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Voice of America, 97-11-05

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] ALBRIGHT-BOSNIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [02] CLINTON / BOSNIA / L-O BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-O) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [05] WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)
  • [06] YUGO / HEALTH BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)
  • [07] YUGO / INDEPENDENT MEDIA BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

  • [01] ALBRIGHT-BOSNIA (L) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=11/5/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222241
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS NOW GIVING STRONGER HINTS THERE IS A GROWING CONSENSUS WITH CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS TO KEEP SOME KIND OF AMERICAN MILITARY PRESENCE IN BOSNIA PAST THE DEADLINE OF NEXT JUNE. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT ABOUT THE CLEAREST SIGNAL YET.

    TEXT: THERE IS STILL NO FORMAL DECISION FROM PRESIDENT CLINTON ABOUT HOW MANY AMERICAN TROOPS WILL REMAIN IN BOSNIA AFTER THE CURRENT NATO STABLIZATION FORCE ENDS NEXT JUNE. HOWEVER, AFTER HIS MEETING WITH CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS TUESDAY, THE PRESIDENT HAS TOLD VISITING GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL THE CONSENSUS IS GROWING TO KEEP AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA ALONG WITH THE EUROPEANS TO SUPPORT THE DAYTON PEACE AGREEMENT.

    STANDING ALONGSIDE THE GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT GAVE HER UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSENSUS OF THE WHITE HOUSE MEETING.

    ///ALBRIGHT ACT///

    THERE WAS A VERY IMPORTANT MEETING WITH PROBABLY ABOUT 30 TO 35 MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND THAT A CLEAR CONSENSUS EMERGED FROM THERE THAT MAKING SURE DAYTON (PEACE AGREEMENT) IS CARRIED OUT IS IMPORTANT FOR AMERICA'S NATIONAL INTEREST AND THAT A CONSENSUS IS DEVELOPING THAT THERE WILL BE OR SHOULD BE SOME FORM OF U-S MILITARY PRESENCE POST-SFOR, AND THAT OBVIOUSLY IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE EUROPEANS TO STAY AND TO CONTINUE ALSO IN SOME KIND OF A MILITARY PRESENCE AND STRENGTHEN ALSO THE POLICE FUNCTIONS THERE AND BASICALLY THERE IS A CONSENSUS THAT WE NEED TO DO WHATEVER IS NECESSARY TO IMPLEMENT DAYTON, TO MAKE DAYTON WORK.

    ///END ACT///

    HOWEVER, WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY DRAWS A DISTINCTION BETWEEN A CONSENSUS EMERGING ABOUT THE CONTINUED PRESENCE OF AMERICAN TROOPS IN BOSNIA AND THE NEED FOR PRESIDENT CLINTON TO BUILD ONE WITH CONGRESS.

    ///MCCURRY ACT///

    I DON'T THINK IT WOULD BE FAIR TO SAY THAT THERE IS ANY CONSENSUS NOW. I THINK WHAT WAS CLEAR AT THE MEETING WAS THAT THERE IS THE PROSPECT THAT THE PRESIDENT COULD BUILD THAT CONSENSUS WITH HARD WORK.

    ///END ACT///

    THE STRONGER HINT FROM SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT THAT AMERICAN TROOPS WILL STAY IN BOSNIA COMES AS WELCOME NEWS TO THE EUROPEANS, WHO HAVE EMPHASIZED THAT THEY WILL NOT REMAIN IN BOSNIA WITHOUT THE AMERICAN MILITARY. MINISTER KINKEL TOLD REPORTERS THROUGH AN INTERPRETER THE EUROPEANS WANT THE AMERICANS ALONGSIDE THEM.

    /// KINKEL IN GERMAN WITH INTERPRETER ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES KNOW VERY WELL THAT IF WE IN EUROPE WERE TO DECIDE THAT WE ARE GOING TO STAY ON EVEN AFTER THE END OF S-FOR MANDATE THAT WE ONLY WANT TO DO THAT WITH THE AMERICANS SO THE AMERICANS HAVE TO BE IN ON THIS AND AMERICANS ALSO KNOW AND I THINK IT IS FAIR TO SAY THAT WE ARE THINKING HERE ON THE SAME WAVE LENGTH, AT LEAST THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT INDICATED THAT TO ME EARLIER ON TODAY.

    //END ACT///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON ALSO TOLD MR. KINKEL THAT THE RUSSIANS NEED TO BE INCLUDED IN THE NEW NATO-LED FORCE. RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER EVGENY PRIMAKOV HAS SAID RUSSIA DOES NOT OBJECT TO AN EXTENDED BOSNIA FORCE PAST NEXT JUNE. THE GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS NEITHER GERMANY NOR THE UNITED STATES WANTS TO LEAVE A GRAY MILITARY ZONE BEHIND IN BOSNIA. (SIGNED)
    05-Nov-97 3:16 PM EST (2016 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CLINTON / BOSNIA / L-O BY DEBORAH TATE (WHITE HOUSE)

    DATE=11/4/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222194
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: PRESIDENT CLINTON IS CONSULTING WITH CONGRESS ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF KEEPING U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AFTER THE END OF THE CURRENT NATO PEACEKEEPING MISSION THERE NEXT JUNE. LAWMAKERS MET WITH MR. CLINTON AT THE WHITE HOUSE TUESDAY NIGHT AND ARE REACTING WITH SUPPORT, AS WELL AS SKEPTICISM, AS V-O-A WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT DEBORAH TATE REPORTS.

