENTS APPEAR TO CONTRADICT THOSE OF ALLIANCE OFFICIALS.

    TEXT: IN A TELEVISION INTERVIEW (WEDNESDAY), MR. YELTSIN INDICATED NATO HAD MADE MAJOR CONCESSIONS IN ORDER TO SEAL A LANDMARK SECURITY PACT.

    ///YELTSIN ACT UP, THEN FADE TO...///

    THE RUSSIAN LEADER SAID THE DEAL WOULD BE BINDING, AND INCLUDED PROVISIONS THAT NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND TROOPS WOULD NOT BE STATIONED ON THE TERRITORY OF NEWLY-ADMITTED ALLIANCE MEMBERS. HE SAID THE PACT ALSO GIVES THE KREMLIN VETO POWER OVER NATO DECISIONS.

    MR. YELTSIN'S REMARKS APPEAR TO CONTRADICT STATEMENTS BY ALLIANCE OFFICIALS THAT THERE WOULD BE NO COMPROMISE ON CORE ISSUES. ANALYSTS IN MOSCOW SAY THE COMMENTS MAY BE INTENDED TO SILENCE DOMESTIC CRITICS.

    NATO SECRETARY GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV ANNOUNCED THE AGREEMENT WEDNESDAY, APPARENTLY CLEARING THE WAY FOR A SIGNING CEREMONY IN PARIS MAY 27TH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/PCF/KL
    14-May-97 3:05 PM EDT (1905 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] RUSSIA / NATO ONITER (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214257
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN SAYS THE RUSSIA-NATO SECURITY PACT IS A BINDING AGREEMENT THAT COMMITS THE ALLIANCE NOT TO DEPLOY NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORY OF NEW MEMBER STATES. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS MR. YELTSIN'S COMMENTS APPEAR TO CONTRADICT THOSE OF ALLIANCE LEADERS.

    TEXT: NATO SECRETARY-GENERAL JAVIER SOLANA AND RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER YEVGENY PRIMAKOV SMILED AND EMBRACED WEDNESDAY AS THEY ANNOUNCED A BREAKTHROUGH ON A POST-COLD-WAR SECURITY ARRANGEMENT.

    ///PRIMAKOV ACT UP, THEN FADE TO...///

    MR. PRIMAKOV DESCRIBED THE AGREEMENT AS A BIG VICTORY FOR REASON. A VICTORY FOR THE WORLD COMMUNITY, FOR RUSSIA AND FOR ALL GOVERNMENTS INTERESTED IN PEACE.

    MR. SOLANA SAID THE PACT OPENS A NEW PAGE IN THE HISTORY OF THE BILATERAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATO AND RUSSIA.

    BUT DESPITE THE NEGOTIATORS' CONFIDENCE, THERE APPEAR TO BE DRAMATIC DIFFERENCES OF OPINION ABOUT PRECISELY WHAT THE AGREEMENT MEANS.

    IN A TELEVISION INTERVIEW RECORDED ABOUT THE SAME TIME THE DEAL WAS REACHED, RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN INDICATED NATO HAD MADE SWEEPING CONCESSIONS.

    ///YELTSIN ACT UP, THEN FADE TO...///

    MR. YELTSIN SAID THE SECURITY PACT WOULD BE BINDING AND INCLUDES A GUARANTEE NATO WOULD NOT STATION TROOPS OR NUCLEAR WEAPONS ON THE TERRITORY OF NEW MEMBER STATES. HE SAID RUSSIA WOULD, IN EFFECT, HAVE A VETO OVER ANY FUTURE NATO DECISIONS.

    THE EXACT WORDING OF THE ACCORD HAS NOT BEEN MADE PUBLIC, BUT MR. YELTSIN'S REMARKS APPEAR TO CONTRADICT STATEMENTS MADE BY ALLIANCE LEADERS. ANALYSTS IN MOSCOW SAY THE RUSSIAN LEADER'S COMMENTS MAY HAVE BEEN INTENDED TO SILENCE DOMESTIC CRITICS, WHO SAY HE HAS GIVEN IN TOO EASILY TO THE FORMER ENEMY'S ADVANCES.