    TEXT: THE WHITE HOUSE MAINTAINS PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS NOT YET MADE A DECISION WHETHER TO KEEP U-S TROOPS IN BOSNIA BEYOND NEXT JUNE. HOWEVER, REPUBLICAN SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN OF ARIZONA EMERGED FROM THE WHITE HOUSE MEETING SAYING HE HAD THE IMPRESSION THE PRESIDENT WANTS TO EXTEND THE MISSION.

    MR. MCCAIN -- A MEMBER OF THE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE -- SAYS THE ADMINISTRATION HAS WHAT HE CALLS A "CREDIBILITY PROBLEM" BECAUSE IT HAS UNDERESTIMATED THE COST AND LENGTH OF THE U-S COMMITMENT IN BOSNIA.

    BUT REPUBLICAN SENATOR JOHN WARNER OF VIRGINIA -- ALSO A MEMBER OF THE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE -- SAYS HE WOULD SUPPORT A DECISION TO CONTINUE THE U-S PRESENCE IN BOSNIA BEYOND NEXT JUNE. HE WARNS, IF U-S TROOPS PULL OUT, FIGHTING COULD RESUME AND THE EIGHT BILLION DOLLARS THE UNITED STATES INVESTED IN BRINGING PEACE TO BOSNIA WOULD BE LOST.

    THE ADMINISTRATION AGREES. OFFICIALS BELIEVE, IF THE UNITED STATES ABANDONS BOSNIA, SO TOO, WOULD EUROPE. WHITE HOUSE SPOKESMAN MIKE MCCURRY:

    // MCCURRY ACTUALITY //

    EUROPEAN GOVERNMENTS HAVE MADE QUITE CLEAR THEIR WILLINGNESS TO CONTINUE TO BE PRESENT AS PART OF AN INTERNATIONAL EFFORT IN BOSNIA DEPENDS ON U-S LEADERSHIP, AND I THINK THE HISTORY IS NOW CLEAR THAT THE SOLUTION TO THAT PROBLEM IN THE BALKANS PRETTY MUCH REQUIRES U-S LEADERSHIP BECAUSE THE EUROPEANS HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GO IT ALONE.

    // END ACTUALITY //

    THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES LAST JUNE VOTED TO CUT OFF FUNDING FOR U-S TROOPS SERVING IN BOSNIA AFTER JUNE 1998. BUT HOUSE AND SENATE NEGOTIATORS LAST MONTH AGREED TO A COMPROMISE WITH THE ADMINISTRATION -- ALLOWING FUNDING FOR U-S GROUND FORCES IN BOSNIA TO CONTINUE BEYOND JUNE ON CONDITION MR. CLINTON CERTIFIES A CONTINUED PRESENCE IS IN THE U-S NATIONAL SECURITY INTEREST.

    THE DEMOCRATIC MINORITY LEADER OF THE SENATE, TOM DASCHLE, SAYS THE LEGISLATORS WHO MET WITH MR. CLINTON AGREED TO WORK WITH HIM TO PLAN A U-S STRATEGY FOR BOSNIA BEYOND THE JUNE DEADLINE. (SIGNED)
    NEB / WD / WD
    04-Nov-97 11:29 PM EST (0429 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-O) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=11/5/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222234
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE WEDNESDAY CLOSED WITH MARGINAL GAINS. FOR THE CLOSING NUMBERS, HERE IS PAUL FRANCUCH FROM OUR LONDON BUREAU.

    TEXT: TRADING WAS THIN MOST OF THE DAY, BUT WHEN THE MARKETS CLOSED, GAINS WERE RECORDED IN FRANKFURT, LONDON, AND PARIS.

    THE FRANKFURT "DAX 30" JUMPED ABOUT ONE-AND-A-HALF PERCENT IN VALUE, DRIVEN LARGELY BY NEWS OF A BIG STEEL COMPANY MERGER. THE DAX CLOSED UP 54-POINTS. A NOTABLE ADVANCE WAS POSTED ON THE PARIS "CAC 40" INDEX OF STOCKS AS WELL. IT GAINED 48-POINTS FOR THE DAY -- A VALUE INCREASE OF JUST UNDER TWO-PERCENT. HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX WAS FRACTIONALLY HIGHER, ADDING 11-POINTS AT THE CLOSE.

    IN U-S DOLLAR TRADING, THE AMERICAN CURRENCY STAYED ABOUT EVEN WITH THE GERMAN MARK AND WAS UP ONE-HALF CENT AGAINST THE BRITISH POUND.

    GOLD TRADING IN LONDON ENDED WEDNESDAY WITH THE METAL GIVING UP THE GAINS IT REGISTERED ON TUESDAY. AN OUNCE OF GOLD WAS PRICED AT AROUND 314 DOLLARS -- A DECLINE OF A DOLLAR-AND-A-HALF. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RAE
    05-Nov-97 1:56 PM EST (1856 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=11/05/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10427
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    ///// ED'S: DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T WEDNESDAY NOV, 5TH /////

    INTRO: PEACEFUL PROGRESS ON ONE ANCIENT DISPUTE, BUT MORE TENSION ON A CURRENT CONFLICT ARE AMONG THE TOPICS U-S EDITORIALS EDITORS HAVE CHOSEN TO FOCUS ON THIS POST ELECTION DAY IN AMERICA. MANY EDITORIALS ARE DISCUSSING LOCAL AND STATE-WIDE ELECTION RESULTS.

    THE CONFLICT RESOLVED INVOLVES RUSSIA AND JAPAN, WHO NOW SAY THEY'LL FORMALLY END WORLD WAR TWO BY THE YEAR TWO-THOUSAND, AFTER COMMITTING TO RESOLVE DIFFERENCES OVER THEIR KURIL ISLANDS BORDER. THE UNRESOLVED DISPUTE CONCERNS SADDAM HUSSEIN'S REFUSAL TO ALLOW U-S WEAPONS INVESTIGATORS TO CONTINUE WORKING ON THE U-N TEAM KEEPING AN EYE ON IRAQ'S POST-GULF WAR DISARMAMENT.

    OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE A LOOK AT TONY BLAIR ABOUT TO PRESIDE OVER THE EUROPEAN UNION; THE FAST TRACK TRADE VOTE THIS WEEK IN CONGRESS AND THE TALIBAN'S WAR AGAINST WOMEN. FOR A CLOSER LOOK AT THESE COMMENTARIES, AND A FEW PERTINENT QUOTES, HERE IS __________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: FIRST, THE RUSSIAN AND JAPANESE ANNOUNCEMENT ABOUT ENDING WORLD WAR TWO PLEASES "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES."

    VOICE: FOR MORE THAN 50 YEARS, RUSSIA AND JAPAN HAVE CONTESTED SOVEREIGNTY OVER FOUR SMALL ISLANDS OFF JAPAN'S NORTHERN COAST. IN THE WAR'S FINAL DAYS SOVIET TROOPS SEIZED THE ISLANDS, KNOWN AS THE SOUTHERN KURILS IN RUSSIA AND THE NORTHERN TERRITORIES IN JAPAN. JAPAN HAS LONG GIVEN TOP PRIORITY TO ENDING THE DISPUTE. TIME AND AGAIN EFFORTS TO RESOLVE IT HAVE FAILED. BUT IN JULY, [MR.] HASHIMOTO BECAME THE FIRST JAPANESE LEADER TO DROP THE POLICY OF PLACING THE ISLANDS ISSUE BEFORE OTHER STEPS TOWARD NORMALIZATION OF RELATIONS. HE SAID THE TWO NEIGHBORS SHOULD MEND TIES ON THE BASIS OF 'MUTUAL BENEFIT, MUTUAL TRUST AND LONG-TERM VISION.' TOWARD THAT END [PRESIDENT] YELTSIN AND [MR.] HASHIMOTO HELD THE FIRST POSTWAR JAPANESE-RUSSIAN SUMMIT TO TAKE PLACE IN RUSSIA, IN THE SIBERIAN TOWN OF KRASNOYARSK. THEY AGREED ON THE YEAR TWO-THOUSAND TARGET DATE FOR A PEACE TREATY BUT LEFT UNCLEAR HOW THE TWO NATIONS WILL COMPROMISE ON THE ISLANDS ISSUE. .... THE TWO NATIONS HAVE TAKEN THE FIRST STEP TOWARD A LONG-OVERDUE RAPPROCHEMENT.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: ADDS "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR:"

    VOICE: NEEDLESS TO SAY, THE REST OF THE GREAT POWER WORLD WILL JUSTIFIABLY BREATHE A SIGH OF RELIEF IF THE HASHIMOTO-YELTSIN PLEDGE IS FULFILLED TWO YEARS HENCE. THE SUMMIT ENDED WITH A BEAR HUG AND A MANLY KISS. PERHAPS OTHER WORLD LEADERS AT ODDS OUGHT TO TRY THAT APPROACH.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ADDRESSING THE CURRENT DISPUTE BETWEEN THE UNITED NATIONS, THE UNITED STATES AND IRAQ'S LEADER SADDAM HUSSEIN, "THE NEW YORK POST" SAYS IN ITS HEADLINE -- TAKE NO GUFF [BELLIGERENT REMARKS] FROM SADDAM HUSSEIN.