    ///REST OPT///

    NATO IS EXPECTED TO ISSUE MEMBERSHIP INVITATIONS TO AT LEAST THREE FORMER SOVIET BLOC STATES IN JULY AT A SUMMIT IN MADRID. THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND ARE CONSIDERED FRONT-RUNNERS.

    THE AGREEMENT REACHED WEDNESDAY STILL MUST BE APPROVED BY ALL 16 NATO HEADS OF STATE, BUT INITIAL REACTIONS FROM ALLIANCE CAPITALS HAVE BEEN POSITIVE.

    BARRING UNFORSEEN DEVELOPMENTS, MR. YELTSIN IS EXPECTED TO SIGN THE SECURITY PACT AT A SPECIAL NATO-RUSSIA SUMMIT IN PARIS ON MAY 27TH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/RRM
    14-May-97 4:48 PM EDT (2048 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] TURKEY/KURDS (UPDATE) (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214241
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH DEFENSE MINISTER, TURHAN TAYHAN, DENIED WEDNESDAY HIS COUNTRY HAD ANY TERRITORIAL CLAIMS OVER IRAQ. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, MR. TAYAN'S REMARKS FOLLOW TURKEY'S MASSIVE CROSS-BORDER OFFENSIVE AGAINST KURDISH SEPARATIST REBELS IN NORTHERN IRAQ -- AN ACTION WHICH HAS BEEN HARSHLY CONDEMNED BY BAGHDAD.

    TEXT: SPEAKING AT A NEWS CONFERENCE, MR. TAYAN SAID IRAQ HAD NO REASON TO FEAR TURKEY'S INTENTIONS. HE SAID TURKISH TROOPS HAD CROSSED INTO NORTHERN IRAQ WEDNESDAY IN RESPONSE TO AN APPEAL FROM ONE OF THE MAIN KURDISH FACTIONS IN NORTHERN IRAQ.

    HE SAID MASSOUD BARZANI'S "KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY," THE K-D-P, HAD INVITED TURKISH TROOPS TO HELP IT FLUSH OUT FROM THE AREA REBELS OF THE "KURDISTAN WORKERS' PARTY," THE P-K-K. MR. TAYHAN SAID THE TURKISH-KURD REBEL GROUP HAD BEEN, IN HIS WORDS OPPRESSING AND TERRORIZING THE IRAQI KURDS.

    //OPT//

    THE TURKISH DEFENSE MINISTER DECLINED TO RESPOND TO QUERIES ABOUT THE NUMBER OF TURKISH TROOPS PARTICIPATING IN THE OFFENSIVE. TURKISH MILITARY OFFICIALS DENIED MEDIA REPORTS 50-THOUSAND TROOPS WERE INVOLVED. //END OPT//

    IRAQ STRONGLY CONDEMNED THE INCURSION AND DEMANDED AN IMMEDIATE WITHDRAWAL OF WHAT IT DESCRIBED AS INVADING TROOPS. THE KURDISH ENCLAVE HAS BEEN PROTECTED BY A U-S-LED ALLIED FORCE, BASED IN SOUTHERN TURKEY SINCE THE END OF THE 1990 GULF WAR. THE ENCLAVE WAS CREATED TO PROTECT THE IRAQI KURDS AGAINST POSSIBLE ATTACK FROM IRAQI GOVERNMENT TROOPS.

    K-D-P OFFICIALS, WHO CONTROL NEARLY HALF OF THE WESTERN PROTECTED KURDISH ENCLAVE -- INCLUDING THE BORDER REGION WITH TURKEY -- DESCRIBED THE TURKISH PRESENCE AS SIGNIFICANT AND CONFIRMED THEY WERE TAKING PART IN THE OPERATION. THEY SAID TURKISH TROOPS -- BACKED BY TANKS, FIGHTER JETS AND COMBAT HELICOPTERS -- HAD CROSSED THE BORDER INTO NORTHERN IRAQ TO DRIVE OUT SOME FOUR-THOUSAND P-K-K FIGHTERS SCATTERED ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS SEPARATING TURKEY FROM IRAQ.

    TURKEY'S SEMI-OFFICIAL ANATOLIAN NEWS AGENCY SAID TURKISH JETS HAD BOMBED AT LEAST FIVE P-K-K BASES IN NORTHERN IRAQ. THE OPERATION FOLLOWS A MASSIVE TROOP BUILDUP ALONG THE BORDER AND COINCIDES WITH THE RESUMPTION OF U-S SPONSORED PEACE TALKS TO RECONCILE K-D-P LEADER BARZANI WITH HIS ARCH RIVAL, JALAL TALABANI, LEADER OF THE "PATRIOTIC UNION OF ".

    //REST OPT//

    THE MAIN KURDISH FACTIONS HAVE BEEN LOCKED IN A BLOODY POWER STRUGGLE SINCE 1994. A U-S MEDIATED CEASEFIRE HAS BEEN HOLDING SINCE LAST YEAR, BUT OBSERVERS SAY RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE TWO KURDISH LEADERS REMAINS A DISTANT GOAL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/RAE
    14-May-97 12:56 PM EDT (1656 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] U-S-CROATIA OVERNIGHTER (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214259
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT MEETS THIS MORNING WITH CROATIA'S FOREIGN MINISTER MATE GRANIC TO DISCUSS CROATIA'S MIXED RECORD IN TURNING OVER INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE UNITED STATES ALSO PLANS TO RAISE CROATIA'S RECORD IN LETTING SERBS RETURN TO THEIR HOMES.

    TEXT: CROATIA IS PERMITTING CROATS TO SETTLE IN ONE TIME SERBIAN HOMES IN KRAJINA, THE PART OF THE COUNTRY DOMINATED BY SERBS UNTIL1995. THE UNITED STATES HAS REPEATEDLY CRITICIZED THE CROATIAN GOVERNMENT FOR PREVENTING SERBS FROM RETURNING.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT PLANS TO RAISE THE ISSUE WITH FOREIGN MINISTER GRANIC WHEN SHE MEETS HIM (THURSDAY) THIS MORNING.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    WE'RE CONCERNED THAT CROATIA HAS NOT TAKEN THE STEPS NECESSARY TO FACILITATE THE RETURN OF THE ETHNIC SERB REFUGEES TO CROATIA AND THAT IS A VERY SERIOUS CONCERN THAT WE WILL BE ADDRESSING AND THAT WE HAVE ALREADY ADDRESSED TO THE GOVERNMENT.

    ///END ACT///

    THE SECRETARY OF STATE MET FOR 10 MINUTES WEDNESDAY WITH BOSNIA'S CO-PRIME MINISTERS TO DISCUSS THE BOSNIAN GOVERNMENT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT INCLUDING THE FAILINGS OF THE BOSNIAN SERBS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    14-May-97 4:53 PM EDT (2053 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S /NATO REACT (L) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214256
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS HAILED THE NATO-RUSSIAN CHARTER AGREEMENT -- SAYING IT PAVES THE WAY FOR NATO EXPANSION AND AT THE SAME TIME A NEW AND BETTER RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA. ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THE ACCORD REFLECTS NO CONCESSIONS BY NATO ON FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS MORE FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON SAYS THE CHARTER AGREEMENT GIVES RUSSIA A VOICE BUT NOT A VETO IN NATO AFFAIRS AND CREATES A PARTNERSHIP MAKING ALL THE PARTIES STRONGER AND MORE SECURE.

    IN A SESSION WITH REPORTERS IN THE WHITE HOUSE ROSE GARDEN, THE PRESIDENT HAILED THE ACCORD AS A HISTORIC STEP TOWARD -- FOR THE FIRST TIME IN HISTORY -- A EUROPE THAT IS PEACEFUL, UNDIVIDED AND DEMOCRATIC.