    VOICE: [OPT] MAYBE SADDAM HUSSEIN IS JUST A TEASE. BUT IT IS A FAR BETTER BET THAT THE REASON HE REFUSES TO ADMIT WEAPONS INSPECTORS TO CERTAIN SUSPICIOUS SITES IN IRAQ IS THAT HE'S STASHING CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND MISSILES THERE. [END OPT] REPORTS INDICATE THAT THE BUTCHER OF BAGHDAD HAS ENOUGH VX [POISON] GAS TO DEPOPULATE THE ENTIRE MIDDLE EAST;... BUT WHEN IRAQI CHILDREN ARE REPORTEDLY GOING HUNGRY, WHY WOULD SADDAM SPEND BILLIONS OF DOLLARS ON A CHEMICAL WEAPONS BUILDUP? ONE REASON, OF COURSE, IS HIS CALLOUS INDIFFERENCE TOWARD HIS COUNTRY'S SUFFERING -- THE INDIFFERENCE THAT MAKES FOREIGN EFFORTS AT PROVIDING HUMANITARIAN AID LARGELY FUTILE. ...SADDAM PROVED HIS WILLINGNESS TO USE NERVE AGENTS IN HIS PROTRACTED WAR WITH IRAN. THE SOONER HE'S DISARMED -- BY WHATEVER MEANS -- THE SAFER THE WORLD WILL BE.

    [OPT]

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON TIMES" AGREES, BUT WONDERS WHAT POWER THE WORLD COMMUNITY CAN USE TO MAKE SADDAM HUSSEIN HEED THE U-N WARNINGS.

    VOICE: SADDAM CANNOT BE ALLOWED TO FLOUT INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS. HE MUST BE MADE TO COMPLY. BUT, OBVIOUSLY, REPEATED TOOTHLESS CONDEMNATIONS FROM THE SECURITY COUNCIL ARE NOT GOING TO BE EFFECTIVE. THE U-S HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE LEADER IN TRYING TO CONTAIN IRAQ, BUT IT HAS NEVER STOOD ALONE IN THAT EFFORT. IN ADDITION TO FACING DOWN IRAQ IN THE CURRENT SITUATION, THE UNITED STATES MUST ALSO USE THE OPPORTUNITY FOR SOLIDIFYING THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IN ITS RESOLVE AGAINST SADDAM'S CONTINUED TYRANNY.

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: IS TONY BLAIR REALLY READY FOR HIS STINT AS PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IS WHAT "THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR" IS PONDERING TODAY.

    VOICE: FOR A WHILE IT SEEMED TONY BLAIR MIGHT BEGIN HIS TERM AS PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION LIKE ONE OF THOSE FILM HEROES THRUST INTO LEADING A SQUADRON ON A COMBAT MISSION WHILE SKIPPING FLIGHT TRAINING. NOT QUITE. IT'S TRUE THE U-K PRIME MINISTER IS ABOUT TO ASSUME THE EUROPEAN PRESIDENCY AFTER HIS TEAM HAS DECLARED ITSELF UNREADY TO PARTICIPATE IN THE E-U'S MIGHTIEST NEW COMBAT ASSIGNMENT. THAT IS, OF COURSE, EUROPE'S 1999 RENDEZVOUS WITH ITS NEW MULTI-NATION CENTRAL BANK AND EURO CURRENCY. AFTER FLIRTATION WITH JOINING THE MONEY UNION ... MR. BLAIR'S CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER BLINKED. HE SAID LONDON WOULDN'T JOIN UNTIL AFTER BRITAIN'S NEXT GENERAL ELECTION. THAT WOULD MEAN 2-THOUSAND-TWO OR SO. THAT, IN TURN, PUT THE BRITISH LEADER IN THE POSITION OF BECOMING EUROPE'S ROTATIONAL CHIEF FOR THE FIRST HALF OF NEXT YEAR WHILE APPEARING TO BE SOMETHING LESS THAN A FULL SUPPORTER OF ITS GRAND PROJECT. ... [CONTINUING ITS FIGHTER PILOT ANALOGY FROM THE OPENING GRAPH ] [MR.] BLAIR IS WISE NOT TO LET BRITAIN SLIP INTO THE ROLE OF HESITATOR IN THE COCKPIT IF HE WANTS A HAND ON THE CONTROL LATER ON.

    TEXT: "THE WASHINGTON POST" IS CONCERNED THAT CONGRESS, SPECIFICALLY THE HOUSE, WILL NOT GRANT PRESIDENT CLINTON THE FAST TRACK AUTHORITY HE NEEDS TO NEGOTIATE FUTURE TRADE AGREEMENTS. "THE POST" URGES THE HOUSE TO FOLLOW YESTERDAY'S SENATE VOTE IN FAVOR.