    HE SAID THE DOCUMENT BUILDS ON THE UNDERSTANDINGS HE REACHED WITH RUSSIAN PRESIDENT YELTSIN IN HELSINKI IN MARCH, AND THAT MR. YELTSIN SHOULD BE ABLE TO ALLAY ANY REMAINING CONCERNS RUSSIANS HAVE ABOUT THE NATO EXPANSION PROCESS:

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    HE HAS SECURED AN AGREEMENT WHICH SHOWS THAT WHILE THEY DON'T HAVE A VETO OVER NATO ACTIONS, THAT NATO HAS NO PLANS, NO INTENTIONS, AND HAS MADE CLEAR THAT ITS MISSION IS NOT TO THREATEN, CONFINE OR IN ANY WAY UNDERMINE RUSSIA -- THAT WE'RE LOOKING FOR A PARTNERSHIP HERE BETWEEN A DEMOCRATIC RUSSIA AND THE DEMOCRACIES THAT ARE IN NATO. AND THAT THIS IN FACT WIL STRENGTHEN RUSSIA'S SECURITY AND REDUCE THE SENSE OF ANXIETY THEY MIGHT HAVE OTHERWISE FELT.

    ///END ACT///

    SENIOR OFFICIALS HERE SAY THE CHARTER INCORPORATES LANGUAGE FROM NATO DECLARATIONS FROM LAST DECEMBER AND MARCH THAT THE ALLIANCE HAS NO INTENTION NOW -- OR IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE -- TO STATION NUCLEAR WEAPONS OR TROOP REFINFORCEMENTS IN NEW MEMBER STATES. BUT THEY ALSO SAY NATO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO REASSESS THE SITUATION, IF SECURITY CONDITIONS CHANGE.

    THEY SAY THE ACCORD WILL BE APPROVED BY NATO LEADERS LATER THIS WEEK AND IS TO BE SIGNED BY MR. CLINTON, THE 15 OTHER NATO LEADERS, AND MR. YELTSIN IN PARIS MAY 27TH. THE DOCUMENT -- DESCRIBED HERE AS A POLITICAL COMMITMENT RATHER THAN A TREATY -- WILL NOT REQUIRE THE APPROVAL OF THE U-S CONGRESS OR OTHER ALLIANCE LEGISLATURES.

    NATO WILL ISSUE ITS LONG-AWAITED ANNOUNCEMENT ON NEW MEMBERS AT ITS MADRID SUMMIT IN JULY, WITH POLAND, HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC WIDELY EXPECTED TO BE INVITED TO JOIN. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/PT
    14-May-97 4:40 PM EDT (2040 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] U-S REACT / NATO (S-UPDATE) BY DAVID GOLLUST (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=5/14/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-214253
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS HAILED THE NATO-RUSSIAN CHARTER AGREEMENT -- SAYING IT PAVES THE WAY FOR NATO EXPANSION AND A NEW RELATIONSHIP WITH RUSSIA. ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS SAY THE ACCORD REFLECTS NO CONCESSIONS BY NATO ON FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES. V-O-A'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS MORE FROM THE WHITE HOUSE.

    TEXT: MR. CLINTON SAYS THE CHARTER AGREEMENT -- TO BE SIGNED LATER THIS MONTH IN PARIS -- GIVES RUSSIA A VOICE BUT NOT A VETO IN NATO AFFAIRS AND CREATES A PARTNERSHIP MAKING ALL THE PARTIES STRONGER AND MORE SECURE. IN A WHITE HOUSE STATEMENT, THE PRESIDENT SAID RUSSIA NOW KNOWS IT HAS NOTHING TO FEAR FROM AN EXPANDING ATLANTIC ALLIANCE.

    ///CLINTON ACTUALITY///

    WHILE THEY DON'T HAVE A VETO OVER NATO ACTIONS, NATO HAS NO PLANS, NO INTENTIONS, AND HAS MADE CLEAR THAT ITS MISSION IS NOT TO THREATEN, CONFINE OR IN ANY WAY UNDERMINE RUSSIA -- THAT WE'RE LOOKING FOR A PARTNERSHIP HERE.

    ///END ACT///

    SENIOR OFFICIALS HERE SAY THE CHARTER INCORPORATES LANGUAGE FROM NATO DECLARATIONS FROM LAST DECEMBER AND MARCH THAT THE ALLIANCE HAS NO CURRENT PLANS TO STATION NUCLEAR WEAPONS OR TROOP REINFORCEMENTS IN NEW MEMBER STATES. BUT THEY ALSO SAY NATO RESERVES THE RIGHT TO REASSESS THE SITUATION IN THE FUTURE, IF SECURITY CONDITIONS CHANGE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/RRM
    14-May-97 3:52 PM EDT (1952 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [11] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=05/13/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10160
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY MAY 13 //

    INTRO: AMERICAN EDITORIAL PAGE WRITERS ARE DISCUSSING A WIDE VARIETY OF TOPICS THIS WEDNESDAY IN MID-MAY. EDITORS HAVE COMMENTARIES ON THE SWISS HOLOCAUST GOLD ISSUE AND THE CONQUERING OF THE FLORIDA STRAITS BY AN AUSTRALIAN SWIMMER.

    YOU CAN ALSO READ ABOUT A BREAK IN THE COLD WAR BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN; THE U.N. MILITARY PRESENCE IN HAITI; MORE ON CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM; AND A MAJOR AMERICAN NEWSPAPER MAKES A FRONT-PAGE APOLOGY FOR WHAT IT SAID WAS A MISLEADING STORY.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK IS ___________________AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: ONE OF SEVERAL POPULAR TOPICS IS THE CONTINUING CONTROVERSY OVER HOW THE SWISS GOVERNMENT AND THE NATION'S BANKS PROVIDED FINANCIAL SERVICES TO THE NAZIS, INCLUDING LOCATIONS TO STORE HITLER'S GOLD. THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR POSES SOME RHETORICAL QUESTIONS:

    VOICE: "SWITZERLAND'S HISTORICAL PREFERENCE FOR NEUTRALITY IS UNDERSTANDABLE. ..... WHAT'S NOT SO EASY TO UNDERSTAND, FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE 50 YEARS LATER, IS WHY NO MORAL ALARMS WENT OFF WHEN NAZI GERMANY TURNED TO NEUTRAL SWITZERLAND FOR THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES TO SUSTAIN THE WAR. ..... BEYOND THIS NAZI GOLD, THE SWISS HAD CUSTODY OF SAVINGS, WORKS OF ART, AND OTHER ITEMS OF WEALTH BELONGING TO HITLER'S VICTIMS. WHY DID THEY RESIST RETURNING THESE ASSETS TO THEIR RIGHTFUL JEWISH OR OTHER OWNERS AFTER THE WAR? AND WHY HAS ALL OF THIS .....TAKEN SO LONG TO REACH THE PUBLIC?"

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK TIMES LOOKS AT WHAT THE SWISS ARE FINALLY DOING TO MAKE AMENDS AND SUGGESTS A POSSIBLE WORST-CASE SCENARIO FOR THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION.

    VOICE: "SO FAR SWITZERLAND HAS ESTABLISHED A 175-MILLION DOLLAR FUND FOR HOLOCAUST VICTIMS AND PROPOSES TO CREATE A FOUR-POINT-SEVEN BILLION DOLLAR FOUNDATION TO HELP PEOPLE IN NEED AROUND THE WORLD, PROVIDED SWISS VOTERS APPROVE THE PROJECT NEXT YEAR. THAT IS FAR FROM CERTAIN. ..... SHOULD THE FOUNDATION VOTE FAIL, THE POSTWAR BALANCE SHEET WILL BE LARGELY UNCHANGED. THAT WOULD BE UNFORGIVABLE. IF SWITZERLAND FALLS SHORT, THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION CAN FREEZE AN APPROPRIATE PORTION OF THE 86-BILLION DOLLAR IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE FUNDS THAT SWITZERLAND INVESTS IN THE UNITED STATES. IT SHOULD NOT COME TO THAT. SWITZERLAND HAS AMPLE RESOURCES. THE QUESTION IS WHETHER IT HAS THE CONVICTION TO ACT."