    VOICE: LAST WEEK'S TURBULENCE IN FINANCIAL MARKETS, WHICH BEGAN IN THAILAND AND SPREAD TO WALL STREET, SHOWED ONCE AGAIN HOW LINKED THE WORLD'S ECONOMIES HAVE BECOME. THE QUESTION NOW IS WHETHER THE UNITED STATES CAN CONTINUE TO PLAY A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN SHAPING THE RULES OF THE NEW GLOBAL ECONOMY. TO DENY THE PRESIDENT THAT ABILITY WOULD BE RECKLESS AND SELF-DEFEATING.

    TEXT: FINALLY, A GRISLY TALE OF A BADLY BURNED WOMAN WHO DIES IN A KABUL HOSPITAL BECAUSE A TALIBAN OFFICIAL WILL NOT LET A MALE DOCTOR UNDRESS HER TO TREAT THE BURNS. "THE NEW YORK TIMES" CITES THE STORY, AND A BAN ON MOST HOSPITAL CARE FOR WOMEN AT MOST KABUL HOSPITALS AS ITS NOTES -- THE TALIBAN'S WAR ON WOMEN.

    VOICE: SINCE THE TALIBAN TOOK POWER A YEAR AGO, THEIR DECREES HAVE NARROWED THE WORLD FOR WOMEN. WOMEN MAY NO LONGER WORK OR GO TO SCHOOL. THEY MAY NOT LEAVE THEIR HOUSES WITHOUT AN APPROVED REASON. THEY MAY NOT TALK TO OR RIDE IN A VEHICLE ALONGSIDE MEN WHO ARE NOT RELATIVES. ...SOME OF THE TALIBAN'S LESS RADICAL MEMBERS HAVE OPPOSED THE HEALTH-CARE BAN, AND HUMANITARIAN GROUPS HAVE INDICATIONS THAT IT MAY BE REVERSED. BUT OTHER MEDIEVAL RESTRICTIONS ON WOMEN REMAIN AND MORE WILL CERTAINLY ARISE. WESTERN GOVERNMENTS MUST MAKE IT CLEAR THAT CONTINUED OPPRESSION WILL COST THE TALIBAN AID AND HARM ITS BID TO WIN AFGHANISTAN'S SEAT AT THE UNITED NATIONS, CURRENTLY HELD BY THE PREVIOUS GOVERNMENT.

    TEXT: ON THAT NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/RAE
    05-Nov-97 10:28 AM EST (1528 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL BY GILLIAN SHARPE (THE HAGUE)

    DATE=11/5/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-222217
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CHIEF PROSECUTOR OF THE U-N YUGOSLAV WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL SAYS FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS COULD BE AT RISK IF THE TRIBUNAL DOES NOT RECEIVE MORE MONEY. THE PROSECUTOR, LOUISE ARBOUR, SPOKE AS THE TRIBUNAL'S BUDGET NEGOTIATIONS GET UNDERWAY AT U-N HEADQUARTERS. AS GILLIAN SHARPE REPORTS FROM THE HAGUE, THE FUNDING ISSUE IS CRITICAL AT A TIME WHEN THE TRIBUNAL HAS MORE THAN DOUBLED ITS CASE LOAD.

    TEXT: WHEN CHIEF PROSECUTOR LOUIS ARBOUR TOOK OVER THE JOB MORE THAN ONE-YEAR AGO, THERE WERE SEVEN WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS IN CUSTODY. NOW THERE ARE 20.

    THE PROSECUTION HAS STARTED USING SECRET INDICTMENTS TO GAIN CUSTODY OF SUSPECTS. IN JULY, INTERNATIONAL TROOPS (S-FOR) ARRESTED ONE MAN AND SHOT DEAD ANOTHER IN THE BOSNIAN TOWN OF PRIJEDOR. LAST MONTH, 10 BOSNIAN CROAT WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS -- INCLUDING ONE OF THE HIGHEST-RANKING PEOPLE TO APPEAR SO FAR -- SURRENDERED TO THE TRIBUNAL.

    CHIEF PROSECUTOR ARBOUR SAYS SHE IS ENCOURAGED.

    /// ARBOUR ACT ///

    WE HAVE NOW, AT LEAST, OVERCOME THE PERCEPTION OF TOTAL IMPOTENCE ON THE PART OF THE TRIBUNAL. WE ARE STILL A LONG WAY HAVING EVERYBODY. BUT THE SENSE THAT, FIRST OF ALL, THAT S-FOR WOULD NEVER DO IT, WELL THAT HAS BEEN DISPLACED BY THESE EVENTS IN PRIJEDOR, THE USE OF SEALED INDICTMENTS, AND SO ON, HAS GIVEN US A REAL STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE. SO, I FEEL THAT ON THAT FRONT WE HAVE OVERCOME, AT LEAST, THE PERCEPTION. WE HAVE REALLY CHANGED THE MOMENTUM IN OUR FAVOR.

    /// END ACT ///

    /// OPT ///

    IT IS CERTAINLY TRUE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS LIKE S-FOR WHICH HAVE BEEN RELUCTANT TO INTERVENE NOW HAVE DOWN SO.