    TEXT: THERE IS SOME GOOD NEWS ON THE INDIA-PAKISTAN FRONT, ACCORDING TO THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. LEADERS OF BOTH COUNTRIES HAVE EXPRESSED NEW-FOUND HOPES FOR A PEACEFUL RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE TWO REGIONAL ENEMIES.

    VOICE: "PEACE ISN'T BUILT IN A DAY. BUT THIS WEEK'S EXTRAORDINARY SUMMIT MEETING OF THE LEADERS OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN - - NATIONS WITH NEARLY ONE-FIFTH OF THE WORLD'S POPULATION - - DESERVES UNUSUAL PRAISE. ...THE CHEMISTRY BETWEEN INDIAN PRIME MINISTER I-K- GUJRAL AND PAKISTANI PRESIDENT NAWAZ SHARIF [AT A MEETING OF ASIAN LEADERS IN THE MALDIVES THIS WEEK] PROVIDED AN UNUSUALLY PROMISING START."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE BOSTON GLOBE ALSO WRITES:

    VOICE: "...THE REST OF THE WORLD SHOULD WELCOME AND ENCOURAGE THE RAPPROCHEMENT THAT WAS EVIDENT .... IN THE SUMMIT MEETING BETWEEN THE NEW PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA ..... AND HIS PAKISTANI COUNTERPART ..... 50 YEARS AFTER THEIR COUNTRIES CAME TO INDEPENDENCE. .... WITH SO MUCH HANGING IN THE BALANCE, IT IS N O MEAN ACCOMPLISHMENT TO TRANSFORM POWER POLITICS INTO A CORDIAL PERSONAL ENCOUNTER."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IN REMINDING READERS OF THE POLITICAL FUND RAISING EXCESSES OF BOTH PARTIES IN LAST YEAR'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, THE LOS ANGELES TIMES ASKS TODAY "HOW MUCH SCANDAL IS NEEDED?" BEFORE REFORM IN ENACTED?

    VOICE: "SO NOW WE KNOW THAT REPUBLICANS DO IT TOO. THE REPUBLICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE HAS ANNOUNCED IT IS RETURNING 102-THOUSAND-4-HUINDRED DOLLARS IN CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS ILLEGALLY MADE BY A HONG KONG REAL ESTATE FIRM ..... THE REPUBLICANS SAID THEY THOUGHT THE DONATIONS WERE LEGAL .... THE CONFUSION SHOULD BE NO SURPRISE, GIVEN THE MURKINESS OF THE LAW GOVERNING POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS FROM FIRMS BASED OVERSEAS. ..... THERE WOULD, WE THINK, NO LONGER BE ANY CONFUSION IF THE CAMPAIGN REFORM BILL SPONSORED BY SENATORS JOHN MCCAIN .... AND RUSSELL ... FEINGOLD ... BECAME LAW. .... MEMBERS OF CONGRESS ... DON'T NEED AN INVESTIGATION TO TELL THEM TO DO WHAT IS RIGHT: PASS THE MCCAIN-FEINGOLD BILL NOW."

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE CARIBBEAN, THE PORTLAND MAINE PRESS HERALD SAYS THE U-S SHOULD PUSH TO "KEEP [THE] U-N FORCE IN HAITI UNTIL ITS STABILITY IS ASSURED," ADDING

    VOICE: "THE ONLY THING HOLDING HAITI TOGETHER NOW IS THE PRESENCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCE. PRESIDENT CLINTON IS WISE TO SEEK AN EXTENSION OF THE U-N MANDATE BEYOND ITS EXPIRATION DATE OF JULY 31. ..... HAITIAN STABILITY AND DEMOCRACY ARE TENUOUS. .... THE U-S INTERVENTION ON THE SIDE OF DEMOCRACY IN 1994, AND THE INTERNATIONAL U-N FORCE THAT TOOK OVER A YEAR LATER, SHOULD NOT HAVE BEEN IN VAIN."

    TEXT: REGARDING CUBA, TODAY'S WASHINGTON POST STRONGLY DISCOUNTS RECENT CUBAN ACCUSATIONS OF U-S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGAINST THAT COMMUNIST ISLAND. THE ALLEGATIONS RESULT FROM AN OCTOBER INCIDENT IN WHICH A CIVILIAN U-S CROP-DUSTING PLANE MARKED ITS LOCATION OVER CUBA WITH A PUFF OF HARMLESS SMOKE.

    VOICE: "HEARING THESE UGLY ACCUSATIONS, SOME IN CUBA AND ELSEWHERE WILL ASSUME THAT FIDEL CASTRO'S REGIME IS SIMPLY LYING. THAT'S WHAT WE THINK. BUT OTHERS MAY BE CONDITIONED TO GIVE THE ACCUSATIONS MORE CREDENCE BY THEIR KNOWLEDGE OF THE DUBIOUS LONGTIME AMERICAN FOOD AND MEDICINE EMBARGO, PART OF THE BROADER EMBARGO .... IN PLACE PRACTICALLY SINCE PRESIDENT CASTRO TOOK POWER."

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST SAYS IT'S LONG PAST TIME TO REVIEW THE EMBARGO POLICY WHICH IT SAYS INFLICTS HARDSHIP ON THE CUBAN PEOPLE, NOT THE GOVERNMENT. IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL, THE POST CENSURES BORIS YELTSIN FOR HIS APPARENT AMBIVALENCE IN A PUBLIC STATEMENT ON THE CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH HE WOULD LAUNCH RUSSIA'S NUCLEAR MISSILES. THE POST WRITES:

    VOICE: ".... THE LAST THING ANYONE NEEDS IS TO HAVE THE COMMANDER OF A STILL-GREAT NUCLEAR FORCE SPECULATING OUT LOUD AND UNCERTAINLY ABOUT WHEN HE WOULD PUSH THE BUTTON."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN CALIFORNIA, A NEWSPAPER RAN AN UNUSUAL FRONT-PAGE APOLOGY FOR WHAT IT CALLED A MISLEADING STORY CLAIMING A CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONNECTION WITH THE SUPPLY OF CRACK COCAINE THAT OVERWHELMED SOME U-S CITIES IN THE 1980S. THE SAN JOSE [CALIFORNIA] MERCURY NEWS SAYS AN INVESTIGATIVE REPORT IT PRINTED LAST YEAR WAS NOT BASED ON SUFFICIENT FACTS TO BE CREDIBLE. COMMENTS THE NEW YORK POST:

    VOICE: "THE MERCURY-NEWS PRESENTED NO ACTUAL EVIDENCE THAT THE C-I-A WAS IN ANY WAY AWARE OF THE DRUG ACTIVITIES OF THE TWO FORMER CONTRAS - - AND NO PROOF THAT THEY INTRODUCED CRACK COCAINE INTO THE UNITED STATES WITH THE AGENCY'S KNOWLEDGE AND APPROVAL. BUT THE WAY THE STORY WAS WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED IMPLIED MAJOR FINDINGS OF A 'DARK ALLIANCE' BETWEEN THE C-I-A AND THE COCAINE TRADE. [THE] EDITORIAL APOLOGY ..... IS OF COURSE WELCOME. BUT IT CAN'T QUITE WIPE OUT THE DEEPER ILLNESS UNCOVERED BY THE EPISODE: THE READY AUDIENCE AVAILABLE TO BELIEVE IN OUTLANDISH CONSPIRACY THEORIES ......"

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: AND FINALLY, CONGRATULATIONS FROM SEVERAL PAPERS TO THE AUSTRALIAN SWIMMER SUSIE MARONEY. SHE BECAME THE FIRST PERSON TO OFFICIALLY SWIM THE 190-KILOMETER FLORIDA STRAITS, WHICH STRETCHES BETWEEN CUBA AND KEY WEST, FLORIDA. SAYS "THE MIAMI HERALD":

    VOICE: "WITH ALMOST SIX BILLION INHABITANTS ON THE PLANET, IT IS BECOMING NEAR IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY SINGLE PERSON TO MAKE SO SINGULAR A MARK. .... TO MS. MARONEY WE SAY: WELL DONE!"

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM SOME OF TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    14-May-97 10:41 AM EDT (1441 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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