    /// OPT ///

    CHIEF PROSECUTOR ARBOUR BELIEVES THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS LOOKING CONCRETELY TOWARD THE WITHDRAWAL OF INTERNATIONAL TROOPS FROM BOSNIA IN JUNE OF NEXT YEAR.

    /// OPT // ARBOUR ACT ///

    THERE IS NOTHING THAT FOCUSES THE ATTENTION AS MUCH HAVING A MAJOR PROBLEM TO DEAL WITH. AND TO THE EXTENT THAT THERE IS A KIND OF TIMETABLE NOW THAT TENDS TO FOCUS ATTENTION, ALL THOSE WHO ARE INVOLVED IN THAT PROCESS -- COUNTRIES THAT HAVE TROOPS ON THE GROUND, AND SO ON -- PRESUMABLY ARE NOW IN THE PLANNING STAGES OF WHAT THE POSTS S-FOR INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION IN BOSNIA IS GOING TO BE. AND I CANNOT HELP BUT THINK THAT WE ARE AN INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THAT ASSESSMENT.

    /// END ACT // OPT ///

    FOR THE TRIBUNAL TO REALLY PLAY ITS PART JUSTICE ARBOUR SAYS IT NEEDS INCREASED RESOURCES. AT THE MOMENT IS HAS ONLY ONE COURT ROOM. SHE SAYS UNLESS IT HAS AT LEAST TWO, AND INCREASED STAFF, IT WILL NOT BE ABLE TO DO ITS JOB.

    /// ARBOUR ACT ///

    IF WE ARE NOT PROPERLY SUPPORTED BY ADDITIONAL RESOURCES, ESSENTIALLY IT IS THE FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS -- THE ONGOING AND FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS -- THAT WILL SUFFER, AND WILL BE USED, IN FACT, TO SUSTAIN OUR COURTROOM EFFORTS. SO I DO NOT WANT TO SUGGEST THEY WOULD NEVER BE DONE. BUT IT WOULD BE A HUGE GAP, A CONSIDERABLE DELAY IN OUR CAPACITY TO BRING NEW CHARGES. AND THAT, IT SEEMS TO ME, WOULD ENTIRELY DEFEAT, OR WOULD VERY SEVERELY COMPROMISE, THE WHOLE PURPOSE OF HAVING THE TRIBUNAL AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO THE PEACE PROCESS. IF WE CAN NOT DO IT IN A RELEVANT TIME FRAME, I THINK WE BECOME MORE AN AGGRAVATION, REALLY, THAN A CONTRIBUTION TO PEACE.

    /// END ACT ///

    PROSECUTOR ARBOUR SAYS SHE IS CAUTIOUSLY OPTIMISTIC THE UNITED NATIONS WILL GIVE THE TRIBUNAL MORE MONEY. BUT IT COULD BE MONTHS BEFORE IT IS CLEAR IF THAT OPTIMISM IS JUSTIFIED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/GS/JWH/RAE
    05-Nov-97 10:55 AM EST (1555 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] YUGO / HEALTH BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=11/5/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37991
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: CITIZENS OF YUGOSLAVIA HAVE LONG BEEN PROUD OF THEIR COUNTRY'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM. BUT YEARS OF WAR, SANCTIONS, AND OTHER CHALLENGES AFTER THE BREAKUP OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA HAVE PUT UNPRECEDENTED STRESS ON THE SYSTEM. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM BELGRADE.

    TEXT: IN THE 1980'S, YUGOSLAVIA'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM INCLUDED WESTERN-TRAINED DOCTORS, SPECIALIZED HOSPITALS, A DOMESTIC PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, AND COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CARE THAT WAS FREE TO ALL. IN THEORY, THE SYSTEM STILL EXISTS IN THE MUCH SMALLER COUNTRY THAT IS NOW YUGOSLAVIA. BUT RESIDENTS COMPLAIN OF LONG WAITS TO SEE DOCTORS, THE NEED TO SPEND THEIR OWN MONEY TO BUY MEDICINE, OR TO PAY PRIVATE DOCTORS TO GET IMMEDIATE TREATMENT. WORKERS IN THE SYSTEM HAVE THEIR OWN COMPLAINTS.

    PHYSICIANS SAY THEY HAVE TO SEE UP TO 200 PATIENTS A DAY, MAKING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO GIVE THE PROPER CARE. X-RAY TECHNICIANS SAY THEIR WORKLOAD IS SO HIGH THEY WORRY ABOUT OVER-EXPOSURE TO RADIATION.

    A DOCTOR AT A LOCAL OFFICE OF THE U-N CHILDRENS FUND (UNICEF), DRAGOSLAV POPOVIC, SAYS SHORTAGES LEAD TO CORRUPTION.

    /// POPOVIC ACTUALITY ///

    OK, YOU NEED SOME SORT OF SMALL OPERATION. YOU CAN GET IT IN THIS GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL IN, SAY, THREE OR FOUR MONTHS TIME. BUT IF YOU ASK FOR ME IN THE PRIVATE CLINIC, WE CAN DO IT TOMORROW.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE SYSTEM OPERATES ON LESS THAN HALF THE PER-CAPITA FUNDING IT HAD BEFORE THE BREAKUP OF THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. WITH LESS MONEY TO WORK WITH, A DOCTOR AT THE SERBIAN PUBLIC HEALTH INSTITUTE, SLOBODANKA GAJIC, SAYS MEDICAL STAFF HAVE SHIFTED THEIR FOCUS TO PREVENTION AND EDUCATION.

    /// GAJIC ACTUALITY ///

    AT THIS TIME OF WAR AND ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES, OUR DOCTORS AND OUR NURSES AT ALL THE HEALTH INSTITUTIONS, BECAUSE THEY DID NOT HAVE ENOUGH MEDICATIONS AND SO ON, THEY DID HEALTH EDUCATION WORK AND THEY TALKED WITH PEOPLE, THEY PROBABLY EDUCATE PEOPLE MORE THAN THEY DID BEFORE, AND THAT IS ONE OF THE REASONS FOR THE LOW INFANT MORTALITY RATE.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    INFANT MORTALITY IS ONE OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL MEASURES OF A COUNTRY'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM, AND REMARKABLY THE RATE HAS STEADILY DECLINED THROUGHOUT THE 1990'S -- CUT ALMOST IN HALF DURING THE PAST DECADE, DESPITE WAR, SANCTIONS AND ECONOMIC STAGNATION. OR SO SAY THE OFFICIAL STATISTICS.

    BUT SOME OBSERVERS ARE SKEPTICAL. THEY SAY INCOMPLETE REPORTING FROM THE COUNTRY'S POOREST AREA, KOSOVO, PRESENTS A DECEPTIVELY POSITIVE PICTURE, AND A DECLINING BIRTH RATE MEANS EACH NEWBORN GETS PROPORTIONATELY MORE CARE.

    BUT IF THERE ARE PERHAPS FEWER PATIENTS FOR PEDIATRICIANS, THERE IS A MUCH GREATER WORKLOAD FOR OTHER PHYSICIANS. THE UNICEF DOCTOR, DRAGOSLAV POPOVIC, SAYS THERE IS NOT ENOUGH TIME TO SPEND WITH PATIENTS.

    /// POPOVIC ACTUALITY ///

    THIS IS A VICIOUS CIRCLE. IF YOU HAVE 100 PATIENTS A DAY, YOU WILL NOT TALK TO THEM, YOU WILL NOT GIVE THEM ADVICE. YOU WILL JUST SIGN THE PRESCRIPTION AND TRY TO GET RID OF THEM. AND BASICALLY YOU WILL NOT DO THE PROPER CHECKUP.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    INEVITABLY, THE CRISIS IN MEDICAL CARE TAKES ITS TOLL. DEATH RATES ARE CREEPING UP, AND I ASKED RED CROSS OFFICIAL MILAN SKOKO IF PEOPLE WERE DYING BECAUSE OF THE CRISIS IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.

    /// SKOKO ACTUALITY - SERBIAN - FADE UNDER ///

    HE SAID -- I MUST ADMIT YOU ARE RIGHT, IF WE HAVE NO MEDICINES, AND THE EQUIPMENT IS OBSOLETE, YOU JUST CAN NOT PROVIDE ADEQUATE TREATMENT.

    MR. SKOKO SAYS HE ADMIRES THE DOCTORS WHO ARE DOING THE BEST THEY CAN UNDER DIFFICULT CONDITIONS. BUT YUGOSLAVIA'S HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IS NOT LIKELY TO REBOUND UNLESS MORE MONEY STARTS COMING IN. UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS THERE SEEMS LITTLE LIKELIHOOD OF THAT HAPPENING SOON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/JWH/RAE
    05-Nov-97 12:04 PM EST (1704 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] YUGO / INDEPENDENT MEDIA BY ART CHIMES (BELGRADE)

    DATE=11/5/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37990
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    ///// RE-PRINTING WITH CORRECT BKG-NUMBER. /////

    INTRO: INDEPENDENT MEDIA IN FEDERAL YUGOSLAVIA PROVIDE AN IMPORTANT COUNTERWEIGHT TO GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED BROADCASTERS AND PUBLICATIONS. BUT V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES REPORTS FROM BELGRADE THAT INDEPENDENT JOURNALISTS OPERATE UNDER CONTINUAL THREATS TO THEIR FREEDOM AND THEIR ABILITY TO REACH AN AUDIENCE HUNGRY FOR INFORMATION.

    TEXT:

    /// ACT -- RADIO JINGLE -- FADE UNDER ///

    IT'S THE MORNING SHOW ON RADIO BELGRADE. THERE IS NO SHORTAGE OF NEWS AND INFORMATION IN YUGOSLAVIA. BUT MUCH OF THE MEDIA REMAIN CONTROLLED BY THE AUTHORITIES.

    BUT DESPITE THE AUTOCRATIC REPUTATION OF YUGOSLAV PRESIDENT SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC, THERE IS A ROBUST INDEPENDENT MEDIA SECTOR HERE. WEEKLY MAGAZINES, DAILY NEWSPAPERS, AND BROADCASTS ALL ADD TO THE MIX THAT ALLOW RESIDENTS TO STAY INFORMED, TO GET MORE THAN ONE SIDE OF THE STORY.

    AT THE INDEPENDENT DAILY "DEMOCRATIJA" NEWSPAPER, TWO DOZEN WRITERS AND REPORTERS IN AN OVERCROWDED NEWSROOM WORK AT GETTING OUT TOMORROW'S PAPER. "DEMOCRATIJA" IS CELEBRATING ITS ONE-YEAR ANNIVERSARY. IT WAS STARTED BY JOURNALISTS AFTER THEY QUIT ANOTHER BELGRADE PAPER WHOSE OWNER WANTED TO LIMIT COVERAGE OF LAST WINTER'S ANTI-GOVERNMENT PROTESTS.

    ONE OF THE PAPER'S EDITORS, VESNA ROGANOVIC, SAYS SHE IS NOT WORRIED THAT THE GOVERNMENT WILL SHUT THEM DOWN. SHE SAYS THE THREAT IS MORE SUBTLE. THE DISTRIBUTOR THAT DELIVERS THE PAPER TO SHOPS AND VENDORS, WHICH SHE SAYS HAS TIES TO ANOTHER NEWSPAPER ("BORBA"), IS NOT REMITTING THE MONEY IT COLLECTS. AND THAT MEANS THERE IS NOT ENOUGH MONEY TO PAY THE PRINTING COMPANY, WHICH IN ANY EVENT SEEMS TO HAVE CONSTANT PROBLEMS GETTING THE PRODUCTION RIGHT. AND THERE IS MORE:

    /// ROGANOVIC ACTUALITY ///

    A THIRD WAY OF PRESSURE IS THAT YOU DON'T GET INFORMATION, FOR INSTANCE, FROM THE STRUCTURES OF POWER OF THE GOVERNING PARTY. THEY DON'T WANT TO COOPERATE. YOU CANNOT ENTER THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY. FOR TWO OR THREE MONTHS THEY DON'T GIVE THE ACCREDITATION, SO YOU LACK THE INFORMATION. THEY DON'T WANT TO GIVE YOU INFORMATION.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    A FEW MINUTES' WALK AWAY ARE THE STUDIOS OF B-92 -- A PIONEERING RADIO STATION THAT NOW REACHES 70 PERCENT OF THE YUGOSLAV POPULATION THROUGH A NATIONWIDE NETWORK, PLUS INTERNET SERVICE AND PUBLICATIONS. TO GET ITS SIGNAL OUT, B-92 DEPENDS ON GOVERNMENT-CONTROLLED TRANSMITTERS. A PROPOSED LAW COULD IMPOSE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON INDEPENDENT MEDIA, BUT B-92 NEWSMAN DUSAN MASIC -- WHO ALSO REPORTS FOR V-O-A -- SAYS HE IS NOT TOO WORRIED ABOUT A POSSIBLE NEW LAW.

    /// MASIC ACTUALITY ///

    YOU KNOW, THINGS HERE ARE GOING BEHIND LAWS. SO IF THEY WANT TO CLOSE INDEPENDENT MEDIA, THEY WILL DO THAT, NEVER MIND IF THERE IS A LAW OR NOT.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE FUND FOR AN OPEN SOCIETY, FINANCED BY GEORGE SOROS, HAS SUPPORTED INDEPENDENT MEDIA HERE AND ELSEWHERE. THE HEAD OF THE YUGOSLAV OFFICE, SONJA LICHT, SAYS THE GOVERNMENT FINDS INDEPENDENT PRESS AND BROADCASTERS AN ANNOYANCE, BUT USEFUL.

    /// LICHT ACTUALITY ///

    IN COMMUNICATION WITH FOREIGN DIPLOMATS AND POLITICIANS, THEY DO STATE THAT THE STATUS OF INDEPENDENT MEDIA IS PROOF THEY ARE REALLY PLURALISTIC. THIS IS, SO TO SAY, LIP SERVICE FOR FOREIGN EARS. BUT HERE IN THE COUNTRY THEY ARE STILL DOING ALMOST EVERYTHING THAT IS POSSIBLE TO LIMIT THIS MEDIA.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    SONJA LICHT SAYS THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE IS TELEVISION. IT IS THE MOST POPULAR AND INFLUENTIAL OF ALL THE MEDIA, BUT SHE SAYS INDEPENDENT TELEVISION STATIONS WOULD HAVE A MUCH GREATER IMPACT IF THEY WERE INTERCONNECTED IN A NETWORK, THE WAY MANY OF THE INDEPENDENT RADIO STATIONS ARE. (SIGNED) NEB/ART/JWH/KL/RAE
    05-Nov-97 10:48 AM EST (1548 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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